WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment methods ecofram

  1. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUSheng; CUIPei-zhi; YAOJu-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging their useful life, protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  2. Remanufacturability and Assessment Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; CUI Pei-zhi; YAO Ju-kun

    2004-01-01

    Remanufacturing represents the combination of "three Rs" (reduce, reuse, recycle) into a single activity, which restores a wide variety of worn-out, discarded durable products to like-new condition, prolonging theit useful life,protecting the environment. The application of surface engineering has promoted the development of remanufacturing.Remanufacturing is an environmentally and economically sound way to achieve many of the goals of sustainable development. Through developing study of product design for remanufacturing, it can promote the surface technologies application in the remanufacturing, and markedly enhance the efficiency of remanufacturing. This paper gives some relative concepts about product design for remanufacturing, such as remanufacturability, and brings forward the remanufacturability research contents and assessment method of used product.

  3. Information System Quality Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores challenging topic of information system quality assessment and mainly process assessment. In this work the term Information System Quality is defined as well as different approaches in a quality definition for different domains of information systems are outlined. Main methods of process assessment are overviewed and their relationships are described. Process assessment methods are divided into two categories: ISO standards and best practices. The main objective of this w...

  4. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  5. Bayesian methods in risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for a consistent framework for the analysis of large nuclear power plant safety, not provided for by conventional methods of statistics and reliability theory, prompted the present article. The qualification of uncertainties depends crucially on the particular way that the assessor views probability. Two principal schools of thought are the subjectivistic approach advocated by de Finetti, and the frequentist school advocated by von Mises. The point of view of the author is the subjective one. The foundations of the proposed approach and a discussion of several topics relevant to risk assessment follow with applications to the specialization of generic data for site-specific risk studies, the assessment of frequency of fires in nuclear plant compartments, and the use of expert opinion in risk assessments

  6. Karst groundwaters vulnerability assessment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vlaicu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A major socio-economic and scientific issue is represented by karst hydrostructures vulnerability mapping, which qualitatively and quantitatively highlights their exposure degree. Two research trends have been developed, one taking into account the environment features exclusively – the aquifer and protective cover type, permeability, aquifer depth, recharge rate, etc. (intrinsic vulnerability, the other focused on the types and quantities of pollutants (specific vulnerability. MAGIERA (2000 described and compared 69 methods, grouped in 5 types: hydrogeological complex and setting methods, index models and analogical relations (AF, AVI, Ekv, ΔhT’, parametric system models (DRASTIC, DWSAP, SINTACS, EPPNA, GOD, EPIK, REKS, PI, GSI, GLA, mathematical models (VULK, FAVA and statistical methods (CALVUL. However, it is also possible to classify the methods on the basis of other criteria, such as scale (local, regional, national, aim (land use planning, protection zoning, site assessment and target (source or resource vulnerability.

  7. Advanced methods of fatigue assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Radaj, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The book in hand presents advanced methods of brittle fracture and fatigue assessment. The Neuber concept of fictitious notch rounding is enhanced with regard to theory and application. The stress intensity factor concept for cracks is extended to pointed and rounded corner notches as well as to locally elastic-plastic material behaviour. The averaged strain energy density within a circular sector volume around the notch tip is shown to be suitable for strength-assessments. Finally, the various implications of cyclic plasticity on fatigue crack growth are explained with emphasis being laid on the DJ-integral approach.   This book continues the expositions of the authors’ well known reference work in German language ‘Ermüdungsfestigkeit – Grundlagen für Ingenieure’ (Fatigue strength – fundamentals for engineers).

  8. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  9. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Antoniou, I.; Dahlberg, J.A. [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  10. Assessment of Thorium Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Assessment of thorium analytical methods for mixture power fuel consisting of titrimetry, X-ray flouresence spectrometry, UV-VIS spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, emission spectrography, polarography, chromatography (HPLC) and neutron activation were carried out. It can be concluded that analytical methods which have high accuracy (deviation standard < 3%) were; titrimetry neutron activation analysis and UV-VIS spectrometry; whereas with low accuracy method (deviation standard 3-10%) were; alpha spectrometry and emission spectrography. Ore samples can be analyzed by X-ray flourescnce spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, UV-VIS spectrometry, emission spectrography, chromatography and alpha spectometry. Concentrated samples can be analyzed by X-ray flourescence spectrometry; simulation samples can be analyzed by titrimetry, polarography and UV-VIS spectrometry, and samples of thorium as minor constituent can be analyzed by neutron activation analysis and alpha spectrometry. Thorium purity (impurities element in thorium samples) can be analyzed by emission spectography. Considering interference aspects, in general analytical methods without molecule reaction are better than those involving molecule reactions (author). 19 refs., 1 tabs

  11. Method for assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INSAG-4 by IAEA urged for the method which would deal with the organizational factors strongly affecting safety culture. ASCOT guidelines introduced the approach for safety culture assessment. The reason for new method development is based on the fact that we have to be prompt and very specific in order to find and fix the problems which originate in organization. The main objective is to focus on the components which have the greatest impact on safety regardless if they are classified as safety related or not. There are two distinct importance rating methods of components within PSA: Risk reduction worth and risk achievement worth. Our method concentrates on the second, RAW list, indicating components which should be closely watched in order to maintain the achieved level of safety. The further development of our method was governed by following rules: it should be simple and it should incorporate the results of the previous analyses so that it is possible to upgrade these by taking into account the organizational factors which influence strongly the performance of the systems as a whole. The method concentrates on finding if there is clear division of the responsibilities among the personnel which interacts with risk significant components and also on organizational factors like: redundancy, communication, procedures and control. The results are input in specially designed form where also the suggestions for actions are given. As the result we see level of safety culture and pinpoint which organizational factors are to be improved substantially and the information on the risk significant components which then serves as basic guidance for allocation of improvements and resources. (author)

  12. A Method of Assessment: Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Şenol, Yesim; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2007-01-01

    The portfolio is becoming increasingly accepted as a valuable tool for learning and assessment. The strength of portfolios derives from their ability to offer rich evidence of learners’ development and achievements. This article is intended to inform about portfolio. It includes a background to the definition, advantages and disadvantages of portfolio, content of portfolio, and the reason why we use portfolio. Use of a portfolio in all stages of medical education will be beneficial f...

  13. Method of mucociliary clearance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.

  14. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  15. Assessing professional competence: from methods to programmes

    OpenAIRE

    van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We use a utility model to illustrate that, firstly, selecting an assessment method involves context-dependent compromises, and secondly, that assessment is not a measurement problem but an instructional design problem, comprising educational, implementation and resource aspects. In the model, assessment characteristics are differently weighted depending on the purpose and context of the assessment. EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS Of the characteristics in the m...

  16. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  17. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such...... bifurcation points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  18. Assessment methods for the evaluation of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, K M; Kumar, A; Taïeb, A; Ezzedine, K

    2012-12-01

    There is no standardized method for assessing vitiligo. In this article, we review the literature from 1981 to 2011 on different vitiligo assessment methods. We aim to classify the techniques available for vitiligo assessment as subjective, semi-objective or objective; microscopic or macroscopic; and as based on morphometry or colorimetry. Macroscopic morphological measurements include visual assessment, photography in natural or ultraviolet light, photography with computerized image analysis and tristimulus colorimetry or spectrophotometry. Non-invasive micromorphological methods include confocal laser microscopy (CLM). Subjective methods include clinical evaluation by a dermatologist and a vitiligo disease activity score. Semi-objective methods include the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and point-counting methods. Objective methods include software-based image analysis, tristimulus colorimetry, spectrophotometry and CLM. Morphometry is the measurement of the vitiliginous surface area, whereas colorimetry quantitatively analyses skin colour changes caused by erythema or pigment. Most methods involve morphometry, except for the chromameter method, which assesses colorimetry. Some image analysis software programs can assess both morphometry and colorimetry. The details of these programs (Corel Draw, Image Pro Plus, AutoCad and Photoshop) are discussed in the review. Reflectance confocal microscopy provides real-time images and has great potential for the non-invasive assessment of pigmentary lesions. In conclusion, there is no single best method for assessing vitiligo. This review revealed that VASI, the rule of nine and Wood's lamp are likely to be the best techniques available for assessing the degree of pigmentary lesions and measuring the extent and progression of vitiligo in the clinic and in clinical trials. PMID:22416879

  19. 9. Assessments: structure, concepts, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Assessments are an essential element of proper disaster management. Assessments help to define the damage and changes in functions at the time of the assessment. Assessments are transectional across the longitudinal phases of the disaster. Any intervention should be preceded by an assessment(s). The assessment process is deconstructed into a series of 10 steps: (1) need to know; (2) define the goal(s) and objectives(s) of an assessment; (3) select the appropriate indicators; (4) define the methods to be used for the assessment; (5) develop and test a plan for data collection; (6) train and brief data collectors; (7) gather (collect) the data; (8) synthesise the data and information collected; (9) output information for decision-making; and (10) compare findings with overarching goal and objectives. Steps 7-9 constitute a production process. Understanding this process is essential for identification of points of success and failure in achieving the desired assessment. Assessments require careful selection of indicators. The selected indicators are used throughout the process. Currently, no standardised set of indicators has been validated. Criteria for the composition of assessment teams are provided and common sources of error are discussed. Prior to, during, and following disasters, assessments are directed by the appropriate coordination and control entity. PMID:24785806

  20. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  1. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies...

  2. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  3. The STIG: A new SDI assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nushi, B.; Van Loenen, B.; Crompvoets, J.

    2015-01-01

    To stimulate the Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) development effectively and efficiently, it is key to assess the progress and benefits of the SDI. Currently, several SDI assessment methods exist. However, these are still in an infant stage and none of these appear to meet the requirements of pra

  4. Laboratory methods of assessing hearing loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, A R

    1982-01-01

    Methods for assessing hearing loss in human loss in human and in animal are reviewed with special reference to the use of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BSEP). The technique of recording and digital filtering of BSEP is described and compared with the results obtained by use of traditional analog filtering. The use of electrophysiological methods in assessing threshold shifts in studies of the effect of noise exposure on hearing in experimental animals is described for examples of resu...

  5. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  6. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  7. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  8. Methods to assess iron and iodine status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Four methods are recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, the goitre rate, and blood concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin. These indicators are complementary, in that urinary iodine is a sensitive indicator of recent iodine intake (days

  9. Clinical experimental stress studies: methods and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods. PMID:26020552

  10. New method for assessing risks of email

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Seyyed H.; Afrooz, Farzad

    2013-03-01

    E-mail technology, has become one of the requirements of human lives for correspondence between individuals. Given this, the important point is that the messages, server and client of e-mail and correspondences that exchanged between different people have acceptable security, to make people sure to use of this technology. In the information age, many of financial and non financial transactions are done electronically, data exchange takes place via the internet and theft and manipulation of data can make exorbitant cost in terms of integrity, financial, political, economic and culture. E-mail correspondence in there is same and it is very important. With review took place, a method that will focus on email system for risks assessment is not provided. We are examining ways of assessing for other systems and their strengths and weaknesses, then we use Mr Convery method for assessing email risks which it is for assessing network risks. At the end of paper we have offered special table for email risk assessment.

  11. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials as...... shown how to set up parametric acceptance criteria for the batch that gives a high confidence that future samples with a probability larger than a specified value will pass the USP threeclass criteria. Properties and robustness of proposed changes to the USP test for content uniformity are investigated...

  12. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  13. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  14. Indian Banks’ Methods for Assessing Working Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra Gunjan; Shastry Vikram; Sinharay Soumyadeep

    2010-01-01

    Working Capital is the capital required for by a firm to sustain its day to day activities. Different firms have different approaches to finance their working capital needs. After receiving proposals for working capital loans, as a precaution banks need to assess the amount of working capital loan which can be granted and also to determine the interest rate at which the loan can be provided. The RBI and its committees have introduced new methods for the calculation of credit eligibility for t...

  15. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.

    2016-08-23

    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  16. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  17. Cooperative Student Assessment Method: an Evaluation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Grasso

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Training through the Internet poses a series of technical problems and pedagogical issues. Traditional training is not indiscriminate but takes on different forms according to the needs of the subject being trained and the context where such training occurs. In order to make the systems adaptable in this way, a model of the student’s characteristics - the student model - has to be set up, maintained and updated. However, there are many difficulties involved in obtaining sufficient information to create an accurate student model. One way to solve this problem is to involve students in the student modeling process, stimulating them to provide the necessary information by means of a dialog in which the student and system build the student model according to a collaborative process. The present work describes a cooperative student modeling method (Cooperative Student Assessment - CSA which builds a joint system-student assessment of student’s activities on the basis of the student’s self-assessment ability estimation and a prototype system for children, addressing the learning of fractions, in which CSA is implemented. The article also reports the result of an experimentation carried out with learners attending primary school aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of involving students in the assessment process by comparing two versions of the same system: one using cooperative student modeling and the other the traditional overlay model.

  18. Environmental assessment of used oil management methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Bob; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-01-15

    The 1 billion gal of used oil generated in the U.S. each year are managed in three primary ways: rerefined into base oil for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil. Management of used oil has local, regional and global impacts. Because of the globally distributed nature of fuel markets, used oil as fuel has localized and regional impacts in many areas. In this paper, the human health and environmental tradeoffs of the management options are quantified and characterized. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the environmental impacts and benefits of each management method in a product end-of-life scenario using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A life-cycle inventory showed that 800 mg of zinc and 30 mg of lead air emissions may result from the combustion of 1 L of used oil as fuel (50-100 times that of crude-derived fuel oils). As an example, up to 136 Mg of zinc and 5 Mg of lead air emissions may be generated from combustion of over 50 M gal of California-generated used oil each year. While occurring elsewhere, these levels are significant (of the same magnitude as reported total stationary source emissions in California). An impact assessment showed that heavy metals-related toxicity dominates the comparison of management methods. Zinc and lead emissions were the primary contributors to the terrestrial and human toxicity impact potentials that were calculated to be 150 and 5 times higher, respectively, for used oil combusted as fuel than for rerefining or distillation. Low profits and weak markets increasingly drive the used oil management method selection toward the untreated fuel oil market. Instead, both the rerefining and distillation methods and associated product markets should be strongly supported because they are environmentally preferable to the combustion of unprocessed used oil as fuel. PMID:14750706

  19. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  20. Scheduling Issues in ECOFRAME Optical Packet Switched Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gravey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the metropolitan area, traditional SONET/SDH circuit switched rings are likely to be replaced with optical packet/burst switching technologies. In this paper we consider a slotted WDM optical packet ring operating without resource reservation mechanisms. In such rings, optical packets in transit have priority over traffic to be inserted by the node. Packets to be inserted are thus queued according to their destination, in order to avoid headof-line blocking. We focus on scheduling policies and compare several MaxWeight scheduling policies, including Oldest Packet First (OPF which emulates FIFO queueing while avoiding head-of-line blocking. We show that there is a trade-off between implementation complexity and fairness, and identify the Largest Virtual Waiting Time First (LVWTF scheduling policy as presenting both a low complexity and a good fairness performance.

  1. Assessment of composite motif discovery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Jostein

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational discovery of regulatory elements is an important area of bioinformatics research and more than a hundred motif discovery methods have been published. Traditionally, most of these methods have addressed the problem of single motif discovery – discovering binding motifs for individual transcription factors. In higher organisms, however, transcription factors usually act in combination with nearby bound factors to induce specific regulatory behaviours. Hence, recent focus has shifted from single motifs to the discovery of sets of motifs bound by multiple cooperating transcription factors, so called composite motifs or cis-regulatory modules. Given the large number and diversity of methods available, independent assessment of methods becomes important. Although there have been several benchmark studies of single motif discovery, no similar studies have previously been conducted concerning composite motif discovery. Results We have developed a benchmarking framework for composite motif discovery and used it to evaluate the performance of eight published module discovery tools. Benchmark datasets were constructed based on real genomic sequences containing experimentally verified regulatory modules, and the module discovery programs were asked to predict both the locations of these modules and to specify the single motifs involved. To aid the programs in their search, we provided position weight matrices corresponding to the binding motifs of the transcription factors involved. In addition, selections of decoy matrices were mixed with the genuine matrices on one dataset to test the response of programs to varying levels of noise. Conclusion Although some of the methods tested tended to score somewhat better than others overall, there were still large variations between individual datasets and no single method performed consistently better than the rest in all situations. The variation in performance on individual

  2. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  3. Methods for probabilistic assessments of geologic hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although risk analysis today is considered to include three separate aspects: (1) identifying sources of risk, (2) estimating probabilities quantitatively, and (3) evaluating consequences of risk, here, only estimation of probabilities for natural geologic events, processes, and phenomena is addressed. Ideally, evaluation of potential future hazards includes an objective determination of probabilities that has been derived from past occurrences of identical events or components contributing to complex processes or phenomena. In practice, however, data which would permit objective estimation of those probabilities of interest may not be adequate, or may not even exist. Another problem that arises normally, regardless of the extent of data, is that risk assessments involve estimating extreme values. Rarely are extreme values accurately predictable even when an empirical frequency distribution is established well by data. In the absence of objective methods for estimating probabilities of natural events or processes, subjective probabilities for the hazard must be established through Bayesian methods, expert opinion, or Delphi methods. Uncertainty of every probability determination must be stated for each component of an event, process, or phenomenon. These uncertainties also must be propagated through the quantitative analysis so that a realistic estimate of total uncertainty can be associated with each final probability estimate for a geologic hazard.

  4. Assessing wine quality using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The analytical methods used to determine the isotope ratios of deuterium, carbon-13 and oxygen-18 in wines have gained official recognition from the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) and National Organisation of Vine and Wine. The amount of stable isotopes in water and carbon dioxide from plant organic materials and their distribution in sugar and ethanol molecules are influenced by geo-climatic conditions of the region, grape varieties and the year of harvest. For wine characterization, to prove the botanical and geographical origin of the raw material, the isotopic analysis by continuous flow mass spectrometry CF-IRMS has made a significant contribution. This paper emphasize the results of a study concerning the assessing of water adulterated wines and non-grape alcohol and sugar additions at different concentration levels, using CF-IRMS analytical technique. (authors)

  5. Assessment of physical protection systems: EVA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CEA's missions in various sectors of activity such as nuclear, defence, industrial contracts and the associated regulatory requirements, make it necessary to develop a strategy in the field of physical protection. In particular, firms having nuclear materials are subject to the July 25, 1980 law no.80-572 on the protection and control of nuclear materials. A holding permit delivered by the regulatory authority is conditioned to the protection by the operator of the nuclear materials used. In France it is the nuclear operator who must demonstrate, in the form of a security study, that potential aggressors would be neutralised before they could escape with the material. To meet these requirements, we have developed methods to assess the vulnerability of our facilities. The EVA method, the French acronym for 'Evaluation de la vulnerabilite des Acces' (access vulnerability system) allows dealing with internal and external threats involving brutal actions. In scenarios relating to external threat, the intruders get past the various barriers of our protection system, attempting to steal a large volume of material in one swoop and then escape. In the case of internal threat, the goal is the same. However, as the intruder usually has access to the material in the scope of his activities, the action begins at the level of the target. Our protection system is based on in-depth defense where the intruders are detected and then delayed in their advance towards their target to allow time for intervention forces to intercept them

  6. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  7. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  8. Systematization of methods for assessing NPP operation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the regulations on risk assessment is carried out. Quantitative methods of decision-making under risks are considered and systematization of risk assessment methods to be selected depending on decision-making conditions is proposed

  9. Investigation of Suitability of Cascading Outage Assessment Methods for Real-Time Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    This paper investigates the suitability of assessment methods for cascading outages for real-time assessment. A total of ten assessment methods for cascading outages are investigated, and for all of the investigated methods a complexity assessment is performed to assess the suitability...... of the method to real-time assessment. The investigation revealed that two of the methods are of special interest for further study on real-time assessment of cascading outages. These are the betweenness centrality model, based on network topology, and the manchester model, based on AC power flow....

  10. SPECIFIC METHOD OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN TOURISM ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea ARMEAN

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an innovative method of risk assessment for tourism businesses. The contribution to literature is the novelty of this method of following paths: is an ante-factum assessment not post-factum; risk assessment is based on perception rather than results; is based on specific risks tourism enterprises not on the overall risks. Is an asset-research methodology and consists in generating its own method of risk assessment based on the ideas summarized from ...

  11. Using Corporate-Based Methods To Assess Technical Communication Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Brenton; Bekins, Linn; Karis, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Investigates methods of program assessment used by corporate learning sites and profiles value added methods as a way to both construct and evaluate academic programs in technical communication. Examines and critiques assessment methods from corporate training environments including methods employed by corporate universities and value added…

  12. Fuzzy Assessment Method and Its Application to Selecting Project Managers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Open competition is a new form of the assessment of candidates and selection of project managers. This has many merits compared to the traditional administrative method of appointment. This article introduces a method of fuzzy assessment of project manager candidates. Fuzzy assessment unifies objective qualitative and quantitative appraisal and can be used for improving decision-making in the selection process.

  13. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Peer Assessment in Small Groups: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates several peer evaluation tools used to assess student behavior in small groups. The two most common methods of peer assessment found in the literature are rating scales and single score methods. Three peer evaluation instruments, two using a rating scale and one using a single score method, are tested in several…

  16. Power source life cycle assessment by the Bilan Carbone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilan Carbone is a method to assess the amount of spent energy in the form of CO2 formation and its impacts on climate change (carbon footprint). The method assesses each steps in power production, finds hidden energy flows for modelling future energy scenarios. The principles of the method are outlined and an example of its application is presented. (orig.)

  17. Primary Teachers’ Views Concerning the Assessment Methods Used by Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader Birinci Konur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to determine primary teachers’ views about assessment methods which are used by them. Semi-constructed interview which consists of five open-ended questions has been used as data gathering instrument. While the scope of research is the teachers who are teaching in primary schools in Rize, the samples are twenty-five primary schools teachers who were selected from the five schools. In conclusion, teachers are using both traditional assessment methods and alternative assessment methods. But, they don’t think that all of the assessment methods which in new curriculum are useful in their school because of lack of time and source. Teachers have used these methods which are changed according to environment conditions. Based on this conclusions, importance should be given to alternative assessment approaches in classes which are given to students in university and information should be presented about how use this assessment methods.

  18. Statistical method for scientific projects risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Бедрій, Дмитро Іванович

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the use of statistical methods for risk evaluation of the scientific institutions activity in the public sector of the Ukrainian economy in the process of planning and execution of scientific projects, some of the results of our research in this area are presented. The main objective of the study is to determine the possibility of using the statistical method in the process of evaluation of the research projects risks. The use of risk evaluation methods allows the manag...

  19. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  20. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    not fulfilled) but this task is at best very time consuming and often not possible. There seems to be a need for an easy in use and less time consuming selection/screening method based on readily available substance data. The aim of such a selection method is to prioritise those emissions (chemicals) from...... methods in use to day (e.g. Eco-indicator 99 and EDIP) is in the range of 40 – 330 and often they only cover a minor part of the substances in the inventory. The user of the LCA method should in principle be able to calculate any missing factors (if needed substance data are available which is often...... the inventory that contribute significantly to the impact categories on ecotoxicity and human toxicity to focus the characterisation work. The reason why the selection methods are more important for the chemical-related impact categories than for other impact categories is the extremely high number...

  1. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  2. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  3. [New assessment method in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shintaro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-06-01

    To assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several composite measures have been used. However, more objective indices have been desired due to subjectivity in conventional indices. The Multi-Biomarker Disease Activity(MBDA) score is a novel serum testing based disease activity score ranging 1-100, derived from pre-specified algorithms in combination with 12 biomarkers. The MBDA score not only reflects disease activity in RA, but also is predictive for radiographic progression and risk of flare after drug reduction. Here we review usefulness of the MBDA score in RA. PMID:27311181

  4. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  5. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlček Jozef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  6. Exploring Formative Assessment as a Tool for Learning: Students' Experiences of Different Methods of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weurlander, Maria; Soderberg, Magnus; Scheja, Max; Hult, Hakan; Wernerson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide a greater insight into how formative assessments are experienced and understood by students. Two different formative assessment methods, an individual, written assessment and an oral group assessment, were components of a pathology course within a medical curriculum. In a cohort of 70 students, written accounts were…

  7. Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Soliwoda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maritime casualty is an event of considerable economic and social impact. For this reason, implemented the reporting systems of accidents at sea, and the Administration was obligated to establish a Commission of Maritime Accidents. On the basis of casualty analysis and reports are developed proposals preventing similar casualties in the future. However, there is no uniform evaluation system which check references of existing regulations and recommendations to the occurred casualties. This paper presents a method to evaluate the used methods of casualty prediction with respect to the real incident and catastrophe.

  8. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  9. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  10. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  11. Problems of method of technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members' mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical 'skeleton' of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP)

  12. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  13. Disordered Speech Assessment Using Automatic Methods Based on Quantitative Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastav Rahul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech quality assessment methods are necessary for evaluating and documenting treatment outcomes of patients suffering from degraded speech due to Parkinson's disease, stroke, or other disease processes. Subjective methods of speech quality assessment are more accurate and more robust than objective methods but are time-consuming and costly. We propose a novel objective measure of speech quality assessment that builds on traditional speech processing techniques such as dynamic time warping (DTW and the Itakura-Saito (IS distortion measure. Initial results show that our objective measure correlates well with the more expensive subjective methods.

  14. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  15. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  16. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  17. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld (Orthopedic Research Unit, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)), e-mail: a_troelsen@hotmail.com; Roemer, Lone (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Kring, Soeren (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Aabenraa Hospital, Aabenraa (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  18. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  19. A new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Manifold learning is a hot research topic in the field of computer science. A crucial issue with current manifold learning methods is that they lack a natural quantitative measure to assess the quality of learned embeddings, which greatly limits their applications to real-world problems. In this paper, a new embedding quality assessment method for manifold learning, named as Normalization Independent Embedding Quality Assessment (NIEQA), is proposed. Compared with current assessment methods which are limited to isometric embeddings, the NIEQA method has a much larger application range due to two features. First, it is based on a new measure which can effectively evaluate how well local neighborhood geometry is preserved under normalization, hence it can be applied to both isometric and normalized embeddings. Second, it can provide both local and global evaluations to output an overall assessment. Therefore, NIEQA can serve as a natural tool in model selection and evaluation tasks for manifold learning. Experi...

  20. In situ methods for assessing alveolar mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2012-02-01

    Lung mechanics are an important determinant of physiological and pathophysiological lung function. Recent light microscopy studies of the intact lung have furthered the understanding of lung mechanics but used methodologies that may have introduced artifacts. To address this concern, we employed a short working distance water immersion objective to capture confocal images of a fluorescently labeled alveolar field on the costal surface of the isolated, perfused rat lung. Surface tension held a saline drop between the objective tip and the lung surface, such that the lung surface was unconstrained. For comparison, we also imaged with O-ring and coverslip; with O-ring, coverslip, and vacuum pressure; and without perfusion. Under each condition, we ventilated the lung and imaged the same region at the endpoints of ventilation. We found use of a coverslip caused a minimal enlargement of the alveolar field; additional use of vacuum pressure caused no further dimensional change; and absence of perfusion did not affect alveolar field dimension. Inflation-induced expansion was unaltered by methodology. In response to inflation, percent expansion was the same as recorded by all four alternative methods. PMID:22074721

  1. Analytical methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Bryce J; Love, Sara A; Braun, Katherine L; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-03-01

    During the past 20 years, improvements in nanoscale materials synthesis and characterization have given scientists great control over the fabrication of materials with features between 1 and 100 nm, unlocking many unique size-dependent properties and, thus, promising many new and/or improved technologies. Recent years have found the integration of such materials into commercial goods; a current estimate suggests there are over 800 nanoparticle-containing consumer products (The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Consumer Products Inventory, , accessed Oct. 2008), accounting for 147 billion USD in products in 2007 (Nanomaterials state of the market Q3 2008: stealth success, broad impact, Lux Research Inc., New York, NY, 2008). Despite this increase in the prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, there is little known about their potential impacts on environmental health and safety. The field of nanotoxicology has formed in response to this lack of information and resulted in a flurry of research studies. Nanotoxicology relies on many analytical methods for the characterization of nanomaterials as well as their impacts on in vitro and in vivo function. This review provides a critical overview of these techniques from the perspective of an analytical chemist, and is intended to be used as a reference for scientists interested in conducting nanotoxicological research as well as those interested in nanotoxicological assay development. PMID:19238274

  2. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    work two different methods for quantitative characterization of random nano-patterned surfaces were compared and assessed. One method is based on the estimation of the roughness amplitude parameters Sa and Sz (ISO 25178). The second method is based on pore and particle analysis using the watershed...

  3. A RISK ASSESSMENT METHOD OF THE WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dongmei; Wang Changguang; Ma Jianfeng

    2007-01-01

    The core of network security is the risk assessment.In this letter,a risk assessment method is introduced to estimate the wireless network security.The method,which combines Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP)method and fuzzy logical method,is applied to the risk assessment.Fuzzy logical method is applied to judge the important degree of each factor in the aspects of the probability,the influence and the uncontrollability,not to directly judge the important degree itself.The risk assessment is carved up 3 layers applying AHP method,the sort weight of the third layer is calculated by fuzzy logical method.Finally,the important degree is calculated by AHP method.By comparing the important degree of each factor,the risk which can be controlled by taking measures is known.The study of the case shows that the method can be easily used to the risk assessment of the wireless network security and its results conform to the actual situation.

  4. Improved reliability analysis method based on the failure assessment diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhong, Qunpeng

    2012-07-01

    With the uncertainties related to operating conditions, in-service non-destructive testing (NDT) measurements and material properties considered in the structural integrity assessment, probabilistic analysis based on the failure assessment diagram (FAD) approach has recently become an important concern. However, the point density revealing the probabilistic distribution characteristics of the assessment points is usually ignored. To obtain more detailed and direct knowledge from the reliability analysis, an improved probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) assessment method is proposed. By integrating 2D kernel density estimation (KDE) technology into the traditional probabilistic assessment, the probabilistic density of the randomly distributed assessment points is visualized in the assessment diagram. Moreover, a modified interval sensitivity analysis is implemented and compared with probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The improved reliability analysis method is applied to the assessment of a high pressure pipe containing an axial internal semi-elliptical surface crack. The results indicate that these two methods can give consistent sensitivities of input parameters, but the interval sensitivity analysis is computationally more efficient. Meanwhile, the point density distribution and its contour are plotted in the FAD, thereby better revealing the characteristics of PFM assessment. This study provides a powerful tool for the reliability analysis of critical structures.

