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Sample records for assessment lca methodology

  1. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis is o...

  3. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis is o...... where additional work contributes most to strengthen the results and conclusions of the study....

  4. Innovation strategies in a fruit growers association impacts assessment by using combined LCA and s-LCA methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Nadia; Baudino, Claudio; Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana

    2016-10-15

    In the challenging world of territorial transformations within the agriculture, there is an increasing need for an integrated methodological framework of assessment that is able to reconcile the demand for solutions that are both economically sustainable and contribute to environmental and social improvement. This study aims to assess the introduction of innovation into agro-food systems by combining an environmental life cycle (LCA) assessment and a social life cycle assessment (s-LCA) to support the decision making process of a fruit growers co-op for the adoption of mulching and covering in raspberry farming. LCA and s-LCA have been applied independently under specific consistency requirements, selecting two scenarios to compare the impact with (1) and without (2) the innovation and then combined within a cause-effect chain. The interactions between the environment and socioeconomic components were considered within a nested frameset of business and territorial features. The total emissions from raspberry production in Scenario 1, according to the Global Warming Potential (GWP) Impact Category amounted to 2.2840kg of CO2 eq. In Scenario 2, the impact of production was associated with a GWP of 0.1682kg of CO2 eq. Social repercussions analysis from Scenario 1 compared to Scenario 2 indicate more satisfaction for working conditions and the management of climate risks. The mulching and covering, implemented within a given framework of farm activity, created conditions for the preservation of a model in which raspberry production contributes to landscape protection, the business sustainability of farms and the creation of employment. The combined use of the two methods contributes to the development of a strategy planning due to its ability to deliver, as well as specific analysis at a functional level, a wider framework for assessing the consistency of the impacts related to innovation in raspberry production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel; Schmidt, Jannick Andresen

    2004-01-01

    The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards.......The chapter introduces Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and its application according to the ISO 1404043 standards....

  6. Review of methodologies for Social LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    During the last years the interest for including social impacts in LCA has grown steadily, resulting in several preliminary Social LCA (SLCA) methodology proposals. A review of 12 methodological proposals has been made covering the most of what has been proposed as Social LCA until now focusing o...... process. The review shows that the field of SLCA is still being framed, and that there is presently limited consensus on the approaches and that a fully developed method to support a full SLCA applying calculation procedures as known from LCA is not yet available....

  7. On process optimization considering LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieragostini, Carla; Mussati, Miguel C; Aguirre, Pío

    2012-04-15

    The goal of this work is to research the state-of-the-art in process optimization techniques and tools based on LCA, focused in the process engineering field. A collection of methods, approaches, applications, specific software packages, and insights regarding experiences and progress made in applying the LCA methodology coupled to optimization frameworks is provided, and general trends are identified. The "cradle-to-gate" concept to define the system boundaries is the most used approach in practice, instead of the "cradle-to-grave" approach. Normally, the relationship between inventory data and impact category indicators is linearly expressed by the characterization factors; then, synergic effects of the contaminants are neglected. Among the LCIA methods, the eco-indicator 99, which is based on the endpoint category and the panel method, is the most used in practice. A single environmental impact function, resulting from the aggregation of environmental impacts, is formulated as the environmental objective in most analyzed cases. SimaPro is the most used software for LCA applications in literature analyzed. The multi-objective optimization is the most used approach for dealing with this kind of problems, where the ε-constraint method for generating the Pareto set is the most applied technique. However, a renewed interest in formulating a single economic objective function in optimization frameworks can be observed, favored by the development of life cycle cost software and progress made in assessing costs of environmental externalities. Finally, a trend to deal with multi-period scenarios into integrated LCA-optimization frameworks can be distinguished providing more accurate results upon data availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    As governments elaborate strategies to counter climate change, there is a need to compare the different options available on an environmental basis. This study proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework integrating the Lashof Mg-year accounting methodology that allows the assessment...... of carbon mitigation projects. It calculates the cumulative radiative forcing caused by GHG emission within a predetermined time frame. Basically, the developed framework uses the Mg-year as a functional unit and isolates impacts related to the climate mitigation function with system expansion. The proposed...... study reveals that the system expansion scenario and the efficiency at reducing carbon emissions of the carbon mitigation project are critical factors having significant impact on results. Also, framework proves to be useful at treating land-use change emission as they are considered through...

  9. Antifreeze life cycle assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifreeze based on ethylene glycol is a commonly used commercial product The classification of ethylene glycol as a toxic material increased the disposal costs for used antifreeze and life cycle assessment became a necessity. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA considers the identification and quantification of raw materials and energy inputs and waste outputs during the whole life cycle of the analyzed product. The objectives of LCA are the evaluation of impacts on the environment and improvements of processes in order to reduce and/or eliminate waste. LCA is conducted through a mathematical model derived from mass and energy balances of all the processes included in the life cycle. In all energy processes the part of energy that can be transformed into some other kind of energy is called exergy. The concept of exergy considers the quality of different types of energy and the quality of different materials. It is also a connection between energy and mass transformations. The whole life cycle can be described by the value of the total loss of exergy. The physical meaning of this value is the loss of material and energy that can be used. The results of LCA are very useful for the analyzed products and processes and for the determined conditions under which the analysis was conducted. The results of this study indicate that recycling is the most satisfactory solution for the treatment of used antifreeze regarding material and energy consumption but the re-use of antifreeze should not be neglected as a solution.

  10. Enhancement of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to include the effect of surface albedo on climate change: Comparing black and white roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Tiziana

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, life cycle assessment (LCA) does not estimate a key property: surface albedo. Here an enhancement of the LCA methodology has been proposed through the development and employment of a time-dependent climatological model for including the effect of surface albedo on climate. The theoretical findings derived by the time-dependent model have been applied to the case study of a black and a white roof evaluated in the time-frames of 50 and 100 years focusing on the impact on global warming potential. The comparative life cycle impact assessment of the two roofs shows that the high surface albedo plays a crucial role in offsetting radiative forcings. In the 50-year time horizon, surface albedo is responsible for a decrease in CO(2)eq of 110-184 kg and 131-217 kg in 100 years. Furthermore, the white roof compared to the black roof, due to the high albedo, decreases the annual energy use of about 3.6-4.5 kWh/m(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing sustainability of a low-input single-farm vegetable box-scheme using emergy and LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and successfully worked on reducing external inputs. The system provides over 70 varieties of seasonal vegetables as well as biodiversity conservation and other ecosystem services. As a main goal of the study was to locate opportunities for sustainability improvements for the food production, we chose the yearly...... as well as the comparison between LCA and emergy analysis will be presented at the conference. In conclusion, from a biophysical perspective, agricultural systems’ primary societal function is to convert local renewable flows of sun, rain and wind into food, fodder and fiber by investing a minimum...

  12. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-08-15

    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  13. Deliverable 4.1 Homogeneous LCA methodology agreed by NEPTUNE and INNOWATECH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    In order to do a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a waste water treatment technique, a system to handle the mapped inventory data and a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method/model is needed. Besides NEPTUNE, another EU-funded project has the same methodology need namely INNOWATECH (contract No....... 036882) running in parallel with NEPTUNE but focusing on industrial waste water. With the aim of facilitating cooperation between the two projects a common LCA methodology framework has been worked out and is described in the following. This methodology work has been done as a joint effort between...... NEPTUNE WP4 and INNOWATECH WP4 represented by the WP4 lead partner IVL. The aim of the co-operation is to establish common methodologies and/or LCA models and/or tools in order to achieve a homogenous approach in INNOWATECH and NEPTUNE. Further, the aim is to facilitate possibilities of data exchange...

  14. Considering time in LCA: dynamic LCA and its application to global warming impact assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Annie; Lesage, Pascal; Margni, Manuele; Deschênes, Louise; Samson, Réjean

    2010-04-15

    The lack of temporal information is an important limitation of life cycle assessment (LCA). A dynamic LCA approach is proposed to improve the accuracy of LCA by addressing the inconsistency of temporal assessment. This approach consists of first computing a dynamic life cycle inventory (LCI), considering the temporal profile of emissions. Then, time-dependent characterization factors are calculated to assess the dynamic LCI in real-time impact scores for any given time horizon. Although generally applicable to any impact category, this approach is developed here for global warming, based on the radiative forcing concept. This case study demonstrates that the use of global warming potentials for a given time horizon to characterize greenhouse gas emissions leads to an inconsistency between the time frame chosen for the analysis and the time period covered by the LCA results. Dynamic LCA is applied to the US EPA LCA on renewable fuels, which compares the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of different biofuels with fossil fuels including land-use change emissions. The comparison of the results obtained with both traditional and dynamic LCA approaches shows that the difference can be important enough to change the conclusions on whether or not a biofuel meets some given global warming reduction targets.

  15. Emerging role of Geographical Information System (GIS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and spatial LCA (GIS-LCA) in sustainable bioenergy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, D C; Singh, Anoop; Kataki, Sampriti; Medhi, Kristina; Kumari, Shilpi; Ramachandra, T V; Jenkins, B M; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed. Usefulness of integration of GIS into LCA (i.e. spatial LCA) to overcome the limitations of conventional LCA and to produce a holistic evaluation of the environmental benefits and concerns of bioenergy is also reviewed. Application of GIS, LCA and spatial LCA can help alleviate the challenges faced by ambitious bioenergy projects by addressing both economics and environmental goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Milestone 4.1 ∙ First draft on complemented LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    of this methodology is presented here. Special issues of waste water have been addressed by including novel development on LCIA methodology for possible impact from pathogens and whole effluent toxicity. Special focus is also allocated to micropollutants with specific toxic mode of action (i.e. endocrine disruptors......As described in deliverable 4.1, D4.1 (Larsen et al. 2007) NEPTUNE is using two main types of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies when doing LCA studies on the waste water treatment technologies included. The basic methodology is the well known existing EDIP97 methodology (Wenzel et...... al. 1997, Hauschild and Wenzel 1998) for which the impact assessment on toxicity is PNEC based. However, in order to include the newest development on especially best available practice as regards ecotoxicity a new revised and updated EDIP 200X LCIA methodology has been developed. A first draft...

  17. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    of this methodology is presented here. Furthermore, special issues related to waste water have been addressed by including novel development on LCIA methodology for possible impact from pathogens and whole effluent toxicity. Special focus is also allocated to micropollutants with specific toxic mode of action (i......As described in deliverable 4.1 (Larsen et al. 2007) NEPTUNE is using two main types of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies when doing LCA studies on the waste water treatment technologies included. The basic methodology is the well known existing EDIP97 methodology (Wenzel et al....... 1997, Hauschild and Wenzel 1998) for which the impact assessment on toxicity is PNEC based. However, in order to include the newest development on especially best available practice as regards ecotoxicity a new revised and updated EDIP 200X LCIA methodology has been developed. A first draft...

  18. The importance of the application context for the design of Social LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas

    In the published and unpublished literature on the development of Social LCA there has been very little explicit attention to the context in which the methodology will be used. This lack of attention may lead to development of a Social LCA methodology that does not fit the purpose for which...... are based on literature studies of known effects of "œcodes of conduct" and eco-labeling, having similarities to some potential effects of Social LCA. Legal limitations relate specifically to the use of Social LCA in a labeling context. It is examined whether social labeling in any way conflicts...

  19. Hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) does not necessarily yield more accurate results than process-based LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yi; Heijungs, Reinout; Brandão, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA), through combining input-output (IO) models and process-based LCA for a complete system boundary, is widely recognized as a more accurate approach than process-based LCA with an incomplete system boundary. Without a complete process model for verification, however,

  20. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Alexis, E-mail: alau@dtu.dk [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clavreul, Julie [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bernstad, Anna [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bakas, Ioannis [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Niero, Monia [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); ECO – Ecosystems and Environmental Sustainability, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gentil, Emmanuel [Copenhagen Resource Institute, 1215 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Residual Resources Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hauschild, Michael Z. [Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We perform a critical review of 222 LCA studies of solid waste management systems. • We analyse the past LCA practice against the ISO standard and ILCD Handbook guidance. • Malpractices exist in many methodological aspects with large variations among studies. • Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. • We provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs.

  1. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part II: methodological guidance for a better practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Bakas, Ioannis; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper conduct of the LCA. How has LCA been applied until now? Are there any inconsistencies in the past practice? To answer these questions, we draw on a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of solid waste management systems. We analyse the past practice against the ISO standard requirements and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste compositions into the inventory, and a frequent lack of essential sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Many of these aspects are important for the reliability of the results. For each of them, we therefore provide detailed recommendations to practitioners of waste management LCAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogmartens, Rob, E-mail: rob.hoogmartens@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Acker, Karel, E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Policy Research Centre for Sustainable Materials, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key.

  3. How methodological choices affect LCA climate impact results: the case of structural timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rosa, Michele; Pizzol, Massimo; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Life cycle assessment (LCA) is broadly applied to assess the environmental impact of products through their life cycle. LCA of bio-based products is particularly challenging due to the uncertainties in modeling the natural biomass production process. While uncertainties related to inventory...... on the goal and scope of the study and strongly affects the contribution to climate impact results of all LCA processes. Those choices need to be carefully discussed and should be in accordance with the goal of the study, since different climate metric and TH have distinct interpretations. The interpretation...

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA AS A TOOL FOR BUSINESS STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the development of sustainable production systems leads organizations to seek the support of management tools for decision-making. Considering the whole life cycle of the product, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA has an important role in this scenario. The objective of this paper is to present, through the theoretical discussion, the role of LCA in strategic planning of the organization. It showed the enormous potential for decision making on the environmental aspect, but also the critical factor in the development shares in the competitive context. The use of LCA can reduce the environmental impacts of the system under study (primary purpose and guide the range of advantages in the fields of marketing, legislation and environmental labeling, competitive strategies, efficiency use of resources and others.

  5. Environmental assessment of amine-based carbon capture Scenario modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Andreas; Askham, Cecilia; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Vold, Bjoern Ivar; Johnsen, Fredrik Moltu

    2012-07-01

    This report contains a first attempt at introducing the environmental impacts associated with amines and derivatives in a life cycle assessment (LCA) of gas power production with carbon capture and comparing these with other environmental impacts associated with the production system. The report aims to identify data gaps and methodological challenges connected both to modelling toxicity of amines and derivatives and weighting of environmental impacts. A scenario based modelling exercise was performed on a theoretical gas power plant with carbon capture, where emission levels of nitrosamines were varied between zero (gas power without CCS) to a worst case level (outside the probable range of actual carbon capture facilities). Because of extensive research and development in the areas of solvents and emissions from carbon capture facilities in the latter years, data used in the exercise may be outdated and results should therefore not be taken at face value.The results from the exercise showed: According to UseTox, emissions of nitrosamines are less important than emissions of formaldehyde with regard to toxicity related to operation of (i.e. both inputs to and outputs from) a carbon capture facility. If characterisation factors for emissions of metals are included, these outweigh all other toxic emissions in the study. None of the most recent weighting methods in LCA include characterisation factors for nitrosamines, and these are therefore not part of the environmental ranking.These results shows that the EDecIDe project has an important role to play in developing LCA methodology useful for assessing the environmental performance of amine based carbon capture in particular and CCS in general. The EDecIDe project will examine the toxicity models used in LCA in more detail, specifically UseTox. The applicability of the LCA compartment models and site specificity issues for a Norwegian/Arctic situation will be explored. This applies to the environmental compartments

  6. LCA Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The LCA cookbook presents the provisions and actions from the ILCD Handbook that are central in the performance of an LCA. The selection is intended to cover all those activities that an LCA practitioner needs to undertake in a typical process-LCA , and the presentation follows the normal...... progression of the LCA work according to the ISO framework. For explanation of the reasoning behind the actions, the reader is referred to the presentation of the methodological elements in Part 2 of the book....

  7. Life cycle assessment (LCA of lead-free solders from the environmental protection aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitovski Aleksandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Life-cycle assessment (LCA presents a relatively new approach, which allows comprehensive environmental consequences analysis of a product system over its entire life. This analysis is increasingly being used in the industry, as a tool for investigation of the influence of the product system on the environment, and serves as a protection and prevention tool in ecological management. This method is used to predict possible influences of a certain material to the environment through different development stages of the material. In LCA, the product systems are evaluated on a functionally equivalent basis, which, in this case, was 1000 cubic centimeters of an alloy. Two of the LCA phases, life-cycle inventory (LCA and life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA, are needed to calculate the environmental impacts. Methodology of LCIA applied in this analysis aligns every input and output influence into 16 different categories, divided in two subcategories. The life-cycle assessment reaserch review of the leadfree solders Sn-Cu, SAC (Sn-Ag-Cu, BSA (Bi-Sb-Ag and SABC (Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu respectively, is given in this paper, from the environmental protection aspect starting from production, through application process and finally, reclamation at the end-of-life, i.e. recycling. There are several opportunities for reducing the overall environmental and human health impacts of solder used in electronics manufacturing based on the results of the LCA, such as: using secondary metals reclaimed through post-industrial recycling; power consumption reducing by replacing older, less efficient reflow assembly equipment, or by optimizing the current equipment to perform at the elevated temperatures required for lead-free soldering, etc. The LCA analysis was done comparatively in relation to widely used Sn-Pb solder material. Additionally, the impact factors of material consumption, energy use, water and air reserves, human health and ecotoxicity have been ALSO considered including

  8. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part II: Methodological guidance for a better practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used in waste management to identify strategies that prevent or minimise negative impacts on ecosystems, human health or natural resources. However, the quality of the provided support to decision- and policy-makers is strongly dependent on a proper...... and the ILCD Handbook guidelines for each major step within the goal definition, scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation phases of the methodology. Results show that malpractices exist in several aspects of the LCA with large differences across studies. Examples...... are a frequent neglect of the goal definition, a frequent lack of transparency and precision in the definition of the scope of the study, e.g. an unclear delimitation of the system boundaries, a truncated impact coverage, difficulties in capturing influential local specificities such as representative waste...

  9. LCA as a Tool for Assessing Product and Process Oriented Eco-Innovations Undertaken by Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybaczewska-Błażejowska Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the application of life cycle assessment (LCA as an approach to foster the product and process oriented eco- innovation of enterprises, using the fruit and vegetable processing plant as an example. LCA, which is traditionally used to assess the impacts of a single product system on the environment, was applied in the enterprise context. This was made possible by forming an indicator describing the environmental profile of an enterprise, which is calculated by the sum of the multiplication of the environmental impact assessment (LCIA results for individual unit processes within a particular impact category and their weights reflecting the structure of production in an enterprise. In order to distinguish and indicate the direction in which an enterprise should undertake its eco-innovative actions (implementing eco-innovations within the product or production process the LCIA results are presented individually for products and production processes. The research was conducted in full compliance with the LCA methodology. LCA proved that the analysed enterprise has the largest negative impacts on the environment in the following impact categories: marine eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and natural land transformation. They result primarily from the consumption of thermal and electric energy in the production processes. Therefore, to improve energy efficiency, the enterprise should take eco-innovative actions in the processes applied.

  10. Deliverable 4.3 Decision support guideline based on LCA and cost/efficiency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto; Boyer-Souchet, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The environmental sustainability assessments described in this report is based on life cycle assessments (LCA) of selected waste water treatment technology (WWTT) cases included in NEPTUNE. The basic approach in these assessments (avoided against induced impacts) is described in Deliverable 4...... into four clusters related to the main purpose of the treatment, e.g. nutrient removal or micropollutant removal. All are assessed within the cluster by comparing with the reference or by looking at induced versus avoided environmental impacts potentials originated from the various emissions and flows...... inventory of cluster 1 on micropollutant removal, tracks 22 organic micropollutants (pharmaceuticals) that have been sampled in different WWTTs by NEPTUNE partners. The resulting inventory is then modelled according to the EDIP97 methodology on the GaBi LCA modelling software, i.e. GaBi 4 (PE 2008...

  11. EASETECH – A LCA model for assessment of environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Baumeister, Hubert; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    with different kinds of material flows, such as sludge, wastewater, biomass for energy production and treatment of contaminated soil. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The main novelties of the model compared to other...... LCA software are as follows. The focus is put on material flow modelling. This means that each material flow is characterized as a mix of material fractions with different properties. Flows in terms of mass and composition are computed throughout the integrated system including rejects, slags, ashes...... different materials have different chemical compositions, and the optimal treatment for one material fraction might be suboptimal for another fraction. It is therefore critical that the starting point of the modelling process is a composition matrix where each material fraction is specified in terms...

  12. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  13. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  14. Transportation life cycle assessment (LCA) synthesis : life cycle assessment learning module series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The Life Cycle Assessment Learning Module Series is a set of narrated, self-advancing slideshows on : various topics related to environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). This research project produced the first 27 of such modules, which : are freely...