  5. Objective Methods for Assessing Models for Wildfire Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Picka, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Models for wildfires must be stochastic if their ability to represent wildfires is to be objectively assessed. The need for models to be stochastic emerges naturally from the physics of the fire, and methods for assessing fit are constructed to exploit information found in the time evolution of the burn region.

  6. Three methods for the assessment of communication skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.N.; van der Molen, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of students' communication skills after a course in problem-clarifying skills requires an assessment method different from the traditional written examination. In this article we describe the construction and evaluation of simulations, video tests and paper-and-pencil tests. The results o

  7. SPECIFIC METHOD OF RISK ASSESSMENT IN TOURISM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea ARMEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an innovative method of risk assessment for tourism businesses. The contribution to literature is the novelty of this method of following paths: is an ante-factum assessment not post-factum; risk assessment is based on perception rather than results; is based on specific risks tourism enterprises not on the overall risks. Is an asset-research methodology and consists in generating its own method of risk assessment based on the ideas summarized from the literature studied. The aim established is tourism enterprises from Romania. The data necessary for the application of this method will result from applying to top level management of tourism enterprises, a questionnaire about risk perception. The results from this study will help identify and measure the risks specific to tourism enterprises. The applicability of the results is to improve risk management in these enterprises.

  8. Orohanditest: A new method for orofacial damage assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Morais Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Orohanditest provides a reliable, precise, and complete orofacial damage description and quantification. Therefore, this method can be useful as an auxiliary tool in the orofacial damage assessment process.

  9. Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Trask, Catherine; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Jackson, Jennie; Wahlström, Jens

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data processing contributes a non-trivial proportion to total research costs, but documentation of these costs is rare. This paper employed a priori cost tracking for three posture assessment methods (self-report, observation of video, and inclinometry), developed a model describing the fixed and variable cost components, and simulated additional study scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model. METHODS: Trunk and shoulder postures of aircraft baggage handlers were assessed...

  10. A method for the probabilistic design assessment of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    A formal procedure for the probabilistic design assessment of a composite structure is described. The uncertainties in all aspects of a composite structure (constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structural geometry, service environments, etc.), which result in the uncertain behavior in the composite structural responses, are included in the assessment. The probabilistic assessment consists of design criteria, modeling of composite structures and uncertainties, simulation methods, and the decision making process. A sample case is presented to illustrate the formal procedure and to demonstrate that composite structural designs can be probabilistically assessed with accuracy and efficiency.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INVESTMENT PROJECTS USING OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    AYTEKİN, Osman; İlker ÖZDEMİR; KUŞAN, Hakan; TEZCAN, Ömür

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it has been researched the applicability of AHP method (Analytic Hierarchy Method) that is one of multi-criteria decision-making methods, in assessment of construction investment projects. For this aim, it has been considered an application having shopping center, housing estate and residence alternatives. For application of AHP method, a binary comparison matrices have been established using main criteria which have financial conditions, sales and marketing, location and contr...

  12. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems

  13. Quality Assessment and Improvement Methods in Statistics – what Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Viggo Sæbø

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for quality assessment and assurance in statistics have been developed in a European context. Data Quality Assessment Methods (DatQAM were considered in a Eurostat handbook in 2007. These methods comprise quality reports and indicators, measurement of process variables, user surveys, self-assessments, audits, labelling and certifi cation. The entry point for the paper is the development of systematic quality work in European statistics with regard to good practices such as those described in the DatQAM handbook. Assessment is one issue, following up recommendations and implementation of improvement actions another. This leads to a discussion on the eff ect of approaches and tools: Which work well, which have turned out to be more of a challenge, and why? Examples are mainly from Statistics Norway, but these are believed to be representative for several statistical institutes.

  14. Comparison of Neurosensory Assessment Methods in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Ozturk, Sinan; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sensory assessment of the skin is essential to document the function of the sensory fibers of the tested nerves. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, disk-criminator, electrodiagnostic testing, and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD) have been currently used to assess sensory function of peripheral nerves. None of these methods is optimal because of different drawbacks; however, an increasing number of articles, which recognize the reliability of PSSD, have been published during the last decade. In this review, following a short overview on basic physiology and assessment methods of the skin sensory receptors, we compared the sensory assessment methods and summarized the applications of the PSSD in the field of different clinical areas, mainly peripheral neuropathies, breast, and flap surgery. PMID:27404470

  15. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  16. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from the ke...

  17. Exploring valid and reliable assessment methods for care management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennissen, Lokke; Stammen, Lorette; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien; Wieringa, Sietse; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose It is assumed that the use of valid and reliable assessment methods can facilitate the development of medical residents' management and leadership competencies. To justify this assertion, the perceptions of an expert panel of health care leaders were explored on assessment methods used for evaluating care management (CM) development in Dutch residency programs. This paper aims to investigate how assessors and trainees value these methods and examine for any inherent benefits or shortcomings when they are applied in practice. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi survey was conducted among members of the platform for medical leadership in The Netherlands. This panel of experts was made up of clinical educators, practitioners and residents interested in CM education. Findings Of the respondents, 40 (55.6 per cent) and 31 (43 per cent) participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi survey, respectively. The respondents agreed that assessment methods currently being used to measure residents' CM competencies were weak, though feasible for use in many residency programs. Multi-source feedback (MSF, 92.1 per cent), portfolio/e-portfolio (86.8 per cent) and knowledge testing (76.3 per cent) were identified as the most commonly known assessment methods with familiarity rates exceeding 75 per cent. Practical implications The findings suggested that an "assessment framework" comprising MSF, portfolios, individual process improvement projects or self-reflections and observations in clinical practice should be used to measure CM competencies in residents. Originality/value This study reaffirms the need for objective methods to assess CM skills in post-graduate medical education, as there was not a single assessment method that stood out as the best instrument. PMID:27397747

  18. Valuation methods within the framework of life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnveden, G.

    1996-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment Valuation methods are discussed. Different approaches for valuation are discussed as well as presently available valuation methods in relation to: * the values involved in the valuation, * the LCA framework, and * different applications of LCA. Among the conclusions are: * ethical and ideological valuations are involved not only when applying valuation weighting factors, but also when choosing valuation method and also when choosing whether to perform a valuation weighting or not, * it can be questioned whether straight distance-to-target methods are valuation methods, * it is still an open question whether presently available valuation methods produce meaningful and reliable information, * further development of quantitative valuation methods could concentrate both on different types of monetarisation methods and panel methods, * in many applications of LCA, the expected result is an identification of critical areas rather than a one-dimensional score, reducing the need for valuation methods. 88 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  20. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Ancient Masonry Building: An Experimental Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Nuno; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Campos-Costa, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the methods for seismic vulnerability assessment, together with an experimental method based on shaking table testing. This method is applied to a Portuguese masonry building typology with stone walls and timber floors, subjected to increasing earthquake damage. Traditional-like materials and techniques are used in the building. The vulnerability curves are presented and the damage indicator is correlated with the crack patterns and EMS 98.

  1. Fish welfare and quality assessment by conventional and innovative methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Concollato

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of my research was on one side, to investigate the possibility of using rapid and nondestructive methods for the determination of fish fillets quality and their classification, on the other side, to find out the stunning/slaughtering method able to guarantee a minimal or to completely avoid stress condition at the moment immediately prior of the slaughtering process, by assessing the effects on fillets quality by conventional and innovative methods, from two ...

  2. STUDENTS PERCEPTION ON METHODS OF ANATOMY TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Jaiswal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An opinion regarding curriculum, teaching methodology & assessment techniques in anatomy was taken from the first year MBBS students at People’s College of Medical Science & Research Centre, Bhopal with specially designed questionnaire. Materials and Method: Input from the students were collected from the 129 MBBS students of 2013-14 batch who completed first year MBBS. It was done by using a specially designed questionnaire comprising of points relating to the curriculum, teaching methodology and assessment techniques used at People’s College of Medical Science and Research Centre, Bhopal for its effectiveness and capacity to meet specific objectives need. Results: Majority of the students feel the curriculum can be taught in present one year duration. The best method of learning is the chalkboard and dissection hall teaching. Students agreed for multimedia teaching methods for better understanding. Majority students opined that the best method of assessment is part ending tests. Students favoured descriptive & short essay questions with MCQ as examination pattern. Use of visual aids is the best solutions for problems in histology and embryology. Students favoured teacher’s notes as a best source of study material. Majority felt that class attendance and internal assessment both considered for allowing students to appear for university examination. Conclusion: The study concluded that chalkboard teaching and dissection hall teaching would be the best approach for Anatomy teaching and learning and the best method of assessment is part ending tests.

  3. The bootstrap and Bayesian bootstrap method in assessing bioequivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric method for assessing individual bioequivalence (IBE) may concentrate on the hypothesis that the PK responses are normal. Nonparametric method for evaluating IBE would be bootstrap method. In 2001, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a draft guidance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the IBE between test drug and reference drug by bootstrap and Bayesian bootstrap method. We study the power of bootstrap test procedures and the parametric test procedures in FDA (2001). We find that the Bayesian bootstrap method is the most excellent.

  4. Cardiotocography (CTG) as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Zulčić-Nakić; A. Latifagić; I. Šerak; D. Kapidžić; Dž. Ljuca; Z. Fatušić; M. Kapidžić

    2007-01-01

    A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG) cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart ra...

  5. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  6. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  7. Methods for assessment of trunk stabilization, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaswinkel, E; Griffioen, M; Perez, R S G M; van Dieën, J H

    2016-02-01

    Trunk stabilization is achieved differently in patients with low back pain compared to healthy controls. Many methods exist to assess trunk stabilization but not all measure the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. This may pose a threat to the quality/validity of the study and might lead to misinterpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to provide a critical review of previously published methods for studying trunk stabilization in relation to low back pain (LBP). We primarily aimed to assess their construct validity to which end we defined a theoretical framework operationalized in a set of methodological criteria which would allow to identify the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. In addition, the clinimetric properties of the methods were evaluated. A total of 133 articles were included from which four main categories of methods were defined; upper limb (un)loading, moving platform, unloading and loading. Fifty of the 133 selected articles complied with all the criteria of the theoretical framework, but only four articles provided information about reliability and/or measurement error of methods to assess trunk stabilization with test-retest reliability ranging from poor (ICC 0) to moderate (ICC 0.72). When aiming to assess trunk stabilization with system identification, we propose a perturbation method where the trunk is studied in isolation, the perturbation is unpredictable, force controlled, directly applied to the upper body, completely known and results in small fluctuations around the working point. PMID:26803526

  8. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Pehkonen, Irmeli; Forsman, Mikael;

    2010-01-01

    to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity...... difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be good or moderate. CONCLUSIONS: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational......OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users. METHODS: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965...

  9. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takala, Esa-Pekka; Irmeli, Pehkonen; Forsman, Mikael;

    2009-01-01

      Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work   Esa-Pekka Takala 1, Irmeli Pehkonen 1, Mikael Forsman 2, Gert-Åke Hansson 3, Svend Erik Mathiassen 4, W. Patrick Neumann 5, Gisela Sjøgaard 6, Kaj Bo Veiersted 7, Rolf Westgaard 8, Jørgen Winkel 9   1...... University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 9 University of Gothenburg and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen   The aim of this project was to identify and systematically evaluate observational methods to assess workload on the musculoskeletal system. Searches......, and the Washington state method are checklist-type methods where each item or risk factor exceeding the criteria used in each method indicates consideration of actions at work place. In RULA weights are given to the observed items and a sum score is calculated to describe the risk. In ACGIH HAL the hand activity...

  10. Biological methods used to assess surface water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbiñska Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the guidelines of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (WFD, both ecological and chemical statuses determine the assessment of surface waters. The profile of ecological status is based on the analysis of various biological components, and physicochemical and hydromorphological indicators complement this assessment. The aim of this article is to present the biological methods used in the assessment of water status with a special focus on bioassay, as well as to provide a review of methods of monitoring water status. Biological test methods include both biomonitoring and bioanalytics. Water biomonitoring is used to assess and forecast the status of water. These studies aim to collect data on water pollution and forecast its impact. Biomonitoring uses organisms which are characterized by particular vulnerability to contaminants. Bioindicator organisms are algae, fungi, bacteria, larval invertebrates, cyanobacteria, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Bioanalytics is based on the receptors of contaminants that can be biologically active substances. In bioanalytics, biosensors such as viruses, bacteria, antibodies, enzymes, and biotests are used to assess degrees of pollution.

  11. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    OpenAIRE

    Abir Aissaoui; Nidhal Haj Salem; Meryam Mougou; Fethi Maatouk; Ali Chadly

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Loca...

  12. Laboratory methods of assessment of hot working characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers specifically the methods available for quantitative assessment of the material characteristics of importance in industrial hot rolling of flat products. The variables of a rolling pass are discussed in relation to the test methods and to their effects on flow stress and microstructural changes after a pass. The advantages and limitations of experimental simulation of multipass rolling schedules and of computer simulations based on laboratory data obtained from simple tests are briefly examined

  13. A Transient Stability Assessment Method using Post-Fault Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakidis, Theodoros; Lanz, Guillaume; Cherkaoui, Rachid; Kayal, Maher

    2013-01-01

    Transient Stability Assessment (TSA) is the process in which the stability of a system is characterized qualitatively or quantitatively. The TSA algorithm presented in this paper is derived from the well-established Single Machine Equivalent (SIME) method and can thus be categorized as a hybrid direct-temporal method. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it derives a Transient Stability Index (TSI) with a single Time-Domain (TD) simulation for both stable and unstable cases. The resu...

  14. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  15. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  16. Significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.

  17. Student evaluation of teaching and assessment methods in pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badyal Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The students are in the best position to comment on the effectiveness of any teaching system and they may be regarded as the best judges to assess the teaching and evaluation methods. Objective: This study was designed to obtain student feedback on teaching and assessment methods in the subject of pharmacology and use it for improvement. Materials and Methods: Based on student feedback from batch 2006, innovative strategies were implemented. To know the effect of these strategies feedback was obtained from subsequent batch 2007 using a written validated questionnaire covering various aspects of teaching and assessment methods. Results: Students were satisfied with all teaching methods except lecture, seminars and pharmacy exercises. Majority of the students showed preference for tutorials, short answer questions and revision classes. All students felt that there should be more time for clinical pharmacology and bedside teaching. The performance score of the students (batch 2007 indicated improvement in their scores (12% when earlier feedback suggestions were implemented. The pass percentage of the subsequent batch in university examinations improved from 90 to 100%. Conclusion: The implementation of suggestions obtained from students resulted in improvement in their performance. Hence, it is very essential to synchronize teaching and evaluation methods with special requirements of medical students.

  18. A Revised Class Play Method of Peer Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Revised Class Play (RCP) was presented as a measure of peer reputation designed to improve the assessment of social competence as well as the psychometric properties of class play method. Administered to third through sixth graders three test dimensions were revealed: sociability-leadership, aggressive-disruptive, and sensitive-isolated. Data…

  19. Quantitative assessment of breast density: comparison of different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To Compare different methods of quantitative breast density measurement. Methods: The study included sixty patients who underwent both mammography and breast MRI. The breast density was computed automatically on digital mammograms with R2 workstation, Two experienced radiologists read the mammograms and assessed the breast density with Wolfe and ACR classification respectively. Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) was used to assess breast density on MRI. Each assessment method was repeated after 2 weeks. Spearman and Pearson correlations of inter- and intrareader and intermodality were computed for density estimates. Results: Inter- and intrareader correlation of Wolfe classification were 0.74 and 0.65, and they were 0.74 and 0.82 for ACR classification respectively. Correlation between Wolfe and ACR classification was 0.77. High interreader correlation of 0.98 and intrareader correlation of 0.96 was observed with MR FCM measurement. And the correlation between digital mammograms and MRI was high in the assessment of breast density (r=0.81, P<0.01). Conclusion: High correlation of breast density estimates on digital mammograms and MRI FCM suggested the former could be used as a simple and accurate method. (authors)

  20. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  1. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    , sensitive, less time consuming and therefore many samples can be analysed in a short period of time. When the calibrated method was employed to assess the attachment of Vibrio sp to polystyrene, stainless steel and copper, it give a fairly reliable estimate...

  2. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  3. Methods of assessment of whole body 241Am content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discuss an influence of different skull phantoms on efficiency of the measurement. Description of some methods of an assessment of the 241Am content in the human skeleton from measurements performed over long bones of the human body is also offered. (authors)

  4. An Identification Key for Selecting Methods for Sustainability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel C. Zijp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments can play an important role in decision making. This role starts with selecting appropriate methods for a given situation. We observed that scientists, consultants, and decision-makers often do not systematically perform a problem analyses that guides the choice of the method, partly related to a lack of systematic, though sufficiently versatile approaches to do so. Therefore, we developed and propose a new step towards method selection on the basis of question articulation: the Sustainability Assessment Identification Key. The identification key was designed to lead its user through all important choices needed for comprehensive question articulation. Subsequently, methods that fit the resulting specific questions are suggested by the key. The key consists of five domains, of which three determine method selection and two the design or use of the method. Each domain consists of four or more criteria that need specification. For example in the domain “system boundaries”, amongst others, the spatial and temporal scales are specified. The key was tested (retrospectively on a set of thirty case studies. Using the key appeared to contribute to improved: (i transparency in the link between the question and method selection; (ii consistency between questions asked and answers provided; and (iii internal consistency in methodological design. There is latitude to develop the current initial key further, not only for selecting methods pertinent to a problem definition, but also as a principle for associated opportunities such as stakeholder identification.

  5. Standard guide for three methods of assessing buried steel tanks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures to be implemented prior to the application of cathodic protection for evaluating the suitability of a tank for upgrading by cathodic protection alone. 1.2 Three procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, and C. 1.2.1 Method A—Noninvasive with primary emphasis on statistical and electrochemical analysis of external site environment corrosion data. 1.2.2 Method B—Invasive ultrasonic thickness testing with external corrosion evaluation. 1.2.3 Method C—Invasive permanently recorded visual inspection and evaluation including external corrosion assessment. 1.3 This guide presents the methodology and the procedures utilizing site and tank specific data for determining a tank's condition and the suitability for such tanks to be upgraded with cathodic protection. 1.4 The tank's condition shall be assessed using Method A, B, or C. Prior to assessing the tank, a preliminary site survey shall be performed pursuant to Section 8 and the tank shall be tightness test...

  6. BREEAM [Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method] BRE [Building Research Establishment] assessment method for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings account for a large share of environmental impacts in their construction, use, and demolition. In western Europe, buildings account for ca 50% of primary energy use (hence CO2 output), far outweighing the contribution of the transport and industrial sectors. Other impacts from building energy use include the use of chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. In the United Kingdom, the Building Research Establishment (BRE) has developed a certificate system for environmental labelling of buildings so that the performance of the building against a set of defined environmental criteria can be made visible to clients. This system thus rewards positive actions to improve the environmental performance of buildings and assists in marketing to an environmentally aware clientele. Issues included in assessments for awarding the certificate are addressed under three main headings: global issues and use of resources, local issues, and indoor issues. Global issues include ozone depletion and CO2 emissions; local issues include public health and water conservation; and indoor issues include air quality and lighting. 8 refs., 1 tab

  7. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  9. A comparison of two methods of assessing low frequency noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patching, Richard [Patching Associates Acoustical Engineering Ltd (Canada)], email: rpatching@patchingassociates.com

    2011-07-01

    Noise levels are usually measured with varying weighting scales to better adjust to human hear sensibility and these scales are assumed to be inherently appropriate. But this can become a problem when assessing low frequency noise from industrial facilities, and for that matter, Alberta provincial regulations and Canadian federal regulations use different criteria. This paper compares the two methods, and their limits relative to low frequency noise assessment. Alberta noise assessment regulations are based on an absolute permissible sound level, incorporating the ambient noise and added noise from industrial facilities. The Health Canada approach uses a day-night sound level and the criterion for noise annoyance is expressed in terms of the percentage of people highly annoyed by this noise level. Both methods assess low frequency noise the same way, by differentiating the measured A and C-weighted noise levels. And both methods are hard to implement in the design stage of a project for lack of noise information from the manufacturers.

  10. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper.

  11. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  12. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongRu; SU HuaiZhi; GUO HaiQing

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda- menial principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean- while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  13. Risk assessment method of major unsafe hydroelectric project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of major unsafe hydroelectric projects and the data from field detection, in situ monitoring, and regular safety inspection, the funda-mental principles of operation risk assessment are proposed in this paper. Mean-while, a three layer hierarchical system is constructed, and an improved analytical hierarchical process combining genetic algorithm and analytical hierarchical process is established, with corresponding program. The operation risk of some unsafe dam was assessed with the principles, method and program presented in this paper and the major factors which would affect the operation of the dam were pointed out.

  14. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs

  15. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  16. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  17. Credit Assessment of Contractors: A Rough Set Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gaojun; ZHU Yan

    2006-01-01

    A rough set method is presented in this paper to assess the credit of contractors. Unlike traditional methods, the rough set method deduces credit-classifying rules from actual data to predict new cases. The method uses a contractors' database with a genetic algorithm and an exhaustive reduction implemented using ROSETTA software that integrates rough set method. The classification accuracy of the rough set model is not as good as that of a decision tree, logistic regression, and neural network models, but the rough set model more accurately predicts contractors with bad credit. The results show that the rough set model is especially useful for detecting corporations with bad credit in the currently disordered Chinese construction market.

  18. Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Method to Determine Tectonic Stress Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai; QI Lan; HAO Caizhe; GUO Lei

    2007-01-01

    The tectonic stress patterns were determined by a fuzzy comprehensive assessment method. Data of in-situ survey and fault information were utilized in the method. First, by making pressure and tension in the directions of along-river, cross-river, shear clockwise, and shear counter-clockwise, 26 types of tectonic stress patterns were presented. And the stress vector of each pat-tern was obtained with FE software by taking unit displacement as boundary load. Then, by takingthe 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and 3 main stresses as factor set and choosing various operators, comparison of directions of computational stress vector and survey stress vector was made and the most possible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Taking the 26 types of tectonic stress patterns as index set and strike angle as factor set, comparison of relationships between formation of fault and tectonic stress was made, and the tectonic stress patterns were assessed with known fault information. By summarizing the above assessment results, the most impossible tectonic stress pattern was obtained. Finally an engineering case was quoted to validate that the method is more feasible and reliable than traditional empirical method.

  19. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit.METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v, totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at p<0.05.RESULTS: after the cleaning/disinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable.CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  20. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees. PMID:26408611

  1. Dogmas in the Assessment of Usability Evaluation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2010-01-01

    Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work on...... UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined...

  2. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between continuous measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard; Vedsted, Peter

    Background: Clinical research often involves study of agreement amongst observers. Agreement can be measured in different ways, and one can obtain quite different values depending on which method one uses. Objective: We review the approaches that have been discussed to assess the agreement betwee......-moment correlation coefficient (r) between the results of the two measurements methods as an indicator of agreement, which is wrong. There have been proposed several alternative methods, which we will describe together with preconditions for use of the methods....... continuous measures and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Different methods are illustrated using actual data from the `Delay in diagnosis of cancer in general practice´ project in Aarhus, Denmark. Subjects and Methods: We use weighted kappa-statistic, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC......), concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman limits of agreement and percentage of agreement to assess the agreement between patient reported delay and doctor reported delay in diagnosis of cancer in general practice. Key messages: The correct statistical approach is not obvious. Many studies give the product...

  3. Cardiotocography (CTG as the screening method of fetal condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zulčić-Nakić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic function of fetal monitoring is an analysis of fetal cardiac action. Cardiotocography (CTG cannot provide all necessary information for assessment of the fetal condition as it is not sufficiently reliable and gives a large number of false positive results that increase the number of cesarean sections. An objective of this work was to establish CTG reliability as a method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition. Based on CTG parameters (baseline fetal heart rate, fetal heart rate variability, oscillations and decelerations 100 pathological CTG records, collected at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Tuzla University Clinic Hospital from 01.12.2004 to 05.08.2005 were identified. Using binomial distribution they were classified as non-pathological (indicating absence of asphyxia and pathological (indicating possible presence of asphyxia. After the delivery the condition of newborns was assessed according to the Apgar score. Based on comparison between certain pathological parametres of CTG records and newborns’ conditions at birth the results indicated high positive predictive values whereas sensitivity and accuracy were low. Apgar score 1. from 7 upwards was given to 96 (96% newborns whereas Apgar score 2 from 7 upwards was given to all the newborns with previous pathological CTG records. Results have confirmed that CTG can be used only as a screening method for assessment of intrapartal fetal condition.

  4. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  5. Theory of and Method for Nontraditional Mining Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@NONTRADITIONAL MINING ASSESSMENT THEORY Nontraditional Mineral Resources Nontraditional mineral resources refers to the potential mineral resources that are ignored, undiscovered and unutilized under present technical, economic and environmental conditions. This research scope can be listed as follows: (1)Nontraditional mineral resources refer to new types, new depths, new scopes, new techniques and new utilization. (2)Nontraditional theories and methods include new theories,new technologies and new methods in the aspects of ore-forming, prospecting, mining, metallurgy and mining assessment such as nontraditional ore-forming predication. (3) Nontraditional mining refers to the types of clean and unpolluted mining, intensive mining, high value-added mining, high technology mining, post-mining economy and comprehensive service mining.

  6. Fuzzy logic methods for seismic damage assessment and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper goes on with some authors' previous approaches to models and methods, based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, for the seismic fragility updating and seismic risk assessment (in their contributions to the IFIP 8 and SMiRT 16 Conferences held in Krakow-1998, respectively in Washington DC-2001). A short survey of earlier proposals for applying fuzzy concepts and methods in structural reliability and seismic risk studies is given in the Introduction. Basic concepts related to fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic inference rules follow in the next section. Certain applications of the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic models to the seismic damage assessment of RC structures are presented in the third section. Finally, some recent models based on fuzzy logic for the damage estimation and control are also discussed, with emphasis on the fuzzification/defuzzification techniques. (authors)

  7. A system boundary identification method for life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhichao;

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a product, process, or service. The scientific scope and boundary definition are important to ensure the accuracy of LCA results. Defining the boundary in LCA is difficult and there are no commonly...... of processes considered, and the gradient of the fitting curve trends to zero gradually. According to the threshold rules, a relatively accurate system boundary could be obtained.It is found from this research that the system boundary curve describes the growth of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA...... accepted scientific methods yet. The objective of this research is to present a comprehensive discussion of system boundaries in LCA and to develop an appropriate boundary delimitation method.A product system is partitioned into the primary system and interrelated subsystems. The hierarchical relationship...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Software Testing and Reliability Assessment Methods (EISTRAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Investigation of Software Testing and Reliability Assessment Methods (EISTRAM) project builds on experiences from the RESTRAM review project, which pinpointed certain reliability assessment methods as particularly interesting. The focus for the EISTRAM project is the PIE-technique, proposed by Jeffrey Voas, a technique to estimate the sensitivity of programs. PIE is a reverse acronym for Execution, Infection and Propagation, the three stages needed for a code error to produce a program failure. This progress report contains a description of the PIE-technique and the statistical fundament of the technique. It presents a classification of the syntactic mutants, and criteria for the selection of mutants to use in the PIE analysis. Issues concerning implementation of the technique are described, as well as results from using the technique on three test programs. (author)

  9. Assessing proprioception:A critical review of methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Han; Gordon Waddington; Roger Adams; Judith Anson; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To control movement, the brain has to integrate proprioceptive information from a variety of mechanoreceptors. The role of proprioception in daily activities, exercise,and sports has been extensively investigated, using different techniques, yet the proprioceptive mechanisms underlying human movement control are still unclear. In the current work we have reviewed understanding of proprioception and the three testing methods: threshold to detection of passive motion, joint position reproduction, and active movement extent discrimination, all of which have been used for assessing proprioception. The origin of the methods, the different testing apparatus, and the procedures and protocols used in each approach are compared and discussed. Recommendations are made for choosing an appropriate technique when assessing proprioceptive mechanisms in different contexts.

  10. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  11. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  12. Using the statistical analysis method to assess the landslide susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, Bo-An; Wen, Yo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the landslide susceptibility in Jing-Shan River upstream watershed, central Taiwan. The landslide inventories during typhoons Toraji in 2001, Mindulle in 2004, Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008, Morakot in 2009, and the 0719 rainfall event in 2011, which were established by Taiwan Central Geological Survey, were used as landslide data. This study aims to assess the landslide susceptibility by using different statistical methods including logistic regression, instability index method and support vector machine (SVM). After the evaluations, the elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, average of rainfall were chosen as the landslide factors. The validity of the three established models was further examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The result of logistic regression showed that the factor of terrain roughness and slope roughness had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Instability index method showed that the factor of terrain roughness and lithology had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Due to the fact that the use of instability index method may lead to possible underestimation around the river side. In addition, landslide susceptibility indicated that the use of instability index method laid a potential issue about the number of factor classification. An increase of the number of factor classification may cause excessive variation coefficient of the factor. An decrease of the number of factor classification may make a large range of nearby cells classified into the same susceptibility level. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic curve discriminate the three models. SVM is a preferred method than the others in assessment of landslide susceptibility. Moreover, SVM is further suggested to be nearly logistic regression in terms of recognizing the medium-high and high susceptibility.

  13. Bone Mineral Density Assessment Methods and Dentistry Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo César SANTIAGO; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Bone quality and quantity evaluation had been the aim of some researches, mainly on diagnosis and prevention of bone metabolic diseases. Different methods to assess Bone Mineral Density (BMD) were developed in the last decades with the aim to determine the mineral contain on bone tissue without to precise bone quality. The bone quality evaluation had been carry out an important tool on planning, prognostic and treatment success in dentistry, since the advent of the implants and ...

  14. Theories and Methods of Assessment that have Influenced International Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mihaela ONICA; Lucian DOMNITEANU

    2009-01-01

    While some theorists have been reluctant to express their opinions and give solutions to the problem of evaluation, in addition to other issues earlier review, sought in the theories developed to propose various methods for assessing balance sheet structures. Retrospective evaluation systems adopted in the theories developed in balance over time results in finding that "some theorists have resorted to an evaluation price of all elements in balance, while others, to ensure a higher accuracy of...

  15. Reliability of Pubertal Self Assessment Method: An Iranian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rabbani; Shahab Noorian; Fallah, Javad S.; Arya Setoudeh; Fatemeh Sayarifard; Farzaneh Abbasi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This investigation aims to evaluate the validity of a Persian Tanner Stages Self-Assessment QuestionnaireMethods: In this cross sectional study, 190 male students aged 8-16 years selected from three layers of different regions of Tehran (North, Central and South) were enrolled. A Persian questionnaire illustrated with Tanner stages of puberty (genital development and pubic hair distribution) was prepared. Children were asked to select the illustration that best described their pube...

  16. Possibilities and methods for biochemical assessment of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensitive review (77 references) is made of the application of biochemical diagnostic methods for assessment of radiation diseases. A brief characteristics of several biochemical indicators is given: deoxycytidine, thymidine, ρ-aminoisocarboxylic acid, DNA-ase, nucleic acids. Influence of such factors as age, sex, season etc. is studied by means of functional biochemical indicators as: creatine, triptophanic metabolites, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid, biogenic amines, serum proteins, enzymes, etc

  17. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M.; Allan, Ian J.; Anderson, Kim A.; Apitz, Sabine E.; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P.; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (C free), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because C free is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (C t...

  18. Methods of Assessment of Tourism Impact in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Minciu Rodica; Pãdurean Mihaela; Hornoiu Remus

    2011-01-01

    Intensifying international tourist trips and the pressure that they exert on fragile areas, especially on protected areas, generate a range of issues related to achieving a balance between tourism resources on the one hand and tourism activities on the other, between benefits of tourism for local communities and the negative impact that it could have on the environment. Within this context, the identification of the methods and the indicators for assessing the impact of tourism and the implem...

  19. The Analysis of Ease of Doing Business Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Samoška

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the ease of doing business assessment models. Analysed models describe conditions for doing busi­ness in a certain country that is being ranked and evaluated. However obvious need for improvement in methodology accrues while analysing five most known models in a comparative way. Different data aggregation principles differ the results (quantative and qualitive methods of aggregation despite the factors that are evaluated in both models and are quite similar. After analysing all five methods we state critics about them and insights for possible improvement.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Comparison of two nutritional assessment methods in gastroenterology patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Branka; F; Filipovi; Milan; Gaji; Nikola; Milini; Branislav; Milovanovi; Branislav; R; Filipovi; Mirjana; Cvetkovi; Nela; ibali

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate and compare efficacy and differences in the nutritional status evaluation of gastroenterology patients by application of two methods:subjective global assessment(SGA) and nutritional risk index(NRI).METHODS:The investigation was performed on 299 hospitalized patients,aged 18-84 years(average life span 55.57 ± 12.84),with different gastrointe-stinal pathology,admitted to the Department of Gastroenterohepatology,Clinical and Hospital Center "Bezanijska Kosa" during a period of 180 d.All the...

  1. Economic Benefits: Metrics and Methods for Landscape Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an expanding research frontier in the landscape architecture discipline, landscape performance research, which embraces the scientific dimension of landscape architecture through evidence-based designs that are anchored in quantitative performance assessment. Specifically, this paper summarizes metrics and methods for determining landscape-derived economic benefits that have been utilized in the Landscape Performance Series (LPS initiated by the Landscape Architecture Foundation. This paper identifies 24 metrics and 32 associated methods for the assessment of economic benefits found in 82 published case studies. Common issues arising through research in quantifying economic benefits for the LPS are discussed and the various approaches taken by researchers are clarified. The paper also provides an analysis of three case studies from the LPS that are representative of common research methods used to quantify economic benefits. The paper suggests that high(er levels of sustainability in the built environment require the integration of economic benefits into landscape performance assessment portfolios in order to forecast project success and reduce uncertainties. Therefore, evidence-based design approaches increase the scientific rigor of landscape architecture education and research, and elevate the status of the profession.

  2. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness....... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...

  3. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  4. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    implement a scoping process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes. The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence. From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in

  5. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes.The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence.From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in comparison with other

  6. Recent Research Advances in the Risk Assessment Method of an Underground Pressure Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk assessment method of an underground pressure pipeline, introduces the risk assessment method of expert grading, fuzzy integrative assessment, probabilistic risk assessment and extenics assessment in an underground pressure pipeline. Moreover, it puts forward the developing orientation of risk assessment.

  7. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  8. An interlaboratory comparison of methods used to assess antioxidant potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenger, J; Ackermann, H; Jentzsch, A; Mehling, A; Pfitzner, I; Reiffen, K-A; Schroeder, K-R; Wollenweber, U

    2006-04-01

    Many analytical methods are used to measure the antioxidative activity of substances yet little is known about the comparability of the test results between laboratories. After an initial evaluation of a broad range of methods conducted by one laboratory, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, the lipid assay (or 2,2'-azobis(2-aminepropane) (ABAP) assay) and the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay were selected to be evaluated in the interlaboratory study. The antioxidative potentials of trolox, tocopherol, lipochroman-6, ascorbic acid, 4-methyl-brenzcatechin, and/or 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) were assessed using each of the methods. These methods were then evaluated in respect of their reproducibility and classification properties. Based on the results of this study, the DPPH assay followed by the TEAC assay yielded the best results based on reproducibility and sensitivity both within one laboratory and between laboratories. The results of the interlaboratory study were then compared with the single center results obtained from the commercially available photochemolumiescence (PCL) kit. To assess the transferability of chemical data to biological systems, they were also compared with the single center results obtained using the cell-based Dichlorodihydrofluoresceine (DCFH) assay. PMID:18492148

  9. A method of impact assessment for ionising radiation on wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for undertaking an impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife has been developed for the UK Environment Agency, who has a legal requirement to assess the impacts of consents and authorisations for discharges under the Habitats Regulations (1994). A simple approach has been adopted based on the latest thinking in the field, in which the calculation of doses to wildlife are determined by their size, internal incorporation of radionuclides and external exposure in the environment. The doses are calculated either by using literature derived values or empirical measurements of radionuclide concentrations at the site of interest. The data required to enable dose calculations are: - Concentrations of each radionuclide in the soil/sediment, water or air (from empirical or modelled approaches); - Concentration factors for each radionuclide in each organism to be assessed relative to soil, water or air (based on literature values or actual measurements at the site of interest); - Organism dimensions (as an ellipsoid); - The proportion of time the organism spends in different 'compartments' of the ecosystem. The impact assessment approach then focuses on three ecosystems representative of those considered potentially most at risk from the impact of authorised radioactive discharges, namely a coastal grassland (terrestrial ecosystem); estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. A range of target organisms have been chosen to be representative of species found in each ecosystem. Several radionuclides were initially selected for the impact assessment: - Estuarine and freshwater ecosystems: 3H, 14C, 99Tc, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 238U, 129I, 210Po - Terrestrial ecosystem: 3H, 14C, 35S, 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 238U, 129I, 226Ra. Subsequently, the method has been extended to additional radionuclides, including all the major natural series radionuclides. Dose calculations have been programmed into user-friendly Excel spreadsheets using Visual Basic for Applications. The

  10. Geomorphometry-based method of landform assessment for geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability primarily induces the variations in the intensity and frequency of surface processes and consequently, principal changes in the landscape. As a result, abiotic heterogeneity may be threatened and the key elements of the natural diversity even decay. The concept of geodiversity was created recently and has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world. However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage. Moreover, little progress has been made concerning its assessment and geovisualisation. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools currently provide wide possibilities for the Earth's surface studies. Very often, the main limitation in that analysis is acquisition of geodata in appropriate resolution. The main objective of this study was to develop a proceeding algorithm for the landform geodiversity assessment using geomorphometric parameters. Furthermore, final maps were compared to those resulting from thematic layers method. The study area consists of two peculiar valleys, characterized by diverse landscape units and complex geological setting: Sucha Woda in Polish part of Tatra Mts. and Wrzosowka in Sudetes Mts. Both valleys are located in the National Park areas. The basis for the assessment is a proper selection of geomorphometric parameters with reference to the definition of geodiversity. Seven factor maps were prepared for each valley: General Curvature, Topographic Openness, Potential Incoming Solar Radiation, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, Convergence Index and Relative Heights. After the data integration and performing the necessary geoinformation analysis, the next step with a certain degree of subjectivity is score classification of the input maps using an expert system and geostatistical analysis. The crucial point to generate the final maps of geodiversity by multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) with GIS-based Weighted Sum technique is to assign appropriate weights for each factor map by

  11. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  12. A GIS-based method for flood risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Kleomenis; Stathopoulos, Nikos; Psarogiannis, Athanasios; Penteris, Dimitris; Tsiakos, Chrisovalantis; Karagiannopoulou, Aikaterini; Krikigianni, Eleni; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Floods are physical global hazards with negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local and regional scale. The technological evolution during the last decades, especially in the field of geoinformatics, has offered new advantages in hydrological modelling. This study seeks to use this technology in order to quantify flood risk assessment. The study area which was used is an ungauged catchment and by using mostly GIS hydrological and geomorphological analysis together with a GIS-based distributed Unit Hydrograph model, a series of outcomes have risen. More specifically, this paper examined the behaviour of the Kladeos basin (Peloponnese, Greece) using real rainfall data, as well hypothetical storms. The hydrological analysis held using a Digital Elevation Model of 5x5m pixel size, while the quantitative drainage basin characteristics were calculated and were studied in terms of stream order and its contribution to the flood. Unit Hydrographs are, as it known, useful when there is lack of data and in this work, based on time-area method, a sequences of flood risk assessments have been made using the GIS technology. Essentially, the proposed methodology estimates parameters such as discharge, flow velocity equations etc. in order to quantify flood risk assessment. Keywords Flood Risk Assessment Quantification; GIS; hydrological analysis; geomorphological analysis.

  13. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated the nuclear power plant aging research program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. This report surveys the work on the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants, as well as associated data bases. We take a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. We identify a preliminary framework for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA and include the identification of necessary data for such an integration

  14. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the nuclear power plant aging research (NPAR) program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to survey the work conducted to address the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), as well as the associated data bases. The review takes a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. A preliminary framework is identified for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA, including the identification of needed data for such an integration

  15. Human reliability analysis methods for probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) includes identifying human actions from safety point of view, modelling the most important of them in PSA models, and assessing their probabilities. As manifested by many incidents and studies, human actions may have both positive and negative effect on safety and economy. Human reliability analysis is one of the areas of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that has direct applications outside the nuclear industry. The thesis focuses upon developments in human reliability analysis methods and data. The aim is to support PSA by extending the applicability of HRA. The thesis consists of six publications and a summary. The summary includes general considerations and a discussion about human actions in the nuclear power plant (NPP) environment. A condensed discussion about the results of the attached publications is then given, including new development in methods and data. At the end of the summary part, the contribution of the publications to good practice in HRA is presented. In the publications, studies based on the collection of data on maintenance-related failures, simulator runs and expert judgement are presented in order to extend the human reliability analysis database. Furthermore, methodological frameworks are presented to perform a comprehensive HRA, including shutdown conditions, to study reliability of decision making, and to study the effects of wrong human actions. In the last publication, an interdisciplinary approach to analysing human decision making is presented. The publications also include practical applications of the presented methodological frameworks. (orig.)

  16. Methods for assessment of keel bone damage in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey-Trott, T; Heerkens, J L T; Petrik, M; Regmi, P; Schrader, L; Toscano, M J; Widowski, T

    2015-10-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the laying hen industry today as a result of the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and the potential for reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that damage, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all systems (including battery cages, furnished cages, and non-cage systems), genetic lines, and management styles. Despite the extent of the problem, the research community remains uncertain as to the causes and influencing factors of KBD. Although progress has been made investigating these factors, the overall effort is hindered by several issues related to the assessment of KBD, including quality and variation in the methods used between research groups. These issues prevent effective comparison of studies, as well as difficulties in identifying the presence of damage leading to poor accuracy and reliability. The current manuscript seeks to resolve these issues by offering precise definitions for types of KBD, reviewing methods for assessment, and providing recommendations that can improve the accuracy and reliability of those assessments. PMID:26287001

  17. An overview of failure assessment methods in codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the assessment of the integrity of engineering structures containing crack-like flaws, in the absence of effects of creep at elevated temperatures (see volume 5) and of environment (see volume 6). Key methods are extensively reviewed and background information as well as validation is given. However, it should be kept in mind that for actual detailed assessments the relevant documents have to be consulted. In classical engineering design, an applied stress is compared with the appropriate material resistance expressed in terms of a limit stress, such as the yield strength or fatigue endurance limit. As long as the material resistance exceeds the applied stress, integrity of the component is assured. It is implicitly assumed that the component is defect-free but design margins provide some protection against defects. Modern design and operation philosophies, however, take explicit account of the possible presence of defects in engineering components. Such defects may arise from fabrication, e.g., during casting, welding, or forming processes, or may develop during operation. They may extend during operation and eventually lead to failure, which in the ideal case occurs beyond the design life of the component. Failure assessment methods are based upon the behavior of sharp cracks in structures, and for this reason all flaws or defects found in structures have to be treated as if they are sharp planar cracks. Hence the terms flaw or defect should be regarded as being interchangeable with the term crack throughout this volume. (orig.)

  18. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  19. Collaborative framework for PIV uncertainty quantification: comparative assessment of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A posteriori uncertainty quantification of particle image velocimetry (PIV) data is essential to obtain accurate estimates of the uncertainty associated with a given experiment. This is particularly relevant when measurements are used to validate computational models or in design and decision processes. In spite of the importance of the subject, the first PIV uncertainty quantification (PIV-UQ) methods have been developed only in the last three years. The present work is a comparative assessment of four approaches recently proposed in the literature: the uncertainty surface method (Timmins et al 2012), the particle disparity approach (Sciacchitano et al 2013), the peak ratio criterion (Charonko and Vlachos 2013) and the correlation statistics method (Wieneke 2015). The analysis is based upon experiments conducted for this specific purpose, where several measurement techniques are employed simultaneously. The performances of the above approaches are surveyed across different measurement conditions and flow regimes. (paper)

  20. Method for assessing reliability of a network considering probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for assessment of reliability of the network is developed, which uses the features of the fault tree analysis. The method is developed in a way that the increase of the network under consideration does not require significant increase of the model. The method is applied to small examples of network consisting of a small number of nodes and a small number of their connections. The results give the network reliability. They identify equipment, which is to be carefully maintained in order that the network reliability is not reduced, and equipment, which is a candidate for redundancy, as this would improve network reliability significantly. (author)

  1. Revisiting Psychoacoustic Methods for the Assessment of Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral methods have been critical in the study of auditory perception and discrimination in fishes. In this chapter, we review some of the common methods used in fish psychoacoustics. We discuss associative methods, such as operant, avoidance, and classical conditioning, and their use in constructing audiograms, measuring frequency selectivity, and auditory stream segregation. We also discuss the measurement of innate behavioral responses, such as the acoustic startle response (ASR), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and phonotaxis, and their use in the assessment of fish hearing to determine auditory thresholds and in the testing of mechanisms for sound source localization. For each psychoacoustic method, we provide examples of their use and discuss the parameters and situations where such methods can be best utilized. In the case of the ASR, we show how this method can be used to construct and compare audiograms between two species of larval fishes, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We also discuss considerations for experimental design with respect to stimulus presentation and threshold criteria and how these techniques can be used in future studies to investigate auditory perception in fishes. PMID:26515314

  2. Method of the Material Stress Assessment Using the Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Seredin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of a number of geological and engineering problems require knowledge of the stress state of the structural member material. Non-destructive testing methods are used to evaluate the stress state of materials. They are based on such criteria as sound pressure, temperature, ultrasound wave’s characteristics etc., as well as methods evaluating the stress state of the material after destruction. Development of methods of this group is caused by insufficient reliability of theoretical modelling not providing in some case stability of engineering facilities in practice. To avoid the emergencies, it is important to obtain the information on the actual load (stress at which the structure destruction occurred. These methods are especially important as a tool for experts identifying the cause of the accidents at engineering facilities. Additionally, this information will provide a correction of calculation models improving the safe exploitation of facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method of materials stress state assessment using an infrared thermography data. Experimental studies showed that there exists a relationship between the temperature on the surface of material displacement and the normal stress affecting the area of failure. The temperature on the surface of material increases with an increase in normal stress in a fracture area. On a basis of the revealed relationship, a method of determination of the material stress state using the infrared thermography data was worked out.

  3. Electromechanical impedance method to assess dental implant stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Aydin; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ochs, Mark W.

    2012-11-01

    The stability of a dental implant is a prerequisite for supporting a load-bearing prosthesis and establishment of a functional bone-implant system. Reliable and noninvasive methods able to assess the bone interface of dental and orthopedic implants (osseointegration) are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. In this paper, we propose the electromechanical impedance method as a novel approach for the assessment of dental implant stability. Nobel Biocare® implants with a size of 4.3 mm diameter ×13 mm length were placed inside bovine bones that were then immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation. The degradation simulated the inverse process of bone healing. The implant-bone systems were monitored by bonding a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) to the implants’ abutment and measuring the admittance of the PZT over time. It was found that the PZT’s admittance and the statistical features associated with its analysis are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and can be correlated to the loss of calcium measured by means of the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The present study shows promising results and may pave the road towards an innovative approach for the noninvasive monitoring of dental implant stability and integrity.

  4. Electromechanical impedance method to assess dental implant stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of a dental implant is a prerequisite for supporting a load-bearing prosthesis and establishment of a functional bone–implant system. Reliable and noninvasive methods able to assess the bone interface of dental and orthopedic implants (osseointegration) are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. In this paper, we propose the electromechanical impedance method as a novel approach for the assessment of dental implant stability. Nobel Biocare® implants with a size of 4.3 mm diameter ×13 mm length were placed inside bovine bones that were then immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation. The degradation simulated the inverse process of bone healing. The implant–bone systems were monitored by bonding a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) to the implants’ abutment and measuring the admittance of the PZT over time. It was found that the PZT’s admittance and the statistical features associated with its analysis are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and can be correlated to the loss of calcium measured by means of the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The present study shows promising results and may pave the road towards an innovative approach for the noninvasive monitoring of dental implant stability and integrity. (paper)

  5. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  6. Comparison of methods for assessing integrity of equine sperm membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M L; Love, C C; Varner, D D; Brinsko, S P; Hinrichs, K; Teague, S; Lacaze, K; Blanchard, T L

    2011-07-15

    Sperm membrane integrity (SMI) is thought to be an important measure of stallion sperm quality. The objective was to compare three methods for evaluating SMI: flow cytometry using SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) stain; an automated cell counting device using PI stain; and eosin-nigrosin stain. Raw equine semen was subjected to various treatments containing 20 to 80% seminal plasma in extender, with differing sperm concentrations, to simulate spontaneous loss of SMI. The SMI was assessed immediately, and after 1 and 2 d of cooled storage. Agreement between methods was determined according to Bland-Altman methodology. Eosin-nigrosin staining yielded higher (2%) overall mean values for SMI than did flow cytometry. Flow cytometry yielded higher (6%) overall mean values for SMI than did the automated cell counter. As percentage of membrane-damaged sperm increased, agreement of SMI measurement between methods decreased. When semen contained 50-79% membrane-intact sperm, the 95% limits of agreement between SMI determined by flow cytometry and eosin-nigrosin staining were greater (range = -26.9 to 24.3%; i.e., a 51.2% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -3.1 to 17.0%; 20.1% span). When sperm populations contained range = -35.9 to 19.0%; 54.9% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -11.6 to 28.7%; 40.3% span). We concluded that eosin-nigrosin staining assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <80% of sperm had intact membranes, whereas automated cell counter assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <30% of sperm had intact membranes. PMID:21496902

  7. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  8. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reer, B.; Dang, V. N

    2007-05-15

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  9. Rapid methods for assessing efficiency of heat treatment of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rajan; Rajput, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Two methods based on the activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lactoperoxidase are developed for assessing the efficiency of heat treatment of milk at 80 °C for 15 s. Heat treatment of milk at 80 °C (15 s) completely inactivates both milk enzymes. Under the selected assay conditions, enzyme activities are related with intensity of pink colour of product. In contrast to raw (unheated) milk which gives pink colour under the test conditions, heated milk (80 °C, 15 s) remains either white or ...

  10. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  11. Assessment of nucleonic methods and data for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is provided of nucleonic methods, codes, and data necessary for a sound experimental fusion power reactor (EPR) technology base. Gaps in the base are identified and specific development recommendations are made in three areas: computational tools, nuclear data, and integral experiments. The current status of the first two areas is found to be sufficiently inadequate that viable engineering design of an EPR is precluded at this time. However, a program to provide the necessary data and computational capability is judged to be a low-risk effort

  12. MARKET RISK ASSESSMENT OF A BANK. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru D. Popescu

    2009-01-01

    The paper aims at substantiating the market risk assessment of a bank's portfolio that is based on three main indicators, which are used to define exposure limits: – the 99%"Value at Risk" (VaR) method, – a stress-test measurement based on a timeframe shock-type indicator – complementary limits(sensitivity, nominal, concentration or holding period, etc)which ensure coherency between the total risk limits and the operational limits used by the front office, that also allow for the contro...

  13. A solution quality assessment method for swarm intelligence optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Gai-Ge; Zou, Kuansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, swarm intelligence optimization has become an important optimization tool and wildly used in many fields of application. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation is rather weak. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved. One problem is how to quantify the performance of algorithm in finite time, that is, how to evaluate the solution quality got by algorithm for practical problems. It greatly limits the application in practical problems. A solution quality assessment method for intelligent optimization is proposed in this paper. It is an experimental analysis method based on the analysis of search space and characteristic of algorithm itself. Instead of "value performance," the "ordinal performance" is used as evaluation criteria in this method. The feasible solutions were clustered according to distance to divide solution samples into several parts. Then, solution space and "good enough" set can be decomposed based on the clustering results. Last, using relative knowledge of statistics, the evaluation result can be got. To validate the proposed method, some intelligent algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFS) were taken to solve traveling salesman problem. Computational results indicate the feasibility of proposed method. PMID:25013845

  14. Methods for the integral assessment of energy-related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents a number of methods for a comprehensive assessment of energy systems, discusses their merits and limitations, and provides some result examples. The areas addressed include environmental impacts, risks and economic aspects. Three step Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) has been used to analyse environmental impacts. Transparent and consistent inventories were developed for electricity generation (nine fuel cycles) and for heating systems. The results, which include gaseous and liquid emissions as well as non-energetic resources such as land depreciation, cover average, currently operating systems in the UCPTE network and in Switzerland. Examples of comparisons of heating systems and electricity generation systems, with respect to their contributions to such impact classes as greenhouse effect, acidification and photosmog, are provided. Major gaps exist with respect to the assessment of the severe accidents potential within the different energy systems. When analysing the objective risks due to severe accidents two approaches are employed, i.e. direct use of past experience and applications of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Progress with respect to extended knowledge about accidents that occurred in the past and in the context of uses of PSA for external costs calculations is reported. Limitations of historical data and modelling issues are discussed along with the role of risk aversion and current attempts to account for it. (author) 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

  16. Terrestrial Method for Airborne Lidar Quality Control and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, N. M.; Badawy, H. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-11-01

    Most of LiDAR systems do not provide the end user with the calibration and acquisition procedures that can use to validate the quality of the data acquired by the airborne system. Therefore, this system needs data Quality Control (QC) and assessment procedures to verify the accuracy of the laser footprints and mainly at building edges. This research paper introduces an efficient method for validating the quality of the airborne LiDAR point clouds data using terrestrial laser scanning data integrated with edge detection techniques. This method will be based on detecting the edge of buildings from these two independent systems. Hence, the building edges are extracted from the airborne data using an algorithm that is based on the standard deviation of neighbour point's height from certain threshold with respect to centre points using radius threshold. The algorithm is adaptive to different point densities. The approach is combined with another innovative edge detection technique from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds that is based on the height and point density constraints. Finally, statistical analysis and assessment will be applied to compare these two systems in term of edge detection extraction precision, which will be a priori step for 3D city modelling generated from heterogeneous LiDAR systems

  17. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  18. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios

  19. Assessment of gene set analysis methods based on microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila; Zayeri, Farid; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Tabatabaei, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydarpour-Meymeh, Maryam

    2014-01-25

    Gene set analysis (GSA) incorporates biological information into statistical knowledge to identify gene sets differently expressed between two or more phenotypes. It allows us to gain an insight into the functional working mechanism of cells beyond the detection of differently expressed gene sets. In order to evaluate the competence of GSA approaches, three self-contained GSA approaches with different statistical methods were chosen; Category, Globaltest and Hotelling's T(2) together with their assayed power to identify the differences expressed via simulation and real microarray data. The Category does not take care of the correlation structure, while the other two deal with correlations. In order to perform these methods, R and Bioconductor were used. Furthermore, venous thromboembolism and acute lymphoblastic leukemia microarray data were applied. The results of three GSAs showed that the competence of these methods depends on the distribution of gene expression in a dataset. It is very important to assay the distribution of gene expression data before choosing the GSA method to identify gene sets differently expressed between phenotypes. On the other hand, assessment of common genes among significant gene sets indicated that there was a significant agreement between the result of GSA and the findings of biologists. PMID:24012817

  20. Assessment study of lichenometric methods for dating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomelli, Vincent; Grancher, Delphine; Naveau, Philippe; Cooley, Daniel; Brunstein, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the most classical approaches used in lichenometry. In particular, we perform a detailed comparison among methods based on the statistical analysis of either the largest lichen diameters recorded on geomorphic features or the frequency of all lichens. To assess the performance of each method, a careful comparison design with well-defined criteria is proposed and applied to two distinct data sets. First, we study 350 tombstones. This represents an ideal test bed because tombstone dates are known and, therefore, the quality of the estimated lichen growth curve can be easily tested for the different techniques. Secondly, 37 moraines from two tropical glaciers are investigated. This analysis corresponds to our real case study. For both data sets, we apply our list of criteria that reflects precision, error measurements and their theoretical foundations when proposing estimated ages and their associated confidence intervals. From this comparison, it clearly appears that two methods, the mean of the n largest lichen diameters and the recent Bayesian method based on extreme value theory, offer the most reliable estimates of moraine and tombstones dates. Concerning the spread of the error, the latter approach provides the smallest uncertainty and it is the only one that takes advantage of the statistical nature of the observations by fitting an extreme value distribution to the largest diameters.

  1. Seismic assessment of a site using the time series method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the safety of a NPP located on a seismic site, the seismic acceleration level to which the NPP should be qualified must be as representative as possible for that site, with a conservative degree of safety but not too exaggerated. The consideration of the seismic events affecting the site as independent events and the use of statistic methods to define some safety levels with very low annual occurrence probability (10-4) may lead to some exaggerations of the seismic safety level. The use of some very high value for the seismic acceleration imposed by the seismic safety levels required by the hazard analysis may lead to very costly technical solutions that can make the plant operation more difficult and increase maintenance costs. The considerations of seismic events as a time series with dependence among the events produced, may lead to a more representative assessment of a NPP site seismic activity and consequently to a prognosis on the seismic level values to which the NPP would be ensured throughout its life-span. That prognosis should consider the actual seismic activity (including small earthquakes in real time) of the focuses that affect the plant site. The paper proposes the applications of Autoregressive Time Series to issue a prognosis on the seismic activity of a focus and presents the analysis on Vrancea focus that affects NPP Cernavoda site, by this method. The paper also presents the manner to analyse the focus activity as per the new approach and it assesses the maximum seismic acceleration that may affect NPP Cernavoda throughout its life-span (∼ 30 years). Development and applications of new mathematical analysis method, both for long - and short - time intervals, may lead to important contributions in the process of foretelling the seismic events in the future. (authors)

  2. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10-4 to 10-6 incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA's cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented

  3. In vitro method for medical risk assessment of laser fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkusch, W.; Rehn, B.; Bruch, J.

    1995-02-01

    Laser processing of different materials may produce toxic fumes. In preventive occupational medicine it is necessary to evaluate valid hygienic standards for work places. The basis for such hygienic standards is the classification of laser fumes by their fibrogenic, emphysematous, immunological or other harmful potencies in biological assay systems. This paper is part of a European project on laser safety. Our part in this project is the development of a method for the investigation of lung responses using in vitro cell assays. The appropriate laser fume samples will be supplied by other groups in this European project. In contrast to the cell assays usually used in risk assessment, our method is based on isolated target cells in the lung, such as alveolar macrophages. The test criteria are mediator release, surfactant reactions, release of reactive oxygen species and cell proliferation. As demonstrated in the lung response to other dusts (minerals, fibres etc) these parameters are medically relevant factors in the pathogenic alveolar dust response. The paper gives basic information about the method using lung cell assays and the results of known substances, in comparison with a dust generated by laser processing.