  15. INTRODUCTORY BACKGROUND FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA OF PURE SILK FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mara Bortoloto Damasceno Barcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to provide an introductory background to development of the Life Cycle Assessment studies of pure silk fabric. There are not studies available on the life cycle of pure silk fabric. In this sense, was developed a scenario model for LCA application, following the methodology established by the Standard BNR ISO 14040:2009, which establishes principles and framework for an LCA study. It was considered one of the first steps in ISO, being the definition of the purpose and scope. The limits considered for the system had as a starting point the wiring step within the company, and as a final limit the stage of the finishing of the fabric, where you get the finished product. The information used in this study was collected directly from the company entitled 'Fio de Seda', a Brazilian industry. In order to construct the scenario proposed, was used the software Umberto® 5.6 v. Acad and through it, it was possible to generate the scenario model for the production of the silk fabric. Based on this scenario, the accomplishment of the later stages is possible, as outlined in ISO 14040, thus obtaining the inventory of the LCA for the pure silk fabric, as well as its life cycle inventory assessment.

  16. The Glasgow consensus on the delineation between pesticide emission inventory and impact assessment for LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Anton, Assumpció; Bengoa, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides are applied to agricultural fields to optimise crop yield and their global use is substantial. Their consideration in life cycle assessment (LCA) is affected by important inconsistencies between the emission inventory and impact assessment phases of LCA. A clear definition of the delin...

  17. The value of the exergetic life cycle assessment besides the LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene; Hirs, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the value of the exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) has been analysed. The ELCA uses the framework of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and can be seen as the exergy analysis of a complete life cycle. The value of the ELCA besides the LCA has been discussed. It is shown that the ELCA

  18. The IMA Study on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    Magnesium shows considerable potentials as lightweight material for weight sensitive applications. To assess the potential environmental benefits of magnesium in transport applications, the International Magnesium Association (IMA) initiated a study on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of magnesium.

  19. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co....... Nowadays, however, most LCA practitioners chose one methodology independent of their research question. Conclusions  This study showed it is possible to perform both ALCA (mass and economic allocation) and CLCA (system expansion) of milk. Choices of methodology, however, resulted in differences in: total...... quantitative outcomes, hotspots, degree of understanding and quality. Recommendations and perspectives  We recommend LCA practitioners to better distinguish between ALCA and CLCA in applied studies to reach a higher degree of transparency. Furthermore, we recommend LCA practitioners of different research areas...

  20. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating LCA and EHS expertise in the assessment of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Hankin, Steve; Chaudry, Qasim

    DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently with the devel......DTU with their expertise in LCA have joined forces with IOM in two nanotechnology-related projects, one of which additionally involves and is lead by FERA. The first project, Nancore, includes the evaluation of health risks and environmental impacts over the life cycle concurrently...... with the development of new production technology for lightweight materials used in e.g. wind turbine blades. As the new technology involves the use of nanoparticles, the health and safety workpackage is needed to examine the potential exposure and effects of these particles. An LCA is also performed to evaluate...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad

  3. Supply chain integrated LCA approach to assess environmental impacts of food production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. USVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A process was started in the late 1990s to produce comprehensive environmental data on particular aspects of Finnish food production with the aim of analyzing the environmental impacts (at least climate change, acidification and eutrophication and some other impacts of products and locating hot spots in production chains. A supply chain integrated life cycle assessment was carried out on fodder barley, hard cheese, oat flakes, potato flour, cream cheese potato gratin, beer, honey-marinated/sliced broiler fillet and greenhouse cucumber. Methodological improvements in assessing environmental impacts of food products were evaluated in relation to ISO14040 and 14044 standards. Methods improved, especially regarding quality of cultivation data and previously reported data from the literature, impact assessment and calculations for assessment of leaching from agriculture. As a generic conclusion on the share of contributions of the various phases of production chains to environmental impact: agriculture was the most important phase, especially in terms of eutrophication potential. Work in food LCA methodology has provided a sound base for future development in assessing environmental impacts of food products. In the future providing more and more environmental information on products for customers and consumers is setting new challenges for research.;

  4. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... for 100 years”. The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate......, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence of the active operations (i.e., leachate recirculation, waste flushing and air injection) on the environmental performance, the time horizon...

  5. Improving life cycle assessment methodology for the application of decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology for the app......There have been two overall objectives for this PhD thesis: a) To improve the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. b) LCA of biodiesel from a well-to-wheel (WTW) perspective. Improving the LCA methodology...... for the application of decision support and evaluation of uncertainty in LCA. From a decision maker’s (DM’s) point of view there are at least three main “illness” factors influencing the quality of the information that the DM uses for making decisions. The factors are not independent of each other, but it seems...... helpful to use the following separations for clarification: • Uncertainty • Costs • Time Improvements in just one of these three factors can swiftly lead to an improvement of the others since they are highly dependent on each other. The focus of this PhD project has been on uncertainty. Most application...

  6. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Home Launderings

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 泰子; コバヤシ, ヤスコ; Kobayashi, Yasuko; 石久保, 鈴子; イシクボ, レイコ; Ishikubo, Reiko; 片山, 倫子; カタヤマ, ミチコ; Katayama, Michiko

    2000-01-01

    毛製品のドライクリーニングおよび水洗いによる洗濯実験と洗浄実験.小林泰子.被洗物の洗浄力・損傷度・消費エネルギーから見た洗濯機の性能評価について.片山倫子.洗濯行動におけるライフサイクルアセスメント (LCA) 的アプローチとその活用方法の検討.石久保鈴子.

  7. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  8. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report...... is then demonstrated, and the strategy of LCA to achieving environmental protection, namely to guide the reduction of environmental impacts per delivery of a function, is explained. The attempt to broaden the scope of LCA, beyond environmental protection, by so-called life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA......) is outlined. Finally, the limitations of LCA in guiding a sustainable development are discussed....

  9. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model...... in the context of environmental and human health burdens,as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal...

  10. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of existing bridges and other structures

    OpenAIRE

    Zimoch, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Most buildings are intended to have a long service life, usually over 50 or even 100 years. It is, thus, important to analyse all phases of their life, considering both the influence on environment and expenses. In order to do this precisely the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and the Life Cycle Costs (LCC) methods are used. There are many commonly used LCA and LCC software tools. They make it easier to control maintenance issues, and let their users accumulate all the data for the building. This...

  11. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...... challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future...... technological and economic developments are indispensable in future technology assessments. The uncertainties in future-oriented LCAs are to a large extent qualitative and it is important to emphasise that LCA of future technologies will provide a set of answers and not ‘the’ answer....

  12. GLOBOX : A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for

  13. Integrating LCA and Risk Assessment for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Miraglia, Simona; Manzo, Stefano

    The study aims at developing a methodology using decision analysis theory and tools to find the optimal policy (or design) of the studied system, to ensure both sustainability and meanwhile manage risks.......The study aims at developing a methodology using decision analysis theory and tools to find the optimal policy (or design) of the studied system, to ensure both sustainability and meanwhile manage risks....

  14. LCA Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The LCA cookbook presents the provisions and actions from the ILCD Handbook that are central in the performance of an LCA. The selection is intended to cover all those activities that an LCA practitioner needs to undertake in a typical process-LCA , and the presentation follows the normal progres...

  15. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Impacts for Rice Agroecosystems using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khoramdel; J. Shabahang; A. Amin Ghafouri

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate life cycle assessment (LCA) for rice agroecosystems based on mean of nitrogen fertilizer levels (less than 190, 190-200, 200-210, 210-220 and more than 220 kg N ha) during 1999-2012, an experiment was conducted. Four steps includung goal definition and scoping, inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and integration and interpretation were computed. Functional unit was considered as one tone paddy. Impact categories were acidification, eutrophication in aquatic a...

  17. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...... into the LCA practice related to such systems, offering a critical review of (i) central methodological aspects, including the definition of the goals and scopes of the studies, their coverage of the system life cycle and the environmental impacts, and (ii) key findings of the studies, particularly aimed...... at identifying environmental hotspots and impact patterns across different energy sources. Based on this literature review recommendations and guidelines are issued to LCA practitioners on key methodological aspects that are important for a proper conduct of LCA studies of energy systems and thus ensuring...

  18. Biodiversity impact assessment (BIA+) - methodological framework for screening biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Berger, Markus; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2017-11-10

    For the past 20 years, the life cycle assessment (LCA) community has sought to integrate impacts on biodiversity into the LCA framework. However, existing impact assessment methods still fail to do so comprehensively because they quantify only a few impacts related to specific species and regions. This paper proposes a methodological framework that will allow LCA practitioners to assess currently missing impacts on biodiversity on a global scale. Building on existing models that seek to quantify the impacts of human activities on biodiversity, the herein proposed methodological framework consists of 2 components: a habitat factor for 14 major habitat types and the impact on the biodiversity status in those major habitat types. The habitat factor is calculated by means of indicators that characterize each habitat. The biodiversity status depends on parameters from impact categories. The impact functions, relating these different parameters to a given response in the biodiversity status, rely on expert judgments. To ensure the applicability for LCA practitioners, the components of the framework can be regionalized on a country scale for which LCA inventory data is more readily available. The weighting factors for the 14 major habitat types range from 0.63 to 1.82. By means of area weighting of the major habitat types in a country, country-specific weighting factors are calculated. In order to demonstrate the main part of the framework, examples of impact functions are given for the categories "freshwater eutrophication" and "freshwater ecotoxicity" in 1 major habitat type. The results confirm suitability of the methodological framework. The major advantages are the framework's user-friendliness, given that data can be used from LCA databases directly, and the complete inclusion of all levels of biodiversity (genetic, species, and ecosystem). It is applicable for the whole world and a wide range of impact categories. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000.

  19. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    in policy formulation, implementation and evaluation, present different purposes of LCA application in industry at both product and corporate levels, and discuss challenges for LCA applications in small- and medium-sized enterprises. Our synthesis demonstrates the importance of LCA as a tool to quantify......The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA...

  20. Main Characteristics of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has a number of defining characteristics that enables it to address questions that no other assessment tools can address. This chapter begins by demonstrating how the use of LCA in the late 2000s led to a drastic shift in the dominant perception that biofuels were “green......”, “sustainable” or “carbon neutral”, which led to a change in biofuel policies . This is followed by a grouping of the LCA characteristics into four headlines and an explanation of these: (1) takes a life cycle perspective , (2) covers a broad range of environmental issues, (3) is quantitative, (4) is based...... on science. From the insights of the LCA characteristics we then consider the strengths and limitations of LCA and end the chapter by listing 10 questions that LCA can answer and 3 that it cannot....

  1. Integrating Life Cycle Costing (LCC and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA Model for Selection of Centralized Chilled Water Generation — Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of literature relating to Life Cycle Costing (LCC and Life Cycle Assessments (LCA in Gas District Cooling plant. The gas district cooling plant uses either vapour compression process or absorption process for the chilled water generation. Both processes have impacts on the economic aspects as well as the contribution to CO2 emissions; thus, integration of the cost and environmental analysis of both processes are necessary. An extensive body of literature exists on both subjects, however, there is very limited number of available literature on the integration of LCC and LCA. The purpose of this review is to find the most suitable optimization model which can integrate the LCC and LCA to provide the best decision in choosing the most cost-effective and environment-friendly system. This review assesses the literature from thirty-four journals, research papers, and case reports from the year 1995 to 2017. The result of this review shows that the goal programming methodology is the appropriate method for integrating LCC and LCA because it provides the optimal decision in choosing the most cost-effective, environment-friendly system for the chilled water generation.

  2. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation technologies: Overview, comparability and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Electricity generation is a key contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), NOx and SO2 and their related environmental impact. A critical review of 167 case studies involving the life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation based on hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil...... identified as follows: the energy recovery efficiency and the flue gas cleaning system for fossil fuel technologies; the electricity mix used during both the manufacturing and the construction phases for nuclear and renewable technologies; and the type, quality and origin of feedstock, as well as the amount...... and type of co-products, for biomass-based systems. This review demonstrates that the variability of existing LCA results for electricity generation can give rise to conflicting decisions regarding the environmental consequences of implementing new technologies....

  3. Main Characteristics of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has a number of defining characteristics that enables it to address questions that no other assessment tools can address. This chapter begins by demonstrating how the use of LCA in the late 2000s led to a drastic shift in the dominant perception that biofuels were “gre...

  4. Revision and extension of Eco-LCA metrics for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiying; Yang, Siyu; Kraslawski, Andrzej; Qian, Yu

    2013-12-17

    Ecologically based life cycle assessment (Eco-LCA) is an appealing approach for the evaluation of resources utilization and environmental impacts of the process industries from an ecological scale. However, the aggregated metrics of Eco-LCA suffer from some drawbacks: the environmental impact metric has limited applicability; the resource utilization metric ignores indirect consumption; the renewability metric fails to address the quantitative distinction of resources availability; the productivity metric seems self-contradictory. In this paper, the existing Eco-LCA metrics are revised and extended for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes. A new Eco-LCA metrics system is proposed, including four independent dimensions: environmental impact, resource utilization, resource availability, and economic effectiveness. An illustrative example of comparing assessment between a gas boiler and a solar boiler process provides insight into the features of the proposed approach.

  5. LCA Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The chapter gives examples of applications of LCA by the central societal actors in government, industry and citizens, and discusses major motivations and challenges for the use of LCA to support science-based decision-making from their respective perspectives. We highlight applications of LCA in...

  6. An LCA researcher's wish list--data and emission models needed to improve LCA studies of animal production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cederberg, C; Henriksson, M; Berglund, M

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in environmental systems analysis of livestock production, resulting in a significant number of studies with a holistic approach often based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology...

  7. Accounting for ecosystem services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: toward an ecologically based LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    Despite the essential role of ecosystem goods and services in sustaining all human activities, they are often ignored in engineering decision making, even in methods that are meant to encourage sustainability. For example, conventional Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the impact of emissions and consumption of some resources. While aggregation and interpretation methods are quite advanced for emissions, similar methods for resources have been lagging, and most ignore the role of nature. Such oversight may even result in perverse decisions that encourage reliance on deteriorating ecosystem services. This article presents a step toward including the direct and indirect role of ecosystems in LCA, and a hierarchical scheme to interpret their contribution. The resulting Ecologically Based LCA (Eco-LCA) includes a large number of provisioning, regulating, and supporting ecosystem services as inputs to a life cycle model at the process or economy scale. These resources are represented in diverse physical units and may be compared via their mass, fuel value, industrial cumulative exergy consumption, or ecological cumulative exergy consumption or by normalization with total consumption of each resource or their availability. Such results at a fine scale provide insight about relative resource use and the risk and vulnerability to the loss of specific resources. Aggregate indicators are also defined to obtain indices such as renewability, efficiency, and return on investment. An Eco-LCA model of the 1997 economy is developed and made available via the web (www.resilience.osu.edu/ecolca). An illustrative example comparing paper and plastic cups provides insight into the features of the proposed approach. The need for further work in bridging the gap between knowledge about ecosystem services and their direct and indirect role in supporting human activities is discussed as an important area for future work.

  8. Comprehensive assessment of fruits and vegetables human health effects in a LCA context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Jolliet, O.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    the environmental and nutritional effects of foods expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). For the environmental health assessment we consider impact categories such as global warming and particulate matter (PM) as well as chemical exposure due to pesticide residues. Global warming and PM are assessed...... following a traditional LCA approach. For the pesticide residue exposure, we use publically available health impact scores derived from toxicological studies of numerous pesticide active ingredients. For the nutritional assessment we focus on the various health outcomes considered in the global burden...

  9. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA UNTUK AMPAS TEBU (Studi Kasus di Pabrik Gula Madukismo, Yogyakarta The Development of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA Software for Bagasse (A Case Study at Madukismo Sugar Mill, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmeika Rosmeika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop software which can process data to be information of bagasse life cycle assess- ment (LCA. This study was done by collecting data of sugarcane process production and the utilization of bagasse as a boiler fuel at Madukismo Sugar Mill, Yogyakarta. Data analysis utilized the LCA standard analysis based on ISO14040 series. LCA software which has been developed can be applied in a simulating for condition of energy input, energy output, emission and its impact of bagasse life cycle in the sugarcane industry. The analysis results using LCA software showed that the energy input at the mill and boiler station in Madukismo Sugar Mill was higher than energy output, and bagasse utilization as a boiler fuel was more environmental friendly than fossil fuel. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan suatu perangkat lunak yang dapat mengolah data menjadi informasi mengenai Life Cycle Assessment (LCA dari ampas tebu. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan pengambilan data pada proses produksi gula tebu dan pemanfaatan ampasnya untuk bahan bakar ketel uap di Pabrik Gula Madukismo, Yog- yakarta. Analisis data menggunakan standar analisis LCA berdasarkan ISO seri 14040. Perangkat Lunak LCA yang dikembangkan dapat digunakan untuk melakukan simulasi kondisi dalam input dan output energi, serta emisi dan dampak yang mungkin ditimbulkan dalam proses daur hidup ampas tebu pada industri gula. Hasil analisis menggunakan perangkat lunak LCA menunjukan bahwa input energi di stasiun gilingan dan stasiun ketel PG Madukismo lebih besar dibandingkan output energinya, dan pemanfaatan ampas tebu sebagai bahan bakar lebih ramah lingkungan dibandingkan bahan bakar fosil.

  10. LCA and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bjørn, Anders

    2017-01-01

    LCA is often presented as a sustainability assessment tool. This chapter analyses the relationship between LCA and sustainability. This is done by first outlining the history of the sustainability concept, which gained momentum with the Brundtland Commission’s report ‘Our Common Future report ’ i...

  11. Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Load of Vending Machines by a LCA Method, and Eco-Improvement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukio; Sadamichi, Yucho; Maruyama, Naoki; Kato, Seizo

    These days the environmental impact due to vending machines'(VM) diffusion has greatly been discussed. This paper describes the numerical evaluation of the environmental impact by using the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) scheme and then proposes eco-improvements' strategy toward environmentally conscious products(ECP). A new objective and universal consolidated method for the LCA-evaluation, so-called LCA-NETS(Numerical Eco-load Standardization ) developed by the authors is applied to the present issue. As a result, the environmental loads at the 5years' operation and the material procurement stages are found to dominate others over the life cycle. Further eco-improvement is realized by following the order of the LCA-NETS magnitude; namely, energy saving, materials reducing, parts' re-using, and replacing with low environmental load material. Above all, parts' re-using is specially recommendable for significant reduction of the environmental loads toward ECP.

  12. Impact assessment of abiotic resources in LCA: quantitative comparison of selected characterization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørbech, Jakob T; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-10-07

    Resources have received significant attention in recent years resulting in development of a wide range of resource depletion indicators within life cycle assessment (LCA). Understanding the differences in assessment principles used to derive these indicators and the effects on the impact assessment results is critical for indicator selection and interpretation of the results. Eleven resource depletion methods were evaluated quantitatively with respect to resource coverage, characterization factors (CF), impact contributions from individual resources, and total impact scores. We included 2247 individual market inventory data sets covering a wide range of societal activities (ecoinvent database v3.0). Log-linear regression analysis was carried out for all pairwise combinations of the 11 methods for identification of correlations in CFs (resources) and total impacts (inventory data sets) between methods. Significant differences in resource coverage were observed (9-73 resources) revealing a trade-off between resource coverage and model complexity. High correlation in CFs between methods did not necessarily manifest in high correlation in total impacts. This indicates that also resource coverage may be critical for impact assessment results. Although no consistent correlations between methods applying similar assessment models could be observed, all methods showed relatively high correlation regarding the assessment of energy resources. Finally, we classify the existing methods into three groups, according to method focus and modeling approach, to aid method selection within LCA.