  4. Dynamic model based on Bayesian method for energy security assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators. • Application of dynamic indicator model for energy system development scenarios. • Expert judgement involvement using Bayesian method. - Abstract: The methodology for the dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators for the assessment of energy security level is presented in this article. An indicator is a special index, which provides numerical values to important factors for the investigated area. In real life, models of different processes take into account various factors that are time-dependent and dependent on each other. Thus, it is advisable to construct a dynamic model in order to describe these dependences. The energy security indicators are used as factors in the dynamic model. Usually, the values of indicators are obtained from statistical data. The developed dynamic model enables to forecast indicators’ variation taking into account changes in system configuration. The energy system development is usually based on a new object construction. Since the parameters of changes of the new system are not exactly known, information about their influences on indicators could not be involved in the model by deterministic methods. Thus, dynamic indicators’ model based on historical data is adjusted by probabilistic model with the influence of new factors on indicators using the Bayesian method

  5. Development of a method for assessing flood vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, R F; Hiroki, K

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing number of studies have been conducted on the mechanisms responsible for climate change and the elaboration of future climate scenarios. More recently, studies have emerged examining the potential effects of climate change on human societies, including how variations in hydrological regimes impact water resources management. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third assessment report, climate change will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle, resulting in greater variability in precipitation patterns and an increase in the intensity and frequency of severe storms and other extreme events. In other words, climate change will likely increase the risks of flooding in many areas. Structural and non-structural countermeasures are available to reduce flood vulnerability, but implementing new measures can be a lengthy process requiring political and financial support. In order to help guide such policy decisions, a method for assessing flood vulnerability due to climate change is proposed. In this preliminary study, multivariate analysis has been used to develop a Flood Vulnerability Index (FVI), which allows for a comparative analysis of flood vulnerability between different basins. Once fully developed, the FVI will also allow users to identify the main factors responsible for a basin's vulnerability, making it a valuable tool to assist in priority setting within decision-making processes. PMID:15918359

  6. An improved image sharpness assessment method based on contrast sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Tian, Yan; Yin, Yili

    2015-10-01

    An image sharpness assessment method based on the property of Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) was proposed to realize the sharpness assessment of unfocused image. Firstly, image was performed the two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), and intermediate frequency coefficients and high frequency coefficients are divided into two parts respectively. Secondly the four parts were performed the inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) to obtain subimages. Thirdly, using Range Function evaluates the four sub-image sharpness value. Finally, the image sharpness is obtained through the weighted sum of the sub-image sharpness value. In order to comply with the CSF characteristics, weighting factor is setting based on the Contrast Sensitivity Function. The new algorithm and four typical evaluation algorithm: Fourier, Range , Variance and Wavelet are evaluated based on the six quantitative evaluation index, which include the width of steep part of focusing curve, the ration of sharpness, the steepness, the variance of float part of focusing curve, the factor of local extreme and the sensitivity. On the other hand, the effect of noise, and image content on algorithm is analyzed in this paper. The experiment results show that the new algorithm has better performance of sensitivity, anti-nose than the four typical evaluation algorithms. The evaluation results are consistent with human visual characteristics.

  7. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  8. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  9. Risk Assessment Techniques and Survey Method for COTS Components

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The Rational Unified Process a software engineering process is gaining popularity nowadays. RUP delivers best software practices for component software Development life cycle It supports component based software development. Risk is involved in every component development phase .neglecting those risks sometimes hampers the software growth and leads to negative outcome. In Order to provide appropriate security and protection levels, identifying various risks is very vital. Therefore Risk identification plays a very crucial role in the component based software development This report addresses incorporation of component based software development cycle into RUP phases, assess several category of risk encountered in the component based software. It also entails a survey method to identify the risk factor and evaluating the overall severity of the component software development in terms of the risk. Formula for determining risk prevention cost and finding the risk probability is also been included. The overall go...

  10. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  11. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  12. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  13. A comparison between two methods for assessing heartbeat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J F; Hodapp, V

    1992-03-01

    In this study two methods assessing heartbeat perception ability were compared. Subjects (N = 64) completed Schandry's (1981) mental tracking task and Störmer's (1988) heartbeat discrimination procedure (based on Whitehead, Drescher, Heiman, & Blackwell, 1977). In addition, subjects were tested on their ability to estimate the duration of time intervals. A high degree of correspondence was found between the two heartbeat perception tasks for the extreme groups of very good and very poor perceivers, but a low degree of correspondence emerged for the middle range of performance (overall r = .59, p less than .001). Time estimation did not correlate significantly with either heartbeat detection procedure. Blood pressure measurements taken after the Schandry task and between Störmer test blocks showed that blood pressure amplitude was elevated among good perceivers on both heartbeat detection tasks. PMID:1635964

  14. Development of exposure assessment method with the chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N.; Koyama, Y.; Yokoyama, H.; Matsui, Y.; Yoneda, M.

    2015-05-01

    This study aims at developing the measurement method of nanoparticle concentration and at getting a representative value of nanoparticle uniform concentration due to chamber ventilation. We conducted a chamber equipped with HEPA filter and control the background nanoparticles concentration by using an adequate ventilation. Then, we used generator to evaluate concentration in the chamber uniformity. We measured background value and source counts at the particle size distribution by SMPS. In addition, we performed numerical analysis with CFD model OpenFoam. As results, we found that there is no aggregate in experimental conditions in this study. Though we confirmed that it is difficult to uniformalise nanoparticle concentration, However we also found simulation results showed higher reproducibility. Therefore, we could assess nanoparticle size distribution and concentration in our chamber at this stage.

  15. Methods for assessing uncertainty in fundamental assumptions and associated models for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Mitchell J

    2008-10-01

    The distributional approach for uncertainty analysis in cancer risk assessment is reviewed and extended. The method considers a combination of bioassay study results, targeted experiments, and expert judgment regarding biological mechanisms to predict a probability distribution for uncertain cancer risks. Probabilities are assigned to alternative model components, including the determination of human carcinogenicity, mode of action, the dosimetry measure for exposure, the mathematical form of the dose-response relationship, the experimental data set(s) used to fit the relationship, and the formula used for interspecies extrapolation. Alternative software platforms for implementing the method are considered, including Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) that facilitate assignment of prior probabilities, specification of relationships among model components, and identification of all output nodes on the probability tree. The method is demonstrated using the application of Evans, Sielken, and co-workers for predicting cancer risk from formaldehyde inhalation exposure. Uncertainty distributions are derived for maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and 95th percentile upper confidence limit (UCL) unit cancer risk estimates, and the effects of resolving selected model uncertainties on these distributions are demonstrated, considering both perfect and partial information for these model components. A method for synthesizing the results of multiple mechanistic studies is introduced, considering the assessed sensitivities and selectivities of the studies for their targeted effects. A highly simplified example is presented illustrating assessment of genotoxicity based on studies of DNA damage response caused by naphthalene and its metabolites. The approach can provide a formal mechanism for synthesizing multiple sources of information using a transparent and replicable weight-of-evidence procedure. PMID:18844862

  16. Assessment of South African uranium resources: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals primarily with the methods used by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, in arriving at the assessment of the South African uranium resources. The Resource Evaluation Group is responsible for this task, which is carried out on a continuous basis. The evaluation is done on a property-by-property basis and relies upon data submitted to the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa by the various companies involved in uranium mining and prospecting in South Africa. Resources are classified into Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional (EAR) and Speculative (SR) categories as defined by the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources. Each category is divided into three categories, viz, resources exploitable at less than $80/kg uranium, at $80-130/kg uranium and at $130-260/kg uranium. Resources are reported in quantities of uranium metal that could be recovered after mining and metallurgical losses have been taken into consideration. Resources in the RAR and EAR categories exploitable at costs of less than $130/kg uranium are now estimated at 460 000 t uranium which represents some 14 per cent of WOCA's (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) resources. The evaluation of a uranium venture is carried out in various steps, of which the most important, in order of implementation, are: geological interpretation, assessment of in situ resources using techniques varying from manual contouring of values, geostatistics, feasibility studies and estimation of recoverable resources. Because the choice of an evaluation method is, to some extent, dictated by statistical consderations, frequency distribution curves of the uranium grade variable are illustrated and discussed for characteristic deposits

  17. Assessment Methods in Statistical Education An International Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bidgood, Penelope; Jolliffe, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    This book is a collaboration from leading figures in statistical education and is designed primarily for academic audiences involved in teaching statistics and mathematics. The book is divided in four sections: (1) Assessment using real-world problems, (2) Assessment statistical thinking, (3) Individual assessment (4) Successful assessment strategies.

  18. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness.

  19. Development of a New Safety Culture Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) (A study to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is conducted to suggest a new safety culture assessment method in nuclear power plants. Criteria with various existing safety culture analysis methods are united, and reliability analysis methods are applied. The concept of the most representative methods, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), are adopted to assess safety culture. Through this application, it is expected that the suggested method will bring results with convenience and objectiveness

  20. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Laura A; Burnell, Erica S; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4'-dinitro-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  1. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOVs that can help ensure their operational readiness -- that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. These include monitoring coil mean temperature remotely by means of coil dc resistance or ac impedance, determining valve plunger position by means of coil ac impedance, verifying unrestricted SOV plunger movement by measuring current and voltage at their critical bistable (pull-in and drop-out) values, and detecting the presence of shorted turns or insulation breakdown within the solenoid coil using interrupted-current test methods. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and praticality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided

  2. Quantitative assessment of gene expression network module-validation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Yingying; Yu, Yanan; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Yongcheng; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Validation of pluripotent modules in diverse networks holds enormous potential for systems biology and network pharmacology. An arising challenge is how to assess the accuracy of discovering all potential modules from multi-omic networks and validating their architectural characteristics based on innovative computational methods beyond function enrichment and biological validation. To display the framework progress in this domain, we systematically divided the existing Computational Validation Approaches based on Modular Architecture (CVAMA) into topology-based approaches (TBA) and statistics-based approaches (SBA). We compared the available module validation methods based on 11 gene expression datasets, and partially consistent results in the form of homogeneous models were obtained with each individual approach, whereas discrepant contradictory results were found between TBA and SBA. The TBA of the Zsummary value had a higher Validation Success Ratio (VSR) (51%) and a higher Fluctuation Ratio (FR) (80.92%), whereas the SBA of the approximately unbiased (AU) p-value had a lower VSR (12.3%) and a lower FR (45.84%). The Gray area simulated study revealed a consistent result for these two models and indicated a lower Variation Ratio (VR) (8.10%) of TBA at 6 simulated levels. Despite facing many novel challenges and evidence limitations, CVAMA may offer novel insights into modular networks. PMID:26470848

  3. Critical Assessment of Correction Methods for Fisheye Lens Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, C.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    A fisheye lens is widely used to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. It is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion. The distortion modeling and estimation of the fisheye lens are the crucial step for fisheye lens calibration and image rectification in computer vision and close-range photography. There are two kinds of distortion: radial and tangential distortion. Radial distortion is large for fisheye imaging and critical for the subsequent image processing. Although many researchers have developed calibration algorithms of radial distortion of fisheye lens, quantitative evaluation of the correction performance has remained a challenge. This is the first paper that intuitively and objectively evaluates the performance of five different calibration algorithms. Upto- date research on fisheye lens calibration is comprehensively reviewed to identify the research need. To differentiate their performance in terms of precision and ease-using, five methods are then tested using a diverse set of actual images of the checkerboard that are taken at Wuhan University, China under varying lighting conditions, shadows, and shooting angles. The method of rational function model, which was generally used for wide-angle lens correction, outperforms the other methods. However, the one parameter division model is easy for practical use without compromising too much the precision. The reason is that it depends on the linear structure in the image and requires no preceding calibration. It is a tradeoff between correction precision and ease-using. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for future practice and algorithm development that are important for fisheye lens calibration. It is promising for the optimal design of lens correction models that are suitable for the millions of portable imaging devices.

  4. Phylogenetic and functional assessment of orthologs inference projects and methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M Altenhoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate genome-wide identification of orthologs is a central problem in comparative genomics, a fact reflected by the numerous orthology identification projects developed in recent years. However, only a few reports have compared their accuracy, and indeed, several recent efforts have not yet been systematically evaluated. Furthermore, orthology is typically only assessed in terms of function conservation, despite the phylogeny-based original definition of Fitch. We collected and mapped the results of nine leading orthology projects and methods (COG, KOG, Inparanoid, OrthoMCL, Ensembl Compara, Homologene, RoundUp, EggNOG, and OMA and two standard methods (bidirectional best-hit and reciprocal smallest distance. We systematically compared their predictions with respect to both phylogeny and function, using six different tests. This required the mapping of millions of sequences, the handling of hundreds of millions of predicted pairs of orthologs, and the computation of tens of thousands of trees. In phylogenetic analysis or in functional analysis where high specificity is required, we find that OMA and Homologene perform best. At lower functional specificity but higher coverage level, OrthoMCL outperforms Ensembl Compara, and to a lesser extent Inparanoid. Lastly, the large coverage of the recent EggNOG can be of interest to build broad functional grouping, but the method is not specific enough for phylogenetic or detailed function analyses. In terms of general methodology, we observe that the more sophisticated tree reconstruction/reconciliation approach of Ensembl Compara was at times outperformed by pairwise comparison approaches, even in phylogenetic tests. Furthermore, we show that standard bidirectional best-hit often outperforms projects with more complex algorithms. First, the present study provides guidance for the broad community of orthology data users as to which database best suits their needs. Second, it introduces new methodology

  5. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Aissaoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia. Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years. Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age.

  6. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  7. Methods of assessing total doses integrated across pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculated doses for comparison with limits resulting from discharges into the environment should be summed across all relevant pathways and food groups to ensure adequate protection. Current methodology for assessments used in the radioactivity in Food and the Environment (R.I.F.E.) reports separate doses from pathways related to liquid discharges of radioactivity to the environment from those due to gaseous releases. Surveys of local inhabitant food consumption and occupancy rates are conducted in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Information has been recorded in an integrated way, such that the data for each individual is recorded for all pathways of interest. These can include consumption of foods, such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, fruit and vegetables, milk and meats. Occupancy times over beach sediments and time spent in close proximity to the site is also recorded for inclusion of external and inhalation radiation dose pathways. The integrated habits survey data may be combined with monitored environmental radionuclide concentrations to calculate total dose. The criteria for successful adoption of a method for this calculation were: Reproducibility can others easily use the approach and reassess doses? Rigour and realism how good is the match with reality?Transparency a measure of the ease with which others can understand how the calculations are performed and what they mean. Homogeneity is the group receiving the dose relatively homogeneous with respect to age, diet and those aspects that affect the dose received? Five methods of total dose calculation were compared and ranked according to their suitability. Each method was labelled (A to E) and given a short, relevant name for identification. The methods are described below; A) Individual doses to individuals are calculated and critical group selection is dependent on dose received. B) Individual Plus As in A, but consumption and occupancy rates for high dose is used to derive rates for application in

  8. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Torrico

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed; (ii citrus; (iii ecological system; (iv cattle, (v silvo-pastoral system, (vi forest fragment and (vii forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old. An alternative measure (index of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries.Foram avaliadas, em região montanhosa da Mata Atlântica do Rio de Janeiro a resiliência, função ecológica e qualidade tanto do sistema agrícola como natural, através dos métodos de avaliação rápida ("rapid assessment methods". Para este fim, foram propostos novos indicadores como eco-volume, eco-altura, bio-volume, eficiência volumétrica e índice de resiliência. Os seguintes sistemas agrícolas e naturais foram comparados: (i hortaliças (folhas, frutos e mistos; (ii citros; (iii sistema ecológico; (iv gado; (v sistema silvo-pastoral; (vi fragmento florestal; (vii floresta em estágio de recuperação (1, 2 e 3 anos de idade. Uma forma alternativa de resiliência foi proposta considerando o bio-volume real como uma função do

  9. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOVS) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOVs that can help ensure their operational readiness-that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. An earlier (Phase 1) NPAR program study described SOV failure modes and causes and identified measurable parameters thought to be linked to the progression of ever-present degradation mechanisms that may ultimately result in functional failure of the valve. Using this earlier work as a guide, the present (Phase II) study focused on devising and then demonstrating the effectiveness of techniques and equipment with which to measure performance parameters that show promise for detecting the presence and trending the progress of such degradations before they reach a critical stage. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and practicality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided

  10. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  11. On methods for assessing water-resource risks and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2015-11-01

    Because of the critical role that freshwater plays in maintaining ecosystem health and supporting human development through agricultural and industrial production there have been numerous efforts over the past few decades to develop indicators and indices of water vulnerability. Each of these efforts has tried to identify key factors that both offer insights into water-related risks and strategies that might be useful for reducing those risks. These kinds of assessments have serious limitations associated with data, the complexity of water challenges, and the changing nature of climatic and hydrologic variables. This new letter by Padowski et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 104014) adds to the field by broadening the kinds of measures that should be integrated into such tools, especially in the area of institutional characteristics, and analyzing them in a way that provides new insights into the similarities and differences in water risks facing different countries, but much more can and should be done with new data and methods to improve our understanding of water challenges.

  12. The use of aerospace methods for forest state assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A S

    1988-01-01

    Siberian forests occupy a significant part of the Asian continent. Their role as an essential component of the Earth's surface, biomass and oxygen producer is increasing annually. Expanded reproduction of taiga forests necessitated by the intensive development of Siberian productive forces, results in an evergrowing need of forest productivity constancy and increase. Proper forest exploitation is a crucial part of the solution of such important problems as the rational use of land and water resources, stable crop yields, and the creation of favourable conditions for human life.To solve these important economic problems, the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences has devised a long-term programme of ecological monitoring of Siberian forest resources using aerospace techniques. The programme provides for the establishment and improvement of ecogeographical and physicotechnological principles of the remote sensing of forests and the development of fundamental forest-biological research based on new methodologies, the results of which are used to solve urgent forestry and nature protection problems. The research is carried out in the following major directions: studying spectral characteristics of forest vegetation for forest-state indication; thematic mapping of taiga territories; assessing biological productivity of natural complexes; environmental state monitoring; fire protection of forests; pest and disease control; developin instruments and methods for automatized aerospace data processing for real-time use.We consider forest-state monitoring to be one of the crucial tools in providing the optimum use of forest ecosystems for resource and ecological functions. PMID:24248966

  13. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, N. E. Sverker

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

  14. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    -soil masses) resulting in sliding mechanisms have been investigated in this study. The reliability indices values drawn from the HDRM method have been compared with conventional approaches as neural networks: the efficiency of HDRM is shown in the case studied. References Chowdhury R., Rao B.N. and Prasad A.M. 2009. High-dimensional model representation for structural reliability analysis. Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng, 25: 301-337. Chowdhury R. and Rao B. 2010. Probabilistic Stability Assessment of Slopes Using High Dimensional Model Representation. Computers and Geotechnics, 37: 876-884.

  15. Risk assessment of power systems models, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    Risk Assessment of Power Systems addresses the regulations and functions of risk assessment with regard to its relevance in system planning, maintenance, and asset management. Brimming with practical examples, this edition introduces the latest risk information on renewable resources, the smart grid, voltage stability assessment, and fuzzy risk evaluation. It is a comprehensive reference of a highly pertinent topic for engineers, managers, and upper-level students who seek examples of risk theory applications in the workplace.

  16. Criteria and methods for assessing the threat status of ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Guoke Chen; Keping Ma

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the threat status of ecosystems is a useful tool for understanding biodiversity loss on Earth. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established a working group at the fourth World Conservation Congress to develop quantitative categories and criteria for assessing ecosystem threat status. These categories and criteria were similar to those used to assess extinction risk for species. This working group strove to establish red lists of ecosystems by applyi...

  17. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C.T; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for “lower functioning” individuals, but this guideline’s vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe or profound developmental disabilities who scored at level 2 of the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) and seven who scored at ABLA level 3. Thirte...

  18. Implementation of bioassay methods to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Internal exposure to uranium and thorium can principally be assessed from external radiation measurements, exhalation measurements, or the assay of these elements excreted in urine or feces. Since both 232Th and 238U emit only photon radiations of low energy and with low emission probabilities, their detection limits by in vivo counting are of the order of kBq even when sophisticated devices are used. Consequently, usually bioassay methods are used for the incorporation monitoring of workers. Alpha spectrometry is the commonly applied technique, usually employed to measure 232Th and 238U in urine or fecel samples. For accurate analysis of body contents, 24 hours collections of urine or feces are usually used. The fecal activity, however, resembles predominantly the intake by ingestion of these nuclides during the last few days whereas the urinary excretion is more closely related to the body content of the nuclides. However, urinary excretion is also varying with the actual intake of 232Th and/or 238U. The measurement of these nuclides in urine by alpha-spectrometry requires tedious and time-consuming chemical work-up to prepare the samples for spectrometric analysis. Therefore, the number of analyses, which can be carried out is quite low and the results are available only after a time lag of several days. Additionally, under certain conditions the alpha-spectrometry is not sensitive enough. Other methods that have been developed may be confined to the availability of certain devices being difficult to access (e.g. nuclear reactors for radiochemical neutron activation analysis). Much better suitable as routine method is the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for measurements of 232Th and 238U concentrations in urine. For elemental analyses, ICP-MS can already be considered as commonly used method. The present work which was carried out in the framework of an EU project (IDEA: Internal Dosimetry - Enhancements in

  19. A Bayesian belief nets based quantification method of qualitative software reliability assessment for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualtitative assessment methods. But practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. This paper discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets(BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf(COTS) software dedication process was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the method in PSA

  20. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2014-09-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  1. Introduction of a non-traditional assessment method into a 2nd year undergraduate geography module

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mary

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Assessment of student learning is an integral part of the educational system and the development of technology offers the potential to design a range of non-traditional methods of assessment. It is necessary to review the introduction of new methods of assessment to determine if they can help promote student learning. This case study developed when a non-traditional method of assessment was required to help students engage with meteorological/weather conditions. The vi...

  2. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  3. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  4. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, R.A.; McCoy, R.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the {open_quotes}Preliminary Assessment{close_quote} procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable form that future inspections will have comparative information.

  5. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the open-quotes Preliminary Assessment close-quote procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable form that future inspections will have comparative information

  6. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Touzani, Samir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Custodio, Claudine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jump, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.

  7. Quantitative methods to support drug benefit-risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Caster, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Joint evaluation of drugs’ beneficial and adverse effects is required in many situations, in particular to inform decisions on initial or sustained marketing of drugs, or to guide the treatment of individual patients. This synthesis, known as benefit-risk assessment, is without doubt important: timely decisions supported by transparent and sound assessments can reduce mortality and morbidity in potentially large groups of patients. At the same time, it can be hugely complex: drug effects are ...

  8. A New Method to Assess Telecom Service Availability Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Vriezekolk, E Eelco; Wieringa, RJ; Etalle, S Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Protection of society against natural and man-made disasters is high on the societal and political agenda. Effective crisis management is more important than ever. Nowadays, crisis organisations depend crucially on reliable telecom services, and unexpected failure of telecommunication may have serious consequences. In order not to be caught unprepared, crisis organisations should therefore perform a risk assessment on telecom availability. Unfortunately, assessment of availability risks of mo...

  9. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable in a form that future inspections will have comparative information

  10. USING OF MULTI-CRITERIAL EVALUATION METHODS TO ASSESS POSITION OF THE OBJECT IN THE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ižaríková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the evaluation of the firm's position. Recognition of market position among competitors but also among customers is important for the development of the company. A comparison can be made by using multicriterial methods. The ranking of companies is based on different methods (method of simple order, weighted order sum method, point methods, standardized variable method. Compliance order will be assessed by the rank correlation coefficients. Acquired assessment of market state allows us to design a strategic.

  11. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Mort David [MIT

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  12. Inter-methods agreement for the assessment of percentage of body fat between two laboratory methods in male adolescent cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro González-Agüero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine inter-methods agreement between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and air displacement plethysmography (ADP in male adolescent cyclists for assessing percentage of body fat (PBF. Methods: PBF of 24 male adolescent cyclists was assessed by DXA and ADP. Agreement between ADP and DXA was determined according to a Bland-Altman plot; validity and lack of agreement was assessed by calculating inter-methods difference. The limits of agreement and differences between methods were also calculated by paired t-tests. Heteroscedasticity was also examined. Results: The values obtained by DXA were higher than those obtained by ADP, and the graph presented heteroscedasticity (both p < 0.05; r = 0.74. Conclusion: DXA and ADP methods were not comparable in terms of PBF assessment in our sample of male adolescent cyclists; it needs to be taken into account when evaluating longitudinal changes in this determined population.

  13. Test method improves motor bearing wear assessment at Calvert Cliffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how motor current signature analysis is helping plant maintenance engineers assess the condition of inaccessible motors during plant operation. At Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric Co.'s Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, maintenance activities are based on reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) concepts and guided by a non-intrusive condition evaluation (NICE) policy wherever achievable. One technique that fits these criteria is motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The new technique has helped plant maintenance personnel assess the condition of relatively inaccessible containment cooling fan motors inside reactor containment during normal plant operation

  14. Wind resource assessment method for floating deep offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Estanqueiro, Ana; Couto, A.; Rodrigues, L.; Marujo, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new methodology for the assessment of the wind energy resource at deep offshore locations where the use of floating wind turbines is foreseen. The wind resource assessment methodology developed follows the principles used by IEC 61400-12-1 standard in general and proposes the use of experimental data from a floating light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system on a deep offshore region – that assumes the role of the ‘temporary mast’ – and a coastal meteorological mast inst...

  15. Peer Assessment in Group Projects Accounting for Assessor Reliability by an Iterative Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sung-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an advanced method to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project using peer assessment procedures. Conway et al. proposed the Individual Weight Factor (IWF) method for peer assessment which has been extensively developed over the years. However, most methods associated with…

  16. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  17. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS in a...

  18. Test method to assess interface adhesion in composite bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of peel tests dedicated to composite bonding: Composite Peel Tests. This test is inspired on the standard floating roller peel test widely used for metal bonding. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of the Composite Peel Test to assess interface ad

  19. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS in a ...

  20. Image cytometer method for automated assessment of human spermatozoa concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, D L; Kjaerulff, S; Hansen, C; Petersen, J H; Glensbjerg, M; Skakkebaek, N E; Jørgensen, N; Almstrup, K

    2013-01-01

    In the basic clinical work-up of infertile couples, a semen analysis is mandatory and the sperm concentration is one of the most essential variables to be determined. Sperm concentration is usually assessed by manual counting using a haemocytometer and is hence labour intensive and may be subject...

  1. Method for quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative assessment of nuclear safety computer codes and tested by comparison of RELAP4/MOD6 predictions with results from two Semiscale tests. This paper describes the developed procedure, the application of the procedure to the Semiscale tests, and the results obtained from the comparison

  2. Assessment of in silico methods to estimate aquatic species sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard species. In many cases, QSAR models are used to estimate toxici...

  3. A multiwavelet support vector regression method for efficient reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new sparse kernel modeling technique, support vector regression has become a promising method in structural reliability analysis. However, in the standard quadratic programming support vector regression, its implementation is computationally expensive and sufficient model sparsity cannot be guaranteed. In order to mitigate these difficulties, this paper presents a new multiwavelet linear programming support vector regression method for reliability analysis. The method develops a novel multiwavelet kernel by constructing the autocorrelation function of multiwavelets and employs this kernel in context of linear programming support vector regression for approximating the limit states of structures. Three examples involving one finite element-based problem illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which indicate that the new method is efficient than the classical support vector regression method for response surface function approximation. - Highlights: • A multiwavelet LP-SVR method is proposed for structural reliability method. • The autocorrelation function of multiwavelets is used as the kernel of LP-SVR. • The present method can efficiently approximate response surface function. • Three examples demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the present method

  4. Validation of the Standard Method for Assessing Flicker From Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzon, Braulio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Christensen, L.; Sørensen, T.; Nielsen, H.K.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the validity of the standard method in IEC 61400-21 for assessing the flicker emission from multiple wind turbines. The standard method is based on testing a single wind turbine and then using the results of this test to assess the flicker emission from a number of wind turbines...... assess the flicker emission at the collection line; this assessment is then compared to the actual measurements in order to study the accuracy of the estimation. It was observed in both wind farms, that the assessment based on the standard method is statistically conservative compared to the measurements....... The reason for this is the statistical characteristics of flicker emission....

  5. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs

  6. Re-assessing copepod growth using the Moult Rate method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Keister, J. E.; Richardson, A. J.; Ward, P.; Shreeve, R. S.; Escribano, R.

    2014-01-01

    method has been shown to have serious flaws. Here we re-examine the results from the majority of published MR method studies and re-estimate growth rates using the modified Moult Rate (MMR) method, which ascribes changes in mass to the appropriate time period over which it was accrued. The MR method has...... typically over-estimated growth rates (on 80% of occasions) for life stages where the subsequent stage is actively moulting; the median and mean MR values are 138 and 164%, respectively, of the corrected MMR values. We were unable to correct the original data for life stages that are followed by a non...

  7. Adapted VTA and SIA method in tree static assessment with use of resistography

    OpenAIRE

    PERNEK, MILAN; Lacković, Nikola; MAČAK-HADŽIOMEROVIĆ, AMRA; Stamenković, Vanja

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This paper introduces a method for assessment of static safety by using the combination of adapted VTA and SIA methods and a resistograph. The aim is to assess the static as reliably as possible and without the need for expensive equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose amethod for the static assessment which could be applied in practice in the future. Materials and Methods: Seven trees in the Botanical Garden of the Faculty of Science (University of Z...

  8. Membership by Assessment of Performance: developing a method for assessing established general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Wearne, J

    2000-01-01

    Over 200 general practitioners (GPs) and others have contributed to the development of Membership by Assessment of Performance (MAP): a new scheme for assessing established GPs. By means of a Delphi consultation with a broad cross-section of the profession, a working conference, piloting with potential candidates, and repeated checking with reference panels, the assessment was developed within two years. We report the development of MAP, including the results of the Delphi consultation, which...

  9. Methods for assessing mine site rehabilitation design for erosion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erosion of rehabilitated mines may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of encapsulated contaminants, elevated sediment delivery at catchment outlets, and subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. Rehabilitation design can be assessed using erosion and hydrology models calibrated to mine site conditions. Incision rates in containment structures can be quantified using 3-dimensional landform evolution simulation techniques. Sediment delivery at catchment outlets for various landform amelioration techniques can be predicted using process-based and empirical erosion-prediction models and sediment delivery ratios. The predicted sediment delivery can be used to estimate an average annual stream sediment load that can, in turn, be used to assess water quality impacts. Application of these techniques is demonstrated through a case study applied to a proposed rehabilitation design option for the Energy Resources of Australia Ltd (ERA) Ranger Mine in the Northern Territory of Australia. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  10. The Assessment Methods of Laryngeal Muscle Activity in Muscle Tension Dysphonia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Maryam Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD. The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG are objective methods to provide physiological information about MTD. Recent studies show that surface EMG can be an effective tool for assessing muscular tension in MTD.