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  14. Towards better environmental performance of wastewater sludge treatment using endpoint approach in LCA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Alyaseri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to use the life cycle assessment method to measure the environmental performance of the sludge incineration process in a wastewater treatment plant and to propose an alternative that can reduce the environmental impact. To show the damages caused by the treatment processes, the study aimed to use an endpoint approach in evaluating impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and resources due to the processes. A case study was taken at Bissell Point Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S. The plant-specific data along with literature data from technical publications were used to build an inventory, and then analyzed the environmental burdens from sludge handling unit in the year 2011. The impact assessment method chosen was ReCipe 2008. The existing scenario (dewatering-multiple hearth incineration-ash to landfill was evaluated and three alternative scenarios (fluid bed incineration and anaerobic digestion with and without land application with energy recovery from heat or biogas were proposed and analyzed to find the one with the least environmental impact. The existing scenario shows that the most significant impacts are related to depletion in resources and damage to human health. These impacts mainly came from the operation phase (electricity and fuel consumption and emissions related to combustion. Alternatives showed better performance than the existing scenario. Using ReCipe endpoint methodology, and among the three alternatives tested, the anaerobic digestion had the best overall environmental performance. It is recommended to convert to fluid bed incineration if the concerns were more about human health or to anaerobic digestion if the concerns were more about depletion in resources. The endpoint approach may simplify the outcomes of this study as follows: if the plant is converted to fluid bed incineration, it could prevent an average of 43.2 DALYs in human life, save 0.059 species in the area

  15. Towards better environmental performance of wastewater sludge treatment using endpoint approach in LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaseri, Isam; Zhou, Jianpeng

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to use the life cycle assessment method to measure the environmental performance of the sludge incineration process in a wastewater treatment plant and to propose an alternative that can reduce the environmental impact. To show the damages caused by the treatment processes, the study aimed to use an endpoint approach in evaluating impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and resources due to the processes. A case study was taken at Bissell Point Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saint Louis, Missouri, U.S. The plant-specific data along with literature data from technical publications were used to build an inventory, and then analyzed the environmental burdens from sludge handling unit in the year 2011. The impact assessment method chosen was ReCipe 2008. The existing scenario (dewatering-multiple hearth incineration-ash to landfill) was evaluated and three alternative scenarios (fluid bed incineration and anaerobic digestion with and without land application) with energy recovery from heat or biogas were proposed and analyzed to find the one with the least environmental impact. The existing scenario shows that the most significant impacts are related to depletion in resources and damage to human health. These impacts mainly came from the operation phase (electricity and fuel consumption and emissions related to combustion). Alternatives showed better performance than the existing scenario. Using ReCipe endpoint methodology, and among the three alternatives tested, the anaerobic digestion had the best overall environmental performance. It is recommended to convert to fluid bed incineration if the concerns were more about human health or to anaerobic digestion if the concerns were more about depletion in resources. The endpoint approach may simplify the outcomes of this study as follows: if the plant is converted to fluid bed incineration, it could prevent an average of 43.2 DALYs in human life, save 0.059 species in the area from extinction

  16. Integrated Methodologies (SWOT, TOWS, LCA for Improving Production Chains and Environmental Sustainability of Kiwifruit and Baby Kiwi in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baudino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s kiwifruit growers are considered to be world-leading players of the past 20 years. However, with this success come its challenges. In the last five years, a bacterial canker of kiwifruit known as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa has caused a dramatic reduction in the size of the areas cultivated, leading to several experienced Piedmontese Actinidia deliciosa growers beginning to cultivate the A. arguta. To better understand the potential for replacing the common kiwifruit in Italy’s Piedmont region with plantations of A. arguta and to attain a systematic approach and support for decision situations; we assessed the environmental impact of the two production chains (field and storage from a technical-operational perspective. The assessment was conducted through interviews with producers, field and warehouse technicians and sales managers in order to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the two systems. The work presented below considers the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method for the field system (two different phases of the plantation and the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis for the entire supply chain (field and warehouse management. Finally, a TOWS analysis (Threats, Opportunities, Weakness, Strengths integrated the results of both LCA and SWOT analyses and permitted to highlight the development strategies for A. arguta in Piedmont. The total orchard cycle for A. arguta presents an impact of 0.14 kg CO2 eq (GWP and for A. deliciosa an impact of 0.11 kg CO2 eq (GWP. Based on the synthesis of results from our TOWS analysis, we identified the following development strategies to help to shape the future A. arguta supply chain in Piedmont: Large-scale oriented; Berry fruits oriented; Export and organic oriented and Niche oriented.

  17. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides contradictory results if these local conditions are not properly accounted for. The importance of regional differences and site-specific data, and choice of LCA model itself, was evaluated by assessment of two waste incinerators representing northern and southern Europe (Denmark and Italy) based on two different LCA models (SimaPro and EASEWASTE). The results showed that assumptions and modelling approaches regarding energy recovery/substitution and direct air emissions were most critical. Differences in model design and model databases mainly had consequences for the toxicity-related impact categories. The overall environmental performance of the Danish system was better than the Italian, mainly because of higher heat recovery at the Danish plant. Flue gas cleaning at the Italian plant was, however, preferable to the Danish, indicating that efficient flue gas cleaning may provide significant benefits. Differences in waste composition between the two countries mainly affected global warming and human toxicity via water. Overall, SimaPro and EASEWASTE provided consistent ranking of the individual scenarios. However, important differences in results from the two models were related to differences in the databases and modelling approaches, in particular the possibility for modelling of waste-specific emissions affected the toxicity-related impact categories. The results clearly showed that the use of site-specific data was essential for the results.

  18. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Tae, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle assessment (LCA) method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS) thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories. PMID:27827843

  20. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO2 eq/m3, 28.7 kg-SO2 eq/m3, 5.21 kg-PO43− eq/m3, 0.000049 kg-CFC11 eq/m3, 34 kg/m3, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m3, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  1. Proposal of Environmental Impact Assessment Method for Concrete in South Korea: An Application in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Tae, Sung Ho

    2016-11-02

    This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP), acidification (AP), eutrophication (EP), abiotic depletion (ADP), ozone depletion (ODP), and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP), using the life a cycle assessment (LCA) method. To achieve this, this study proposed an LCA method specifically applicable to the Korean concrete industry by adapting the ISO standards to suit the Korean situations. The proposed LCA method involves a system that performs environmental impact assessment on the basis of input information on concrete mix design, transport distance, and energy consumption in a batch plant. The Concrete Lifecycle Assessment System (CLAS) thus developed provides user-friendly support for environmental impact assessment with specialized database for concrete mix materials and energy sources. In the case analysis using the CLAS, among the substances discharged from the production of 24 MPa concrete, those contributing to GWP, AP, EP, ADP, ODP, and POCP were assessed to amount to 309 kg-CO₂ eq/m³, 28.7 kg-SO₂ eq/m³, 5.21 kg-PO₄ 3- eq/m³, 0.000049 kg-CFC 11 eq/m³, 34 kg/m³, and 21 kg-Ethylene eq/m³, respectively. Of these six environmental impact categories selected for the LCA in this study, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was found to contribute most intensely to GWP and POCP, and aggregates, to AP, EP, ODP, and ADP. It was also found that the mix design with increased prop proportion of recycled aggregate was found to contribute to reducing the impact in all other categories.

  2. From the LCA of food products to the environmental assessment of protected crops districts: a case-study in the south of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Maurizio; Ardente, Fulvio; Longo, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the energy consumption and environmental burdens associated with the production of protected crops in an agricultural district in the Mediterranean region. In this study, LCA was used as a 'support tool', to address local policies for sustainable production and consumption patterns, and to create a 'knowledge base' for environmental assessment of an extended agricultural production area. The proposed approach combines organisation-specific tools, such as Environmental Management Systems and Environmental Product Declarations, with the environmental management of the district. Questionnaires were distributed to producers to determine the life cycle of different protected crops (tomatoes, cherry tomatoes, peppers, melons and zucchinis), and obtain information on greenhouse usage (e.g. tunnel vs. pavilion). Ecoprofiles of products in the district were also estimated, to identify supply chain elements with the highest impact in terms of global energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, water consumption and waste production. These results of this study enable selection of the 'best practices' and ecodesign solutions, to reduce the environmental impact of these products. Finally, sensitivity analysis of key LCA issues was performed, to assess the variability associated with different parameters: vegetable production; water usage; fertiliser and pesticide usage; shared greenhouse use; substitution of plastics coverings; and waste recycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA used to compare two different methods of ripe table olive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the most common method used for processing ripe table olives: the “California style”. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was applied to detect the “hot spots” of the system under examination. The LCA results also allowed us to compare the traditional “California style”, here called “method A”, with another “California style”, here called “method B”. We were interested in this latter method, because the European Union is considering introducing it into the product specification of the Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO “La Bella della Daunia”. It was also possible to compare the environmental impacts of the two “California style” methods with those of the “Spanish style” method. From the comparison it is clear that “method B” has a greater environmental impact than “method A” because greater amounts of water and electricity are required, whereas “Spanish style” processing has a lower environmental impact than the ”California style” methods.

    El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el método más común utilizado para el procesamiento de la aceituna negra de mesa “estilo California” (Californian Style. La metodología LCA se aplicó para detectar los puntos calientes del sistema estudiado. Los resultados LCA también nos permitieron comparar el estilo californiano tradicional, aquí llamado “método A”, con otro estilo californiano, llamado “método B”. Nosotros estábamos interesados en el segundo método, porque la Unión Europea está considerando introducirlo en la Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP “La Bella della Daunia”. También fue posible comparar los impactos medioambientales de los dos mètodos californianos con los impactos del método español. Observando la comparación, está claro que el “método B” tiene un mejor impacto ambiental que el “método A” porque este último requiere más cantidad de agua y

  4. Is life cycle assessment (LCA) a suitable method for quantitative CO{sub 2} saving estimations? the impact of field input on the LCA results for a pure vegetable oil chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaramonti, David [University of Florence, Mech. Eng. Faculty, CREAR and Department of Energetics ' ' Sergio Stecco' ' , Via S. Marta, 3 - 50139 Florence (Italy); Recchia, Lucia [University of Florence, Agriculture Faculty, CREAR and Department of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, Piazzale delle Cascine, 15 - 50144 Florence (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The environmental and social sustainability of biofuel production and use is today the most critical issue for the development of support policies in this sector.The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is commonly agreed as the main tool for the estimation of the impact of biofuel chains, even in quantitative terms. This is also reflected in the recently issued EU Directive (Renewable Energy Directive, RED) on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. However, the results of Life Cycle Assessment works largely depend on the quality of the information given as input to the study, as also very recent research works started to investigate: in addition, the comparison of a large number of very different (technically, geographically, agronomically) biofuel chains, as some Life Cycle Assessments and reviews tried to do, is a very difficult task due to the extremely large number of variable conditions and parameters. This paper, by considering a very specific biofuel chain (production and use of Pure/Straight Sunflower Oil in North-Central Italy), discuss some limits and constraints of the application of the LCA method. The work investigated within which boundaries Life Cycle Assessment could be implemented to perform quantitative assessments, as requested by the current supporting policies in the biofuel area. Results showed very large variations in the calculation of the CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, thus illustrating how achievable results depends on the local agricultural practices and performances, even for such a small and well defined biofuel chain. The adoption of the present standardized Life Cycle Assessment approach for generalized evaluations in the bioenergy sector and, in particular, for quantitative assessments should therefore be reconsidered. Concluding, LCA studies, even while addressing very specific and well defined chains, should always provide the bias of the calculations, as this range of variation of Life Cycle Assessment

  5. Implementasi Life Cycle Assessment (LCA dan Pendekatan Analytical Network Process (ANP untuk Pengembangan Produk Hetric Lamp yang Ramah Lingkungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Aditya Pringgajaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mempertimbangkan produk ramah lingkungan yang menjadi isu lingkungan belakangan ini, product hetric lamp telah dicitrakan sebagai produk yang ramah lingkungan dilihat dari material penyusun produk serta fungsi produk. Tetapi, perusahaan dalam mencitrakan produknya sebagai green product tidak memperhatikan perspektif ramah lingkungan dari sisi life cycle produk yang dihasilkan.  Pada penelitian ini akan diidentifikasi apakah produk hetric lamp benar-benar memiliki kriteria ramah lingkungan dilihat dari sisi life cycle produk dengan menggunakan pendekatan Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Dari hasil Life Cycle Assessment (LCA diketahui bahwa bagian proses produksi memiliki dampak terbesar yaitu sebesar 60.2 Pt. Dari hasil Life Cycle Assessment (LCA tersebut kemudian ditemukan empat alternatif utama yang akan dipilih untuk mengurangi dampak lingkungan pada proses produksi dengan menggunakan metode Analytical Network Process (ANP. Metode ANP digunakan pada penelitian ini dikarenakan data-data yang ada memiliki hubungan keterkaitan antara satu elemen kriteria dengan elemen kriteria lainnya dan hubungan keterkaitan antara kriteria dengan subkriterianya.

  6. Assessing resource intensity and renewability of cellulosic ethanol technologies using eco-LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Smith, Raymond L

    2012-02-21

    Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. Despite being resource intensive compared to gasoline, cellulosic ethanol offers the possibility of a reduction in crude oil consumption by as much as 96%. Soil erosion and land area requirements can be sources of concern for cellulosic ethanol derived directly from managed agriculture. The analysis of two broad types of thermodynamic metrics, namely: various types of physical return on investment and a renewability index, which indicate competitiveness and sustainability of cellulosic ethanol, respectively, show that only ethanol from waste resources combines a favorable thermodynamic return on investment with a higher renewability index. However, the production potential of ethanol from waste resources is limited. This finding conveys a possible dilemma of biofuels: combining high renewability, high thermodynamic return on investment, and large production capacity may remain elusive. A plot of renewability versus energy return on investment is suggested as one of the options for providing guidance on future biofuel selection.

  7. Environmental assessment of Ammassuo Landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niskanen, A.; Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    ) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall......The Old Ammassuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management...... of the Old Ammassuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity...

  8. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies........ Although two different remediation methods reach the same remedial target with time, their timeframes can be substantially different and lead to a difference in the local toxic impacts over time. By including primary impacts in the LCA of remediation this quality difference is accounted for. Primary...... impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...

  9. How to conduct a proper sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment: taking into account correlations within LCI data and interactions within the LCA calculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrene; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-06

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a significant tool for studying the robustness of results and their sensitivity to uncertainty factors in life cycle assessment (LCA). It highlights the most important set of model parameters to determine whether data quality needs to be improved, and to enhance interpretation of results. Interactions within the LCA calculation model and correlations within Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) input parameters are two main issues among the LCA calculation process. Here we propose a methodology for conducting a proper SA which takes into account the effects of these two issues. This study first presents the SA in an uncorrelated case, comparing local and independent global sensitivity analysis. Independent global sensitivity analysis aims to analyze the variability of results because of the variation of input parameters over the whole domain of uncertainty, together with interactions among input parameters. We then apply a dependent global sensitivity approach that makes minor modifications to traditional Sobol indices to address the correlation issue. Finally, we propose some guidelines for choosing the appropriate SA method depending on the characteristics of the model and the goals of the study. Our results clearly show that the choice of sensitivity methods should be made according to the magnitude of uncertainty and the degree of correlation.

  10. LCA of Food and Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Basset-Mens, Claudine; Antón, Assumpció

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the application of Life Cycle Assessment to evaluate the environmental sustainability of agriculture and food processing. The life cycle of a food product is split into six stages: production and transportation of inputs to the farm, cultivation, processing, distribution...... machinery. In the processing step, the raw agricultural product leaving the farm gate is converted to a food item that can be consumed by the user. Distribution includes transportation of the food product before and after processing. In the consumption stage, environmental impacts arise due to storage......, etc.), and an entire diet are discussed. Other case studies deal with what LCA can conclude on the differences between conventional and organic farming, and the perceived advantages of local food items. Finally, methodological issues in agricultural LCA are discussed: the choice of functional unit...

  11. How to manage uncertainty in future Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) scenarios addressing the effect of climate change in crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    When Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to provide insights on how to pursue future food demand, it faces the challenge to describe scenarios of the future in which the environmental impacts occur. In the case of future crop production, the effects of climate change should be considered....... In this context, the objectives of this paper are two-fold: (i) to recommend an approach to deal with uncertainty in scenario analysis for LCA of crop production in a changed climate, when the goal of the study is to suggest strategies for adaptation of crop cultivation practices towards low environmental impacts......, and (ii) to implement the suggested approach to spring barley cultivation in Denmark. First, the main implications of climate change for future crop cultivation are analyzed, and the factors which should be included when modeling the climate change effects on crops through LCA are introduced, namely...

  12. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    . Differences in waste composition between the two countries mainly affected global warming and human toxicity via water. Overall, SimaPro and EASEWASTE provided consistent ranking of the individual scenarios. However, important differences in results from the two models were related to differences...... in the databases and modelling approaches, in particular the possibility for modelling of waste-specific emissions affected the toxicity-related impact categories. The results clearly showed that the use of site-specific data was essential for the results.......In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides...

  13. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon; Nygaard, Simon Elsborg

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations. An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed in the context of environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model for all the 1281 persons was set-up in Gabi 6. The assessment results obtained applying the model on all 1281 personal consumption scenarios yielded the 1281 Personal Impact Profiles (PIPs). Consumption of food and energy (electricity and thermal energy) proved to be the primary impact sources of PM, followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study will help the Danish and other comparable populations to identify and prioritize the steps towards reducing their environmental, human health, and resource consumption

  14. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... of potential environmental impacts occurs during the early product life cycle stages, potential impacts related to chemicals that are found as ingredients or residues directly in products can be dominated by the product use stage. Finally, methodological challenges in LCA studies in relation to chemicals...

  15. Assessment of the GHG reduction potential from energy crops using a combined LCA and biogeochemical process models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Yaohuan; Fu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA), as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops) soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  17. Biofuel or excavation? - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of soil remediation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 58193 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    The environmental consequences of soil remediation through biofuel or through dig-and-dump were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Willow (Salix viminalis) was actually grown in-situ on a discontinued oil depot, as a phytoremediation treatment. These data were used for the biofuel remediation, while excavation-and-refill data were estimated from experience. The biofuel remediation had great environmental advantages compared to the ex situ excavation remediation. With the ReCiPe impact assessment method, which included biodiversity, the net environmental effect was even positive, in spite of the fact that the wood harvest was not utilised for biofuel production, but left on the contaminated site. Impact from the Salix viminalis cultivation was mainly through land use for the short rotation coppice, and through journeys of control personnel. The latter may be reduced when familiarity with biofuel as a soil treatment method increases. The excavation-and-refill remediation was dominated by the landfill and the transport of contaminated soil and backfill. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Environmental Impacts for Rice Agroecosystems using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoramdel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate life cycle assessment (LCA for rice agroecosystems based on mean of nitrogen fertilizer levels (less than 190, 190-200, 200-210, 210-220 and more than 220 kg N ha during 1999-2012, an experiment was conducted. Four steps includung goal definition and scoping, inventory analysis, life cycle impact assessment and integration and interpretation were computed. Functional unit was considered as one tone paddy. Impact categories were acidification, eutrophication in aquatic and tresstrial ecosystems and global warming. The results showed that the highest paddy yield was obtained 5.35 t.ha-1 in 190-200 kg N ha. The maximum aquatic eutrophication potential was computed for more than 220 kg N ha-1 with 0.79 PO4 equiv./t paddy. EcoX per one tone paddy and maximum environmental impacts was belonged to aquatic eutrophication (0.13 Eco-index per one tone paddy. It seems that system management including green manure, nitrogen fixing species and reduced tillage could be regarded to reduce problematic environmental impacts in rice production systems.

  19. Harmonizing the assessment of biodiversity effects from land and water use within LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Chaudhary, Abhishek; de Baan, Laura; Koellner, Thomas; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-03-17

    Addressing biodiversity impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) has recently been significantly improved. Advances include the consideration of several taxa, consideration of vulnerability of species and ecosystems, global coverage and spatial differentiation. To allow a comparison of biodiversity impacts of different stressors (e.g., land and water use), consistent approaches for assessing and aggregating biodiversity impacts across taxa are needed. We propose four different options for aggregating impacts across taxa and stressors: equal weight for species, equal weight for taxa and two options with special consideration of species' vulnerability. We apply the aggregation options to a case study of coffee, tea and sugarcane production in Kenya for the production of 1 kg of crop. The ranking between stressors (land vs water use) within each crop and also of the overall impact between crops (coffee>sugarcane>tea) remained the same when applying the different aggregation options. Inclusion of the vulnerability of species had significant influence on the magnitude of results, and potentially also on the spatial distribution of impacts, and should be considered.

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  1. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  2. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology: importance in the integration of the fuel cell technology type PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells); Metodologia da analise de ciclo de vida: importancia na insercao da tecnologia de celula a combustivel do tipo PEMFC (membrana polimerica trocadora de protons)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais], e-mail: shfukuro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    To improve the standard of society's quality of life, it is necessary to improve the quality of distributed energy and its inherent services within a sustainability process. Among different technological routes that produce more sustainable energy are the fuel cells - also known as combustible batteries. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has identified the fuel cells as a potential technology to reduce, in the future, the effect of greenhouse gases in both developed and developing countries. Although there are various types of fuel cells, the most used technology for research studies on fuel cells is the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (FEMFC). However, economic issues - related to the high cost of the membrane's materials and of the catalysts of groups of platinum metals - are still some of the obstacles that need to be overcome for this technology to be more accessible. There are also socio-environmental aspects related to the impacts caused by the extraction, the use and the destination of these metals. Taking in consideration the challenges of complying with the demands of the market and the society as well as with the growing tendency of more rigid patterns of environmental control, the objective of the present work is to show the tool of environmental management - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - and its importance on the pursuit for socio-economic and environmental alternatives feasible to the recycling of the catalysts of platinum of the PEMFC. This way, it intends to collaborate to the progress of the knowledge about environmental and socio-economic subjects related to the productive process of the PEMFC. (author)

  3. Organisational LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    environmental performance over time, supporting strategic decisions, and informing corporate sustainability reporting. Several initiatives are on the way for the LCA of organisations: the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative published the ‘Guidance on organizational LCA’, using ISO/TS 14072 as a backbone; moreover...

  4. Measurement of thermophysical properties coupled with LCA assessment for the optimization of a historical building retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, A.; Bison, P.; Cadelano, G.; Ferrarini, G.; Fortuna, S.

    2015-11-01

    Historical buildings are a significant part of the Italian building stock and, in most cases, need deep refurbishment interventions to reach the energy criteria required by the current standards. A workflow that integrates on-site surveys and building modeling is mandatory to obtain effective energy saving measures. This work describes the analysis and modeling of the San Vito alla Rivera church, a XIV century building that was damaged during 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, suffering a partial collapse of the façade and of the roof. The latter was selected for a complete restoration that could improve its thermal performance while maintaining, as much as possible, the original structure. Several elements of the roof were collected in situ in order to measure, in laboratory, its thermophysical properties applying standard techniques and alternative methods based on infrared thermography. The accurate characterization of the materials was the starting point for the estimation of the environmental impact of the retrofit aimed to reach a defined thermal transmittance. A model of the building was created with TRNSYS software to calculate the energy consumption before and after the intervention. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was conducted on different insulation materials to determine the one with the lowest impact.

  5. Background for spatial differentiation in life cycle impact assessment. The EDIP2003 methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potting, José; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    agreement is limited to main lines and methodology has not yet been fully developed. A major problem to be solved is the poor accordance between impact as calculated in LCA and the expected occurrence of actual impact. Until recently, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) typically focused on substance...

  6. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Marlies A.; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout; De Boer, Imke

    Background, aim and scope: Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  7. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle

  8. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment: A Methodological Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Christensen, Frans Møller; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2001-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment are two different tools in environmental management. The paper identifies harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method ‘EDIP’ (En......-vironmental Design of Industrial Products) developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment due to the use of a functional unit. Risk assessment on the other hand is an absolute assessment, which may require very specific and detailed information on e.g. the exposure...

  9. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  10. LCA of a washing machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    Task 2.1 has the aim to generate inforamtion of the present situation for electrical motors through life cycle assessment (LCA). When assessing the environmental burdens through out the life cycle of the motor it is necessary to look at the life cycle of the product in which the motor is used....... The LCA of the present situation will later in the REMPRODUSE-Cu project be used as a reference LCA for assessing the environmental improvements of the results of the project....

  11. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish......-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts...

  12. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling in a life cycle perspective (LCA model EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone

    for perkolat og LFG afgørende, da disse styrer de faktiske emissioner til miljøet. Endvidere, hvad angår LFG, giver en høj opsamlingseffektivitet mulighed for at maksimere mængden af LFG, der udnyttes til energiproduktionen. Sidstnævnte fører, fra et LCA perspektiv, til anselige, potentielle miljømæssige...

  14. Life cycle assessment of aquaculture systems-a review of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Patrik J G; Guinée, Jeroen B; Kleijn, René; de Snoo, Geert R

    As capture fishery production has reached its limits and global demand for aquatic products is still increasing, aquaculture has become the world's fastest growing animal production sector. In attempts to evaluate the environmental consequences of this rapid expansion, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a frequently used method. The present review of current peer-reviewed literature focusing on LCA of aquaculture systems is intended to clarify the methodological choices made, identify possible data gaps, and provide recommendations for future development within this field of research. The results of this review will also serve as a start-up activity of the EU FP7 SEAT (Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture Trade) project, which aims to perform several LCA studies on aquaculture systems in Asia over the next few years. From a full analysis of methodology in LCA, six phases were identified to differ the most amongst ten peer-reviewed articles and two PhD theses (functional unit, system boundaries, data and data quality, allocation, impact assessment methods, interpretation methods). Each phase is discussed with regards to differences amongst the studies, current LCA literature followed by recommendations where appropriate. The conclusions and recommendations section reflects on aquaculture-specific scenarios as well as on some more general issues in LCA. Aquaculture LCAs often require large system boundaries, including fisheries, agriculture, and livestock production systems from around the globe. The reviewed studies offered limited coverage of production in developing countries, low-intensity farming practices, and non-finfish species, although most farmed aquatic products originate from a wide range of farming practices in Asia. Apart from different choices of functional unit, system boundaries and impact assessment methods, the studies also differed in their choice of allocation factors and data sourcing. Interpretation of results also differed amongst the studies

  15. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  16. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Alting, Leo

    A detailed introduction to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products, Danish acronym: UMIP) methodology on life cycle assessment (LCA) including toolbox, introduction to the use of LCA in product development and five comprehensive case studies on electromechanical products....

  17. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars of sustai......Measuring the sustainability of goods and services in a systematic and objective manner has become an issue of paramount importance. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) is a holistic methodology whose aim is to integrate into a compatible format the analysis of the three pillars...... of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S......-LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...

  19. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinella de Faria, A B; Spérandio, M; Ahmadi, A; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2015-11-01

    With a view to quantifying the energy and environmental advantages of Urine Source-Separation (USS) combined with different treatment processes, five wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) scenarios were compared to a reference scenario using Dynamic Modelling (DM) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and an integrated DM-LCA framework was thus developed. Dynamic simulations were carried out in BioWin(®) in order to obtain a realistic evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and performance of plants under perturbation. LCA calculations were performed within Umberto(®) using the Ecoinvent database. A Python™ interface was used to integrate and convert simulation data and to introduce them into Umberto(®) to achieve a complete LCA evaluation comprising foreground and background processes. Comparisons between steady-state and dynamic simulations revealed the importance of considering dynamic aspects such as nutrient and flow peaks. The results of the evaluation highlighted the potential of the USS scenario for nutrient recovery whereas the Enhanced Primary Clarification (EPC) scenario gave increased biogas production and also notably decreased aeration consumption, leading to a positive energy balance. Both USS and EPC scenarios also showed increased stability of plant operation, with smaller daily averages of total nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, USS and EPC results demonstrated that the coupled USS + EPC scenario and its combinations with agricultural spreading of N-rich effluent and nitritation/anaerobic deammonification could present an energy-positive balance with respectively 27% and 33% lower energy requirements and an increase in biogas production of 23%, compared to the reference scenario. The coupled scenarios also presented lesser environmental impacts (reduction of 31% and 39% in total endpoint impacts) along with effluent quality well within the specified limits. The marked environmental performance (reduction of global warming) when nitrogen is used

  20. Assessing eco-innovations in green chemistry:Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a cosmetic product with a bio-based ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    SECCHI Michela; Castellani, Valentina; Collina, Elena; MIRABELLA Nadia; SALA SERENELLA

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in assessing the environmental impacts of cosmetic products, research and development activities try enhancing and promoting eco-innovation solutions in cosmetic industry. This study is aimed at comparing the environmental profile of eco-innovation options in green chemistry using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A case study in which synthetic ingredients are replaced by others derived from natural compounds is presented. A C16-18 triglycerides mixture (INCI name “pa...

  1. Survey on the Use of LCA in European Chemical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a questionnaire was sent to 40 European chemical manufacturers representing different positions in the supply chain. 25 companies (62.5%) responded, of which 23 had been involved in LCA to some degree. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into four parts dealing...... with · the company's general attitude to environmental matters, · to which degree they had been involved in LCA and their opinions on LCA as a tool · Which methodological choices they had taken when using LCA, and · how LCA results were presented e.g. to ensure confidentiality In general, the European chemical...... industry has taken up the LCA methodology and is testing its applicability for their purposes, although they still feel the methodology is a bit immature. The resources devoted to LCA depends to a great extent on the company's position in the supply chain and on the size of the company. Many of the LCA...

  2. Hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) of CO2 emission with management alternatives for household food wastes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Rokuta; Nansai, Keisuke; Fujii, Minoru; Hashimoto, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate reductions in CO(2) emissions by food waste biogasification of household food wastes in Japan. Two alternative scenarios were examined. In one alternative (Ref), all combustible municipal solid wastes (MSWs), including food waste, are incinerated. In the other (Bio), food waste is biogasified, while the other combustible wastes are incinerated. An inventory analysis of energy and material flow in the MSW management system was conducted. Subsequently, the inventory data were summarized into an input-output format, and a make-use input-output framework was applied. Furthermore, a production equilibrium model was established using a matrix representing the input- output relationship of energy and materials among the processes and sectors. Several levels of power generation efficiency from incineration were applied as a sensitivity analysis. The hybrid LCA indicated that the difference between the Bio and Ref scenarios, from the perspective of CO( 2) emissions, is relatively small. However, a 13-14% reduction of CO(2) emissions of the total waste management sector in Japan may be achieved by improving the efficiency of power generation from incineration from 10% to 25%.

  3. Assessing the Environmental Bene fi ts of Compost Use-on-Land through an LCA Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Blanco, J.; Lazcano, C.; Boldrin, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    on compost impacts on soil biodiversity is scarce and restricted to microorganisms. Compost may decrease microbial diversity by 2% or increase it by 4%. Clear impacts are also observed on microbial biomass, of 3.2–242% increase after compost application, and microbial activity: 43–344% increase. For weed...... addressed, but suitable impact assessment methodologies were not available. Additional impact categories dealing with ­phosphorus resources, biodiversity, soil losses, and water depletion are needed for a comprehensive assessment of compost application....... soil biological properties and biodiversity, and gain in crop nutritional quality. Quantitative figures for each benefit were drawn from the literature and classified into short-term: less than 1 year; mid-term: less than 10 years and long-term: less than 100 years. The review shows that 5...

  4. The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Zine, Messaoud-Boureghda; Hamouche, Aksas; Krim, Louhab

    2013-12-19

    Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase in future potable water production projects, in algeria, especially, when alternative treatment processes such sedimentation ,coagulation sand filtration and Desinfection are considered. An impact assessment tool is therefore developed for the environmental evaluation of potable water production. in our study The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the determination and evaluation of potential impact of a drink water station ,near algiers (SEAL-Boudouaoua).LCA requires both the identification and quantification of materials and energy used in all stages of the product's life, when the inventory information is acquired, it will then be interpreted into the form of potential impact " eco-indicators 99" towards study areas covered by LCA, using the simapro6 soft ware for water treatment process is necessary to discover the weaknesses in the water treatment process in order for it to be further improved ensuring quality life. The main source shown that for the studied water treatment process, the highest environmental burdens are coagulant preparation (30% for all impacts), mineral resource and ozone layer depletion the repartition of the impacts among the different processes varies in comparison with the other impacts. Mineral resources are mainly consumed during alumine sulfate solution preparation; Ozone layer depletion originates mostly from tetrachloromethane emissions during alumine sulfate production. It should also be noted that, despite the small doses needed, ozone and active Carbone treatment generate significant impacts with a contribution of 10% for most of the impacts.Moreover impacts of energy are used in producing pumps (20-25 GHC) for plant operation and the unitary processes (coagulation, sand filtration decantation) and the most important impacts are localized in the same equipment (40-75 GHC) and we can conclude that:- Pre-treatment, pumping and EDR (EDR: 0

  5. Life cycle assessment (LCA) as a decision-suppport tool for the evaluation of environmental impacts of site remediation on the global, regional and local scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Bulle, C.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    of the LCA showed that of the three remediation methods compared, the ERD had the lowest total environmental impacts, even though it had significant primary impacts due to its long timeframe. The environmental impacts of ERD were comparable or only slightly higher than those of the no action scenario. ISTD......Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the environment al impacts of three alternatives for remediating a TCE-contaminated site: (i) enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD); (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) and (iii) excavation with off-site soil treatment. In addition...... and degradation products leaching to the drinking water aquifer during these timeframes. These local toxic impacts, referred to as primary impacts, were included in the LCA together with impact on the local, regional and global scale caused by the remediation itself – the termed secondary impacts. The results...

  6. LCA versus RA - an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    Risk Assessment (RA) of chemicals is an environmental management tool used to assess the risk of specific chemicals, which are harmful to man or the environment under certain circumstances of use or in certain environmental recipients. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) or environmental assessment...... of products is another environmental management tool that gains more and more ground, and which is often thought of as universal due to its basic holistic philosophy. As the environmental impacts of one product can only be seen in relation to the impacts of other products providing the same functions, LCA...... is a comparative tool. The primary purpose of this article is to identify harmonies, discrepancies and relations between the two tools, exemplified by the risk assessment principles of the European Commission (EC) as stated in 'Technical Guidance Document' (EC, 1996) and the LCA method 'EDIP' (Environmental Design...

  7. Development of a methodological framework for social life-cycle assessment of novel technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, Berthe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370550153; Ciroth, Andreas; Fontes, João; Wood, Richard; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    Purpose: Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) is broadly applied and recently social and economic LCA have emerged. However, the development of a general framework for social LCA is still at an early stage of development. The aims of this paper are to systematically discuss general

  8. LCA and decision making: when and how to use consequential LCA. 62nd LCA forum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, 9 September 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frischknecht, R.; Benetto, E.; Dandres, T.; Heijungs, R.; Roux, C.; Schrijvers, D; Wernet, G.; Yang, Y.; Messmer, A.; Tschuemperlin, L.

    2017-01-01

    The 62nd life cycle assessment (LCA) forum was held on 9 September 2016 to discuss the state of research and application with regard to consequential life cycle assessment. This conference report presents the highlights of the LCA forum. The state of the art of consequential LCA was presented from

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of electricity generation: overview and methodological issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Electricity production is currently responsible for a large share of global Greenhouse Gas (GHG), NOx and SO2 emissions, and their related environmental impacts. This study provides a critical review of the status of research on life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation. NREL [1...... of emissions, those were divided among three life cycle phases: fuel provision, operation of the plant and infrastructure. It was possible to estimate typical emission factors for all technologies except for biomass, where methodological and technical aspects result in very variable outcomes. Within...... these ranges, we identified direct emissions at the plant as the main contributor to the total GHG emissions for fossil fuels, with thermal efficiency being the most determining parameter. Nevertheless, with high thermal efficiency fuel provision becomes increasingly important (e.g. natural gas combined cycle...

  10. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) modeling provides a quantitative statement about resource issues and environmental issues in waste management useful in evaluating alternative management systems and in mapping where major loads and savings take place within existing systems. Chapter 3.1 describes...... the concepts behind LCA modeling and Chapter 3.2 gives an overview of existing models and shows examples of their application. A recent comprehensive review of publicly available LCA studies (WRAP, 2006) concluded that, on a material basis, LCA modeling in general confirms the validity of the waste hierarchy...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...

  11. LCA case study of pickled herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick Andresen; Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    The chaper provides an example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of fish products, carried out by a fictive Danish fish processing factory.......The chaper provides an example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of fish products, carried out by a fictive Danish fish processing factory....

  12. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebecca Chaplin-kramer; Sarah Sim; Perrine Hamel; Benjamin Bryant; Ryan Noe; Carina Mueller; Giles Rigarlsford; Michal Kulak; Virginia Kowal; Richard Sharp; Julie Clavreul; Edward Price; Stephen Polasky; Mary Ruckelshaus; Gretchen Daily

    2017-01-01

    .... Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity...

  13. LCA Center Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Frydendal, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    product-oriented environmental tools in companies, to ensure that the LCA efforts is based on a solid and scientific basis, and to maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. A status is given on the achievements of LCA Center Denmark...

  14. Is Labor a Suitable Input in LCA + DEA Studies? Insights on the Combined Use of Economic, Environmental and Social Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iribarren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and environmental dimensions are usually accepted as the three pillars of sustainable development. However, current methodologies for the assessment of the sustainability of product systems fail to cover economic, environmental and social parameters in a single combined approach. Even though the perfect methodology is still far off, this article attempts to provide insights on the potentials of the five-step LCA + DEA method, based on both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA methodologies, to cope with operational (economic, environmental and social parameters when evaluating multiple similar entities. The LCA + DEA methodology has already been proven to be a suitable approach for the evaluation of a homogenous set of units from an operational and environmental perspective, while allowing the consideration of economic aspects. However, this is the first study focused on the implementation of social parameters in LCA + DEA studies. The suitability of labor as an additional DEA item is evaluated to validate this integrative LCA + DEA concept. Illustrative case studies are used to show the advantages and drawbacks associated with the use of labor in terms of number of workers and number of working hours. In light of the results, the integrative LCA + DEA concept is seen as an all-in-one methodology, which is easy to implement, even though relevant limitations should be discussed in order to guarantee an appropriate interpretation of the social results derived from the proposed method.

  15. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    Several articles within the area of green chemistry often promote new techniques or products as ‘green’ or ‘more environmentally benign’ than their conventional counterpart although these articles often do not quantitatively assess the environmental performance. In order to do this, life cycle...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals......, for example eutrophication and the use of land.To assess the environmental performance of green chemicals, quantitative methods are needed. For this purpose, both simple metrics and more comprehensive methods have been developed, one recognised method being LCA. However, this method is often too time...

  16. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCT DECLARATION (EPD) OF AN IMMUNOLOGICAL PRODUCT FOR BOAR TAINT CONTROL IN MALE PIGS

    OpenAIRE

    PAULO J. U. DE MORAES; JIM ALLISON; Robinson, Joseph A.; GIAN LUCA BALDO; FABRIZIO BOERI; PAOLA BORLA

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a leading manufacturer of veterinary medicines applied the LCA approach to the production and use of an immunological product for male pigs for the reduction of boar taint. The LCA study involved the facilities where the immunological product is manufactured, a sample at global level of farms where it is used and where the standard method of physical castration for boar taint reduction is adopted to define a benchmark and, finally, a sample of abbattoirs where the final product (por...

  17. Description of common methodology used in all case studies, following the ILCD methodology guide and the ISO standards for LCA (ISO 14040 and 14044)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Ulf; Anton, Assumpcio; Ohlau, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    This document describes common methodological issues for the case studies within LC-IMPACT. There will be five case studies in three areas performed within the project. The case studies are: Tomatoes, Margarine, Fish, Paper and printing and finally car manufacture and operation. In each case stud...

  18. Social life cycle assessment and participatory approaches: A methodological proposal applied to citrus farming in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Irene; Iofrida, Nathalie; Strano, Alfio; Falcone, Giacomo; Gulisano, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Recently, Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) has been developed under the methodological framework of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) to evaluate the social impacts that emerge during the overall life cycle of a product or service. There is not yet a standardized methodology for S-LCA as there is for environmental LCA (eLCA), due to the nature of social impacts that do not depend only on the processes themselves, but also on the behavior and context of actors (manufactures, consumers, local community members, etc.). One of the most critical steps in the application of S-LCA concerns the choice of criteria for selecting affected actors, impact categories, subcategories, and the taxonomic relation among them. Moreover, the importance (in terms of weight) of these impacts may be felt differently by affected actors, confirming the importance of the context within which impacts arise. In this sense, the integration of participatory tools can be useful in making the S-LCA more locally relevant. The aim of the present study is twofold. First, we will outline a methodology that combines S-LCA with two research tools. The first is the focus group, adopted from qualitative research. The second is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), adopted from operational research, which belongs to the framework of Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). These have been used to make the S-LCA more locally relevant and to legitimate the criteria used. Second, we will test this methodology by applying it to a specific field, i.e., 3 production areas and 3 different crop systems of citrus growing in the Calabria region in Southern Italy. Citrus growing is one of the most important agricultural sectors at regional level, and it is also well known for issues of social concern, particularly in relation to immigrant workers. The results show a number of differences between cases and could offer useful insights to both local decision makers, such as agricultural entrepreneurs, and to those public

  19. An illustration of the LCA technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, Reinout

    2009-01-01

    It has been mentioned in Chapter 12 that Life Cycle Assessment (or LCA) is one of the analytical instruments within the toolbox for analyzing the interface of economy and environment. This section provides a worked example of the LCA technique. It is a fairly elaborate demonstration of a quite

  20. Social Life Cycle Assessment: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bonou, Alexandra; Wangel, Arne

    2017-01-01

    An expansion of the LCA framework has been going on through the development of ‘social life cycle assessment’—S-LCA. The methodology, still in its infancy, has the goal of assessing social impacts related to a product’s life cycle. This chapter introduces S-LCA framework area and the related...

  1. Social Life Cycle Assessment: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltesen, Andreas; Bonou, Alexandra; Wangel, Arne

    2017-01-01

    An expansion of the LCA framework has been going on through the development of ‘social life cycle assessment’—S-LCA. The methodology, still in its infancy, has the goal of assessing social impacts related to a product’s life cycle. This chapter introduces S-LCA framework area and the related chal...

  2. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  3. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  4. Net environmental benefit: introducing a new LCA approach on wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, D; Bouchard, C; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) allows evaluating the potential environmental impacts of a product or a service in relation to its function and over its life cycle. In past LCAs applied to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the system function definition has received little attention despite its great importance. This has led to some limitations in LCA results interpretation. A new methodology to perform LCA on WWTPs is proposed to avoid those limitations. It is based on net environmental benefit (NEB) evaluation and requires assessing the potential impact of releasing wastewater without and with treatment besides assessing the impact of the WWTP's life cycle. The NEB allows showing the environmental trade-offs between avoided impact due to wastewater treatment and induced impact by the WWTP's life cycle. NEB is compared with a standard LCA through the case study of a small municipal WWTP consisting of facultative aerated lagoons. The NEB and standard LCA show similar results for impact categories solely related to the WWTP's life cycle but differ in categories where wastewater treatment environmental benefit is accounted for as NEB considers influent wastewater quality whereas standard LCA does not.