  11. Methods and instruments for assessing human resource performance

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko; Pasovska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Employee performance evaluation is a process that assesses the contribution of employees in achieving organizational goals in a defined period of time. Performance or achievements may be some of the measurable results that are achieved, by behavior or personal characteristics that contribute successfully performing of certain activities in a defined period of time. Performance can be defined as a kind of evaluation indicators of capabilities,charcteristics and the achieved results of t...

  12. Method and system for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta (Inventor); Xu, Hong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The DEFT methodology, system and computer readable medium extends the applicability of the PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) methodology to computer-based systems, by allowing DFT (Dynamic Fault Tree) nodes as pivot nodes in the Event Tree (ET) model. DEFT includes a mathematical model and solution algorithm, supports all common PRA analysis functions and cutsets. Additional capabilities enabled by the DFT include modularization, phased mission analysis, sequence dependencies, and imperfect coverage.

  13. The Concept of Risk and its Assessment Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cãruntu Andreea Laura; Cãruntu Roxana Corina

    2012-01-01

    In a world dominated by incertitude it is necessary to acknowledge the importance of discovering at the right time the risks that affect companies. The aim of the paper is to provide important insights to economic agents concerning theoretical notions about risk and its assessment. It is important for any company to take into account the changes that occur in the environment and due to this a risk management view is necessary. Companies that want to survive the business environment must be re...

  14. Arthroscopic and endoscopic skills: a method of assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, D S; Green, R. G.; Copeland, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    An aptitude test has been designed to assess the psychomotor ability of surgeons under the special conditions and difficulties of endoscopic surgery. Results show increased errors and inferior tracking skill when images are rotated or reflected under test conditions simulating endoscopy. This indicates that more than simple hand-eye co-ordination is required to perform good endoscopic surgery. Interestingly, a proportion of trainee surgeons found adaptation to these altered conditions difficu...

  15. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY RISK ASSESSMENT - TWO METHODS, DIFFERENT RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pop Cristiana Lucretia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : the purpose of this study was to verify if there is any significant difference between body fat assessment by calculating body mass index and by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Materials: subsequently we determined the ratio between body fat and muscular mass percentage in a sample of 156 university girl students. Results : BMI and muscle mass percentage seem to have similar variance and trends, while body fat exceeded in numbers and percents the highest levels of BMI. While...

  16. Improving Assessment Methods in University Science Education with Negotiated Self- and Peer-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Wai-Yin; McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul; Kwan, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether, in the Hong Kong context, self- and peer-assessment promote students' self-reflection and enable students to understand their own strengths and weaknesses better. A three-stage assessment strategy was employed in three Science courses at The Chinese University of Hong Kong: (1) students developing…

  17. Comparative assessment of bioanalytical method validation guidelines for pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Naveen; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur; Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Taneja, Isha; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2016-07-15

    The concepts, importance, and application of bioanalytical method validation have been discussed for a long time and validation of bioanalytical methods is widely accepted as pivotal before they are taken into routine use. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines issued in 2001 have been referred for every guideline released ever since; may it be European Medical Agency (EMA) Europe, National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Brazil, Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare (MHLW) Japan or any other guideline in reference to bioanalytical method validation. After 12 years, USFDA released its new draft guideline for comments in 2013, which covers the latest parameters or topics encountered in bioanalytical method validation and approached towards the harmonization of bioanalytical method validation across the globe. Even though the regulatory agencies have general agreement, significant variations exist in acceptance criteria and methodology. The present review highlights the variations, similarities and comparison between bioanalytical method validation guidelines issued by major regulatory authorities worldwide. Additionally, other evaluation parameters such as matrix effect, incurred sample reanalysis including other stability aspects have been discussed to provide an ease of access for designing a bioanalytical method and its validation complying with the majority of drug authority guidelines. PMID:27179186

  18. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of uranium deposit searching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following groups of uranium deposit searching methods are described: radiometric review of foreign work; aerial radiometric survey; automobile radiometric survey; emanation survey up to 1 m; emanation survey up to 2 m; ground radiometric survey; radiometric survey in pits; deep radiometric survey; combination of the above methods; and other methods (drilling survey). For vein-type deposits, the majority of Czech deposits were discovered in 1945-1965 by radiometric review of foreign work, automobile radiometric survey, and emanation survey up to 1 m. The first significant indications of sandstone type uranium deposits were observed in the mid-1960 by aerial radiometric survey and confirmed later by drilling. (P.A.)

  20. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  1. Assessment of left ventricular function by noninvasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisada, A A; Singhal, A; Portaluppi, F

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of evaluating left ventricular function by noninvasive methods is discussed in detail. The methods that are considered are electrocardiograph, phonocardiography, apex cardiography, sphygmography, impedance cardiography, electrokymography, and echocardiography. Following a brief section of 'definitions', each method is described in detail including technical problems, difficulties, and results. The systolic time intervals and the stress tests are briefly discussed. Based on modern experimental studies, the stress test should include both an electro- and a phonocardiogram. In the latter, one would measure the amplitude of the first heart sound as an index of contractility. The conclusion is that combined methods give the best results. They are electrocardiography, phonocardiography, impedance cardiography, and echocardiography. An alternative, dictated by technical problems, is to use at first phonocardiography and impedance plus electrocardiography; then echocardiography plus electrocardiography; and then, if indicated, a stress test might complete the study; the latter should include both an electrocardiogram and a phonocardiogram. PMID:4003144

  2. Electrospectroscopic method of assessing the radiation interaction with DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to suggest a quantum-mechanical model of emission perception by molecules on the basis of DNA band structure, appreciate the possibility to employ low-frequency electrospectroscopy for discovering an interaction between emission and molecules and describe the method conformably to specific conditions. The data obtained by the study of the low-frequency dispersion of DNA suspension dielectric constant allow a conclusion that it is possible to plot the primary event of emission quantum perception by DNA molecule. The evidence obtained allow the authors to suggest that the method of low-frequency electrospectroscopy can be used to detect part of the total value of the potential terminal sources due to the charge emergence on the ends of the molecule after exposure. The method suggested can be assigned to indirect methods of measuring the dielectric constant

  3. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  5. Methods to assess Drosophila heart development, function and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Ocorr, Karen; Vogler, Georg; Bodmer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the Drosophila heart has become an established model of many different aspects of human cardiac disease. This model has allowed identification of disease-causing mechanisms underlying congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies and has permitted the study underlying genetic, metabolic and age-related contributions to heart function. In this review we discuss methods currently employed in the analysis of the Drosophila heart structure and function, such as optical methods to ...

  6. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  7. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  8. Levels of Biological Diversity: a Spatial Approach to Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU-IONUŢ PETRIŞOR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity, interpreted as a variety of natural and man-dominated biological and ecological systems, plays an important role in assuring their stability and can be interpreted at different spatial scales, based on the hierarchical level of the system (biocoenose/ ecosystem, biome/complex of ecosystem, biosphere/ecosphere. Literature distinguishes six levels of biodiversity, namely alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, and omega. The current paper lists methodologies appropriate for assessing diversity at each of these levels, with a particular focus on regional diversity (gamma, delta, and epsilon diversities, i.e. CORINE land cover classification and the biogeographical regions of the European Union.

  9. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Stability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Lee, Erik; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design specifications include dynamic, spontaneous, and broadband combustion stability requirements. These requirements are verified empirically based high frequency chamber pressure measurements and analyses. Dynamic stability is determined with the dynamic pressure response due to an artificial perturbation of the combustion chamber pressure (bomb testing), and spontaneous and broadband stability are determined from the dynamic pressure responses during steady operation starting at specified power levels. J2X Workhorse Gas Generator testing included bomb tests with multiple hardware configurations and operating conditions, including a configuration used explicitly for engine verification test series. This work covers signal processing techniques developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help assess engine design stability requirements. Dynamic stability assessments were performed following both the CPIA 655 guidelines and a MSFC in-house developed statistical-based approach. The statistical approach was developed to better verify when the dynamic pressure amplitudes corresponding to a particular frequency returned back to pre-bomb characteristics. This was accomplished by first determining the statistical characteristics of the pre-bomb dynamic levels. The pre-bomb statistical characterization provided 95% coverage bounds; these bounds were used as a quantitative measure to determine when the post-bomb signal returned to pre-bomb conditions. The time for post-bomb levels to acceptably return to pre-bomb levels was compared to the dominant frequency-dependent time recommended by CPIA 655. Results for multiple test configurations, including stable and unstable configurations, were reviewed. Spontaneous stability was assessed using two processes: 1) characterization of the ratio of the peak response amplitudes to the excited chamber acoustic mode amplitudes and 2) characterization of the variability of the peak response

  10. A Method for Assessing Quality of Service in Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of Quality of Service (QoS) in high-speed Internet infrastructure is a challenging task. However, precise assessments must take into account the fact that the requirements for the given quality level are service-dependent. Backbone QoS monitoring and analysis requires processing of large...... and provide C5.0 high-quality training data, divided into groups corresponding to different types of applications. It was found that currently existing means of collecting data (classification by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification, public data sources) are not sufficient and they do...

  11. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  12. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  13. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  14. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... approaches and methods that can be used to plan and conduct cumulative risk assessments (CRA). Published... interest to persons involved with the design, formulation, and conduct of risk assessments more generally... cumulative risk issues in scoping and planning major risk assessments and to consider a broader scope...

  15. Assessing Autonomous Learning in Research Methods Courses: Implementing the Student-Driven Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M.; Walsh, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    As empirical assessments of teaching strategies increase in many disciplines and across many different courses, a paucity of such assessment seems to exist in courses devoted to social science research methods. This lack of assessment and evaluation impedes progress in developing successful teaching pedagogy. The teaching-learning issue addressed…

  16. Sequential method for the assessment of innovations in computer assisted industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential method for the assessment of innovations in industrial processes is proposed, using suitable combinations of mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of dynamics. Some advantages and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. tabs

  17. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ENTROPY METHOD FOR SYSTEM CONSISTED OF IDENTICAL EXPONENTIAL UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youchao; Shi Jun

    2004-01-01

    The reliability assessment of unit-system near two levels is the most important content in the reliability multi-level synthesis of complex systems. Introducing the information theory into system reliability assessment, using the addible characteristic of information quantity and the principle of equivalence of information quantity, an entropy method of data information conversion is presented for the system consisted of identical exponential units. The basic conversion formulae of entropy method of unit test data are derived based on the principle of information quantity equivalence. The general models of entropy method synthesis assessment for system reliability approximate lower limits are established according to the fundamental principle of the unit reliability assessment. The applications of the entropy method are discussed by way of practical examples. Compared with the traditional methods, the entropy method is found to be valid and practicable and the assessment results are very satisfactory.

  18. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  19. Mitigation and adaptation cost assessment: Concepts, methods and appropriate use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The present report on mitigation and adaptation costs addresses the complex issue of identifying synergies and tradeoffs between national priorities and mitigation policies, an issue that requires the integration of various disciplines so as to provide a comprehensive overview of future development trends, available technologies and economic policies. Further, the report suggests a new conceptual framework for treating the social aspects in assessing mitigation and adaptation costs in climate change studies. The impacts of certain sustainability indicators such as employment and poverty reduction on mitigation costing are also discussed in the report. Among the topics to be considered by over 120 distinguished international experts, are the elements of costing methodologies at both the micro and macro levels. Special effort will be made to include the impacts of such parameters as income, equity, poverty, employment and trade. Hence, the contents of this report are highly relevant to the authors of the Third Working Group in the development of the TAR. The report contains a chapter on Special Issues and Problems Related to Cost Assessment for Developing Countries. This chapter will provide valuable background in the further development of these concepts in the TAR because it is an area that has not received due attention in previous work. (au)

  20. [Express-method of assessing the status of hypertension control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazunov, I S; Konstantinov, E N; Molchanov, V A; Gundarov, I A

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe a method for evaluating arterial hypertension control among the unorganized population visiting polyclinics and organized population taken care of at the medical centers. The method was tried in the city of Chelyabinsk as applicable to a randomized population sample of a medical territorial district and to a randomized sample (8%) of the workers from 9 shops of the steel plant. The method lies in the study of the population health status (arterial hypertension prevalence and knowledge, treatment coverage and efficacy) and of the documentation available at the treatment and prophylactic institutions concerning arterial hypertension control (coverage, registration, scope of examinations, and so forth). It is shown that the method is unsophisticated and feasible for examination of the population and documentation requires 5 days. It is suggested that the method should be used in the study of the situation concerning arterial hypertension control as well as in the study of the problems in the control of other non-infectious diseases. PMID:3824187

  1. Tests and assessments of NDT methods for concrete bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Juergen; Krause, M.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    A research project is described involving a comparison of different non-destructive test methods for concrete bridges. A cooperative test series was started with the aim to compare and evaluate the performance and benefits of the latest technical developments in this field. For this purpose test specimens with localized defects were produced. Different modifications of radar, ultrasonic-echo and impact-echo methods were investigated. Including two- and three- dimensional reconstruction models. The experiments were accompanied by numerical simulation of the propagation of sound waves and microwaves. The results showed that the radar and the ultrasonic methods were efficient tools to locate the tendon ducts accurately if the reinforcing bars were not to narrowly spaced. The ultrasonic imaging methods were capable of identifying injection and compaction faults in a blind test. The good performance of the impact-echo method with regard to locating tendon ducts which was claimed in several publications could not be validated in the present investigations. The simulation models provided valuable information on how to improve the experimental test program and its evaluation.

  2. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  3. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes

  4. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...... considering Gaussian processes for twelve mean wind speeds the ‘fitting before aggregation’ and ‘aggregation before fitting’ approaches are studied. The results show that the ‘fitting before aggregation’ approach gives the best results.......In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process an...

  5. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    , an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the...... best results. By considering Gaussian processes for 12 mean wind speeds, the "fitting before aggregation" and "aggregation before fitting" approaches are studied. The results show that the fitting before aggregation approach gives the best results. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4003416]......In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...

  6. The Demon-Angel method in systematic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 'design for safety' of large engineering systems with a high level of innovation requires an exhaustive safety analysis and since a subsequent corrective action may become a very large bottleneck in improving such a system, fundamental knowledge in designing safe systems is essential. The lack of any 'rule of thumb' makes such knowledge a matter of personal experience rather than the subject of an academic course. This paper proposes a new method for the theoretical safety study of different system configurations independently of any particular application. This method aims to help the construction of a 'rule of thumb' for what is a safe system and what is not. The Demon and Angel ideas are explained and the schematic presentation of these elements is introduced. Four representative case studies demonstrate the use of this method

  7. Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Direct-assay method assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the direct-assay technique for measuring activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware. It also compares the direct-assay technique with calculational analysis methods that predict activation levels. Direct assay is performed in four steps: (a) planning and component selection, (b) onsite measurements, (c) radiochemical analysis, and (d) data analysis and classification. Uncertainties are estimated for each step of this process, and an overall uncertainty in the classification accuracy is calculated as about ±35%. Numerous research ideas are identified to help reduce the uncertainty level; many of these ideas would improve activation determinations performed by either direct assay or by calculational analysis methods

  8. Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Direct-assay method assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study describes the direct-assay technique for measuring activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware. It also compares the direct-assay technique with calculational analysis methods that predict activation levels. Direct assay is performed in four steps: (a) planning and component selection, (b) onsite measurements, (c) radiochemical analysis, and (d) data analysis and classification. Uncertainties are estimated for each step of this process, and an overall uncertainty in the classification accuracy is calculated as about {plus_minus}35%. Numerous research ideas are identified to help reduce the uncertainty level; many of these ideas would improve activation determinations performed by either direct assay or by calculational analysis methods.

  9. BNFL assessment of methods of attaining high burnup MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that in order to maintain competitiveness with UO2 fuel, the burnups achievable in MOX fuel must be enhanced beyond the levels attainable today. There are two aspects which require attention when studying methods of increased burnups - cladding integrity and fuel performance. Current irradiation experience indicates that one of the main performance issues for MOX fuel is fission gas retention. MOX, with its lower thermal conductivity, runs at higher temperatures than UO2 fuel; this can result in enhanced fission gas release. This paper explores methods of effectively reducing gas release and thereby improving MOX burnup potential. (author)

  10. Concepts, methods and models to assess environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental impact of chemicals generally in the environment is a subject that has been approached in recent years in ways that are different in concept and practice. They range from chemical 'toxicity' and 'residual' risk assessments based on individuals, to broader based, ecological risk assessments. At the same time, approaches to considering what in the environment should be protected, and how, has also changed. Approaches to this subject vary from strict conservation of identified species and areas, to the more general concepts of wishing to maintain the biological diversity within and amongst all species and habitats, and of protecting large habitat areas against irreversible human damage. Against this background, approaches to the issue of the possible impact of radionuclides in the environment over the last decade or so have centred around the various statements made by the ICRP; either attempting to support them, or seeking to compensate for their perceived deficiencies. There have been arguments that, because man is an integral part of 'the environment', and is afforded such a high level of protection, then all other components of it would be axiomatically protected. There have also been calculations to demonstrate that, in hypothetical situations, if radionuclide concentrations in the environment were such that the 1 mSv a-1 dose limit to man was not exceeded, then the concentrations of radionuclides in the animals and plants in their food chain would therefore receive dose-rates less than those likely to cause them 'harm' at the population level. Some countries have been more direct. In the USA, dose 'standards' for the protection of populations of all aquatic animals have been introduced, and consideration is being given to the introduction of dose 'standards' for populations of all terrestrial plants and animals. The introduction of a set of 'no effects' dose-rate screening reference levels for different types of fauna, to be applied to

  11. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  12. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Methods to assess airborne concentrations of cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, M

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of concentrations of airborne cotton dust in the factory is necessary to determine adherence to applicable Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) on a day-to-day basis, as well as for investigatory studies of an epidemiological nature. The latter are required on an ongoing basis to determine the adequacy of PELs to prevent disease in the exposed population. A strategy of sampling includes considerations of the numbers of samples to be obtained for statistical validity and the locations of samples. Current practice is to obtain more "personal samples" of exposure wherever possible, but with regard to cotton dust, instrumentation is not available for such sampling. In the U.S., the vertical elutriator is the instrument of choice for determining the concentrations of cotton dust in air. Results are expressed as milligrams of airborne particulate (cotton dust) per cubic meter. PMID:3434562

  14. Assessment methods and minimization of radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with the program system COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences of nuclear accidents, performed since 1997 in close co-operation with the University of Delft, NL, and the NRPB, UK, have been terminated and fully documented. Work on the real-time on-line decision support system RODOS for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents has concentrated on the preparation of the operational version PV 4.0; it will be released by mid 2000. It has been developed and customised to the various regions of Europe in close co-operation with some 40 contract partners in East and West Europe. The operational use of the RODOS system at a central place in Germany and in emergency centres of other West and East European countries is in progress. (orig.)

  15. Capability Maturity Assessment Method of Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jun; Chen Lin; Sun Lei

    2014-01-01

    According to the basic ideas of the maturity model (Capability Maturity Model, CMM), the maturity model and its capability maturity comprehensive evaluation method of civil aircrafts’ customer service system are established from five aspects: Engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training and technical publications. Referencing survey results of the customer service satisfaction from airlines, weights was ...

  16. ASSESSMENT or UNDERSTANDING? The Rorschach method in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sardena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract: The Rorschach method has been submitted to a teenager who was threatening suicide. The case is examined by experts who meet regularly. From the seminary woks emerge some diagnostic elements which can facilitate the therapeutic relationship.

  17. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    , inflammation, and hyperemia. Methods for detecting nasal mucosa irritation include measuring swelling of the nasal mucosa, peak airflows through the nose, acoustic rhinometry, and rhinostereometry, which measures thickness of the anterior nasal turbinate. Questionnaires are useful for defining a set of...

  18. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  19. Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Ebert, Hans

    The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...

  20. Understanding and Assessing: Bibliometrics as a Method of Measuring Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique of "Measurement of Central Aspects of Scientific Research: Performance, Interdisciplinarity, Structure," by Anthony F. J. van Raan. The author states that van Raan's article provides an excellent, if tightly compressed, introduction to key findings and innovative methods of the accumulating and…

  1. Assessment of the Prony's method for BWR stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → This paper describes a method to determine the degree of stability of a BWR. → Performance comparison between Prony's and common AR techniques is presented. → Benchmark data and actual BWR transient data are used for comparison. → DR and f results are presented and discussed. → The Prony's method is shown to be a robust technique for BWR stability. - Abstract: It is known that Boiling Water Reactors are susceptible to present power oscillations in regions of high power and low coolant flow, in the power-flow operational map. It is possible to fall in one of such instability regions during reactor startup, since both power and coolant flow are being increased but not proportionally. One other possibility for falling into those areas is the occurrence of a trip of recirculation pumps. Stability monitoring in such cases can be difficult, because the amount or quality of power signal data required for calculation of the stability key parameters may not be enough to provide reliable results in an adequate time range. In this work, the Prony's Method is presented as one complementary alternative to determine the degree of stability of a BWR, through time series data. This analysis method can provide information about decay ratio and oscillation frequency from power signals obtained during transient events. However, so far not many applications in Boiling Water Reactors operation have been reported and supported to establish the scope of using such analysis for actual transient events. This work presents first a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results obtained by Prony's method and those results obtained by the participants of the Forsmark 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactor Stability Benchmark using diverse techniques. Then, a comparison of decay ratio and frequency oscillation results is performed for four real BWR transient event data, using Prony's method and two other techniques based on an autoregressive modeling. The four

  2. A field study comparing two methods of transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RADTRAN 4 is a computer code used for; assessing risks associated with the transportation of nuclear materials. The code employs the common modeling practice of using default values for input variables to simplify the modeling of complex scenarios, thus producing conservative final risk determinations. To better address local public concerns it is of interest to quantify the introduced conservatism by taking a site-specific approach to radiation risk assessment. With RISKIND, incident-free and accident condition doses were calculated for two suburban population groups using both default input parameters; and site-specific values to describe population demographics of regions in Pocatello, Idaho, along the I-15 corridor. The use of site-specific parameters resulted in incident-free doses ranging from the same order of magnitude to one order of magnitude less than the doses calculated with default input parameters. Correcting accident condition doses for the age distribution of the populations and employing site-specific weather data resulted in doses 1.1 times lower than estimated using default input parameters. Dose-risks calculated with RISKIND for the two population groups using site-specific data were of the same order of magnitude as the risk calculated using RADTRAN 4 for the suburban population described in DOE/EIS-0203-D. This study revealed in one specific application that use of default and site-specific parameters resulted in comparable dose estimates. If this tendency were to hold generally true over other environments and model variables, then risk assessors might prefer to select codes on the basis of criteria such as (1) the number of variables to select from; (2) ability to calculate consequences directly, and (3) outputs geared to addressing public concerns

  3. Laboratory methods for assessing and licensing influenza vaccines for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, David E

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza vaccines for poultry are based on hemagglutinin proteins, and protection is specific to the vaccine subtype. Over 113 billion doses have been used between 2002 and 2010 for high pathogenicity avian influenza control. No universal vaccines are currently available. The majority of avian influenza vaccines are inactivated whole influenza viruses that are grown in embryonating eggs, inactivated, emulsified in oil adjuvant systems, and injected into chickens. Live virus-vectored vaccines such as recombinant viruses of fowl pox, Newcastle disease, herpesvirus of turkeys and duck enteritis containing inserts of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin genes have been used on a more limited basis. In studies to evaluate vaccine efficacy and potency, the protocol design and its implementation should address the biosafety level needed for the work, provide information required for approval by Institutional Biosafety and Animal Care Committees, contain information on seed strain selection, provide needed information on animal subjects and their relevant parameters, and address the selection and use of challenge viruses. Various metrics have been used to directly measure vaccine induced protection. These include prevention of death, clinical signs, and lesions; prevention of decreases in egg production and alterations in egg quality; quantification of the reduction in virus replication and shedding from the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts; and prevention of contact transmission in in vivo poultry experiments. In addition, indirect measures of vaccine potency and protection can be developed and validated against the direct measures and include serological assays in vaccinated poultry and assessment of the content of hemagglutinin antigen in the vaccine. These indirect assessments of protection are useful in determining if vaccine batches have a consistent ability to protect. For adequate potency, vaccines should contain 50 mean protective doses of

  4. A Graphical Method for Assessing the Identification of Linear Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A graphical method is presented for assessing the state of identifiability of the parameters in a linear structural equation model based on the associated directed graph. We do not restrict attention to recursive models. In the recent literature, methods based on graphical models have been presented as a useful tool for assessing the state of…

  5. Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures

  6. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess so

  7. Automotive-adept: a lightweight assessment method for the automotive Irish software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Caffery, Fergal; Richardson, Ita; Moller, Peter

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed In this paper we describe how a lightweight assessment method was developed to educate Irish software small-to-medium sized enterprises (SMEs)1 in relation to becoming automotive software suppliers. The main goal of this assessment method is to provide software SMEs with a SPI path to becoming automotive software suppliers.

  8. THE FAIR VALUE OF AUTHENTIC AND TRUE METHOD OF ASSESSING THE LIABILITIES OF THE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Travinska

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the nature of the category “assessment” in the scientific literature and normative documents; considered the types of assessments in the domestic and international practice; the methodology to assess the fair value of liabilities in accordance with IFRS; recommended methods for assessment of certain types of current liabilities accounting. Also the author describes the case for the use of different systems assessments of reflection of economic operations of the company. D...

  9. The use of Computational Methods for the Assessment of Chemicals in REACH

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakovska I.; Worth A.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of computational methods in chemicals hazard and risk assessment under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) legislation. The key aspects of the REACH guidance on the assessment of chemicals are discussed that treat the possible stepwise (tiered) approach combining multiple computational methods in assessing chemicals. Several publicly accessible software tools for the computer-based estimation of chemical...

  10. Assessing Globalization Competences in the Information Systems Domain – Instruments and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Stén, Tiia

    2012-01-01

    Stén, Tiia Assessing Globalization Competences in the Information Systems Domain – Instruments and Methods Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2012, 36 p. Information Systems Science, Bachelor’s thesis Supervisor: Pawlowski, Jan The goal of this bachelor’s thesis is to research suitable competence assessment instruments and methods for assessing globalization competence in the Infor-mation Systems domain. Within the framework of the study, globalization competences are the skil...

  11. A Critical Assessment of Photometric Redshift Methods: A CANDELS Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, Sandra M; Ferguson, Henry C; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L; Finlator, Kristian; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Acquaviva, Viviana; Dickinson, Mark E; Guo, Yicheng; Huang, Jiasheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A; Bell, Eric F; Conselice, Christopher J; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Papovich, Casey; Peth, Michael; Ryan, Russell; Somerville, Rachel; Weiner, Benjamin; Wilson, Grant

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) photometric redshift methods investigation. In this investigation, the results from eleven participants, each using a different combination of photometric redshift code, template spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and priors, are used to examine the properties of photometric redshifts applied to deep fields with broad-band multi-wavelength coverage. The photometry used includes U-band through mid-infrared filters and was derived using the TFIT method. Comparing the results, we find that there is no particular code or set of template SEDs that results in significantly better photometric redshifts compared to others. However, we find codes producing the lowest scatter and outlier fraction utilize a training sample to optimize photometric redshifts by adding zero-point offsets, template adjusting or adding extra smoothing errors. These results therefore stress the importance of the training procedure. We find a...

  12. Assessment of a method for the prediction of mandibular rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R S; Daniel, F J; Swartz, M; Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1987-05-01

    A new method to predict mandibular rotation developed by Skieller and co-workers on a sample of 21 implant subjects with extreme growth patterns has been tested against an alternative sample of 25 implant patients with generally similar mean values, but with less extreme facial patterns. The method, which had been highly successful in retrospectively predicting changes in the sample of extreme subjects, was much less successful in predicting individual patterns of mandibular rotation in the new, less extreme sample. The observation of a large difference in the strength of the predictions for these two samples, even though their mean values were quite similar, should serve to increase our awareness of the complexity of the problem of predicting growth patterns in individual cases. PMID:3472458

  13. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  14. Evaluation of two novel methods for assessing intracellular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to resolve the spatio-temporal complexity of intracellular O2 distribution is the ‘Holy Grail’ of cellular physiology. In an effort to obtain a non-invasive approach of mapping intracellular O2 tensions, two methods of phosphorescent lifetime imaging microscopy were examined in the current study. These were picosecond time-resolved epiphosphorescence microscopy (single 0.5 µm focused spot) and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy with pinhole shifting. Both methods utilized nanoparticle-embedded Ru complex (45 nm diameter) as the phosphorescent probe, excited using pulsed outputs of Ti–sapphire Tsunami lasers (710–1050 nm). The former method used a 1 ps pulse width excitation beam with vertical polarization via a dichroic mirror (610 nm, XF43) and a 20× objective (NA 0.55, Nikon). Transmitted luminescence (1–2 × 104 counts s−1) was collected and time-correlated single photon counted decay times measured. Alternatively, an unmodified Zeiss LSM510 Confocal NLO microscope with 40× objective (NA 1.3) used successively shifted pinhole positions to collect image data from the lagging trail of the raster scan. Images obtained from two-photon excitation of a yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and a flagellate fish parasite (Spironucleus vortens), electroporated with Ru complex, indicated the intracellular location and magnitude of O2 gradients, thus confirming the feasibility of optical mapping under different external O2 concentrations. Both methods gave similar lifetimes for Ru complex phosphorescence under aerobic and anaerobic gas phases. Estimation of O2 tensions within individual fibroblasts (human dermal fibroblast (HDF)) and mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells was possible using epiphosphorescence microscopy. MCF-7 cells showed lower intracellular O2 concentrations than HDF cells, possibly due to higher metabolic rates in the former. Future work should involve construction of higher resolution 3D maps of Ru coordinate complex

  15. The Cultural Dimensions of Freshwater Wetland Assessments: Lessons Learned from the Application of US Rapid Assessment Methods in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, Stéphanie; Schwoertzig, Eugénie; Clement, Jean-Christophe; Johnson, Brad; Quétier, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    Given the recent strengthening of wetland restoration and protection policies in France, there is need to develop rapid assessment methods that provide a cost-effective way to assess losses and gains of wetland functions. Such methods have been developed in the US and we tested six of them on a selection of contrasting wetlands in the Isère watershed. We found that while the methods could discriminate sites, they did not always give consistent rankings, thereby revealing the different assumptions they explicitly or implicitly incorporate. The US assessment methods commonly use notions of "old-growth" or "pristine" to define the benchmark conditions against which to assess wetlands. Any reference-based assessment developed in the US would need adaptation to work in the French context. This could be quite straightforward for the evaluation of hydrologic variables as scoring appears to be consistent with the best professional judgment of hydrologic condition made by a panel of French local experts. Approaches to rating vegetation condition and landscape context, however, would require substantial reworking to reflect a novel view of reference standard. Reference standard in the European context must include acknowledgement that many of the best condition and biologically important wetland types in France are the product of intensive, centuries-long management (mowing, grazing, etc.). They must also explicitly incorporate the recent trend in ecological assessment to focus particularly on the wetland's role in landscape-level connectivity. These context-specific, socio-cultural dimensions must be acknowledged and adjusted for when adapting or developing wetland assessment methods in new cultural contexts.