  5. Generic model for calculating carbon footprint of milk using four different LCA modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Randi; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Flysjö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a tool, which can be used for calculation of carbon footprint (using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach) of milk both at a farm level and at a national level. The functional unit is ‘1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate’ and the applied methodology...... methodology for the dairy sector. The key elements of consequential LCA and the IDF guide are presented and explained by examples. The national carbon footprints (CF) for milk produced in Denmark and Sweden in 2005 are presented....

  6. Does it matter which Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool you choose? - a comparative assessment of SimaPro and GaBi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Moltesen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    SimaPro and GaBi are the leading software tools used for life cycle assessments. Assessing product systems applying the exact same unit process foundation would be expected to yield comparable result sets with either tool. The software performances are compared based on a random sample of 100 unit....... For the same life cycle inventory the maximum result ratio for the characterized results is 0.0076 for Terrestrial Ecotoxicity Potential. The observed differences appear to originate primarily from errors in the software databases for both inventory and impact assessment. SimaPro and GaBi are used by many Life...... Cycle Assessment (LCA) practitioners worldwide as a decision-support tool; if the results of the present analysis are representative of the differences obtained when using either one or the other, then the implications of this paper are worrying. It is clearly in the interest of both software developers...

  7. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  8. LCA of waste management systems: Development of tools for modeling and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie

    Since the late 1990s, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly applied to waste management to quantify direct, indirect and avoided impacts from various treatment options. The construction of inventories for waste management systems differs from classical product-LCAs in that (1) these s......Since the late 1990s, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly applied to waste management to quantify direct, indirect and avoided impacts from various treatment options. The construction of inventories for waste management systems differs from classical product-LCAs in that (1...... are presented. First a review was carried out on all LCA studies of waste management systems published before mid-2012. This provided a global overview of the technologies and waste fractions which have attracted focus within LCA while enabling an analysis of methodological tendencies, the use of tools...... and databases and the application of uncertainty analysis methods. The major outcome of this thesis was the development of a new LCA model, called EASETECH, building on the experience with previous LCA-tools, in particular the EASEWASTE model. Before the actual implementation phase, a design phase involved...

  9. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  10. Comprehensive Assessment of Human Health Impacts and Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables in a LCA Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    serving of 161 g fruits and 123 g vegetables as functional unit (FU), associated life cycle emissions, e.g. greenhouse gases and particulate matter (PM) precursors, and intake of pesticide residues in food are linked to health impacts in DALY/FU. Global warming and PM human health impacts are assessed...... pesticide active ingredients. The nutritional assessment is based on effect factors estimated using the 2010 health burden attributable to corresponding dietary risk factors in DALY from the global burden of disease (GBD) and daily consumption food consumption based on the National Health and Nutrition...

  11. Sustainability Assessment of Power Generation Systems by Applying Exergy Analysis and LCA Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Valero Delgado, A.

    2015-01-01

    The selection of power generation systems is important when striving for a more sustainable society. However, the results of environmental, economic and social sustainability assessments are subject to new insights into the calculation methods and to changing needs, economic conditions and societal

  12. Inverse problem of life cycle assessment (LCA: its application in designing for environment (DfE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybaczewska-Błażejowska Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverse problem of life cycle assessment, used in designing for environment, is about determining the optimal values of environmental inputs that provide the required environmental impacts. The notion of the inverse problem of life cycle assessment is explained here using a case study of a coffee machine (abstract model SimaPro, based on models Sima and Pro described in SimaPro 8.1 software. The dependencies between input and output signals were defined by nonlinear functions of several variables. Next, linearization was used and coefficient aki was calculated. On the basis of 3 hypothetical experiments, recommendations have been made on the reduction of the value of the factors that are the most detrimental for the environment: the consumption of aluminium, electricity, and paper for coffee filters, for the analysed product. The results prove the high applicability and usefulness of the proposed approach during environmental evaluation and enhancement of products over the full product life cycle.

  13. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system....... of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...

  14. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of pork using different protein sources in pig feed

    OpenAIRE

    Reckmann, K.; Blank, R.; Traulsen, I.; J. Krieter

    2016-01-01

    Feed production is the main contributor to a subset of environmental impacts of pork production. In this context, this study is concerned with the substitution of soy products in pig diets in order to reduce these impacts. The aim of this study was to assess three alternative diets in gestating and lactating sows as well as growing and finishing pigs in order to reduce the amount of soy products used as ingredients. In the three alternative scenarios soy proteins were compen...

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanotoxicology materials, methodologies, and assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Nelson; Alves, Oswaldo L; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    This book begins with a detailed introduction to engineered nanostructures, followed by a section on methodologies used in research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and concluding with evidence for the cyto- and genotoxicity of specific nanoparticles.

  17. Environmental impact of organic pineapple production in Ghana: a comparison of two farms using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adebah, E.C.; Langeveld, C.A.; Kermah, M.

    2010-01-01

    This LCA analysed and compared the environmental impact of producing 1 kg of organic pineapples on farm A to 1 kg on farm B. Environmental impact categories considered were Global Warming Potential (GWP); Acidification Potential (AP); Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Erosion Potential (ErP).

  18. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential

  19. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M

    2007-04-01

    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis.

  1. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  2. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for cha...

  3. Challenges in LCA modelling of multiple loops for aluminium cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has traditionally played a key role in identifying the most efficient envi- ronmental design strategies and the best option for the end-of-life of products from an environmental point of view, within “one life cycle” approach. However, such an approach fails to capture...... one of the main features of circular product systems, i.e. the need to model multiple life cycles. There are some key methodological challenges that LCA has to face in order to exploit its potential in a circular economy framework, e.g. how to model the recycling of materials in multiple loops. We...... considered the case of closed-loop recycling for aluminium cans, where body and lid are different alloys, and discussed the abovementioned challenge. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) modelling of aluminium processes is traditionally based on a pure aluminium flow, therefore neglecting the presence of alloying...

  4. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  5. Ecodesign Implementation and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    2018-01-01

    implementation into manufacturing companies. Existing methods and tools for ecodesign implementation will be described, focusing on a multifaceted approach to environmental improvement through product development. Additionally, the use of LCA in an ecodesign implementation context will be further described...... in terms of the challenges and opportunities, together with the discussion of a selection of simplified LCA tools. Finally, a seven-step approach for ecodesign implementation which has been applied by several companies will be described....

  6. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  7. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  8. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  9. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...... fields of LCA application with their specific decision situations, user competences and stakeholder needs, and associated methodological challenges and adaptations....

  10. A Security Assessment Methodology for Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures

  11. Improvement of methodological and data background for life cycle assessment of nano-metaloxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko

    data from an industrial case study of metal (-oxide) ENM products. • Improve the LCA limitation of ecotoxicity assessment by developing freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factors for chosen metal (-oxide) ENMs. By reviewing the scientifically published LCA studies of ENMs it was concluded...

  12. Accident risk-based life cycle assessment methodology for green and safe fuel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad, Sina; Khan, Faisal; Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using the emissions produced during the entire life-cycle of a fuel or a product, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective technique widely used to estimate environmental impacts. However, most of the conventional LCA methods consider the impacts of voluntary releases such as discharged toxic

  13. Development of life cycle assessment methodology: a focus on co-product allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Curran (Mary Ann)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractLife Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a developing tool that can assist decision-makers in evaluating the comparative potential cradle-to-grave, environmental impacts of their actions in order to prevent unintended consequences. The LCA tool is designed to assist in the evaluation along the

  14. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental impacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage....... Similarities of the main environmental impacts were identified to rationalize and justify the selection of key performance indicators chosen for a simplified web based LCA tool developed within the EC funded project SENSE (FP7). Life Cycle Assessment methodology covered many of the key challenges identified...

  15. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    . Similarities of the main environmental impacts were identified to rationalize and justify the selection of key performance indicators chosen for a simplified web based LCA tool developed within the EC funded project SENSE (FP7). Life Cycle Assessment methodology covered many of the key challenges identified......System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  16. An LCA researcher's wish list--data and emission models needed to improve LCA studies of animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, C; Henriksson, M; Berglund, M

    2013-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in environmental systems analysis of livestock production, resulting in a significant number of studies with a holistic approach often based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The growing public interest in global warming has added to this development; guidelines for carbon footprint (CF) accounting have been developed, including for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting of animal products. Here we give an overview of methods for estimating GHG emissions, with emphasis on nitrous oxide, methane and carbon from land use change, presently used in LCA/CF studies of animal products. We discuss where methods and data availability for GHGs and nitrogen (N) compounds most urgently need to be improved in order to produce more accurate environmental assessments of livestock production. We conclude that the top priority is to improve models for N fluxes and emissions from soils and to implement soil carbon change models in LCA/CF studies of animal products. We also point at the need for more farm data and studies measuring emissions from soils, manure and livestock in developing countries.

  17. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  18. Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-15

    As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenge clusters facing LCA in environmental decision-making-what we can learn from biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Marcelle C; Taylor, Caroline M; Mohr, Alison; Whittaker, Carly; Scown, Corinne D; Borrion, Aiduan Li; Glithero, Neryssa J; Yin, Yao

    Bioenergy is increasingly used to help meet greenhouse gas (GHG) and renewable energy targets. However, bioenergy's sustainability has been questioned, resulting in increasing use of life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy systems are global and complex, and market forces can result in significant changes, relevant to LCA and policy. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the complexities associated with LCA, with particular focus on bioenergy and associated policy development, so that its use can more effectively inform policymakers. The review is based on the results from a series of workshops focused on bioenergy life cycle assessment. Expert submissions were compiled and categorized within the first two workshops. Over 100 issues emerged. Accounting for redundancies and close similarities in the list, this reduced to around 60 challenges, many of which are deeply interrelated. Some of these issues were then explored further at a policy-facing workshop in London, UK. The authors applied a rigorous approach to categorize the challenges identified to be at the intersection of biofuels/bioenergy LCA and policy. The credibility of LCA is core to its use in policy. Even LCAs that comply with ISO standards and policy and regulatory instruments leave a great deal of scope for interpretation and flexibility. Within the bioenergy sector, this has led to frustration and at times a lack of obvious direction. This paper identifies the main challenge clusters: overarching issues, application and practice and value and ethical judgments. Many of these are reflective of the transition from application of LCA to assess individual products or systems to the wider approach that is becoming more common. Uncertainty in impact assessment strongly influences planning and compliance due to challenges in assigning accountability, and communicating the inherent complexity and uncertainty within bioenergy is becoming of greater importance. The emergence of LCA in bioenergy governance is

  20. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  1. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  2. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    is proposed that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and the use of technology from a technical performance perspective. A dynamic approach to definition of the functional unit is proposed that is based on Kano’s model of product function and satisfaction. Results and discussion: The new approach...... life cycle design, the society is still faced with increasing environmental impact from the product type overall. Conclusions: This article presents the challenges of using a static, single functional unit definition in an industrial culture with constant evolution of products that influences usage...... behaviour and demonstrates the vicious circle of improving product efficiency that leads to further consumption and environmental impact. To address this problem, a new framework of dynamic functional unit definition is put forward for performing comparative LCA to manage the development of product life...

  3. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...... is proposed that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and the use of technology from a technical performance perspective. A dynamic approach to definition of the functional unit is proposed that is based on Kano’s model of product function and satisfaction. Results and discussion: The new approach...

  4. LCA data quality: sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Murphy, R J

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) data quality issues were investigated by using case studies on products from starch-polyvinyl alcohol based biopolymers and petrochemical alternatives. The time horizon chosen for the characterization models was shown to be an important sensitive parameter for the environmental profiles of all the polymers. In the global warming potential and the toxicity potential categories the comparison between biopolymers and petrochemical counterparts altered as the time horizon extended from 20 years to infinite time. These case studies demonstrated that the use of a single time horizon provide only one perspective on the LCA outcomes which could introduce an inadvertent bias into LCA outcomes especially in toxicity impact categories and thus dynamic LCA characterization models with varying time horizons are recommended as a measure of the robustness for LCAs especially comparative assessments. This study also presents an approach to integrate statistical methods into LCA models for analyzing uncertainty in industrial and computer-simulated datasets. We calibrated probabilities for the LCA outcomes for biopolymer products arising from uncertainty in the inventory and from data variation characteristics this has enabled assigning confidence to the LCIA outcomes in specific impact categories for the biopolymer vs. petrochemical polymer comparisons undertaken. Uncertainty combined with the sensitivity analysis carried out in this study has led to a transparent increase in confidence in the LCA findings. We conclude that LCAs lacking explicit interpretation of the degree of uncertainty and sensitivities are of limited value as robust evidence for decision making or comparative assertions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA of multi-unit and single-family residential buildings in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Reza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction and building process depends on substantial consumption of natural resources with far-reaching impacts beyond their development area. In general, a significant portion of annual resource consumption by the building and construction industry is a result of applying traditional building strategies and practices such as designing and selecting types of development (e.g. multi-unit condo and single-family house, etc., building materials and structure, heating/cooling systems, and planning renovation and maintenance practices. On the other hand, apart from structural suitability, building developers mostly consider the basic requirements of public owners or private occupants of the buildings, where the main criteria for selecting building strategies are costs, and long-term environmental and socio-economic impacts are generally ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an improved building sustainability assessment framework to measure and integrate different sustainability factors, i.e. long-term environmental upstream and downstream impacts and associated socio-economic costs, in a unified and quantitative basis. The application of the proposed framework has been explained through a case study of single-family houses and multi-unit residential buildings in Canada. A comprehensive framework based on the integration of emergy synthesis and life cycle assessment (LCA has been developed and applied. The results of this research prove that the proposed emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA framework offers a practical sustainability assessment tool by providing quantitative and transparent results for informed decision-making.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, D.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present...... the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining...

  7. Prospective time-resolved LCA of fully electric supercap vehicles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benedikt M; Dura, Hanna; Baumann, Manuel J; Weil, Marcel R

    2015-07-01

    The ongoing transition of the German electricity supply toward a higher share of renewable and sustainable energy sources, called Energiewende in German, has led to dynamic changes in the environmental impact of electricity over the last few years. Prominent scenario studies predict that comparable dynamics will continue in the coming decades, which will further improve the environmental performance of Germany's electricity supply. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the methodology commonly used to evaluate environmental performance. Previous LCA studies on electric vehicles have shown that the electricity supply for the vehicles' operation is responsible for the major part of their environmental impact. The core question of this study is how the prospective dynamic development of the German electricity mix will affect the impact of electric vehicles operated in Germany and how LCA can be adapted to analyze this impact in a more robust manner. The previously suggested approach of time-resolved LCA, which is located between static and dynamic LCA, is used in this study and compared with several static approaches. Furthermore, the uncertainty issue associated with scenario studies is addressed in general and in relation to time-resolved LCA. Two scenario studies relevant to policy making have been selected, but a moderate number of modifications have been necessary to adapt the data to the requirements of a life cycle inventory. A potential, fully electric vehicle powered by a supercapacitor energy storage system is used as a generic example. The results show that substantial improvements in the environmental repercussions of the electricity supply and, consequentially, of electric vehicles will be achieved between 2020 and 2031 on the basis of the energy mixes predicted in both studies. This study concludes that although scenarios might not be able to predict the future, they should nonetheless be used as data sources in prospective LCA studies, because in many cases

  8. A Methodology for Safety Culture Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodology for assessing safety culture impact on nuclear power plants. A new methodology for assessing safety culture impact index has been developed and applied for the reference nuclear power plants. The developed SCII model might contribute to comparing the level of safety culture among nuclear power plants as well as to improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Safety culture is defined to be fundamental attitudes and behaviors of the plant staff which demonstrate that nuclear safety is the most important consideration in all activities conducted in nuclear power operation. Through several accidents of nuclear power plant including the Fukusima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernovyl accidents in 1986, the safety of nuclear power plant is emerging into a matter of interest. From the accident review report, it can be easily found out that safety culture is important and one of dominant contributors to accidents. However, the impact methodology for assessing safety culture has not been established analytically yet. It is difficult to develop the methodology for assessing safety culture impact quantitatively.

  9. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  10. LCA Experiences in Danish Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Christensen, Per

    1999-01-01

    A study on Danish industry's experiences with LCA has been performed. Twenty-six enter-prises from different sectors filled in a questionnaire. The enterprises are still in an adoption and learning phase and experiences with full-blown LCA's are sparse. Expectations of future market pressure...... to supply more environmentally friendly products is the most important in-centive for the enterprises to engage in LCA activities. This pressure has, however, not emerged yet and the enterprises have not achieved the expected competitive advantages. LCA work has revealed new environmental aspects...... of the products with subsequent new priorities in the environmental efforts. Only a few enterprises have built up in-house LCA competence whereas consultants are heavily involved in LCA work. In large enterprises LCA work is pre-dominantly carried out by environmental staff members, but also product development...

  11. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LCA of Buildings and the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied......How we design human settlements has a profound influence on society’s environmental pressures. This chapter explores the current state of LCA applied to two scales of human settlements; individual buildings and the built environment, where the built environment is understood as a collection...... of autonomous buildings along with the infrastructure and human activity between those buildings. The application of LCA to buildings has seen growing interest in recent years, partly as a result of the increased application of environmental certification to buildings. General findings are that the use stage...

  13. LCA of Buildings and the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    How we design human settlements has a profound influence on society’s environmental pressures. This chapter explores the current state of LCA applied to two scales of human settlements; individual buildings and the built environment, where the built environment is understood as a collection...... of autonomous buildings along with the infrastructure and human activity between those buildings. The application of LCA to buildings has seen growing interest in recent years, partly as a result of the increased application of environmental certification to buildings. General findings are that the use stage...... of the building tends to dominate environmental impacts, though as buildings become increasingly energy efficient, life cycle impacts shift towards other stages. LCA of built environments has been a useful supplement to mass-based urban environmental assessments, highlighting the importance of embodied...

  14. Mapping and characterization of LCA networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to provide an up-todate overview of global, regional and local networks supporting life cycle thinking and to characterize them according to their structure and activities. Methods: Following a tentative life cycle assessment (LCA) network definition, a mapping...... was performed based on (1) a literature search, (2) a web search and (3) an inquiry to stakeholders distributed via the two largest LCA fora. Networks were characterized based on responses from a survey. Results and discussion: We identified 100 networks, of which 29 fulfilled all six criteria composing our...... tentative network definition (the remaining fulfilled four to five criteria). The networks are mainly located in Europe and the USA, whilst Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia are less covered regions. The survey results (from 25 network responses) indicate that LCA networks appear to be primarily...

  15. Methodology for assessing laser-based equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina-Bonilla, Gabriel; Hermsdorf, Jörg; Thombansen, Ulrich; Abels, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan; Neumann, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Methodologies for the assessment of technology's maturity are widely used in industry and research. Probably the best known are technology readiness levels (TRLs), initially pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At the beginning, only descriptively defined TRLs existed, but over time, automated assessment techniques in the form of questionnaires emerged in order to determine TRLs. Originally TRLs targeted equipment for space applications, but the demands on industrial relevant equipment are partly different in terms of, for example, overall costs, product quantities, or the presence of competitors. Therefore, we present a commonly valid assessment methodology with the aim of assessing laser-based equipment for industrial use, in general. The assessment is carried out with the help of a questionnaire, which allows for a user-friendly and easy accessible way to monitor the progress from the lab-proven state to the application-ready product throughout the complete development period. The assessment result is presented in a multidimensional metric in order to reveal the current specific strengths and weaknesses of the equipment development process, which can be used to direct the remaining development process of the equipment in the right direction.

  16. Unsustainability, eMergy and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    of a subsystem to sustain itself within a larger system (the planetary ecosystem). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) identifies inputs from the sociosphere and emissions to the ecosphere, and evaluates a product’s impact in a set of subsystem analyses.The two unsustainability analysis methods are fundamentally...

  17. Use of LCA as a Tool for Building Ecodesign. A Case Study of a Low Energy Building in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jáñez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how to achieve energy savings in the construction and operation of buildings by promoting the use of life cycle assessment techniques in the design for new buildings and for refurbishment. The paper aims to draw on the application of a specific methodology for low energy consumption, integrated planning, environmental performance evaluation of buildings, and design for sustainability and LCA techniques applied to buildings. The ENergy Saving through promotion of LIfe Cycle assessment in buildings (ENSLIC methodology based on LCA for use in an integral planning process has been promoted to stakeholders who require a means to optimize the environmental performance of buildings. Feedback from the stakeholders has facilitated the creation of simplified LCA guidelines, a systematic approach guiding the user through the alternative options regarding software choices, their strengths and weaknesses, the databases available, the usefulness of different indicators, aggregation, definition of limits and options for simplifying the process. As a result, this paper presents the applied results of a case study where this methodology is implemented serving as an energy savings evaluation tool for decision makers, end-users, professionals involved in the different stages of construction, etc. Finally, it is demonstrated how LCA can facilitate comparisons between different buildings, showing the influence of all variables on a building’s life cycle environmental impact and showing the potential for energy savings. Removing market barriers to sustainable construction is actually stricter and this is good news for promoting higher energy efficiency in buildings.

  18. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  19. LCA profiles for building components:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2016-01-01

    , a new approach explores how environmental information on building components can be simplified for strategic use early in the design process in a Danish context. In this paper, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are undertaken for several hundred typical external wall solutions, based on relevant standards....... A full bivariate linear regression analysis is performed, showing statistically significant correlations with strong direct relationships between environmental impact categories. A simplified LCA profile consisting of total primary energy, global warming potential and acidification potential is developed......Construction professionals are required to integrate environmental concerns in the earliest design phases. However, environmental assessments need large amounts of precise data that are typically not available in the early design process, as most variables are still fluid. To address this concern...

  20. Use of Input–Output Analysis in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Tuomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Input–output analysis can be used as a tool for complementing the traditionally process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) with macroeconomic data from the background systems. Properly used, it can result in faster and more accurate LCA. It also provides opportunities for streamlining the LCA...... inventory collection and focusing resources. This chapter reviews the main uses of input–output analysis (IO) to ensure consistent system boundaries, to evaluate the completeness of an LCA study and to form a basis for in-depth inventory collection. The use of IO as a data source for social and economic...... sustainability metrics is also discussed, as are the limitations of the approach. All aspects are demonstrated through examples and references both to recent scientific literature and publicly available datasets are provided. The aim of the chapter is to present the basic tools for applying IO in practical LCA...

  1. LCA of Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Laurent, Alexis; Clavreul, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The chapter explores the application of LCA to solid waste management systems through the review of published studies on the subject. The environmental implications of choices involved in the modelling setup of waste management systems are increasingly in the spotlight, due to public health...... concerns and new legislation addressing the impacts from managing our waste. The application of LCA to solid waste management systems, sometimes called “waste LCA”, is distinctive in that system boundaries are rigorously defined to exclude all life cycle stages except from the end-of-life. Moreover......, specific methodological challenges arise when investigating waste systems, such as the allocation of impacts and the consideration of long-term emissions. The complexity of waste LCAs is mainly derived from the variability of the object under study (waste) which is made of different materials that may...

  2. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment for remanufactured products : a critical review of existing studies and an illustrative case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Remanufacturing is an important strategy in the manufacturing industry. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to measure whether, and to what extent, a remanufactured product is ‘better’ for the environment than a newly produced equivalent. In order to obtain valid and meaningful outcomes, LCA

  3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSMENTS OF HEALTH RISKS IN HYGIENIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of publications presents the analysis of national scientific publications and methodological documents on health risks assessments under unfavorable external impacts. In available research publications, the hygienic risks assessment is most often considered in situations of chemicals impact, and such assessment has sufficient methodological providing. Comparison of publications and methodological documents allows determination of the possibility of methodological unity for health risk assessment in conditions of chemical and radiation impacts.

  4. LCA of Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of wastewater treatment is to protect humans against waterborne diseases and to safeguard aquatic bio-resources like fish. The dominating environmental concerns within this domain are indeed still potential aquatic eutrophication/oxygen depletion due to nutrient/organic matter...... emissions and potential health impacts due to spreading of pathogens. Anyway, the use of treatment for micro-pollutants is increasing and a paradigm shift is ongoing — wastewater is more and more considered as a resource of, e.g. energy, nutrients and even polymers, in the innovations going on. The focus...... of LCA studies addressing wastewater treatment have from the very first published cases, been on energy and resource consumption. In recent time, the use of characterisation has increased and besides global warming potential, especially eutrophication is in focus. Even the toxicity-related impact...

  5. Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Le Bocq, Agathe; Nazakina, Liudmila

    2008-01-01

    stage in the product life cycle. Another very important difference among the proposals is their position towards the use of generic data. Several of the proposals argue that social impacts are connected to the conduct of the company leading to the conclusion that each individual company in the product......Goal, Scope and Background. In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA has several...... and formulation of indicators. The indicators address a wide variety of issues; some approaches focus on impacts created in the very close proximity of the processes included in the product system, whereas others focus on the more remote societal consequences. Only very little focus has been given to the use...

  6. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure...... in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results...

  7. Roadmap toward addressing and communicating uncertainty in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurin, Lise; Vigon, Bruce; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models for quantifying emissions and resources used as part of the life cycle inventory (LCI) step and for characterizing related impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and natural resources as part of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) step together contribute...... considerable uncertainty and variability at different assessment phases. These contributions have led to questions about the ability of LCA results to be used in decision-making. Mainly, variability is related to spatiotemporal, technological, and interspecies and inter-individual differences, while......, model uncertainty, and uncertainty related to choices and human errors. As part of the LCA Capability Roadmap, a committee of nearly 40 contributors under the auspices of the SETAC North America LCA Interest Group is currently working to identify research needs in the area of ill...

  8. Experiential Knowledge Complements an LCA-Based Decision Support Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yi Teah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A shrimp farmer in Taiwan practices innovation through trial-and-error for better income and a better environment, but such farmer-based innovation sometimes fails because the biological mechanism is unclear. Systematic field experimentation and laboratory research are often too costly, and simulating ground conditions is often too challenging. To solve this dilemma, we propose a decision support framework that explicitly utilizes farmer experiential knowledge through a participatory approach to alternatively estimate prospective change in shrimp farming productivity, and to co-design options for improvement. Data obtained from the farmer enable us to quantitatively analyze the production cost and greenhouse gas (GHG emission with a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. We used semi-quantitative graphical representations of indifference curves and mixing triangles to compare and show better options for the farmer. Our results empower the farmer to make decisions more systematically and reliably based on the frequency of heterotrophic bacteria application and the revision of feed input. We argue that experiential knowledge may be less accurate due to its dependence on varying levels of farmer experience, but this knowledge is a reasonable alternative for immediate decision-making. More importantly, our developed framework advances the scope of LCA application to support practically important yet scientifically uncertain cases.

  9. Sustainability assessment of power generation in combination with lng evaporation : A comparison of lca methods and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several options exist for power generation, but it is difficult to determine which option is the most sustainable. When assessing the sustainability of an option or system, it is important to consider the environmental, economic and social aspects of sustainability and to take a life-cycle point of

  10. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...... from a product system being studied in an LCA must be seen in context with the changing future background situation. This background situation is among other things affected by e.g. cumulative atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions of yet unknown magnitude. Here, we define climate change damage...

  11. Recent LCA Developments In Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    2015-01-01

    Based on 10 years of experience we briefly present key issues which should receive special attention when waste LCA is performed. Attention paid to the importance of good data on waste composition, the contribution of environmental impacts from capital goods, assessing the value of recovered mate...... materials, nutrients and energy, the representativity of external life cycle inventory data bases, how we adress uncertainty and important factors in defining future scenarios.......Based on 10 years of experience we briefly present key issues which should receive special attention when waste LCA is performed. Attention paid to the importance of good data on waste composition, the contribution of environmental impacts from capital goods, assessing the value of recovered...

  12. Making the most of LCA in technical inter-organisational R&D projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Gustav; Clancy, Gunilla; Heimersson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In technical Research and Development (R&D) projects, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the technology under development is sometimes carried out. Particularly in inter-organisational R&D projects, the roles of LCAs tend to be unclear and arbitrary, and as a consequence, LCA work is not adequately...... designed for the needs of the project. There is a need for research on how to choose an appropriate role for LCA in such projects and how to plan LCA work accordingly. We have identified some possible roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and used experiences from LCA work in different...... such projects to identify four project characteristics that are decisive for what roles the LCA can have. The project characteristics are: (i) the project's potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project...

  13. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  14. How does the choice of ILCD’s recommended methods change the assessment of environmental impacts in LCA of products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis; Bjørn, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of heat dominates the total impacts and there is large difference in demand for heat between the compared options. Yet, there were significant differences in impact scores for some of the impact categories after conversion to commonmetrics: above 3 orders of magnitude for impacts from ionizing radiation...... environmental impacts and there is large difference in demand for output from that process between the compared options. Nevertheless, the choice of ILCD' matters the most for assessment of impacts from ionizing radiation, land use, resource depletion (minerals), and all toxicity-related impact categories...

  15. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  16. Aiding eco-labelling process and its implementation: Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology to define Product Category Rules for canned anchovies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Fullana, Pére; Bala, Alba; Gazulla, Cristina; Irabien, Ángel; Aldaco, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    To be able to fulfil high market expectations for a number of practical applications, Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) have to meet and comply with specific and strict methodological prerequisites. These expectations include the possibility to add up Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)-based information in the supply chain and to compare different EPDs. To achieve this goal, common and harmonized calculation rules have to be established, the so-called Product Category Rules (PCRs), which set the overall LCA calculation rules to create EPDs. This document provides PCRs for the assessment of the environmental performance of canned anchovies in Cantabria Region based on an Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA) method. This method uses two main variables: the natural resources sustainability (NRS) and the environmental burdens sustainability (EBS). To reduce the complexity of ESA and facilitate the decision-making process, all variables are normalized and weighted to obtain two global dimensionless indexes: resource consumption (X1) and environmental burdens (X2). •This paper sets the PCRs adapted to the Cantabrian canned anchovies.•ESA method facilitates the product comparison and the decision-making process.•This paper stablishes all the steps that an EPD should include within the PCRs of Cantabrian canned anchovies.

  17. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  18. Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity: 3rd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Heath, Garvin; Raugei, Marco; Sinha, Parikhit; de Wild-Scholten, Mariska

    2016-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a structured, comprehensive method of quantifying material- and energy-flows and their associated emissions caused in the life cycle of goods and services. The ISO 14040 and 14044 standards provide the framework for LCA. However, this framework leaves the individual practitioner with a range of choices that can affect the results and thus the conclusions of an LCA study. The current IEA guidelines were developed to provide guidance on assuring consistency, balance, and quality to enhance the credibility and reliability of the results from LCAs on photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation systems. The guidelines represent a consensus among the authors - PV LCA experts in North America, Europe, and Asia - for assumptions made on PV performance, decisions on process input and emissions allocation, methods of analysis, and reporting of the results. Guidance is given on PV-specific parameters used as inputs in LCA and on choices and assumptions in life cycle inventory (LCI) data analysis and on implementation of modeling approaches. A consistent approach towards system modeling, the functional unit, the system boundaries, water use modeling and the allocation aspects enhances the credibility of PV electricity LCA studies and enables balanced LCA-based comparisons of different electricity producing technologies. The document discusses metrics like greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), cumulative energy demand (CED), acidification potential (AP), ozone depletion potential (ODP), human toxicity, ecotoxicity and ionizing radiation. Guidance is given for the definition of the energy payback time (EPBT), the nonrenewable energy payback time (NREPBT), and the impact mitigation potentials (IMP). The indicator energy return on investment (EROI) is described in a separate International Energy Agency (IEA) PV Power Systems (PVPS) Task 12 report (Raugei et al. 2015). The guidelines on the reporting and communication of the results serve the need for

  19. The strainer blockage assessment methodology used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, G.L.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    On July 28, 1992 a spurious opening of a safety valve at Barseback Unit 2 in Sweden resulted in clogging of the Containment Vessel Spray System strainers in less than one hour. Instances of ECCS strainer clogging have occurred in U.S. BWRs. Given these precursors the USNRC staff initiated analyses to estimate the potential for loss of NPSH of the ECCS pumps in BWRs due to clogging of suction strainers by a combination of fibrous and particulate material. The BLOCKAGE code was developed in support of NUREG/CR-6224, a probabilistic scoping analysis of a BWR/4 with a Mark 1 containment. This paper addresses the key elements of the methodology used in the BLOCKAGE code to assess head loss across ECCS strainers. The debris generation model, the debris drywell transport, and the suppression pool models are discussed briefly. NUREG/CR-6224 provides in-depth discussions of the models used in BLOCKAGE. Additionally, user interface features of BLOCKAGE are discussed.

  20. Environmental assessment of food waste valorization in producing biogas for various types of energy use based on LCA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C; Chiu, Sam L H; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the environmental impacts of valorizing food waste for three types of energy use, namely electricity and heat, city gas, and biogas fuel as a petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas substitute for vehicle use, with reference to the Hong Kong scenario. The life cycle based environmental assessment is conducted from bin-to-cradle system boundary via SimaPro 7.2.4 with ReCiPe 1.04. All of the inventory data of included processes is based on reports of government and industrial sectors. The results show that biogas fuel as a petrol substitute for vehicle use is advantageous over other types of energy use in regard to human health and ecosystems, and it is also the best considering the government's future emission reduction targets set out for the power and transport sectors in Hong Kong. By turning 1080 tonnes per day of food waste into biogas vehicle fuel as petrol substitute, it reduces 1.9% of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sectors, which results a larger decrease of GHG emissions than the achieved mitigation in Hong Kong from 2005 to 2010. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cradle to Cradle and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2017-01-01

    Cradle to Cradle (C2C) offers a positive vision of a future, where products are radically redesigned to be beneficial to humans and the environment. The idea is not to reduce negative impacts (as in LCA), but to increase positive impacts . This chapter presents the C2C concept and its relationship...... with the circular economy , the C2C certification and examples of C2C certified or inspired products and systems. This is followed by a comparison of C2C with eco-efficiency and LCA . Because of their important differences, we conclude that care should be taken when combing C2C and LCA, e.g. using LCA to evaluate...... products inspired by C2C. We then provide an in-depth analysis of the conflicts between C2C and LCA and offer solutions. Finally, we reflect upon how LCA practitioners can learn from C2C in terms of providing a vision of a sustainable future, creating a sense of urgency for change and communicating results...

  2. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies.

  3. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  4. Effective Methodology for Security Risk Assessment of Computer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. García; Adrián Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Today, computer systems are more and more complex and support growing security risks. The security managers need to find effective security risk assessment methodologies that allow modeling well the increasing complexity of current computer systems but also maintaining low the complexity of the assessment procedure. This paper provides a brief analysis of common security risk assessment methodologies leading to the selection of a proper methodology to fulfill these requirements. Then, a detai...

  5. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. LCA applied to elucidate opportunities for biogas from wastewaters in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Jácome, A; Osorio-Molina, A; Parra-Saldívar, R; Gallego-Suárez, D; Velásquez-Arredondo, H I; Ruiz-Colorado, A A

    2015-01-01

    Biogas produced in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities (BWWF) is a resource wasted in several socio-economic contexts. BWWF-based projects are compared against energy projects using conventional electricity or natural gas (NG), following strict economic considerations that usually tip the balance in favour of conventional energy supply. This is because the economic gain associated with the environmental benefits of using small biogas sources like BWWF does not overcome the technical and financial effort required in these types of project. This paper shows a broader application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to explore opportunities for positive (or effective) utilization of BWWF in the Colombian context. LCA has been used to evaluate the supply-chain of NG which is the direct competitor of BWWF, in three different Colombian regions, in order to identify those where higher NG environmental impacts offer increased environmental added-value to BWWF use. LCA was also applied to study two BWWF valorization scenarios in the poultry processing industry. It shows how valorization options for BWWF are more realistic and effective when specific-regional loads are applied to the environmental assessment of NG supply-chain and BWWF valorization.

  7. 45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-assessment implementation methodology. 308.1... methodology. (a) The IV-D agency must ensure the review meets Federal requirements and must maintain... sampling methodology maintains a minimum confidence level of 90 percent for each criterion; (2) The State...

  8. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    -LCA by suggesting a new classification and characterization model that builds upon previous methodological developments. The structure of the social analysis has been adapted to maintain coherence with that of standard LCA. The application of this methodology is demonstrated using a case study—the analysis of power...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...... of Spain, especially in the impact categories of socioeconomic sustainability and fairness of relationships, whose results were 1.38 and 0.29, respectively....

  9. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  10. Risk Assessment Methodology for CO2 Storage: The Scenario Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenborg, A.F.B.; Leijnse, A.L.; Kreft, E.; Nepveu, M.N.; Obdam, A.N.M.; Orlic, B.; Wipfler, E.L.; Grift, B. van der; Kesteren, W. van; Gaus, I.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Torfs, P.; Wójcik, R.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter introduces a "scenario approach," which is used as a methodology for the long-term safety assessment of underground CO2 storage and to demonstrate its applicability in an example of safety assessment. This developed methodology consists of three main parts-scenario analysis, model

  11. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  12. Regional characterization of freshwater Use in LCA: modeling direct impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Marie; Bulle, Cécile; Bayart, Jean-Baptiste; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2011-10-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology that quantifies potential environmental impacts for comparative purposes in a decision-making context. While potential environmental impacts from pollutant emissions into water are characterized in LCA, impacts from water unavailability are not yet fully quantified. Water use can make the resource unavailable to other users by displacement or quality degradation. A reduction in water availability to human users can potentially affect human health. If financial resources are available, there can be adaptations that may, in turn, shift the environmental burdens to other life cycle stages and impact categories. This paper proposes a model to evaluate these potential impacts in an LCA context. It considers the water that is withdrawn and released, its quality and scarcity in order to evaluate the loss of functionality associated with water uses. Regionalized results are presented for impacts on human health for two modeling approaches regarding affected users, including or not domestic uses, and expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). A consumption and quality based scarcity indicator is also proposed as a midpoint. An illustrative example is presented for the production of corrugated board with different effluents, demonstrating the importance of considering quality, process effluents and the difference between the modeling approaches.

  13. Process assessment for use in very small enterprises: the NOEMI assess-ment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    DI RENZO, Bernard; FELTUS, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to the development and the experimentation of an IT process assessment methodology especially designed to be used in very small enterprises (VSEs). This methodology, called NOEMI , has been developed as a critical part of a public research project of the Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor (Luxembourg). Initially the main objective of the NOEMI process assessment methodology was to contribute directly to the implementation of a collaborative IT-sourcing model, developed ...

  14. Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: A response to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water footprinting has emerged as an important approach to assess water use related effects from consumption of goods and services. Assessment methods are proposed by two different communities, the Water Footprint Network (WFN) and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) community. The proposed methods are broadly similar and encompass both the computation of water use and its impacts, but differ in communication of a water footprint result. In this paper, we explain the role and goal of LCA and ISO-compatible water footprinting and resolve the six issues raised by Hoekstra (2016) in “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”. By clarifying the concerns, we identify both the overlapping goals in the WFN and LCA water footprint assessments and discrepancies between them. The main differing perspective between the WFN and LCA-based approach seems to relate to the fact that LCA aims to account for environmental impacts, while the WFN aims to account for water productivity of global fresh water as a limited resource. We conclude that there is potential to use synergies in research for the two approaches and highlight the need for proper declaration of the methods applied. This paper advances efforts to understand ways to accurately capture use of water in life cycle analysis in other contexts. As the paper indicates, there is a discussion about whether quantities of water should be weighted by some local stress factor. This paper attempts to brid

  15. LCA of greywater management within a water circular economy restorative thinking framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Sara; Laso, Jara; Margallo, María; Aldaco, Rubén; Rivero, Maria J; Irabien, Ángel; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2018-04-15

    Greywater reuse is an attractive option for the sustainable management of water under water scarcity circumstances, within a water circular economy restorative thinking framework. Its successful deployment relies on the availability of low cost and environmentally friendly technologies. The life cycle assessment (LCA) approach provides the appropriate methodological tool for the evaluation of alternative treatments based on environmental decision criteria and, therefore, it is highly useful during the process conceptual design. This methodology should be employed in the early design phase to select those technologies with lower environmental impact. This work reports the comparative LCA of three scenarios for greywater reuse: photocatalysis, photovoltaic solar-driven photocatalysis and membrane biological reactor, in order to help the selection of the most environmentally friendly technology. The study has been focused on the removal of the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, which is used in the formulation of detergents and personal care products and, thus, widely present in greywater. LCA was applied using the Environmental Sustainability Assessment methodology to obtain two main environmental indicators in order to simplify the decision making process: natural resources and environmental burdens. Energy consumption is the main contributor to both indicators owing to the high energy consumption of the light source for the photocatalytic greywater treatment. In order to reduce its environmental burdens, the most desirable scenario would be the use of solar light for the photocatalytic transformation. However, while the technological challenge of direct use of solar light is approached, the environmental suitability of the photovoltaic solar energy driven photocatalysis technology to greywater reuse has been demonstrated, as it involves the smallest environmental impact among the three studied alternatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Cradle to Cradle and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2017-01-01

    Cradle to Cradle (C2C) offers a positive vision of a future, where products are radically redesigned to be beneficial to humans and the environment. The idea is not to reduce negative impacts (as in LCA), but to increase positive impacts . This chapter presents the C2C concept and its relationshi...

  17. Globalisation and Mainstreaming of LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The chapter describes how a globalised economy exacerbates the need of a mainstreaming of LCA, in particular the emergence of long, complex and geographically highly dispersed global value chains (GVCs). In documenting the three phases of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, a conventional roadmap...

  18. LCA of metal nanomaterial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving

    -to-gate LCA study. The results show that the ENMs do not contribute substantially to the impact profile of nanoproducts, but the PP plastic has the main responsibility. The main reason is the rather low amounts of ENM added. Further the comparison showed that nanoproducts have less impacts associated to them...