  16. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  17. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initial base assessment rate determined using the financial ratios method set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of...-term debt issuer rating, shall be determined using the financial ratios method. (1) Financial ratios method. Under the financial ratios method for Risk Category I institutions, each of six financial...

  18. Recent developments in environmental assessment methods for wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind turbine noise generation and propagation in Ontario. Wind turbine noise is caused by the aerodynamic effects at the outer 75 to 97 per cent of the turbine blade in combination with the Doppler shift in frequency and amplitude for moving sources. Noise levels are influenced by wind direction, wind shear, inversion conditions, air temperature, and ground attenuation. While many jurisdictions provide guidance for wind turbine noise, there is less guidance related to the variable factors influencing noise propagation. New Ontario Ministry of the Environment guidelines are seeking to codify noise level acceptability as far as possible. Air absorption variations in temperature and humidity assessment calculations are set at 1 to 2 decibels (dB) over typical minimum setbacks. Ground absorption variables are set at 3 dB. However, the impact of seasonal variations on ground absorption levels related to wind turbine noise are not known. Wind shear coefficients can vary from 0.05 to 0.45 in a single day, leading to variations of 5 dB for any given wind speed. The closest residences to wind farms are now 300 to 500 metres away from wind farms. It was concluded that design case assumptions are now being codified in order to clarify wind profile and wind shear definitions. tabs., figs

  19. Biomass Assessment: A Question of Method and Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the new stakes on lignocellulosic biomass are often demand-oriented (heat, electricity, biofuels, etc.) mainly through public policies, the new equilibrium will depend also on the supply-side. This supply has to be understood as socio-economic and environmental targets combining many topics: multi- resources (agriculture, forest, 'dedicated coppices', by-products and wastes), available/potential quantities and costs, localisation, replacement/substitution effects (activities, lands), and supply- side stakeholders' behaviours. Many initiatives have been launched to grasp those dimensions through projects (National Research Agency, French Environment and Energy Management Agency, etc.). Many figures exist on the biomass assessment aspect but they are not clear enough and not comparable due to differences in definitions, scopes, data, parameters, geographical levels, reporting units, time-scale, etc. Regarding the characterisation of biomass supply chains, evaluations are often incomplete and lack methodological references. This article aims to focus on methodological key points and barriers to overcome, in order to get a better evaluation and understanding of biomass mobilisation expected by potential users and public authorities. (authors)

  20. Feasibility studies of safety assessment methods for programmable automation systems. Final report of the AVV project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility studies of two different groups of methodologies for safety assessment of programmable automation systems has been executed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The studies concerned the dynamic testing methods and the fault tree (FT) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methods. In order to get real experience in the application of these methods, an experimental testing of two realistic pilot systems were executed and a FT/FMEA analysis of a programmable safety function accomplished. The purpose of the studies was not to assess the object systems, but to get experience in the application of methods and assess their potentials and development needs. (46 refs., 21 figs.)

  1. Assessing methods for developing crop forecasting in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A. V. M.; Capa Morocho, M. I.; Baethgen, W.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Han, E.; Ruiz Ramos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal climate prediction may allow predicting crop yield to reduce the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate variability and its extremes. It has been already demonstrated that seasonal climate predictions at European (or Iberian) scale from ensembles of global coupled climate models have some skill (Palmer et al., 2004). The limited predictability that exhibits the atmosphere in mid-latitudes, and therefore de Iberian Peninsula (PI), can be managed by a probabilistic approach based in terciles. This study presents an application for the IP of two methods for linking tercile-based seasonal climate forecasts with crop models to improve crop predictability. Two methods were evaluated and applied for disaggregating seasonal rainfall forecasts into daily weather realizations: 1) a stochastic weather generator and 2) a forecast tercile resampler. Both methods were evaluated in a case study where the impacts of two seasonal rainfall forecasts (wet and dry forecast for 1998 and 2015 respectively) on rainfed wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize in IP were analyzed. Simulated wheat yield and irrigation requirements of maize were computed with the crop models CERES-wheat and CERES-maize which are included in Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT v.4.5, Hoogenboom et al., 2010). Simulations were run at several locations in Spain where the crop model was calibrated and validated with independent field data. These methodologies would allow quantifying the benefits and risks of a seasonal climate forecast to potential users as farmers, agroindustry and insurance companies in the IP. Therefore, we would be able to establish early warning systems and to design crop management adaptation strategies that take advantage of favorable conditions or reduce the effect of adverse ones. ReferencesPalmer, T. et al., 2004. Development of a European multimodel ensemble system for seasonal-to-interannual prediction (DEMETER). Bulletin of the

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS THROUGH ENERGY BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW is nowadays landfilled or processed through aerobic composting. The Italian towns currently support a high cost for OFMSW disposal and cause a high environmental impact, because of long distances travelled from towns to a few available landfills and fewer treatment places, as well as the used waste management methods. An interesting option for OFMSW is Anaerobic Digestion (AD, producing biogas and “digestate”. In this survey a theoretical biogas plant was placed near a town of Sicily Region (Italy, centralised with reference to the area considered for producing OFMSW. The distances travelled every year to transport OFMSW from the nine towns considered to the nearest composting plant and the biogas one were calculated using QGIS software. Therefore, the energy balance was computed for each of the four considered scenarios. Within the implementation of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM method, AD resulted in an energy balance much higher than that of aerobic composting. In fact, differently from composting, AD can significantly contribute to energy recovery, while retaining the nutrients in the digestate produced and reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. The use of a rational network of towns for OFMSW collection and transportation results relevant, in terms of increased energy balance, only in the case of composting. Therefore, if AD would be implemented as OFMSW management method, by means of biogas plants, each of them placed in an area including some towns, e.g., that considered in this survey, it could highly reduce the cost and the environmental impact of waste disposal.

  3. Durability Assessment of Steel Structures using SBRA method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Pavel; Pustka, D.

    Coimbra, Portugal : Associacao Portuguesa de Construcao Met lica e Mista, Pal cio de Vila Flor, Av. D. Afonso Henriques, 4810431 Guimaraes, Portugal , 2002 - (Simoes da Silva, L.), s. 1561-1570 ISBN 972-98376-3-5. [European Conference on Steel Structures. Eurosteel /3./. Coimbra (GR), 19.09.2002-20.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/01/1410; GA ČR GA105/01/0783 Keywords : probabilistic method SBRA * Monte Carlo simulation * random variable quantities Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  4. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference to...

  5. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile attack on a spent fuel

  6. Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMalki, Waleed Hassan; Shahid, Imran; Mehdi, Abeer Yousaf; Hafeez, Muhammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future. PMID:24987169

  7. Technological assessment of the biogalvanic method for tissue characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogalvanic cells have the potential to be used in characterizing biological tissue properties and ultimately tissue health. A biogalvanic cell is established by placing two differing metal electrodes across a target tissue allowing an electrical tissue-specific internal resistance to be determined. A novel data analysis method using least-squares fitting has been developed to more effectively determine the parameters of the biogalvanic system model proposed in the literature. The validity of the method has been examined through characterization of electrical models, ex vivo porcine tissue, and in vivo porcine tissue. Strong agreement between test results and the proposed characterization model has been shown. However, determined internal resistances are influenced by mechanical strain, current modulation direction and tissue thickness, indicating complexities at the electrode–tissue interface. These complexities undermine some assumptions upon which the biogalvanic model is based. Ultimately this technique could offer potential for use in minimally invasive surgery for discriminating tissue health but requires improved understanding and control of testing conditions. (paper)

  8. A Novel Water Quality Assessment Method Based on Combination BP Neural Network Model and Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As the forefront of complex nonlinear science and artificial intelligence science, artificial neural network has began to be applied in the field of water quality control and planning step by step. According to the fuzzy feature of water quality information, this paper proposes a membership degree Back-Propagation network (MDBP for water quality assessment with combining fuzzy mathematics and artificial neural network. The proposed MDBP model combines the merits of artificial neural network method and fuzzy evaluation method, which overcomes effectively the shortcoming of other assessment methods. With improving the accuracy and reliability of the assessment method, the method has a higher flexibility than other conventional approach and its programs have a better adaptability and more convenient application. The assessment method is closer to the reality with considering the continuity of the changes of water quality environment.

  9. Assessment of thyroid status by laboratory methods: developments and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewendahl, K

    1990-01-01

    Serum protein-bound iodine and in vivo radioiodine tests were employed for over three decades although their usefulness was hampered by interference from iodinated compounds. Tests reflecting thyroid hormone action were therefore used for additional information on thyroid status. Competitive saturation analysis of serum T4 was introduced in the 60s. RIAs for T4 and T3 were not developed until ten years later because of problems in raising polyclonal antibodies to small haptens. Methods for FT4 and FT3 based on equilibrium dialysis of serum labelled with radioiodinated hormone emerged in the 60s, and in the 70s sensitive RIAs enabled direct determination of free hormone concentrations in serum dialysate. Dialysis and ultrafiltration methods are tedious and therefore various free hormone indices, based on total hormone concentrations and tests for unoccupied thyroid hormone-binding sites, have been used right up to our times. In the 80s rapid assays for FT4 and FT3 based on varying principles were developed particularly by commercial companies. Free hormone assays utilizing thyroid hormone analogs as tracers have been criticized because binding of analogs to serum proteins results in spurious values in conditions characterized by thyroid hormone-binding protein abnormalities. Bioassay of TSH was not adopted by the clinical service laboratory because of insufficient analytical sensitivity. The first immunological TSH assay, based on cross-reaction of human and bovine TSH in a hemagglutination inhibition test, was also too insensitive for practical purposes. RIAs for direct determination of normal TSH concentrations were developed in the 60s. The breakthrough in measurement of low TSH concentrations occurred in the 80s with the advent of immunometric assays utilizing monoclonal antibodies. Recently chemiluminescence, fluorescence and enzyme labels have been used for the development of non-isotopic methods for thyroid hormones and TSH. Immunoassay systems for bed

  10. An assessment on epitope prediction methods for protozoa genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Daniela M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epitope prediction using computational methods represents one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development. Reduction of time, cost, and the availability of completely sequenced genomes are key points and highly motivating regarding the use of reverse vaccinology. Parasites of genus Leishmania are widely spread and they are the etiologic agents of leishmaniasis. Currently, there is no efficient vaccine against this pathogen and the drug treatment is highly toxic. The lack of sufficiently large datasets of experimentally validated parasites epitopes represents a serious limitation, especially for trypanomatids genomes. In this work we highlight the predictive performances of several algorithms that were evaluated through the development of a MySQL database built with the purpose of: a evaluating individual algorithms prediction performances and their combination for CD8+ T cell epitopes, B-cell epitopes and subcellular localization by means of AUC (Area Under Curve performance and a threshold dependent method that employs a confusion matrix; b integrating data from experimentally validated and in silico predicted epitopes; and c integrating the subcellular localization predictions and experimental data. NetCTL, NetMHC, BepiPred, BCPred12, and AAP12 algorithms were used for in silico epitope prediction and WoLF PSORT, Sigcleave and TargetP for in silico subcellular localization prediction against trypanosomatid genomes. Results A database-driven epitope prediction method was developed with built-in functions that were capable of: a removing experimental data redundancy; b parsing algorithms predictions and storage experimental validated and predict data; and c evaluating algorithm performances. Results show that a better performance is achieved when the combined prediction is considered. This is particularly true for B cell epitope predictors, where the combined prediction of AAP12 and BCPred12 reached an AUC value

  11. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2012-02-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  12. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Paying special attention to geotechnical hazards such as liquefaction in huge civil projects like urban railways especially in susceptible regions to liquefaction is of great importance. A number of approaches to evaluate the potential for initiation of liquefaction, such as Seed and Idriss...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria, a...... zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....

  13. Platelet function testing: methods of assessment and clinical utility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mylotte, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in the regulation of both thrombosis and haemostasis yet tests of platelet function have, until recently, been exclusively used in the diagnosis and management of bleeding disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated the clinical utility of platelet function testing in patients with cardiovascular disease. The ex vivo measurement of response to antiplatelet therapies (aspirin and clopidogrel), by an ever-increasing array of platelet function tests, is with some assays, predictive of adverse clinical events and thus, represents an emerging area of interest for both the clinician and basic scientist. This review article will describe the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available methods of measuring platelet function and discuss both the limitations and emerging data supporting the role of platelet function studies in clinical practice.

  14. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L N; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J; Dickinson, Mark E; Faber, Sandra M; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Newman, Jeffrey A; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\\Delta\\log(M)$, was calculated and use...

  15. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT METHODS: A CANDELS INVESTIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Faber, Sandra M.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Fontana, Adriano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Gruetzbauch, Ruth [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Johnson, Seth [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pforr, Janine; Dickinson, Mark E. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wiklind, Tommy [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Acquaviva, Viviana [Physics Department, CUNY NYC College of Technology, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A., E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    We present results from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) photometric redshift methods investigation. In this investigation, the results from 11 participants, each using a different combination of photometric redshift code, template spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and priors, are used to examine the properties of photometric redshifts applied to deep fields with broadband multi-wavelength coverage. The photometry used includes U-band through mid-infrared filters and was derived using the TFIT method. Comparing the results, we find that there is no particular code or set of template SEDs that results in significantly better photometric redshifts compared to others. However, we find that codes producing the lowest scatter and outlier fraction utilize a training sample to optimize photometric redshifts by adding zero-point offsets, template adjusting, or adding extra smoothing errors. These results therefore stress the importance of the training procedure. We find a strong dependence of the photometric redshift accuracy on the signal-to-noise ratio of the photometry. On the other hand, we find a weak dependence of the photometric redshift scatter with redshift and galaxy color. We find that most photometric redshift codes quote redshift errors (e.g., 68% confidence intervals) that are too small compared to that expected from the spectroscopic control sample. We find that all codes show a statistically significant bias in the photometric redshifts. However, the bias is in all cases smaller than the scatter; the latter therefore dominates the errors. Finally, we find that combining results from multiple codes significantly decreases the photometric redshift scatter and outlier fraction. We discuss different ways of combining data to produce accurate photometric redshifts and error estimates.

  16. New techniques in nutritional assessment: body composition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Ward, L C

    1999-02-01

    New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past. PMID:10343337

  17. Assessment of a simple ultrasonographic method in estimating fetal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating fetal weight in utero, for better management of pregnancy and appropriate timing of delivery especially in high-risk pregnancies is necessary. Our purpose to evaluate a simple method in estimating fetal weight in Iranian pregnant patients and also to compare was with a previous western study. This study was carried out in Arash hospital, Tehran university of medical sciences in 1996-99. In a descriptive-analytic study that was done prospectively on 464 pregnant patients, ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter (BPD, mean abdominal diameter (MAD, and femur length (FL performed close to delivery was conducted. Birth weight also was identified. Statistical analysis was done using multiple linear regression on the data and also student's T-test for comparison. Mean birth weight was 2320 gr. The outcome of linear regression analysis was the following model: Weight (gr=95.8×FL (cm+25×MAD (cm-15.6×BPD (cm-4632.1. The effect of all parameters were statistically significant (P<0.02. A fetal weight estimating table was also developed. T-test analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05 in some final ranks of table (Weight estimations>4000 gr in comparison with the Rose and Mc callum study. Our study showed that ultrasound using the sum of BPD, MAD and FL is a precise method in fetal weight estimation. Application of other biometric measurements may be needed for better elucidation especially in small and large for gestational age fetuses.

  18. Comparison of methods to assess the sustainability of agricultural systems. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bockstaller, Christian; Guichard, Laurence; Keichinger, Olivier; Girardin, Philippe; Galan, Marie-Béatrice; Gaillard, Gérard

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, numerous agri-environmental indicators and indicator-based methods have been developed to assess the adverse effects of cropping and farming systems such as water pollution by nitrates and pesticides, and gaseous emissions due to nitrogen inputs. This wealth of environmental indicators and assessment methods based on indicators raises issues on the quality of the methods and of the indicators, and on the relevancy of results. Evaluation and comparative studies are therefore ne...

  19. The Reliability and Validity of the Family History Method for Assessing Pathological Gambling and Gambling Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The family history (FH) method, which involves the use of an informant to gather information about one or more family members, has been used in a number of previous gambling studies. However, no evaluation of the reliability and validity has been conducted on the use of the FH method for assessing pathological gambling (PG) and gambling involvement. The current study examined the test-retest and inter-rater reliability and the validity of the FH method for assessing PG and gambling involvemen...

  20. Application and interpretation of multiple statistical tests to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, Martani J; Steyn, Nelia P; Charlton, Karen E; Senekal, Marjanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Several statistical tests are currently applied to evaluate validity of dietary intake assessment methods. However, they provide information on different facets of validity. There is also no consensus on types and combinations of tests that should be applied to reflect acceptable validity for intakes. We aimed to 1) conduct a review to identify the tests and interpretation criteria used where dietary assessment methods was validated against a reference method and 2) illustrate the ...

  1. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  2. Assessment of Nuclear Fuels using Radiographic Thickness Measurement Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Abir; Fahima Islam; Hyoung Koo Lee; Daniel Wachs

    2014-11-01

    The Convert branch of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) focuses on the development of high uranium density fuels for research and test reactors for nonproliferation. This fuel is aimed to convert low density high enriched uranium (HEU) based fuel to high density low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel for high performance research reactors (HPRR). There are five U.S. reactors that fall under the HPRR category, including: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR), the Missouri University Research Reactor (UMRR), the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). U-Mo alloy fuel phase in the form of either monolithic or dispersion foil type fuels, such as ATR Full-size In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR), are being designed for this purpose. The fabrication process1 of RERTR is susceptible to introducing a variety of fuel defects. A dependable quality control method is required during fabrication of RERTR miniplates to maintain the allowable design tolerances, therefore evaluating and analytically verifying the fabricated miniplates for maintaining quality standards as well as safety. The purpose of this work is to analyze the thickness of the fabricated RERTR-12 miniplates using non-destructive technique to meet the fuel plate specification for RERTR fuel to be used in the ATR.

  3. THE FAIR VALUE OF AUTHENTIC AND TRUE METHOD OF ASSESSING THE LIABILITIES OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Travinska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the nature of the category “assessment” in the scientific literature and normative documents; considered the types of assessments in the domestic and international practice; the methodology to assess the fair value of liabilities in accordance with IFRS; recommended methods for assessment of certain types of current liabilities accounting. Also the author describes the case for the use of different systems assessments of reflection of economic operations of the company. Defined the essence and necessity of application of the fair value in respect of the liabilities that would provide a true assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise and rational management accounting.

  4. LERM (Logical Elements Rule Method): A method for assessing and formalizing clinical rules for decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Medlock; D. Opondo; S. Eslami; M. Askari; P. Wierenga; S.E. de Rooij; A. Abu-Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to create a step-by-step method for transforming clinical rules for use in decision support, and to validate this method for usability and reliability. Methods: A sample set of clinical rules was identified from the relevant literature. Using an iterative approach

  5. A Critical Assessment of Stellar Mass Measurement Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Barro, Guillermo; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Lu, Yu; Papovich, Casey J.; Pforr, Janine; Salvato, Mara; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wuyts, Stijn; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Bell, Eric; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Faber, Sandra M.; Fazio, Giovanni; Finlator, Kristian; Galametz, Audrey; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Naveen; Santini, Paola; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2015-07-01

    This is the second paper in a series aimed at investigating the main sources of uncertainty in measuring the observable parameters in galaxies from their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In the first paper we presented a detailed account of the photometric redshift measurements and an error analysis of this process. In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic error in stellar mass estimates for galaxies, and their relative contributions to the associated error budget. Since there is no prior knowledge of the stellar mass of galaxies (unlike their photometric redshifts), we use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. The multi-waveband photometry for the simulated galaxies were generated in 13 filters spanning from U-band to mid-infrared wavelengths. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), SED fitting errors and systematic effects), the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors, we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. For comparison, we also generated catalogs based on observed photometric data of real galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South field, spanning the same passbands. The simulated and observed catalogs were provided to a number of teams within the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey collaboration to estimate the stellar masses for individual galaxies. A total of 11 teams participated, with different combinations of stellar mass measurement codes/methods, population synthesis models, star formation histories, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the differences between the input stellar masses, Minput, and those estimated by each team, Mest, is defined as {{Δ }}{log}(M)\\equiv {log}({M}{estimated})-{log}({M}{input}), and used to

  6. Evaluation of auto-assessment method for C-D analysis based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast-Detail (C-D) analysis is one of the visual quality assessment methods in medical imaging, and many auto-assessment methods for C-D analysis have been developed in recent years. However, for the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis, the effects of nonlinear image processing are not clear. So, we have made an auto-assessment method for C-D analysis using a support vector machine (SVM), and have evaluated its performance for the images processed with a noise reduction method. The feature indexes used in the SVM were the normalized cross correlation (NCC) coefficient on each signal between the noise-free and noised image, the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) on each signal, the radius of each signal, and the Student's t-test statistic for the mean difference between the signal and background pixel values. The results showed that the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by using Student's t-test statistic agreed well with the visual assessment for the non-processed images, but disagreed for the images processed with the noise reduction method. Our results also showed that the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by the SVM made of NCC and CNR agreed well with the visual assessment for the non-processed and noise-reduced images. Therefore, the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by the SVM will be expected to have the robustness for the non-linear image processing. (author)

  7. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5 to 20 000 patients (M2. In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6, the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4.The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%. With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3. Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel.

  8. A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Vehtari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, several methods exist in the statistical literature formodel assessment, which purport themselves specifically as Bayesian predictive methods. The decision theoretic assumptions on which these methodsare based are not always clearly stated in the original articles, however.The aim of this survey is to provide a unified review of Bayesian predictivemodel assessment and selection methods, and of methods closely related tothem. We review the various assumptions that are made in this context anddiscuss the connections between different approaches, with an emphasis onhow each method approximates the expected utility of using a Bayesianmodel for the purpose of predicting future data.

  9. Assessing size of pituitary adenomas: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative methods on MR

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Benjamin M; Carr, Elizabeth; Soh, Calvin; Gnanalingham, Kanna K.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of methods are used for estimating pituitary tumour size in clinical practice and in research. Quantitative methods, such as maximum tumour dimension, and qualitative methods, such as Hardy and Knosp grades, are well established but do not give an accurate assessment of the tumour volume. We therefore sought to compare existing measures of pituitary tumours with more quantitative methods of tumour volume estimation. Method Magnetic resonance imaging was reviewed for 99 co...

  10. AMRAW, Risk Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: AMRAW performs a sequence of calculations for an inventory of radioactive wastes. It consists of two programs: AMRAW-A which evaluates release quantities, dispersion to the environment and pathways for dose to man, and AMRAW-B which evaluates health effects and economic costs resulting from dose to man calculated by AMRAW-A. 2 - Method of solution: AMRAW-A may be run for any of several release scenarios: a) probabilistic distribution of events over time; b) discrete event at specified time; c) several events each at mean time of first occurrence; d) dynamic repository simulation; e) combinations of these. Releases as determined by the Release Model are not necessarily directly to the environment. This is particularly true for deep releases to ground water. The first portion of the Environmental Model is therefore the 'Transport to Environment' section. This adjusts each release increment obtaining the contribution-to- concentrations in environmental input receptors at various times following release. These receptors are: air, ground surface, surface water, and ground water. The adjustment provides for dispersion into each of the several geographical zones comprising the study region, and then accounts for dispersion areas or volumes in each zone. The adjustment also accounts for decay from the time of release to the time being evaluated, transfer between receptors (such as deposition from air onto ground), retardation in ground water flow, and other environmental removal or fixation processes. The last portion of the Environmental Model covers the pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to the population, with dose rate calculations for several organs of concern. Pathways include immersion in air, inhalation, ingestion of ground water and contaminated food and drink (from contaminated ground surface and surface water), submersion in water, and direct surface exposure. AMRAW-B: The matrix of local

  11. Evaluation and selection of decision-making methods to assess landfill mining projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Vorbach, Stefan; Ragossnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-09-01

    For the first time in Austria, fundamental technological and economic studies on recovering secondary raw materials from large landfills have been carried out, based on the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Austria' pilot project. A main focus of the research - and the subject of this article - was to develop an assessment or decision-making procedure that allows landfill owners to thoroughly examine the feasibility of a landfill mining project in advance. Currently there are no standard procedures that would sufficiently cover all the multiple-criteria requirements. The basic structure of the multiple attribute decision making process was used to narrow down on selection, conceptual design and assessment of suitable procedures. Along with a breakdown into preliminary and main assessment, the entire foundation required was created, such as definitions of requirements to an assessment method, selection and accurate description of the various assessment criteria and classification of the target system for the present 'landfill mining' vs. 'retaining the landfill in after-care' decision-making problem. Based on these studies, cost-utility analysis and the analytical-hierarchy process were selected from the range of multiple attribute decision-making procedures and examined in detail. Overall, both methods have their pros and cons with regard to their use for assessing landfill mining projects. Merging these methods or connecting them with single-criteria decision-making methods (like the net present value method) may turn out to be reasonable and constitute an appropriate assessment method. PMID:26123349

  12. Method of synchronization assessment of rythms in regulatory systems for signal analysis in real time

    OpenAIRE

    Borovkova E.l.; Ishbulatov Yu.M.; Mironov S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed for quantitative assessment of the phase synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations in autonomic cardiovascular control by photoplethysmogram analysis in real time. The efficiency of the method is shown in the comparison with the results obtained by the previously developed method.

  13. Method of synchronization assessment of rythms in regulatory systems for signal analysis in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovkova E.l.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for quantitative assessment of the phase synchronization of 0.1 Hz oscillations in autonomic cardiovascular control by photoplethysmogram analysis in real time. The efficiency of the method is shown in the comparison with the results obtained by the previously developed method.

  14. The Application of Synthetic Fuzzy Assessing Method in Measurement and Control System of Plating Solution Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓兵; 费敏锐; 陈维刚

    2004-01-01

    The synthetic fuzzy assessing method is usually applied to sensory evaluation. The method has simple and reliable virtue, and it is consistent with objective evaluation results. Using this method, system status of plating solution evaporator is evaluated, and the result is applied to compensate a fuzzy controller. Experimental results have shown the correctness and the validity of the proposed approach.

  15. Simple fractal method of assessment of histological images for application in medical diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Stepien, Robert; Stepien, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We propose new method of assessment of histological images for medical diagnostics. 2-D image is preprocessed to form 1-D landscapes or 1-D signature of the image contour and then their complexity is analyzed using Higuchi's fractal dimension method. The method may have broad medical application, from choosing implant materials to differentiation between benign masses and malignant breast tumors.

  16. Improved methods for national water assessment, water resources contract: WR15249270

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Harold A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to develop methods to make National Water Assessment more useful in estimating water availability for economic growth and more helpful in determining the effect of water resource development upon the environmental quality of related land resources. There are serious questions pertaining to the 1975 Water Assessment and these amplify the significance of decisions made as to the planning and scheduling of the next assessment.

  17. A method of assessment of teaching practices and trainers by their trainees

    OpenAIRE

    Charlewood, John E.; Airlie, Ian

    1986-01-01

    A method of assessment is described which can be used by trainees at the end of their vocational training in general practice. The assessment allows trainees to make ratings and comments on their teaching practices that can be returned confidentially to their trainers. The results of this assessment suggest that trainees in the Northumbria vocational training scheme are reasonably satisfied with their trainers and training practices.

  18. Comparison between conventional tomography & radiovisiography methods for assessment of presurgical dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Talaei Pour AR.; Mehralizadeh S.; Mesgarzadeh A

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are major parts of the occupational diseases in workplaces. Protection from such diseases is dependent on assessment and improvement of job postures by using job analysis methods in ergonomics. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate ergonomic conditions in dental professions by rapid entire body assessment (REBA) in Birjand city and also to assess the relation between MSDS in different parts of the body and work conditions. Materials a...

  19. Methods of assessing the environmental quality of socio-economic development of regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinbaeva EkaterinaAleksandrovna; Shelomencev Andrej Gennad'evich; Doroshenko Svetlana Victorovna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the methods of an ecological quality assessment of the regional social and economic development strategies, which is based on system of the criteria considering an inclusiveness of an ecological factor in the analysis of the problems of regional development, the development to scenario conditions, the definition of the priority ecological purposes and the directions of regional development, level of state regulation, productivity assessment. Results of an assessment are a...

  20. Development of the Assessment Items of Debris Flow Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yosep; Seong, Joohyun; Kim, Mingi; Park, Kyunghan; Yoon, Hyungkoo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years in Korea, Typhoon and the localized extreme rainfall caused by the abnormal climate has increased. Accordingly, debris flow is becoming one of the most dangerous natural disaster. This study aimed to develop the assessment items which can be used for conducting damage investigation of debris flow. Delphi method was applied to classify the realms of assessment items. As a result, 29 assessment items which can be classified into 6 groups were determined.