  19. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  20. Can life-cycle assessment produce reliable policy guidelines in the building sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säynäjoki, Antti; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an established methodology that can provide decision-makers with comprehensive data on the environmental impacts of products and processes during the entire life cycle. However, the literature on building LCAs consists of highly varying results between the studies, even when the assessed buildings are very similar. This makes it doubtful if LCA can actually produce reliable data for supporting policy-making in the building sector. However, no prior reviews looking into this issue in the building sector exist. This study includes an extensive literature review of LCA studies on the pre-use phase of buildings. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variation between the results of different studies and find out whether the differences can be explained by the contextual differences or if it is actually the methodological choices that cause the extremely high variation. We present 116 cases from 47 scientific articles and reports that used process LCA, input-output (IO) LCA or hybrid LCA to study the construction-phase GHG emissions of buildings. The results of the reviewed studies vary between 0.03 and 2.00 tons of GHG emissions per gross area. The lowest was assessed with process LCA and highest with IO LCA, and in general the lower end was found to be dominated by process LCA studies and the higher end by IO LCA studies, hybrid LCAs being placed in between. In general, it is the methodological issues and subjective choices of the LCA practitioner that cause the vast majority of the huge variance in the results. It thus seems that currently the published building LCAs do not offer solid background information for policy-making without deep understanding of the premises of a certain study and good methodological knowledge.

  1. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods for the assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer to properly reveal the clinical value. This paper exemplifies the methodology using recent studies of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging.

  2. Analysis of Alternatives for Risk Assessment Methodologies and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, Noel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). System Analytics; Fruetel, Julia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Gleason, Nathaniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Helms, Jovana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Imbro, Dennis Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis; Sumner, Matthew C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Systems Research and Analysis

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview and understanding of risk assessment methodologies and tools from the literature and to assess the suitability of these methodologies and tools for cyber risk assessment. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) performed this review in support of risk modeling activities performed for the Stakeholder Engagement and Cyber Infrastructure Resilience (SECIR) division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C). The set of methodologies and tools covered in this document is not intended to be exhaustive; instead, it focuses on those that are commonly used in the risk assessment community. The classification of methodologies and tools was performed by a group of analysts with experience in risk analysis and cybersecurity, and the resulting analysis of alternatives has been tailored to address the needs of a cyber risk assessment.

  3. THE METHODOLOGY OF VALORISING AND ASSESSING LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Jacek Bacior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation process requires access to particular information resources making it possible to regionalize (divide into zones the area under investigation. Thus, the starting point is landscape assessment and evaluation followed by regionalization. As a result of this step, we determine certain areas that are homogenous with regards to their landscape assets Keywords: assessing landscape, structure of rural areas, spatial planning of rural areas.

  4. [Current lines of methodology for risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results of some guidance studies assessing the risk, recently conducted at the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health, such as validation of toxicological and hygienic criteria for risk assessment upon short- and long-term human exposures to deleterious substances; development and introduction of methods for assessing health risk and damage, by applying computer technologies; elaboration of guidelines for establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of changes in health indices to those in the environment; characterization of damage caused by ambient air pollution in Russian cities and towns; possibilities of using the guidance for assessing the risk to improve sociohygienic monitoring. It also gives the results of testing scientific developments in the assessment of a multienvironmental risk in the areas exposed to emission from aluminum works (Khakasia) and chemical and petrochemical enterprises (Samara Region) and in the determination of contribution of emission from the Moscow fuel-and-energy complex to risks and damages to human health, caused by ambient air pollution. The urgent issues of further development of modern trends in risk guidance studies are determined.

  5. Assessing sustainability of building materials in developing countries: the sustainable building materials index (SBMI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring sustainability of building materials is complex. Despite this a wide range of different methodologies and systems have been developed. Most of these focus on environmental issues and are based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), or similar...

  6. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Hamel, Perrine; Bryant, Benjamin; Noe, Ryan; Mueller, Carina; Rigarlsford, Giles; Kulak, Michal; Kowal, Virginia; Sharp, Richard; Clavreul, Julie; Price, Edward; Polasky, Stephen; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Daily, Gretchen

    2017-04-01

    International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA. Comparing increased demand for bioplastics derived from two alternative feedstock-location scenarios for maize and sugarcane, we find that the LUCI-LCA approach yields results opposite to those of standard LCA for greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, and of different magnitudes for soil erosion and biodiversity. This approach highlights the importance of including information about where and how land-use change and related impacts will occur in supply chain and innovation decisions.

  7. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  8. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  9. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  10. Current established risk assessment methodologies and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2013-01-01

    The technology behind information systems evolves at an exponential rate, while at the same time becoming more and more ubiquitous. This brings with it an implicit rise in the average complexity of systems as well as the number of external interactions. In order to allow a proper assessment of the

  11. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  12. Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, Dominique; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty analysis in LCA studies has been subject to major progress over the last years. In the context of waste management, various methods have been implemented but a systematic method for uncertainty analysis of waste-LCA studies is lacking. The objective of this paper is (1) to present the sources of uncertainty specifically inherent to waste-LCA studies, (2) to select and apply several methods for uncertainty analysis and (3) to develop a general framework for quantitative uncertainty assessment of LCA of waste management systems. The suggested method is a sequence of four steps combining the selected methods: (Step 1) a sensitivity analysis evaluating the sensitivities of the results with respect to the input uncertainties, (Step 2) an uncertainty propagation providing appropriate tools for representing uncertainties and calculating the overall uncertainty of the model results, (Step 3) an uncertainty contribution analysis quantifying the contribution of each parameter uncertainty to the final uncertainty and (Step 4) as a new approach, a combined sensitivity analysis providing a visualisation of the shift in the ranking of different options due to variations of selected key parameters. This tiered approach optimises the resources available to LCA practitioners by only propagating the most influential uncertainties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From LCC to LCA Using a Hybrid Input Output Model – A Maritime Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    As companies try to embrace life cycle thinking, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) have proven to be powerful tools. In this paper, an Environmental Input-Output model is used for analysis as it enables an LCA using the same economic input data as LCC. This approach helps...

  14. LCA of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in products has led to an increase in number of nanoproducts introduced to the consumer market. However, along with new and improved products, there is a concern about the potential life cycle environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment is able to include a wide rang...

  15. Exclusion of LCA5 locus in a consanguineous Turkish family with macular coloboma-type LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgül, R K; Bozkurt, B; Kiratli, H; Oğüş, A

    2006-07-01

    Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is an inherited retinal dystrophy, which causes severe visual impairment in early childhood. Recent molecular genetic studies have linked 11 loci (AIPL1, CRB1, CRX, GUCY2D, RPE65, RDH12, RPGRIP1, TULP1, LCA3, LCA5, and LCA9) to LCA. LCA5 is a new locus, which maps to the 6q11-q16 chromosomal region and was found to be associated with macular coloboma-type LCA in a Pakistani family. Herein, we describe the molecular genetic features of a consanguineous Turkish family in which four children have macular coloboma-type LCA. Haplotype analysis was performed on the DNA of the family members using microsatellite markers against GUCY2D, RPE65, and LCA5. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations by means of single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in exons of the RPE65 and CRX genes. In haplotype analysis, no linkage to LCA5 or GUCY2D loci was detected. None of the tested markers showed homozygosity or segregation between affected siblings. PCR-SSCP mutation analysis revealed no mutations in the screened RPE65 and CRX genes. We excluded LCA5 as the genetic cause of macular coloboma-type LCA in this Turkish family. Macular coloboma-type LCA shows genetic heterogeneity and it is not possible to establish a phenotype-genotype correlation with LCA5 and macular coloboma.

  16. An introduction to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy and product generation: Relevance and key aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Bogaert, Gilbert Van

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are devices capable of converting organic waste fraction present in wastewaters into useful energy vectors such as electricity or hydrogen. In recent years a large amount of research has been done on these unique systems in order to improve their performance both...... in terms of waste treatment as well as electric current production. Already there are plans to upscale this technology to convince the end-users of its potential. However, there are not many studies available on the life cycle of these systems with the current state of the art. In this article...... saving in cost and electric power produced should be factored as well. The results of LCA should show that with current knowledge and existing materials, how well the MFCs compares with the existing treatment methods such as anaerobic digestion. Further, given the amount of research going...

  17. LCA of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in products has led to an increase in number of nanoproducts introduced to the consumer market. However, along with new and improved products, there is a concern about the potential life cycle environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment is able to include a wide range...... of environmental impacts but, due to data limitations, it is commonly applied with focus on the cradle-to-gate part of the nanoproducts life cycle, neglecting use and disposal of the products. These studies conclude that nanomaterials are more energy demanding and have an inferior environmental profile than...... conventionally used materials, but functional units of these comparisons need to consider the use stage benefits attained through nanomaterials. A particular assessment challenge is the lack of understanding of the toxicological mechanisms related to potential release, fate and effects of nanomaterials when...

  18. Preparing the ground for an operational handling of long-term emissions in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakas, Ioannis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    orders of magnitude. Therefore, the decision-making process supported by an LCA becomes very confusing. None of the approaches consider future changes in the receiving environment and are accompanied with any uncertainty considerations.In order to move towards a robust environmental assessment of long...... hindering the standardisation of a methodology to account for potential impacts from long-term metal emissions, and to describe the characteristics of a robust framework for an operational impact assessment methodology.In order to demonstrate the issues around potential impacts from long-term emissions......-term emissions, it is necessary to (i) represent future potential impacts more accurately by estimating time-dependent characterisation factors (CFs) corresponding to changing environmental conditions, (ii) develop more robust estimations by addressing uncertainty and (iii) refer to actual potential impacts...

  19. A methodology to assess the contribution of biorefineries to a sustainable bio-based economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maga, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Within this thesis for the first time an integrative methodology to assess the sustainability of biorefineries and bio-based products has been developed which is based on a fundamental understanding of sustainability as presented in the Brundtland report. The applied integrative concept of sustainability as developed by the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) overcomes the widespread thinking in three pillars of sustainability and opens up new perspectives. The methodology developed addresses innovative life cycle assessment evaluation methods on midpoint level as well as on the area of protection and adopts state-of-the-art assessment procedures e.g. to determine water deprivation. It goes far beyond the scope of conventional LCA studies and examines effects on human health, on the environment, on the development of knowledge and physical capital, and on regional development and acceptance. In order to validate the developed method it was applied to an algae biorefinery currently under development and construction in the south of Spain. For this assessment for the first time extensive process data was collected of a real algae biorefinery which uses municipal waste water as a culture medium for microalgae. The use of waste water allows to reduce the demand for fresh water and avoids additional fertilisation of microalgae. Moreover, the analysed algae biorefinery replaces conventional waste water treatment by a biological purification and produces biogas by an anaerobic pretreatment of waste water as well as by anaerobic digestion of algae. After several purification steps the biogas can be used as automotive fuel and thus contributes to further development and increased use of biofuels. On the one hand the sustainability assessment shows that this way of waste water treatment contributes to climate protection and to the conservation of fossil energy carrier. On the other hand approximately ten times more land is needed and twenty times

  20. A Methodology for Anatomic Ultrasound Image Diagnostic Quality Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lange, Theis; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2017-01-01

    is valuable in the continuing process of method optimization and guided development of new imaging methods. It includes a three phased study plan covering from initial prototype development to clinical assessment. Recommendations to the clinical assessment protocol, software, and statistical analysis...... are presented. Earlier uses of the methodology has shown that it ensures validity of the assessment, as it separates the influences between developer, investigator, and assessor once a research protocol has been established. This separation reduces confounding influences on the result from the developer......This paper discusses methods for assessment of ultrasound image quality based on our experiences with evaluating new methods for anatomic imaging. It presents a methodology to ensure a fair assessment between competing imaging methods using clinically relevant evaluations. The methodology...

  1. Methodology for Assessing Reusability of Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress-Thompson, Rhonda; Thomas, L. Dale; Farrington, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the Space Shuttle, the only Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in the world, returned to earth for the final time. Upon retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States (U.S.) no longer possessed a reusable vehicle or the capability to send American astronauts to space. With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) out of the RLV business and now only pursuing Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV), not only did companies within the U.S. start to actively pursue the development of either RLVs or reusable components, but entities around the world began to venture into the reusable market. For example, SpaceX and Blue Origin are developing reusable vehicles and engines. The Indian Space Research Organization is developing a reusable space plane and Airbus is exploring the possibility of reusing its first stage engines and avionics housed in the flyback propulsion unit referred to as the Advanced Expendable Launcher with Innovative engine Economy (Adeline). Even United Launch Alliance (ULA) has announced plans for eventually replacing the Atlas and Delta expendable rockets with a family of RLVs called Vulcan. Reuse can be categorized as either fully reusable, the situation in which the entire vehicle is recovered, or partially reusable such as the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) where only the Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) are reused. With this influx of renewed interest in reusability for space applications, it is imperative that a systematic approach be developed for assessing the reusability of spaceflight hardware. The partially reusable NSTS offered many opportunities to glean lessons learned; however, when it came to efficient operability for reuse the Space Shuttle and its associated hardware fell short primarily because of its two to four-month turnaround time. Although there have been several attempts at designing RLVs in the past with the X-33, Venture Star and Delta Clipper

  2. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments of...

  3. A perspective on LCA application in site remediation services: critical review of challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Sérgio Alberto; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-03-15

    The remediation of contaminated sites supports the goal of sustainable development but may also have environmental impacts at a local, regional and global scale. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has increasingly been used in order to support site remediation decision-making. This review article discusses existing LCA methods and proposed models focusing on critical decisions and assumptions of the LCA application to site remediation activities. It is concluded that LCA has limitations as an adequate holistic decision-making tool since spatial and temporal differentiation of non-global impacts assessment is a major hurdle in site remediation LCA. Moreover, a consequential LCA perspective should be adopted when the different remediation services to be compared generate different site's physical states, displacing alternative post-remediation scenarios. The environmental effects of the post-remediation stage of the site is generally disregarded in the past site remediation LCA studies and such exclusion may produce misleading conclusions and misdirected decision-making. In addition, clear guidance accepted by all stakeholders on remediation capital equipment exclusion and on dealing with multifunctional processes should be developed for site remediation LCA applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  5. Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

  6. EDITORIAL: THE STATUS OF LCA IN THE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is alive and well in the USA. Concerns for environmental management, over strict command and control approaches, has led to an increasing presence of the life cycle concept since its initial appearance in the 1970's. In addition, the very reasonablen...

  7. Energy system analyses of the marginal energy technology in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Münster, Marie; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2007-01-01

    In life cycle assessments consequential LCA is used as the “state-of-the-art” methodology, which focuses on the consequences of decisions made in terms of system boundaries, allocation and selection of data, simple and dynamic marginal technology, etc.(Ekvall & Weidema 2004). In many LCA studies......, the energy demand applied is decisive for the results. In this extended abstract, consequential LCA methodology is examined with electricity as the case. The aim is to answer three questions: Which are the expected vs. the actual marginal electricity production technologies and what may be the future...... in historical and potential future energy systems. Subsequently, key LCA studies of products and different waste flows are analysed in relation to the recom- mendations in consequential LCA. Finally, a case of increased waste used for incineration is examined using an energy system analysis model...

  8. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...... on the amounts and types of energy crops introduced. Use of fossil diesel in the transport sector appeared to be environmentally preferable over biodiesel for acidification, aquatic eutrophication and land occupation. For global warming, biodiesel production via Fischer–Tropsch was comparable with fossil diesel....

  9. Análise do Ciclo de Vida (ACV aplicada ao agronegócio: uma revisão de literatura Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to agribusiness: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison S. Claudino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a dimensão ambiental da sustentabilidade tem ganhado relevância em pesquisas científicas aplicadas no agronegócio. A necessidade de um framework robusto e confiável para mensuração dos impactos ambientais no agronegócio apresenta-se como tendência em países líderes na produção mundial de alimentos, como o Brasil. Neste contexto o presente artigo descreve uma revisão de literatura acerca do conceito de Análise de Ciclo de Vida - ACV, o qual está sendo amplamente utilizado e reconhecido por técnicos e pesquisadores mundiais para avaliação ambiental das cadeias de produção, permitindo várias aplicações nos sistemas produtivos. Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, sítios da internet e anais de congressos cujo objetivo é descrever a importância da aplicação e difusão do framework da ACV e suas possíveis aplicações no agronegócio brasileiro. O estudo conclui que este framework ainda é pouco difundido no agronegócio interno e o número de pesquisas com esta temática é reduzido.The concern with the environmental dimension of sustainability has become more and more relevant in studies related to agribusiness. The need of a robust and trusty framework to measure the environmental impacts in the agribusiness activities is being presented as a trend in countries leaders in food production worldwide, like Brazil. In this context, this paper describes a review related to the concept of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA which is being widely recognized and used by technicians and researchers all over the world to the environmental impacts of production chains and allowing various applications on the production systems. The paper was elaborated based on a bibliographical research carried out by accessing national and international publications, websites and proceedings of scientific events. Its main goal is to

  10. Recommendations for benefit-risk assessment methodologies and visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Diana; Waddingham, Ed; Mt-Isa, Shahrul

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to draw on the practical experience from the PROTECT BR case studies and make recommendations regarding the application of a number of methodologies and visual representations for benefit-risk assessment. METHODS: Eight case studies based on the benefit......-risk balance of real medicines were used to test various methodologies that had been identified from the literature as having potential applications in benefit-risk assessment. Recommendations were drawn up based on the results of the case studies. RESULTS: A general pathway through the case studies...

  11. Pipeline external corrosion direct assessment methodology: lessons learned - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Angel R. [DNV Columbus, Inc., OH (United States)

    2009-07-01

    DNV Columbus (Former CC Technologies) played a key role in the development of Direct Assessment (DA) methodologies, providing leadership in the NACE technical committees charged with development of DA standards. Since the first publication of NACE Standard RP-0502-2002, External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) has been successfully applied over a great number of pipelines to evaluate the impact of external corrosion on the pipeline integrity. This paper summarizes the results of applying ECDA over a selected number of underground pipelines and presents interesting facts about the methodology. (author)

  12. Identification of 'carbon hot-spots' and quantification of GHG intensities in the biodiesel supply chain using hybrid LCA and structural path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaye, Adolf A; Wiedmann, Thomas; Feng, Kuishang; Crawford, Robert H; Barrett, John; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Duffy, Aidan P; Koh, S C Lenny; McQueen-Mason, Simon

    2011-03-15

    It is expected that biodiesel production in the EU will remain the dominant contributor as part of a 10% minimum binding target for biofuel in transportation fuel by 2020 within the 20% renewable energy target in the overall EU energy mix. Life cycle assessments (LCA) of biodiesel to evaluate its environmental impacts have, however, remained questionable, mainly because of the adoption of a traditional process analysis approach resulting in system boundary truncation and because of issues regarding the impacts of land use change and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer application. In this study, a hybrid LCA methodology is used to evaluate the life cycle CO(2) equivalent emissions of rape methyl ester (RME) biodiesel. The methodology uses input-output analysis to estimate upstream indirect emissions in order to complement traditional process LCA in a hybrid framework. It was estimated that traditional LCA accounted for 2.7 kg CO(2)-eq per kg of RME or 36.6% of total life cycle emissions of the RME supply chin. Further to the inclusion of upstream indirect impacts in the LCA system (which accounted for 23% of the total life cycle emissions), emissions due to direct land use change (6%) and indirect land use change (16.5%) and N(2)O emissions from fertilizer applications (17.9%) were also calculated. Structural path analysis is used to decompose upstream indirect emissions paths of the biodiesel supply chain in order to identify, quantify, and rank high carbon emissions paths or 'hot-spots' in the biodiesel supply chain. It was shown, for instance, that inputs from the 'Other Chemical Products' sector (identified as phosphoric acid, H(3)PO(4)) into the biodiesel production process represented the highest carbon emission path (or hot-spot) with 5.35% of total upstream indirect emissions of the RME biodiesel supply chain.

  13. Environmental Assessment of Products, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    Reviews the scientific background for the impact assessment phase of the EDIP methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) covering the impact categories: Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical ozone formation, acidification, nutrient enrichment, ecotoxicity, human toxicity......, working environment and resource consumption. Also features background documentation of the valuation step and of the allocation principles adopted in the EDIP methodology....

  14. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  15. A novel methodology for the rapid assessment of waterbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A methodology for rapidly assessing the vulnerability of waterbirds to disturbance was tested at Sabaki estuary, Kenya. Three variables were employed to measure the responses of 15 species: (1) bird density, (2) minimum distance of birds from a stationary disturbance and (3) recovery times following a moving disturbance.

  16. Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity using Response Surface Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A new approach to assessment of site specific wind turbine loads is proposed. •The approach can be applied in both fatigue and ultimate limit state. •Two different response surface methodologies have been investigated. •The model uncertainty introduced by the response surfaces...