  1. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L., E-mail: linda.veldhuizen@wur.nl [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands); Berentsen, P.B.M. [Business Economics group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, I.J.M. de [Animal Production Systems group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  2. A method to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries: An application to a Norwegian trawler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries is, both in terms of method development and measurement, not well developed. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop a method consisting of indicators and rubrics (i.e. categories that articulate levels of performance) to assess social sustainability of capture fisheries. This method was applied to a Norwegian trawler that targets cod and haddock in the northeast Atlantic. Based on previous research, 13 social sustainability issues were selected. To measure the state of these issues, 17 process and outcome indicators were determined. To interpret indicator values, rubrics were developed for each indicator, using standards set by international conventions or data retrieved from national statistics, industry agreements or scientific publications that explore rubric scales. The indicators and rubrics were subsequently used in a social sustainability assessment of a Norwegian trawler. This assessment indicated that overall, social sustainability of this trawler is relatively high, with high rubric scores, for example, for worker safety, provisions aboard for the crew and companies' salary levels. The assessment also indicated that the trawler could improve on healthy working environment, product freshness and fish welfare during capture. This application demonstrated that our method provides insight into social sustainability at the level of the vessel and can be used to identify potential room for improvement. This method is also promising for social sustainability assessment of other capture fisheries. - Highlights: • A method was developed for social sustainability assessment of capture fisheries. • This method entailed determining outcome and process indicators for important issues. • To interpret indicator values, a rubric was developed for each indicator. • Use of this method gives insight into social sustainability and improvement options. • This method is promising for social

  3. A Method for Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management of Rockbursts in Drill and Blast Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Feng, Guang-Liang; Chen, Bing-Rui; Chen, Dong-Fang; Duan, Shu-Qian

    2016-08-01

    Focusing on the problems caused by rockburst hazards in deep tunnels, such as casualties, damage to construction equipment and facilities, construction schedule delays, and project cost increase, this research attempts to present a methodology for dynamic risk assessment and management of rockbursts in D&B tunnels. The basic idea of dynamic risk assessment and management of rockbursts is determined, and methods associated with each step in the rockburst risk assessment and management process are given, respectively. Among them, the main parts include a microseismic method for early warning the occurrence probability of rockburst risk, an estimation method that aims to assess potential consequences of rockburst risk, an evaluation method that utilizes a new quantitative index considering both occurrence probability and consequences for determining the level of rockburst risk, and the dynamic updating. Specifically, this research briefly describes the referenced microseismic method of warning rockburst, but focuses on the analysis of consequences and associated risk assessment and management of rockburst. Using the proposed method of risk assessment and management of rockburst, the occurrence probability, potential consequences, and the level of rockburst risk can be obtained in real-time during tunnel excavation, which contributes to the dynamic optimisation of risk mitigation measures and their application. The applicability of the proposed method has been verified by those cases from the Jinping II deep headrace and water drainage tunnels at depths of 1900-2525 m (with a length of 11.6 km in total for D&B tunnels).

  4. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1314 and Method 1315

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two leaching methods under review by the U.S. EPA’s OSWER for inclusion into the EPA’s SW-846: Method 1314: Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Liquid...

  5. A Review of Data Quality Assessment Methods for Public Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hailey, David; Wang, Ning; Yu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    High quality data and effective data quality assessment are required for accurately evaluating the impact of public health interventions and measuring public health outcomes. Data, data use, and data collection process, as the three dimensions of data quality, all need to be assessed for overall data quality assessment. We reviewed current data quality assessment methods. The relevant study was identified in major databases and well-known institutional websites. We found the dimension of data was most frequently assessed. Completeness, accuracy, and timeliness were the three most-used attributes among a total of 49 attributes of data quality. The major quantitative assessment methods were descriptive surveys and data audits, whereas the common qualitative assessment methods were interview and documentation review. The limitations of the reviewed studies included inattentiveness to data use and data collection process, inconsistency in the definition of attributes of data quality, failure to address data users’ concerns and a lack of systematic procedures in data quality assessment. This review study is limited by the coverage of the databases and the breadth of public health information systems. Further research could develop consistent data quality definitions and attributes. More research efforts should be given to assess the quality of data use and the quality of data collection process. PMID:24830450

  6. THE METHODICAL APPRACH TO THE PRODUCTIVE PERSONNEL EMPLOYEMENT ASSESSMENT BASED ON FUSSY LOGIC CLUSTERING

    OpenAIRE

    Dioba, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the use of EM algorithm of fuzzy clustering analysis to assess the level of productive personnel employment at industrial enterprises. The methodical approach of the productive personnel employment assessing is suggested. The criteria for evaluating the productive personnel employment are developed in the article.

  7. Nutritional Informatics: Mining Supermarket Sales Data as a Nutritional Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Kristina Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Many nutritional assessment techniques, including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour dietary recalls have innate limitations such as expensive protocols, high respondent burden, and self-reporting biases. Supermarket sales data have shown promise as a new, indirect, inexpensive nutritional assessment method in recent studies. The…

  8. 76 FR 71934 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... addresses the rulemaking matter covered in a Federal Register document published March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15859... Farm Service Agency Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods... and importer assessments that fund the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP). It is in response...

  9. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  10. Errata: A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Vehtari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Errata for “A survey of Bayesian predictive methods for model assessment, selection and comparison” by A. Vehtari and J. Ojanen, Statistics Surveys, 6 (2012, 142–228. doi:10.1214/12-SS102.

  11. Analysis of methods and assessment criterions of technical state gas-compressor units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Д. Лановий

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have observed perspective methods of diagnostic gas-compressor units at various stages of their maintenance phase and the optimal and informative assessment criterion of their technical state.

  12. Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic Method of Friction Stir Weld Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project is demonstration of the feasibility of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) assessment by novel Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) method. Time...

  13. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  14. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way

  15. Assessment of health-care waste disposal methods using a VIKOR-based fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hu-Chen [School of Management, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Wu, Jing [Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Ping, E-mail: yiwuchulp@126.com [Shanghai Pudong New Area Zhoupu Hospital, No. 135 Guanyue Road, Shanghai 201318 (China); East Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, No. 150 Jimo Road, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Propose a VIKOR-based fuzzy MCDM technique for evaluating HCW disposal methods. • Linguistic variables are used to assess the ratings and weights for the criteria. • The OWA operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers. • A case study is given to illustrate the procedure of the proposed framework. - Abstract: Nowadays selection of the appropriate treatment method in health-care waste (HCW) management has become a challenge task for the municipal authorities especially in developing countries. Assessment of HCW disposal alternatives can be regarded as a complicated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem which requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and conflicting tangible and intangible criteria. The objective of this paper is to present a new MCDM technique based on fuzzy set theory and VIKOR method for evaluating HCW disposal methods. Linguistic variables are used by decision makers to assess the ratings and weights for the established criteria. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator is utilized to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group assessment. The computational procedure of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities of China. The HCW treatment alternatives considered in this study include “incineration”, “steam sterilization”, “microwave” and “landfill”. The results obtained using the proposed approach are analyzed in a comparative way.

  16. School, Department, and Instructor Determinants of Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Economics Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Schaur; Michael Watts; William E. Becker

    2012-01-01

    We identify factors related to instructors’ choice of assessment methods in undergraduate economics courses, using national survey data collected in 1995, 2000, and 2005. Respondents were asked to indicate which of 10 different assessment methods they used in four different types of courses (principles, intermediate theory, econometrics and statistics, and other upper-division field courses), and to provide background information on school, department, and individual factors that might influe...

  17. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  18. Factors influencing selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dańko, J.; Holtzer, M.; R. Dańko

    2007-01-01

    The paper dealt with such problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands as: management of used sands generated in foundry production, recommendation of selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality, identification methods and an environmental impact assessment of spent sands from foundry technologies, moulding and core sands of an increased reclamability and a decreased harmfulness for ...

  19. DL-PRO: A Novel Deep Learning Method for Protein Model Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son P.; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction is very important for many applications in bioinformatics. In the process of predicting protein structures, it is essential to accurately assess the quality of generated models. Although many single-model quality assessment (QA) methods have been developed, their accuracy is not high enough for most real applications. In this paper, a new approach based on C-α atoms distance matrix and machine learning methods is proposed for single-model QA and the ...

  20. A fast cost-assessment method for boiler equipment made of noble materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is aimed at assessing equipment costs for preliminary technical-economic studies or succinct project evaluation. Advantages and disadvantages of nobles metals such as nickel, tantalum, titanium, zirconium ... are reviewed. The economic evaluation method is based on a combination of parametric techniques and statistical results, and allows for the assessment of the various cost components as a function of mass, design and manufacturing complexity in the context of industrial specific operating constraints. 3 figs., 6 tabs., 2 refs

  1. Improved methods for reliability assessments of safety-critical systems: An application example for BOP systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pinker, Remi

    2012-01-01

    The failure of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig's blowout preventer has been pointed to as one of the main causes of the Macondo accident on April 10th 2010. The blowout preventer system is one the most important safety barriers in a hydrocarbon well. The accident has created a demand for improved methods of assessing the reliability of blowout preventer systems. The objective of this master thesis is to propose improvements to current reliability assessment methods for complex safety criti...

  2. Methods for assessing the environmental risks from the resistant pesticide contamination

    OpenAIRE

    T. Moklyachuk

    2014-01-01

    Methods of assessing environmental risk has been considered in order to identify and then apply an optimal recovery method of remediation of soils contaminated with persistent pesticides. Value of risk from contamination in two different models — the situational risk and CalTOX has been counted and compared. A mathematical model that describes a distribution of the site contamination by persistent pesticides depending on the distance from the depot, and gives an opportunity to assess the si...

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrates in lake ecological assessment: A review of methods, intercalibration and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikane, Sandra; Johnson, Richard K; Sandin, Leonard; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Solimini, Angelo G; Urbanič, Gorazd; Arbačiauskas, Kęstutis; Aroviita, Jukka; Gabriels, Wim; Miler, Oliver; Pusch, Martin T; Timm, Henn; Böhmer, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Legislation in Europe has been adopted to determine and improve the ecological integrity of inland and coastal waters. Assessment is based on four biotic groups, including benthic macroinvertebrate communities. For lakes, benthic invertebrates have been recognized as one of the most difficult organism groups to use in ecological assessment, and hitherto their use in ecological assessment has been limited. In this study, we review and intercalibrate 13 benthic invertebrate-based tools across Europe. These assessment tools address different human impacts: acidification (3 methods), eutrophication (3 methods), morphological alterations (2 methods), and a combination of the last two (5 methods). For intercalibration, the methods were grouped into four intercalibration groups, according to the habitat sampled and putative pressure. Boundaries of the 'good ecological status' were compared and harmonized using direct or indirect comparison approaches. To enable indirect comparison of the methods, three common pressure indices and two common biological multimetric indices were developed for larger geographical areas. Additionally, we identified the best-performing methods based on their responsiveness to different human impacts. Based on these experiences, we provide practical recommendations for the development and harmonization of benthic invertebrate assessment methods in lakes and similar habitats. PMID:26580734

  4. Suitability of voltage stability study methods for real-time assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Vancraeyveld, Pieter;

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the suitability of existing methods for long-term voltage stability assessment for real-time operation. An overview of the relevant methods is followed with a comparison that takes into account the accuracy, computational efficiency and characteristics when used for security...... assessment. The results enable an evaluation of the run time of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, the results assist in identifying which of the methods is most suitable for realtime operation in future power system with production based on fluctuating energy sources....

  5. Problems of method of technology assessment. A methodological analysis; Methodenprobleme des Technology Assessment; Eine methodologische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, V.

    1993-03-01

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members` mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical `skeleton` of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Studie stellt sich die Aufgabe, die theoretische und methodische Struktur des Technology Assessment (TA) zu analysieren. Sie fusst auf Erhebungen, die bei Technology-Assessment-Studien vorgenommen wurden und die wesentliche Voraussetzungen fuer

  6. The HTA core model: a novel method for producing and reporting health technology assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Kristian; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Garrido, Marcial Velasco;

    2009-01-01

    comprehensive HTA into standardized pieces, the assessment elements. Each element contains a generic issue that is translated into practical research questions while performing an assessment. Elements were described in detail in element cards. Two pilot assessments, designated as Core HTAs were also produced......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and test a generic framework to enable international collaboration for producing and sharing results of health technology assessments (HTAs). METHODS: Ten international teams constructed the HTA Core Model, dividing information contained in a...

  7. Development of a Novel Method for Assessing Balance: the Quantitative Posturography System

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Jacinta; O'Hare, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while sitting or standing. There are a number of different methods, which are used to assess balance: technical methods such as Sway Magnetometry, Ataxia Meter and Force Platforms and clinical methods such as Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Test and Fall Risk Index. The most frequently used technical method is the force platform. There are two types of Force Platform a static and a dynamic Force Platform of which the dynamic Force Platform ha...

  8. Assessment Of Joints Using Friction Stir Welding And Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lacki P.; Więckowski W.; Wieczorek P.

    2015-01-01

    FSW (Friction Stir Welding) and RFSSW (Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding) joints have been increasingly used in industrial practice. They successfully replace fusion-welded, riveted or resistance-welded joints. In the last two decades, dynamic development of this method has stimulated investigations of the fast methods for joint diagnostics. These methods should be non-destructive and easy to be used in technological processes. The methods of assessment of joint quality are expected to detect...

  9. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine the runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed ...

  10. Assessment of waveform control method for mitigation of low-frequency current ripple

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, GR; Wang, HR; Xiao, CY; Kang, Y.; Tan, SC

    2013-01-01

    Waveform control method can mitigate such a low-frequency ripple current being drawn from the DC distribution while the DC distribution system delivers AC power to the load through a differential inverter. Assessment on the waveform control method and comparative study between with and without waveform control method are proposed in this paper1. Experimental results are provided to explain the operation and showcase the performance between with and without the waveform control method. Results...

  11. The phaseness of human biological development assesse with the use of selected physicochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Czapla, Zbigniew

    2000-01-01

    The principal idea of the work was to show a new, original method of description of the phenomena of human biological development with the use of nonstandard research methods so far unused in the ontogenetic studies in regard to the stable and involutional phases of ontogenesis. The main purpose of the work was to assess with selected methods individual reactions of a human organism in ontogenesis against the development of the population. Two research methods were selec...

  12. How Assessment Methods Can Support Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Zurbrügg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting actions for improvement of solid waste management in low and middle income countries and understanding how a specific decision choice will fit and impact on a local context is key to identifying sustainable solutions. Assessment of the choice (be it technical or managerial and assessment of the local enabling or disabling conditions are both important steps in the decision making process. Various assessment tools and methods are currently available to support decision-making in solid waste management. Assessment can be used to identify weaknesses or strengths of existing systems in a structured way and hereby highlight factors of success and failure. Assessment methods can also evaluate and compare different possible choices as in project scenarios. This overview describes established and innovative assessment methods serving both these purposes. A range of assessment tools are often designed to assess a specific sustainability domain (technical, environmental and health, economic and financial, social and institutional, organizational aspects, others attempt to provide a more holistic picture by integrating different sustainability domains into the same tool. This paper reviews a number of methods describing and discussing each of them, and referring to their use in low and middle-income countries if published in scientific literature. The overview concludes that in low- and middle-income countries the use of comprehensive assessment methods is yet very limited. We hypothesize that most formal methods of assessment are still too complex and generally overburden the weak local capacities intended for their usage. The few applications identified, were conducted by academia for scientific purposes. Lack of resources to collect the vast data required for some assessment methods is a further restriction to their practical application. Future development is suggested to improve user friendliness of existing tools or to simplify certain

  13. Optimisation and validation of methods to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in archival histological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, C N; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Overgaard, J;

    2004-01-01

    only archival specimens are available. This study was conducted to validate protocols optimised for assessment of SNPs based on paraffin embedded, formalin fixed tissue samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 breast cancer patients, three TGFB1 SNPs were assessed based on archival histological specimens....... In 37 of these patients, the SNPs were also assessed using cultured fibroblasts and the assays were validated by direct comparison of the results. From the remaining 100 patients, only archival material was available. In these patients, the existence of a genetic linkage pattern between the assessed...... precipitation). RESULTS: Assessment of SNPs based on archival histological material is encumbered by a number of obstacles and pitfalls. However, these can be widely overcome by careful optimisation of the methods used for sample selection, DNA extraction and PCR. Within 130 samples that fulfil the criteria...

  14. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  15. Online probabilistic operational safety assessment of multi-mode engineering systems using Bayesian methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, engineering systems become more and more complex, and generally work at different operational modes. Since incipient fault can lead to dangerous accidents, it is crucial to develop strategies for online operational safety assessment. However, the existing online assessment methods for multi-mode engineering systems commonly assume that samples are independent, which do not hold for practical cases. This paper proposes a probabilistic framework of online operational safety assessment of multi-mode engineering systems with sample dependency. To begin with, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to characterize multiple operating modes. Then, based on the definition of safety index (SI), the SI for one single mode is calculated. At last, the Bayesian method is presented to calculate the posterior probabilities belonging to each operating mode with sample dependency. The proposed assessment strategy is applied in two examples: one is the aircraft gas turbine, another is an industrial dryer. Both examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method

  16. Measurement properties of exsisting clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H;

    2014-01-01

    MEASUREMENT PROPERTIES OF EXISTING CLINICAL ASSESSMENT METHODS EVALUATING SCAPULAR POSITIONING AND FUNCTION. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW1,2Camilla Marie Larsen, 1,3Birgit Juul-Kristensen, 1,3Hans Lund, 1Karen Søgaard1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark2...... of the available clinical scapular assessment methods and critically appraise the methodological quality of the involved studies. METHODS A systematic, computer-assisted literature search using Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus and EMBASE was performed from inception to October 2013. Reference lists in...... groups: Static positioning assessment (n=19), Semi-dynamic (n=13), and Dynamic functional assessment (n=22). Fifteen studies were excluded for evaluation due to no/few clinimetric results, leaving 35 studies for evaluation. Graded according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health...

  17. The Use of MIVES as a Sustainability Assessment MCDM Method for Architecture and Civil Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Pons

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and sustainability assessment tools have an important role in moving towards a better world, bringing knowledge and raising awareness. In the architecture and civil engineering sector, these assessment tools help in moving forward to constructions that have less economic, environmental and social impacts. At present, there are numerous assessment tools and methods with different approaches and scopes that have been analyzed in numerous technical reviews. However, there is no agreement about which method should be used for each evaluation case. This research paper synthetically analyzes the main sustainability assessment methods for the construction sector, comparing their strengths and weaknesses in order to present the challenges of the Spanish Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessment (MIVES. MIVES is a Multi-Criteria Decision Making method based on the value function concept and the Seminars of experts. Then, this article analyzes MIVES advantages and weak points by going through its methodology and two representative applications. At the end, the area of application of MIVES is described in detail along with the general application cases of the main types of assessment tools and methods.

  18. Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfeng; ZHANG; Feng; LIU; Yuangang; ZU; Qingying; MENG; Baoguo; ZHU; Nannan; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment,the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil,the panting method was direct planting,and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a direct planting method was 105 GJ/hm2on average for two years,while that of the conventional tillage method was 112 GJ/hm2per year. The ratio of output to input showed that the direct planting with no tillage was more efficient( 3. 61) than the conventional tillage( 3. 01). Moreover,the emission of CO2into the atmosphere with no tillage and the direct planting was 71% of the conventional tillage planting technique. Therefore,direct planting without tillage reduces the impact on the environment.

  19. Development of concepts for human labour accounting in Emergy Assessment and other Environmental Sustainability Assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    no agreement on the calculation method for labour. We formalise the calculation of human labour unit emergy values (UEVs) as being the ratio between the emergy resource basis of the labour system and a proxy for labour, with or without allocation to account for different qualities of labour. The...... formalised calculation approach is demonstrated using examples from the literature (USA, with allocation based on educational level; Ghana, with allocation based on income level; the World, with no allocation). We elaborate on how labour may be considered as endogenous or exogenous to the studied system, and...... how inputs can be categorised as direct labour taking place in the system under study and indirect labour occurring upstream in the supply chain associated with the studied system. With appropriate modifications, the formalised calculation approach and the distinction between direct and indirect...

  20. Simulation testing the robustness of stock assessment models to error: some results from the ICES strategic initiative on stock assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deroba, J. J.; Butterworth, D. S.; Methot, R. D.;

    2015-01-01

    The World Conference on Stock Assessment Methods (July 2013) included a workshop on testing assessment methods through simulations. The exercise was made up of two steps applied to datasets from 14 representative fish stocks from around the world. Step 1 involved applying stock assessments to dat...

  1. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods have been developed to reduce atmospheric emissions from the agricultural use of highly volatile pesticides and mitigate their adverse environmental effects. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using simulation model in this study...

  2. A Novel Method for Assessment of Polyethylene Liner Wear in Radiopaque Tantalum Acetabular Cups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Anders; Greene, Meridith E; Ayers, David C;

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiostereometric analysis (RSA) for wear is not possible in patients with tantalum cups. We propose a novel method for wear analysis in tantalum cups. Wear was assessed by gold standard RSA and the novel method in total hip arthroplasty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled...

  3. What Type of Evidence Is Provided through the Portfolio Assessment Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Winifred C.

    The validity of assumptions that portfolios complement other assessment methods and yield more reliable and valid data than do traditional methods was studied. More specifically, focus was on examining whether: achievement level (characterized by scores, ranks, and group membership) varies significantly with differing definitions and usage of…

  4. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo;

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques. The...

  5. European forest carbon balance assessed with inventory based methods - An introduction to a special section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Werf, van der D.C.; Heidema, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to a special section on inventory based methods to assess the European forest carbon balance. The five papers cover ground based as well as remote sensing based methods, and their combinations and novel modeling efforts for the whole of European forests and forest soils

  6. Revised assessment of cancer risk to dichloromethane II. Application of probabilistic methods to cancer risk determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    David, Raymond M.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Covington, Tammie R.; Morgott, David A.; Marino, Dale J.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: analysis;chemically induced;Carcinogens;Dose-Response Relationship,Drug;Environment;genetics;Glutathione;Glutathione Transferase;Humans;Inhalation Exposure;Laboratories;metabolism;methods;Markov Chains;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Methylene Chloride;Models,Biological;Monte Carlo Method;Neoplasms;pharmacokinetics;Polymorphism,Genetic;Risk Assessment;toxicity.

  7. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 4. Advanced methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  8. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 3. Laboratory methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  9. Methods for assessing quality characteristics of non-grain starch staples. (Part 2. Field Methods.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bainbridge, Z.; Tomlins, K.; Wellings, K; Westby, A.

    1996-01-01

    This manual sets out in a four-part publication the main methods necessary to evaluate the quality characteristics of nongrain starch staple (NGSS) food crops (cassava, sweet potato, banana, plantain, yam and cocoyam) and their processed products. It is designed to be a reference source and laboratory guide for food analysis laboratories and those concerned with the quality of NGSS. It is hoped that the provision of this manual and its active promotion through workshops will assist in the upt...

  10. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  11. Assessing Strategy of Power Transformers Insulation State Based on Part-division and Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ruijin; LIU Bin; ZHANG Yiyi; YANG Lijun; ZHENG Hanbo

    2013-01-01

    Failure mechanisms of power transformers are complex and uncertain; it is difficult to determine index weights of insulation state.Therefore,it is a challenge to acquire an accurate assessment of insulation state of power transformers.In this paper,an assessing strategy for transformer insulation is proposed base on part-division of transformer and a comprehensive weight determination method.An index system of transformer is established on the basis of part-division of transformer.Each index's weight is consisted of two parts,the constant weight and the variable weight,which are determined by improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy method respectively.After categorizing insulation state into four levels and standardizing assessing indexes,a Cauchy membership function is forged,and a fuzzy algorithm is employed to simulate the uncertainty of the insulation state.Finally,a confidence criterion is employed to perform part-division based condition assessment of transformer.Case studies reveal that the proposed assessing strategy method is effective,convenient,and practical; with the new strategy,potential failures of transformers can be forecasted and insulation state of transformer parts can also be assessed.Furthermore,the assessing results can be used to guide condition-based maintenance.

  12. Selection of the appropriate method for the assessment of insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borai Anwar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insulin resistance is one of the major aggravating factors for metabolic syndrome. There are many methods available for estimation of insulin resistance which range from complex techniques down to simple indices. For all methods of assessing insulin resistance it is essential that their validity and reliability is established before using them as investigations. The reference techniques of hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and its alternative the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test are the most reliable methods available for estimating insulin resistance. However, many simple methods, from which indices can be derived, have been assessed and validated e.g. homeostasis model assessment (HOMA, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI. Given the increasing number of simple indices of IR it may be difficult for clinicians and researchers to select the most appropriate index for their studies. This review therefore provides guidelines and advices which must be considered before proceeding with a study.

  13. Assessment of modern methods of human factor reliability analysis in PSA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is structured as follows: Classical terms and objects (Probabilistic safety assessment as a framework for human reliability assessment; Human failure within the PSA model; Basic types of operator failure modelled in a PSA study and analyzed by HRA methods; Qualitative analysis of human reliability; Quantitative analysis of human reliability used; Process of analysis of nuclear reactor operator reliability in a PSA study); New terms and objects (Analysis of dependences; Errors of omission; Errors of commission; Error forcing context); and Overview and brief assessment of human reliability analysis (Basic characteristics of the methods; Assets and drawbacks of the use of each of HRA method; History and prospects of the use of the methods). (P.A.)

  14. Survey of probabilistic methods in safety and risk assessment for nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an overview about the goals and general methods of probabilistic approaches in nuclear safety the main features of probabilistic safety or risk assessment (PRA) methods are discussed. Mostly in practical applications not a full-fledged PRA is applied but rather various levels of analysis leading from unavailability assessment of systems over the more complex analysis of the probable core damage stages up to the assessment of the overall health effects on the total population from a certain practice. The various types of application are discussed in relation to their limitation and benefits for different stages of design or operation of nuclear power plants. This gives guidance for licensing staff to judge the usefulness of the various methods for their licensing decisions. Examples of the application of probabilistic methods in several countries are given. Two appendices on reliability analysis and on containment and consequence analysis provide some more details on these subjects. (author)

  15. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  16. Assessment of climate change statistical downscaling methods: Application and comparison of two statistical methods to a single site in Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Pedro Miguel de Almeida Garrett Graça

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts are very dependent on regional geographical features, local climate variability, and socio-economic conditions. Impact assessment studies on climate change should therefore be performed at the local or at most at the regional level for the evaluation of possible consequences. However, climate scenarios are produced by Global Circulation Models for the entire Globe with spatial resolutions of several hundred kilometres. For this reason, downscaling methods are need...

  17. Objective video quality assessment method for freeze distortion based on freeze aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.

  18. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Kui Zhang; Weizhong Yan; De-Mi Cui

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns a...

  19. Assessment of right liver graft perfusion effectiveness between one and two-catheter infusion methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Bo-Hyun; Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Kang, Sung-Hwa; Yoon, Young-In; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Conventional graft perfusion method using one small-caliber catheter takes a relatively long time for right liver graft perfusion, thus some modification is needed. In this study, we intended to assess the effectiveness of right liver graft perfusion methods through comparison of different infusion catheters. Methods The study consisted of two parts including one bench experiment to obtain data of hydraulic infusion and one clinical trial of 40 cases on graft perfusion with o...

  20. Assessing distractors and teamwork during surgery: developing an event-based method for direct observation

    OpenAIRE

    Seelandt, J. C.; Tschan, Franziska; Keller, S.; Beldi, Guido; Jenni, N.; Kurmann, Anita; Candinas, Daniel; Semmer, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a behavioural observation method to simultaneously assess distractors and communication/teamwork during surgical procedures through direct, on-site observations; to establish the reliability of the method for long (>3 h) procedures. METHODS: Observational categories for an event-based coding system were developed based on expert interviews, observations and a literature review. Using Cohen's κ and the intraclass correlation coefficient, interobserver agreem...

  1. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Reisinger, K.; Hoffmann, S; Alépée, N.; Ashikaga, T.; Barroso, J; Elcombe, C.; Gellatly, N.; V. Galbiati; Gibbs, S.; Groux, H; Hibatallah, J.; Keller, D.(University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22901, USA); Kern, P.; Klaric, M.; Kolle, S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitisation potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods –...

  2. The method for assessing and forecasting value of knowledge in SMEs: Research results

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska; Hannes Werthner

    2010-01-01

    Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007). Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effective...

  3. Methodical approaches to assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysyachna Yunna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of basic methodical approaches to assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio, identification of specific features of their practical application and justification of selection of the most appropriate for the modern economic conditions. The article considers three main groups of methods of assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio: expert evaluation methods and statistical and analytical methods. It goes without saying that in order to obtain an objective assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio it is necessary to apply a complex approach, however, due to some advantages and shortcomings of the studied methods, the author marks expediency of building an integral indicator, taxonomic in particular, in order to obtain a complex, objective and efficient assessment of the bank loan portfolio. Prospects of further studies in this direction are assessment of the quality of the loan portfolio of the first group banks by the size of their assets through building integral taxonomic indicators and identification, on this basis, of factors that influence the quality of the loan portfolio with the aim of improvement of the mechanism of management of the bank lending activity.

  4. Using Experience Sampling Methods/Ecological Momentary Assessment (ESM/EMA) in Clinical Assessment and Clinical Research: Introduction to the Special Section

    OpenAIRE

    Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on experience sampling methods and ecological momentary assessment in clinical assessment. We review the conceptual basis for experience sampling methods (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1987) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA; Stone & Shiffman, 1994). Next, we highlight several advantageous features of ESM/EMA as applied to psychological assessment and clinical research. We provide a brief overview of the articles in this special section, ea...

  5. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  6. An urban flood risk assessment method using the Bayesian Network approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra

    Flooding is one of the most damaging natural hazards to human societies. Recent decades have shown that flooding constitutes major threats worldwide, and due to anticipated climate change the occurrence of damaging flood events is expected to increase. Urban areas are especially vulnerable to...... flood risk scoping, flood risk assessment (FRA), and adaptation implementation and involves an ongoing process of assessment, reassessment, and response. This thesis mainly focuses on the FRA phase of FRM. FRA includes hazard analysis and impact assessment (combined called a risk analysis), adaptation...... Bayesian Network (BN) approach is developed, and the method is exemplified in an urban catchment. BNs have become an increasingly popular method for describing complex systems and aiding decision-making under uncertainty. In environmental management, BNs have mainly been utilized in ecological assessments...

  7. A method of risk assessment for a multi-plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is presented which can be used in conjunction with probabilistic risk assessment to estimate whether a site on which there are several plants (reactors or chemical plants containing radioactive materials) meets whatever risk acceptance criteria or numerical risk guidelines are applied at the time of the assessment in relation to various groups of people and for various sources of risk. The application of the multi-plant site model to the direct and inverse methods of risk assessment is described. A method is proposed by which the potential hazard rating associated with a given plant can be quantified so that an appropriate allocation can be made when assessing the risks associated with each of the plants on a site. (author)

  8. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; DENG Chao; SHAO XinYu; XIE S Q

    2009-01-01

    With the applications of high technology, a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions. So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level. This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available. The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment. A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built. A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  9. Assessment and Improving Methods of Reliability Indices in Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrezaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of a system is the ability of a system to do prospected duties in future and the probability of desirable operation for doing predetermined duties. Power system elements failures data are the main data of reliability assessment in the network. Determining antiseptic parameters is the goal of reliability assessment by using system history data. These parameters help to recognize week points of the system. In other words, the goal of reliability assessment is operation improving and decreasing of the failures and power outages. This paper is developed to assess reliability indices of Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company up to 1393 and the improving methods and their effects on the reliability indices in this network. DIgSILENT Power Factory software is employed for simulation. Simulation results show the positive effect of improving methods in reliability indices of Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company.

  10. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the applications of high technology,a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions.So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level.This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available.The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment.A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built.A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  11. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine the...... runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed power resources (DER). A comparison of the performance of the analyzed methods leads to the suggestion...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) used to compare two different methods of ripe table olive processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, C.; Cappelletti, G. M.; Nicoletti, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the most common method used for processing ripe table olives: the California style. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to detect the hot spots of the system under examination. The LCA results also allowed us to compare the traditional California style, here called method A, with another California style, here called method B. We were interested in this latter method, because the European Union is considering introducing it into the product specification of the Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) La Bella della Daunia. It was also possible to compare the environmental impacts of the two California style methods with those of the Spanish style method. From the comparison it is clear that method B has a greater environmental impact than method A because greater amounts of water and electricity are required, whereas Spanish style processing has a lower environmental impact than the California style methods. (Author)

  13. Bridges between science, society and policy technology assessment : methods and impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Ladikas, Miltos

    2004-01-01

    This book summarises the results of the project TAMI (Technology Assessment in Europe; between Method and Impact). This was a two-year project that brought together the main institutes of technology assessment in Europe, both parliamentary and non-parliamentary. TAMI created a structured dialogue between technology assessment experts and policymakers on current methodologies and their impact on policymaking. The TAMI team explored and assessed the whole spectrum of methodologies from the "classical" to the "interactive/participatory" and "communicative," identified good practices in project implementation and set the stage for impact evaluation based on objective criteria. Finally this report offers a series of policy recommendations based on the findings of the project. Science, Society and Policy, are three areas that technology assessment functions within and works for; this book is an attempt to improve the interaction amongst them for a more socially and economically sustainable Science and Technology p...

  14. A Practical Nonprobabilistic Reliability Assessment Method on Key Strata Shear Failure in Longwall Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Hebing Luan; Jiachen Wang; Guowei Ma; Ke Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Roof cutting has long been a potential hazard factor in longwall panels in some diggings in China. Meanwhile, the key strata structural reliability, which provides an assessment on the stability of overlying roof strata, may be a significant reference for support design in underground coal mines. This paper aims to investigate a practical nonprobabilistic reliability assessment method on key strata. The mechanical tests and the hollow inclusion triaxial strain tests were conducted to measure ...

  15. Assessing record linkage between health care and Vital Statistics databases using deterministic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Quan Hude; Li Bing; Fong Andrew; Lu Mingshan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We assessed the linkage and correct linkage rate using deterministic record linkage among three commonly used Canadian databases, namely, the population registry, hospital discharge data and Vital Statistics registry. Methods Three combinations of four personal identifiers (surname, first name, sex and date of birth) were used to determine the optimal combination. The correct linkage rate was assessed using a unique personal health number available in all three databases. ...

  16. Assessment of Panic Frequency: Reliability and Validity of a Timeline Follow-Back Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, William Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Given the central role of panic attacks in the diagnosis of panic disorder, an adequate measure of panic attacks is essential. Panic frequency is routinely assessed either by simply asking individuals to estimate the number of panic attacks experienced during a given time in a questionnaire or assessment interview or by having them continuously self-monitor. Panic frequency obtained by such methods is unreliable and invalid or time-consuming, respectively. The purpose of this project was t...

  17. FLiGS Score: A New Method of Outcome Assessment for Lip Carcinoma–Treated Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Di Fede, MD; Rita Grassi, MD; Francesca Toia, MD; Luigi Di Rosa, MD; Adriana Cordova, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lip cancer and its treatment have considerable functional and cosmetic effects with resultant nutritional and physical detriments. As we continue to investigate new treatment regimens, we are simultaneously required to assess postoperative outcomes to design interventions that lessen the adverse impact of this disease process. We wish to introduce Functional Lip Glasgow Scale (FLiGS) score as a new method of outcome assessment to measure the effect of lip cancer and its treatment ...

  18. A pilot study into the anxiety induced by various assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify the anxiety associated with various assessment methods undertaken by post-graduate students and to contextualise this with other life experiences. Method: Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory was anonymously completed prior to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) students undertaking assessments. The data were analysed as follows. The mean state and trait anxiety scores and standard deviations, associated with the assessment methods were calculated. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the state and trait anxiety scores recorded. Post hoc tests (Sidak) were then performed and finally an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) completed the analysis. Results: The seminar was the most anxiety provoking assessment method, followed by the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and the staged assessment, with the unseen written examination being the least anxiety provoking assessment. However, even the unseen written examination provoked more anxiety than elective surgery. There was a significant difference between the anxiety provoked by the aforementioned assessments only in the state anxiety scores, but not the trait anxiety scores (ANOVA). The significant differences were between both the OSCE and seminar and the unseen written examination, with the other differences not being significant as demonstrated by post hoc tests. ANCOVA, which controls for differences in the individual's trait score, also showed significant differences between the state anxiety scores between the OSCE and seminar and unseen written examinations. Conclusion: OSCEs and seminars are both significantly more anxiety provoking than unseen written examinations, but even unseen written examinations are more anxiety provoking than elective surgery. The anxiety provoking potential of assessments should not be underestimated

  19. Assessment concept for the building design process using the Eco-factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Åsa; Brohus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    During the last years the pressure for energy improvement has increased. However, a one-sided focus on energy efficiency might be introduced at the expense of indoor climate. Therefore, it is essential that energy optimisation is integrated with assessment of indoor climate. A guideline tool with...... an assessment concept based on the so-called Eco-factor method been developed for an integrated design process....

  20. Performance assessment method of urban waste management systems from Neamț County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a performance assessment method (PAM) at urban scale, based on five specific waste indicators such as: population access to waste collection services (%), separate collection (%), reuse & recycle (%), landfilling (%) and amounts of waste uncollected (Qwu-%). Values of each indicator are correlated to an assessment table for three different years (2004, 2007, 2010) highlighting the disparities between urban localities from Neamt County. The paper a...

  1. An Assessment of Field Method Efficacy to Monitor Wildlife Presence Near Interstate 70 at Vail Pass

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaker, Paige; Broberg, Len; Haas, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The 2002 National Cooperative Highway Research Project found a need among many state transportation departments for the development of “standard analytic techniques for assessing wildlife ecology and transportation.” These agencies use several methods to assess wildlife activity in areas of highway construction projects. However, there have been very few comparison studies of the different techniques and none have been conducted near a high traffic roadway. For this study, I am ascertaining t...

  2. Geochemical Principles and Methods of Assessment of Surface Water Environmental Impact on Sensitive Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鸿德; 程林; 等

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes how to carry out environmental impact assessment in an environmentally sensitive zone.The principles,the train of thought and methods are proposed in this paper,We have made the water environmental impact assessment on the engineering project of technical reforms in Guiyang Battery Mill.The hasis for engineering construction and environmental protection in this mill has been laid dawn.

  3. COMPARISON OF TWO BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY BASED ON MACROZOOBENTHOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Kerovec; Zlatko Mihaljević

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the results of two macrozoobenthos analysis based indices (Saprobic Index and Extended Biotic Index) are used as biological indicators in the assessment of river water quality. The objective of the paper is to establish the extent to which the results of these methods are comparable. The results indicate that both indices are suitable for assessing the quality of river water in the Croatian hydrographic network. Major deviations were only detected in xenosaprobic waters,...

  4. Method of Information Security Risk Assessment Based on Cloud Neural Network for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Dong

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the randomness and fuzziness of information security risk assessment factors of Internet of Things, cloud neural network information security risk assessment model was proposed, based on combination of cloud model and neural network and dynamic fusion of heterogeneous security factors. Focus on the research of normal cloud neural network evaluation method and judgment of global and multivalued dependencies characteristics between safety evaluation indicators and risk levels...

  5. Using Mixed Methods to Assess Social Capital in Low Income Countries: A Practical Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Nyhan Jones; Michael Woolcock

    2007-01-01

    We provide an overview of some practical guidelines for using both qualitative and quantitative methods to assess social capital in low income countries. Drawing on two longer and more detailed source documents, we use a six-dimension conceptual framework to show how a more complete picture of the nature and extent of social relations in poor communities can be discerned. Far from being the ‘final word’ on social capital assessment, these guidelines serve rather to distil lessons from researc...

  6. The use of CAGR on-load instrumented stringers to improve can temperature assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors have instrumented fuel stringers as a small fraction of their total fuel loading. Data from these stringers may be used to improve can temperature assessment methods. Measured data from Stage 1 fuel (transverse ribs, double graphite sleeve) have been used to re-assess some of the parameters used in fuel can temperature assessments. Results obtained to data are discussed together with a description of some of the modifications to temperature calculations for this fuel. There is also a comparison of measurement and prediction for the Stage 2 (single graphite sleeve) transverse ribbed fuel stringers. (author)

  7. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  8. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  9. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  10. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Kui Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact-echo (IE method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location, because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures.

  11. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: →Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. →The group AHP method for weighting indicators. →Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  12. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  13. A Cyber Security Self-Assessment Method for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyber security self-assessment method (the Method) has been developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The development of the Method was sponsored and directed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Members of the Nuclear Energy Institute Cyber Security Task Force also played a substantial role in developing the Method. The Method's structured approach guides nuclear power plants in scrutinizing their digital systems, assessing the potential consequences to the plant of a cyber exploitation, identifying vulnerabilities, estimating cyber security risks, and adopting cost-effective protective measures. The focus of the Method is on critical digital assets. A critical digital asset is a digital device or system that plays a role in the operation, maintenance, or proper functioning of a critical system (i.e., a plant system that can impact safety, security, or emergency preparedness). A critical digital asset may have a direct or indirect connection to a critical system. Direct connections include both wired and wireless communication pathways. Indirect connections include sneaker-net pathways by which software or data are manually transferred from one digital device to another. An indirect connection also may involve the use of instructions or data stored on a critical digital asset to make adjustments to a critical system. The cyber security self-assessment begins with the formation of an assessment team, and is followed by a six-stage process

  14. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  15. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  16. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  17. Methods for assessing the long term radiological consequences of radionuclide entry into groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods have been developed to model the transport of radionuclides in groundwater, based on an analytical approach to the governing transport equations, are sufficiently general to enable assessments to be made of the long term radiological significance of groundwater contamination for a range of possible problems. Although the methods are not as flexible as those based on numerical solutions of the transport equations, they have several advantages, including reduced computing time. The methods described can be used to identify critical parameters and assess the significance of data uncertainties in ground-water transport calculations. Such an analysis, combined with experimental measurements where necessary, can provide a sound basis for assessing potential radiation hazards. (U.K.)

  18. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  19. FIM FRAME: a method for assessing and improving emergency plans for floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lumbroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade Europe has been hit by a number of severe flood events. Reviews of recent large flood events in England and France have indicated that there is room for improvement in the emergency planning for floods. Methods that can be used for the systematic assessment and improvement of emergency plans are extensively documented in readily available literature. However, those that do exist are often limited to appraising the content of the plans rather than the process that the plan should guide. This paper describes research to develop a systematic method for assessing and improving emergency plans, which is called the FIM FRAME method. The development of the method was informed by research carried out with stakeholders in France, the Netherlands and England, as well as an appraisal of available tools that can be used to develop and improve plans, and an analysis of a selection of flood emergency plans from the three countries. One of the fundamental requirements of the FIM FRAME method was that it should be able to be applied by the relevant stakeholders to a range of emergency plans that mainly focus on flooding. The method comprises a series of steps (known as Appraise, Tackle and Implement that can assist stakeholders with assessing and improving emergency plans. The method was piloted in the three countries and then refined following feedback from end users. This paper describes the development of the FIM FRAME method and its application in three case studies affected by different types of floods.

  20. Inertial Sensing Based Assessment Methods to Quantify the Effectiveness of Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ta Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, traditional stroke rehabilitation evaluation methods are subjectively scored by occupational therapists, and the assessment results vary individually. To address this issue, this study aims to develop a stroke rehabilitation assessment system by using inertial measurement units. The inertial signals from the upper extremities were acquired, from which three quantitative indicators were extracted to reflect rehabilitation performance during stroke patients’ movement examination, i.e., shoulder flexion. Both healthy adults and stroke patients were recruited to correlate the proposed quantitative evaluation indices and traditional rehab assessment scales. Especially, as a unique feature of the study the weight for each of three evaluation indicators was estimated by the least squares method. The quantitative results demonstrate the proposed method accurately reflects patients’ recovery from pre-rehabilitation, and confirm the feasibility of applying inertial signals to evaluate rehab performance through feature extraction. The implemented assessment scheme appears to have the potential to overcome some shortcomings of traditional assessment methods and indicates rehab performance correctly.

  1. Assessment of network inference methods: how to cope with an underdetermined problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siegenthaler

    Full Text Available The inference of biological networks is an active research area in the field of systems biology. The number of network inference algorithms has grown tremendously in the last decade, underlining the importance of a fair assessment and comparison among these methods. Current assessments of the performance of an inference method typically involve the application of the algorithm to benchmark datasets and the comparison of the network predictions against the gold standard or reference networks. While the network inference problem is often deemed underdetermined, implying that the inference problem does not have a (unique solution, the consequences of such an attribute have not been rigorously taken into consideration. Here, we propose a new procedure for assessing the performance of gene regulatory network (GRN inference methods. The procedure takes into account the underdetermined nature of the inference problem, in which gene regulatory interactions that are inferable or non-inferable are determined based on causal inference. The assessment relies on a new definition of the confusion matrix, which excludes errors associated with non-inferable gene regulations. For demonstration purposes, the proposed assessment procedure is applied to the DREAM 4 In Silico Network Challenge. The results show a marked change in the ranking of participating methods when taking network inferability into account.

  2. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  3. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  4. Using probabilistic methods in water scarcity assessments: A first step towards a water scarcity risk assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Globally, water scarcity and its societal consequences is recognized as one of the most important global risks for the present and the near future, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Governments and institutions managing water resources have to adapt constantly to regional water scarcity conditions, which are driven by climate change, climate variability, and changing socioeconomic conditions. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of inter-annual climate variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined impact on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. To address this issue, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity conditions for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios. Using probabilistic methods not only enables us to integrate and evaluate the interactions between the different driving forces of water scarcity, and their influence on current and future water scarcity conditions. It also provides insights in the severity, distribution and impacts (population/GDP exposed) of low probability water scarcity events, events that are not easily studied in the conventional time-series analysis. Within this contribution we present the first insights of our study and discuss the opportunities and added value of a water scarcity risk assessment framework for water managers when evaluating adaptation strategies coping with water resources scarcity. We carried out this assessment through the following steps: (1) Calculated yearly water availability (0.5° x 0.5°) over the period 1971-2099 using daily discharge and run-off fields from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, forced with different

  5. A data-based method for assessing and reducing human error to improve operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a technique designed to assist engineers not only to assess the likelihood and impact of human unreliability but to apply human factors technology to optimize overall systems design. It explores the identity and magnitude of error-producing factors and presents a battery of defensive measures which can be applied to combat their effects. The method has been applied in a variety of industrial situations and assessed by several enterprises as an aid to cost-effective design and operational decision making. The current indications are that the method produces fairly consistent predictions which assessors have found helpful in both an absolute and relative sense

  6. Comparison of approximative Markov and Monte Carlo simulation methods for reliability assessment of crack containing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability assessments based on probabilistic fracture mechanics can give insight into the effects of changes in design parameters, operational conditions and maintenance schemes. Although they are often not capable of providing absolute reliability values, these methods at least allow the ranking of different solutions among alternatives. Due to the variety of possible solutions for design, operation and maintenance problems numerous probabilistic reliability assessments have to be carried out. This is a laborous task especially for crack containing welds of nuclear pipes subjected to fatigue. The objective of this paper is to compare the Monte Carlo simulation method and a newly developed approximative approach using the Markov process ansatz for this task

  7. The Data Required for Fast Reactor Safety Assessment by Probability Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probability methods for the assessment of reactor safety have been developed in the UK to the point where it is possible to make some quantitative comparisons of the safety of differing reactor types measured against acceptable criteria for a given site. One particular method for rapid assessment of preliminary designs has been used to show those areas of fast reactor physics and kinetics where further work could materially assist the designer by allowing relaxation of the standards required of reactor shut-down and emergency systems without impairing reactor safety. (author)

  8. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -making structures in China. It offers the potential for delivering timely and quality results to decision-making processes. To achieve the desired efficiency, it is recommended that an SEA procedure take into account findings acquired from an improved RIAM application at an early stage, then, at a later stage, results from more comprehensive assessments conducted using more sophisticated methods should be added, if time and data are available. - Highlights: • RIAM is a potential SEA tool due to its multidisciplinary setting and rapid process. • Weighting index and computing IES are raised for improving RIAM when applied to SEAs. • The improved RIAM boosts SEA effectiveness by timely responding to decision-making. • The improved RIAM is more suitable to an SEA bothered by tight time or data shortage. • The improved RIAM adapts to the technical aims of SEA and decision features in China

  9. Methodical Approaches to Assessment of Life Quality of People: Foreign and Domestic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikulova Dinara U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises and analyses modern methodical approaches to assessment of life quality of people on the basis of the existing foreign and domestic experience. It shows that, despite the urgency and significance of the problem of assessment of life quality of people and significant interest to this problem in the whole world, many of its aspects are insufficiently studied and methodically supported. The goal of the article is analysis and generalisation of basic international approaches to assessment of life quality, which are used in international and domestic studies, and identification of their positive sides and shortcomings. The article shows that life quality is a synthetic, multilevel, multifactor and multi-component system, that is why study of the life quality should be done from the position of a system analysis and it should be assessed in combination with consideration of interconnections and interdependence of all of its components. It also shows that the existing methodical approaches to assessment of the life quality could be divided into two main groups: approaches, in the basis of which is the external objective assessment (objective approach, and approaches based on the subjective self-assessment of the life quality by people themselves (subjective approach. It shows that a significant shortcoming of both approaches is their one-sided and limited character. It proves that the most expedient for measuring life quality of people is an integral approach, the essence of which lies in combination of both these approaches into one single system. The integral approach could be fruitfully used for assessment of the life quality of people when carrying out studies in many branches of knowledge and spheres of public life.

  10. ECONO-MARC: A method for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures after an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures taken to reduce radiation exposures after an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment. The cost is estimated as the potential loss of goods and services due to the imposition of countermeasures, measured by a lost contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A primary aim in developing such a method is to provide the basis for clear quantitative inputs to difficult decisions in emergency planning; decisions on whether to apply countermeasures, and on the extent to which they should be applied. The method should also provide useful inputs to nuclear siting policy and to safety design assessments. While the method should aid decision-making, it does not measure all the costs; other major costs of nuclear accidents, such as the loss of nuclear plant capacity and the social disruption caused by countermeasures require separate additional assessment. The models in the MARC procedure for accident assessment are under continuing review. This memorandum records the method currently included in ECONO-MARC; additional models and improved procedures will be incorporated, as appropriate, in the future. (author)

  11. Wind Power Assessment Based on a WRF Wind Simulation with Developed Power Curve Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of wind power potential requires not only the detailed knowledge of the local wind resource but also an equivalent power curve with good effect for a local wind farm. Although the probability distribution functions (pdfs of the wind speed are commonly used, their seemingly good performance for distribution may not always translate into an accurate assessment of power generation. This paper contributes to the development of wind power assessment based on the wind speed simulation of weather research and forecasting (WRF and two improved power curve modeling methods. These approaches are improvements on the power curve modeling that is originally fitted by the single layer feed-forward neural network (SLFN in this paper; in addition, a data quality check and outlier detection technique and the directional curve modeling method are adopted to effectively enhance the original model performance. The proposed two methods, named WRF-SLFN-OD and WRF-SLFN-WD, are able to avoid the interference from abnormal output and the directional effect of local wind speed during the power curve modeling process. The data examined are from three stations in northern China; the simulation indicates that the two developed methods have strong abilities to provide a more accurate assessment of the wind power potential compared with the original methods.

  12. Safety Assessment of Pressure-Tube Heavy-Water Reactors by Probability Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of probability methods for the assessment of safety has been developed in the United Kingdom for gas-cooled reactors; the development of these methods has proceeded in parallel with a move towards the formulation of quantitative safety criteria; some possible criteria are described. In particular, a method has been developed which is of value for a rapid assessment of a preliminary design in order to reveal potential points of weakness before the design is finalized. The method is of general application and in this paper it is applied to the design of hypothetical 250-MW(e) reactors of both the indirect and direct cycle types in order to illustrate the use of this method for pressure-tube heavy-water reactors and also to provide a comparison of the safety of this reactor system and others, such as the United Kingdom advanced gas-cooled type. A difficulty in the use of probability methods at present is the scarcity of data on failure rates for structures and large items of plant. An essential feature of the method described is a perturbation of the assumed failure rates by factors of order 100, to assess the effect of such uncertainties. The effect of major changes in other features important to safety, such as reliability of the containment systems, is also examined. (author)

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Environmental Quality Assessment Methods for Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-Xin; ZHANG Xu-Xiang; WU Bing; SUN Shi-Lei; CHEN Yan-Song; PAN Wen-Yang; ZHAO Da-Yong; CHENG Shu-Pei

    2008-01-01

    Four assessment methods (two pollution indexes and two fuzzy mathematical models) were employed to investigate the environmental quality of four soils around a ferroalloy plant in Nanjing City.Environmental quality was assessed as class Ⅳ (moderately polluted) for each soil with single-factor index method,and was identified to be classes Ⅳ,Ⅲ(slightly polluted),Ⅲ,and Ⅲ for soils A,B,C,and D,respectively,with the comprehensive index model.In comparison with the single-factor index method,the comprehensive index model concerned both dominant parameter and average contribution of all factors to the integrated environmental quality.Using the two fuzzy mathematical methods (single-factor deciding and weighted average models),the environmental risks were determined to be classes Ⅳ,Ⅲ,Ⅱ(clean),and Ⅱ for soils A,B,C,and D,respectively.However,divergence of the membership degree to each pollution class still occurred between the two methods.In fuzzy mathematical methods,membership functions were used to describe the limits between different pollution degrees,and different weights were allocated for the factors according to pollution contribution.Introduction of membership degree and weight of each factor to fuzzy mathematical models made the methods more reasonable in the field of environmental risk assessment.

  14. Methods and challenges for the health impact assessment of vaccination programs in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe methods and challenges faced in the health impact assessment of vaccination programs, focusing on the pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS For this narrative review, we searched for the terms "rotavirus", "pneumococcal", "conjugate vaccine", "vaccination", "program", and "impact" in the databases Medline and LILACS. The search was extended to the grey literature in Google Scholar. No limits were defined for publication year. Original articles on the health impact assessment of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. RESULTS We identified 207 articles. After removing duplicates and assessing eligibility, we reviewed 33 studies, 25 focusing on rotavirus and eight on pneumococcal vaccination programs. The most frequent studies were ecological, with time series analysis or comparing pre- and post-vaccination periods. The main data sources were: health information systems; population-, sentinel- or laboratory-based surveillance systems; statistics reports; and medical records from one or few health care services. Few studies used primary data. Hospitalization and death were the main outcomes assessed. CONCLUSIONS Over the last years, a significant number of health impact assessments of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs have been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. These studies were carried out few years after the programs were implemented, meet the basic methodological requirements and suggest positive health impact. Future assessments should consider methodological issues and challenges arisen in these first studies conducted in the region.

  15. Assessment of soil microbial diversity with functional multi-endpoint methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Creamer, R. E.; Rutgers, M.;

    Soil microbial diversity provides the cornerstone for support of soil ecosystem services by key roles in soil organic matter turnover, carbon sequestration and water infiltration. However, standardized methods to quantify the multitude of microbial functions in soils are lacking. Methods based on...... three techniques of assessing soil microbial functional diversity in a European transect consisting of 81 soil samples covering five Biogeograhical Zones and three land-uses and compare with the vast amount of data delivered in other projects (BISQ, RMQS-bioindicateur). Based on experimental results...... with these methods, microbiological reasoning and ecological theory, we will perform a qualitative comparison between the multi endpoint methods of determining soil microbial communities functional diversity, and will suggest standardized classification and assessment options for practical application...

  16. Advancing methods for reliably assessing motivational interviewing fidelity using the motivational interviewing skills code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Can, Doğan; Yi, Michael; Marin, Rebeca; Dunn, Christopher W; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-02-01

    The current paper presents novel methods for collecting MISC data and accurately assessing reliability of behavior codes at the level of the utterance. The MISC 2.1 was used to rate MI interviews from five randomized trials targeting alcohol and drug use. Sessions were coded at the utterance-level. Utterance-based coding reliability was estimated using three methods and compared to traditional reliability estimates of session tallies. Session-level reliability was generally higher compared to reliability using utterance-based codes, suggesting that typical methods for MISC reliability may be biased. These novel methods in MI fidelity data collection and reliability assessment provided rich data for therapist feedback and further analyses. Beyond implications for fidelity coding, utterance-level coding schemes may elucidate important elements in the counselor-client interaction that could inform theories of change and the practice of MI. PMID:25242192

  17. Methods for assessment of pre-harvest sprouting in wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melícia Ingredi Araújo Gavazza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to test methods for pre-harvest sprouting assessment in wheat cultivars. Fourteen wheat cultivars were grown in Londrina and Ponta Grossa municipalities, Paraná state, Brazil. They were sampled at 10 and 17 days after physiological maturity and evaluated using the methods of germination by rainfall simulation (in a greenhouse, in-ear grain sprouting, and grains removed from the ears. The in-ear grain sprouting method allowed the differentiation of cultivars, but showed different resistance levels from the available description of cultivars. The sprouting of grain removed from the ears did not allow a reliable distinction of data on germination in any harvest date or location. The method of rainfall simulation is the most suitable for the assessment of cultivars as to pre-harvest sprouting, regardless of the sampling date and evaluated location.

  18. In-depth assessment of analytical methods for olive oil purity, safety, and quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Noelia; Wang, Selina C; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón

    2015-05-13

    This paper evaluates the performance of the current analytical methods (standard and widely used otherwise) that are used in olive oil for determining fatty acids, triacylglycerols, mono- and diacylglycerols, waxes, sterols, alkyl esters, erythrodiol and uvaol, tocopherols, pigments, volatiles, and phenols. Other indices that are commonly used, such as free acidity and peroxide value, are also discussed in relation to their actual utility in assessing quality and safety and their possible alternatives. The methods have been grouped on the basis of their applications: (i) purity and authenticity; (ii) sensory quality control; and (iii) unifying methods for different applications. The speed of the analysis, advantages and disadvantages, and multiple quality parameters are assessed. Sample pretreatment, physicochemical and data analysis, and evaluation of the results have been taken into consideration. Solutions based on new chromatographic methods or spectroscopic analysis and their analytical characteristics are also presented. PMID:25891853

  19. Method for assessing wind power integration in a hydro based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper demonstrates a method for assessment of how much wind power that can be integrated in a system with limited transmission capacity. Based on hydro inflow data and wind measurements (for different locations of planned wind farms in an area) it is possible to assess how much wind power that can be fed into a certain point in the transmission network without violating the transmission capacity limits. The proposed method combines the use of market modelling and detailed network analysis in order to assess the probability of network congestions rather than focusing on extreme cases. By computing the probability distribution of power flow on critical corridors in the grid it is possible to assess the likelihood of network congestions and the amount of energy that must be curtailed to fulfil power system security requirements (n-1). This way the assessment is not only made of worst case scenarios, assuming maximal flow from hydro plants and maximal wind power production. As extreme case scenarios are short term and may be solved by market mechanisms or automatic system protection schemes (disconnection of wind power or hydro power), the proposed method may reveal that it would be economic to install more wind power than if only based on analysis of worst case scenarios. (orig.)

  20. Current Status of Development of Methods to Assess Effects of Cumulative or Aggregated Underwater Sounds on Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Streever, Bill; Angliss, Robyn; Clark, Christopher W; Ellison, William T; Frankel, Adam; Gedamke, Jason; Leu, Matthias; McKenna, Megan; Racca, Roberto; Simmons, Samantha; Suydam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are no standards for assessment of the cumulative effects of underwater sound. Quantitative assessments typically consider a single source, whereas qualitative assessments may include multiple sources but rarely identify response variables. As a step toward understanding the cumulative effects of underwater sound, we assessed the aggregated sounds of multiple sources received by migrating bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). The quantitative method models the sound field from multiple sources and simulates movement of a population through it. The qualitative method uses experts to assess the responses of individuals and populations to sound sources and identify the potential mechanisms. These methods increase the transparency of assessments. PMID:26610973