  17. PLASMIX management: LCA of six possible scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, R; Garbo, F; Girotto, F; Simion, F; Pivato, A

    2017-11-01

    Only a small percentage of the separately collected plastic is recycled. The mechanical selection process of source segregated plastic materials generates considerable amounts of residues that are commonly named as Plasmix. By means of a life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling, the environmental performances of the main Plasmix management options (thermal treatment, energy recovery, and landfilling) were compared. Six treatment scenarios, with different pre-treatment alternatives, were evaluated. Landfilling after waste washing and Plasmix substitution of coke in a blast furnace represent the most favorable options, since the performances of thermal treatment and energy recovery are worsened by specific emissions of a variety of toxic compounds and heavy metals within plastic materials as additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review on methodology for LCIA of marine eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    As part of the ongoing EU FP7 project LC-Impact (www.lc-impact.eu) new life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are going to be developed and tested on industry cases. Among the life cycle assessment (LCA) impact categories in focus are aquatic eutrophication. As related to especially the marine...... environment very few and restricted attempts have yet been done on trying to include eutrophication in LCA. The aim of LC-Impact is to develop both a global and a spatial (and temporal) differentiated model, as both central fate processes, sensitivities of receiving environments (e.g. differences in limiting...... concentration and the potentially affected fraction of species in the marine ecosystem. This poster will present a review of the very limited existing attempts on how to include marine eutrophication in LCA and discuss alternative methodologies on how to model the environmental mechanism of this impact category....

  19. Mutational screening of LCA genes emphasizing RPE65 in South Indian cohort of patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Verma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA is the most severe form of inherited retinal visual impairment in children. So far, mutations in more than 20 genes have been known to cause LCA and among them, RPE65 is a suitable candidate for gene therapy. The mutational screenings of RPE65 and other LCA genes are requisite in support of emerging gene specific therapy for LCA. Therefore, we have carried out a comprehensive LCA genes screening using a combined approach of direct sequencing and DNA microarray based Asper chip analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty clinically diagnosed index LCA cases from Southern India were screened for coding and flanking intronic regions of RPE65 through direct sequencing. Among thirty, 25 cases excluded from RPE65 mutations were subjected to Asper chip analysis, testing 784 known pathogenic variations in 15 major LCA genes. In RPE65 screening, four different pathogenic variations including two novel (c.361insT & c.939T>A and two known (c.394G>A & c.361delT mutations were identified in five index cases. In the chip analysis, seven known pathogenic mutations were identified in six index cases, involving genes GUCY2D, RPGRIP1, AIPL1, CRX and IQCB1. Overall, 11 out of 30 LCA cases (36.6% revealed pathogenic variations with the involvement of RPE65 (16.6%, GUCY2D (10%, RPGRIP1 (3.3%, AIPL1 (3.3% and CRX & IQCB1 (3.3%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that such combined screening approach is productive and cost-effective for mutation detection and can be applied in Indian LCA cohort for molecular diagnosis and genetic counselling.

  20. Methodology for risk assessment of collapses of torrent check dams

    OpenAIRE

    Martinčič, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Slovenia has a lot of torrential check dams, but until now there was no uniform method one could apply in order to perform a review of the torrential check dams' condition and to assess their physical vulnerability. In 2013, we assessed the risk of torrential check dams on Suhelj, Belca and Pišnica torrents by applying the risk assessment methodology for large dams. Since, for various reasons, the results were deemed useless, we decided to adjust the risk assessment model for torrential ch...

  1. USEEIOv1.1 - openLCA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a version of the full USEEIO v1.1 model in the openLCA schema serialized as JSON-LD that can be imported into openLCA software (www.openlca.org) v1.5 and...

  2. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies and pr...

  3. LCA af Biovækst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob

    DTU ha færdiggjort en rapport, der beskriver en LCA (livscyklusvurdering) af kildesorteret organisk dagrenovation på BioVækst, et kombineret biogas- og komposteringsanlæg Rapporten beskriver en livscyklusbaseret miljøvurdering vha. LCA modellen EASEWASTE, for to behandlingsmetoder for kildesorteret...

  4. Temporal Considerations of Carbon Sequestration in LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Salazar; Richard Bergman

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for carbon sequestration in LCA illustrates the limitations of a single global warming characterization factor. Typical cradle-to-grave LCA models all emissions from end-of-life processes and then characterizes these flows by IPCC GWP (100-yr) factors. A novel method estimates climate change impact by characterizing annual emissions with the IPCC GHG forcing...

  5. Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Luna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for identifying and assessing the impact of distributed generation interconnection on distribution systems using Monte Carlo techniques. This methodology consists of two analysis schemes: a technical analysis, which evaluates the reliability conditions of the distribution system; on the other hand, an economic analysis that evaluates the financial impacts on the electric utility and its customers, according to the system reliability level. The proposed methodology was applied to an IEEE test distribution system, considering different operation schemes for the distributed generation interconnection. The application of each one of these schemes provided significant improvements regarding the reliability and important economic benefits for the electric utility. However, such schemes resulted in negative profitability levels for certain customers, therefore, regulatory measures and bilateral contracts were proposed which would provide a solution for this kind of problem.

  6. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    , due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...... boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic......Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis...

  7. The use of LCA for modelling sustainability and environmental impact of manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culaba, A.; Purvis, M. [Portsmouth Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Most industries rely significantly on natural resources for raw materials and energy requirements. As a consequence of manufacturing activities, various pollutants are generated in the process. While effects on the environment can be detrimental, wastes and emissions account for a high percentage loss in the overall material balance. Unless these unnecessary losses are minimized and recovered, the environment would continue to be disadvantaged and long-term supply of raw materials and energy would likewise be affected. The key to the analysis of such problems concerns generalised procedures for the modelling of the sustainable use of resources in manufacturing processes and the development of associated sustainability criteria. This requires identifying the various aspects of manufacturing from the time the raw materials are extracted until they have been processed into products and then used or consumed and finally disposed of. The use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology encompasses these analyses and that of the identification of environmental effects associated with every stage of the manufacturing process. The presentation concludes that LCA is a very useful and effective tool in providing planners, legislator and decision-makers with the necessary information on the probable impacts of manufacture on the environment as well as underlying legislation, ecological, health standards and emission limits. (author)

  8. Teaching and assessing procedural skills using simulation: metrics and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Richard L; Davenport, Moira; Korley, Frederick; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Fitch, Michael T; Narang, Aneesh T; Evans, Leigh V; Gross, Amy; Rodriguez, Elliot; Dodge, Kelly L; Hamann, Cara J; Robey, Walter C

    2008-11-01

    Simulation allows educators to develop learner-focused training and outcomes-based assessments. However, the effectiveness and validity of simulation-based training in emergency medicine (EM) requires further investigation. Teaching and testing technical skills require methods and assessment instruments that are somewhat different than those used for cognitive or team skills. Drawing from work published by other medical disciplines as well as educational, behavioral, and human factors research, the authors developed six research themes: measurement of procedural skills; development of performance standards; assessment and validation of training methods, simulator models, and assessment tools; optimization of training methods; transfer of skills learned on simulator models to patients; and prevention of skill decay over time. The article reviews relevant and established educational research methodologies and identifies gaps in our knowledge of how physicians learn procedures. The authors present questions requiring further research that, once answered, will advance understanding of simulation-based procedural training and assessment in EM.

  9. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  10. Methodology to Assess No Touch Audit Software Using Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Braun, James E. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Langner, M. Rois [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The research presented in this report builds upon these previous efforts and proposes a set of tests to assess no touch audit tools using real utility bill and on-site data. The proposed assessment methodology explicitly investigates the behaviors of the monthly energy end uses with respect to outdoor temperature, i.e., the building energy signature, to help understand the Tool's disaggregation accuracy. The project team collaborated with Field Diagnosis Services, Inc. (FDSI) to identify appropriate test sites for the evaluation.

  11. Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

    2010-08-15

    The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-analyses in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Sereen; Lee, Su-Min; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C; Karabucak, Bekir

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methodological quality of published meta-analyses related to endodontics using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool and to provide a follow-up to previously published reviews. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria: Embase via Ovid, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The electronic search was amended by a hand search of 6 dental journals (International Endodontic Journal; Journal of Endodontics; Australian Endodontic Journal; Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology; Endodontics and Dental Traumatology; and Journal of Dental Research). The searches were conducted to include articles published after July 2009, and the deadline for inclusion of the meta-analyses was November 30, 2016. The AMSTAR assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of all included studies. A total of 36 reports of meta-analyses were included. The overall quality of the meta-analyses reports was found to be medium, with an estimated mean overall AMSTAR score of 7.25 (95% confidence interval, 6.59-7.90). The most poorly assessed areas were providing an a priori design, the assessment of the status of publication, and publication bias. In recent publications in the field of endodontics, the overall quality of the reported meta-analyses is medium according to AMSTAR. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  14. Sustainable Environment and Health for 21st Century: Implementation of LCA in development of products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, G. S.; Hauschild, M.; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    product and system developers to the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development; participate actively in development and documentation of methods for Improvement Assessments in LCA internationally; integrate CAD-LCA systems in the early stages of the product...

  15. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.

    1979-08-01

    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  16. Establishment of Assessment Methodology Improvement of IAEA INPRO Proliferation Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D.; Kim, Y. I.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. T.

    2008-03-15

    For the development of assessment methodology of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material, the PR assessment methodology which has been developed by GEN-IV PR and PP group was reviewed regarding the acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material and we proposed the research areas to develop the model of acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material including misuse of fuel cycle facilities and one of the IAEA INPRO CRPs which is aiming to develop its model. From the present study, its preliminary model for acquisition and diversion pathway of nuclear material was obtained. For preliminary evaluation of DUPIC system using methodology of acquisition/diversion pathway of nm and review of pyro-processing system characteristics, the research direction and work procedure was established to develop the assessment methodology of User Requirement 4 of INPRO PR by; 1) selection of the possible pathway to acquire and divert the nuclear material of DUPIC system, 2) the analysis of selected pathway, 3) the development of the assessment methodology of robustness and multiplicity of an INS. And, the PR characteristics and process/material flow analysis of the Pyro-processing system were preliminarily studied. For establishment of R and D direction for an INS and supporting international cooperation research, the collaborative research project titled as 'Acquisition and Diversion pathway analysis of Proliferation Resistance' as one of activities of IAEA INPRO was proposed, since Korean Government decided to actively support the IAEA INPRO. In order to review and clarify the Terms of Reference (TOR) of a Korean Proposed Collaborative Project (ROK1), two INPRO Consultancy Meetings were held. Its results were presented at two INPRO Steering Committees and the finalized TOR of Korean Proposal submit the 12-th INPRO Steering Committee Meeting which was held Dec. 3-5 2007. Four participants including USA, Canada, China and European Community (EC

  17. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  18. From toxic releases to damages on human health: a method for life cycle impact assessment, with a case study on domestic rainwater use

    OpenAIRE

    Crettaz, Pierre; Jolliet, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool developed to evaluate the environmental impact of a product or a system. After a decade of research in the LCA field, significant progress has been achieved but methodologies for the assessment of toxicological impacts on human health are still in the development phase. This dissertation contributes to the research required in this field. More specifically, its main objective is to develop a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) procedure for human health r...

  19. Methodological considerations when assessing restricted and repetitive behaviors and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, A J; Kalb, L; Mazurek, M O; Kanne, S M; Freedman, B; Vasa, R A

    2014-11-01

    Methodological issues impacting the relationship between aggression and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RRSBI) were examined in 2648 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a multi-method, multi-informant analysis model to assess the effects of informant, assessment method, and aggression phenotype. Overall, a significant, but small relationship was found between RRSBI and aggression (p < .05). There was significant heterogeneity of estimates with large effect sizes observed when utilizing teacher report and a broad phenotype of aggression. Variance in estimates was attributed to differences in informant and assessment method with two times greater effect attributed to informant. Results suggest strategies to optimize future investigations of the relationship between RRSBI and aggression. Findings also provide the opportunity for the development of targeted interventions for aggression in youth with ASD.

  20. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate and program objectives focus on desired performance and results. ?Management decisions that affect how to meet these objectives now involve a complex mix of: technology, safety issues, operations, process considerations, employee considerations, regulatory requirements, financial concerns and legal issues. ?Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures. Using a risk assessment methodology is only a starting point. ?A risk assessment program provides management with important input in the decision making process. ?A pro-active organization looks to the future to avoid problems, a reactive organization can be blindsided by risks that could have been avoided. ?You get out what you put in, how useful your program is will be up to the individual organization.

  1. LCA of electricity systems with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; O' Dwyer, C. O.; Flynn, D.

    Electricity systems are shifting from being based on fossil fuels towards renewable sources to enhance energy security and mitigate climate change. However, by introducing high shares of variable renewables - such as wind and solar - dispatchable power plants are required to vary their output...... storage capacity reduces system operating costs at high wind penetrations and limits cycling, the emissions reductions may be negated when coupled with base load coal....... assessment (LCA). Cycling emissions from dispatchable generators due to part-load operation and start-ups [3] were included for the first time in LCA. Part-load operations significantly affected the average power plant efficiency, with all units seeing an average yearly efficiency 1-11% lower than optimal...

  2. Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Interservice/Jndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 Two Methodologies to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios Brian Vogt...Education Conference (11/ TSEC ) 2013 strategies and determine if 1) only acceptable strategies are among the highest rewarded strategies and 2) only...Education Conference (1// TSEC ) 2013 {J ’ ’’/~AR+fX1;7’-’?;’/’> i> :c~t~11o)0~~ iJcMi>red:(m);t~" ’A\\::f\\0--{;101/0’ <Y?J¥~1)\\f-j’f\\!-’ + 7;J

  3. Methodology to assess coastal infrastructure resilience to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the resilience of the line, several options have been considered to evaluate and reduce climate change impacts to the railway. This paper describes the methodological approach developed to evaluate the risks of flooding for a range of scenarios in the estuary and open coast reaches of the line. Components to derive the present day and future climate change coastal conditions including some possible adaptation measures are also presented together with the results of the hindcasting analysis to assess the performance of the modelling system. An overview of the modelling results obtained to support the development of a long-term Resilience Strategy for asset management is also discussed.

  4. METHODOLOGY OF AN ASSESSMENT OF RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of an assessment of the results of research, development and technological works and intangible assets are given in the article. A special attention is paid to the problems of formation of fair value of such assets for clients of financial accounting. The authors compare the methods of cost measurement of accounting entities regulated by Russian Accounting Standards (RAS and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Peculiarities of detection and acknowledgement of impairment of intangible assets (loss of value are considered.

  5. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos

    2015-04-01

    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models

  6. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems – Part I: Lessons learned and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where...... and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic......, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement...

  7. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  8. Mutations in LCA5 are an uncommon cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Sylvie; Hanein, Sylvain; Perrault, Isabelle; Delphin, Nathalie; Aboussair, Nisrine; Leowski, Corinne; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Roche, Olivier; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2007-12-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe form of inherited retinal dystrophy responsible for blindness or severe visual impairment at birth or within the first months of life. Up to date, ten LCA genes have been identified. Three of them account for ca. 43% of families and are responsible for a congenital severe stationary cone-rod dystrophy (Type I, 60% of LCA) while the seven remaining genes account for 32% of patients and are responsible for a progressive yet severe rod-cone dystrophy (Type II, 40% of LCA ). Recently, mutations in LCA5, encoding the ciliary protein lebercilin, were reported to be a rare cause of leber congenital amaurosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the involvement of this novel gene and to look for genotype-phenotype correlations. Here we report the identification of three novel LCA5 mutations (3/3 homozygous) in three families confirming the modest implication of this gene in our series (3/179; 1.7%). Besides, we suggest that the phenotype of these patients affected with a particularly severe form of LCA type II may represent a continuum with LCA type I. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Reproducibility of LCA models of crude oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-11-04

    Scientific models are ideally reproducible, with results that converge despite varying methods. In practice, divergence between models often remains due to varied assumptions, incompleteness, or simply because of avoidable flaws. We examine LCA greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions models to test the reproducibility of their estimates for well-to-refinery inlet gate (WTR) GHG emissions. We use the Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE), an open source engineering-based life cycle assessment (LCA) model, as the reference model for this analysis. We study seven previous studies based on six models. We examine the reproducibility of prior results by successive experiments that align model assumptions and boundaries. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between results varies between ∼1 and 8 g CO2 eq/MJ LHV when model inputs are not aligned. After model alignment, RMSE generally decreases only slightly. The proprietary nature of some of the models hinders explanations for divergence between the results. Because verification of the results of LCA GHG emissions is often not possible by direct measurement, we recommend the development of open source models for use in energy policy. Such practice will lead to iterative scientific review, improvement of models, and more reliable understanding of emissions.

  10. A risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy set in FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2010-12-01

    Most current risk assessment methods use the risk priority number (RPN) value to evaluate the risk of failure. However, conventional RPN methodology has been criticised as having five main shortcomings as follows: (1) the assumption that the RPN elements are equally weighted leads to over simplification; (2) the RPN scale itself has some non-intuitive statistical properties; (3) the RPN elements have many duplicate numbers; (4) the RPN is derived from only three factors mainly in terms of safety; and (5) the conventional RPN method has not considered indirect relations between components. To address the above issues, an efficient and comprehensive algorithm to evaluate the risk of failure is needed. This article proposes an innovative approach, which integrates the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) and the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach on risk assessment. The proposed approach resolves some of the shortcomings of the conventional RPN method. A case study, which assesses the risk of 0.15 µm DRAM etching process, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Finally, the result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of risk assessment methods.

  11. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nargessadat Emami; Björn Marteinsson; Jukka Heinonen

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the buildin...

  13. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D. L.; Soldat, J. K.; McNeese, J. A.; Watson, E. C.

    1977-07-01

    This report describes the methodology for determining where environmental control technology is required for the nuclear fuel cycle. The methodology addresses routine emission of chemical and radioactive effluents, and applies to mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors (LWR and BWR) and fuel reprocessing. Chemical and radioactive effluents are evaluated independently. Radioactive effluents are evaluated on the basis of maximum exposed individual dose and population dose calculations for a 1-year emission period and a 50-year commitment. Sources of radionuclides for each facility are then listed according to their relative contribution to the total calculated dose. Effluent, ambient and toxicology standards are used to evaluate the effect of chemical effluents. First, each chemical and source configuration is determined. Sources are tagged if they exceed existirrg standards. The combined effect of all chemicals is assessed for each facility. If the additive effects are unacceptable, then additional control technology is recommended. Finally, sources and their chemicals at each facility are ranked according to their relative contribution to the ambient pollution level. This ranking identifies those sources most in need of environmental control.

  15. Differences between LCA for analysis and LCA for policy : A case study on the consequences of allocation choices in bio-energy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Tjerk; Van Ruijven, Theo; Beltran, Angelica Mendoza; Vad, Kathrine; Guinée, Jeroen B.; Heijungs, Reinout

    Purpose: The increasing concern for adverse effects of climate change has spurred the search for alternatives for conventional energy sources. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has increasingly been used to assess the potential of these alternatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The popularity of

  16. Differences between LCA for analysis and LCA for policy : A case study on the consequences of allocation choices in bio-energy policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, T.; Van Ruijven, T.W.J.; Beltran, A.M.; Vad, K.; Guinee, J.; Heijungs, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The increasing concern for adverse effects of climate change has spurred the search for alternatives for conventional energy sources. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has increasingly been used to assess the potential of these alternatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The popularity of

  17. Environmental assessment of gas management options at the Old Ämmässuo landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modeling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Niskanen, A.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    formation. stratospheric ozone depletion, acidification and nutrient enrichment) and toxicity-related impact categories (human toxicity via soil, via water and via air, eco-toxicity in soil and in water chronic). The results of the life-cycle impact assessment show that disperse emissions of LFC from...... the landfill surface determine the highest potential impacts in terms of global warming, stratospheric Ozone depletion, and human toxicity Via Soil. Conversely, the impact potentials estimated for other categories are numerically-negative when the collected LFG, is utilized for energy generation, demonstrating...

  18. Methodologies For A Physically Based Rockfall Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.; Guzzetti, F.; Marian, M.

    Rockfall hazard assessment is an important land planning tool in alpine areas, where settlements progressively expand across rockfall prone areas, rising the vulnerability of the elements at risk, the worth of potential losses and the restoration costs. Nev- ertheless, hazard definition is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. In addition, the high mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope insta- bilities for which runout is minimal. When coping with rockfalls, hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". The local occurrence probability must derive from the combination of the triggering probability (related to the geomechanical susceptibility of rock masses to fail) and the transit or impact probability at a given location (related to the motion of falling blocks). The intensity (or magnitude) of a rockfall is a complex function of mass, velocity and fly height of involved blocks that can be defined in many different ways depending on the adopted physical description and "destructiveness" criterion. This work is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of numerical modelling performed by an original 3D rockfall simulation program. This is based on a kinematic algorithm and allows the spatially distributed simulation of rockfall motions on a three-dimensional topography described by a DTM. The code provides raster maps portraying the max- imum frequency of transit, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. The results of some three dimensional rockfall models, performed at both regional and lo- cal scale in areas where rockfall related problems are well known, have been used to assess rockfall hazard, by adopting an objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing a positional

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  20. Methodological approaches to climate change vulnerability assessment of Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana N. Lipka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts in Russia's territory make species and ecosystems conservation in Protected Areas a more difficult challenge. Additional adaptation measures are required. Before they are developed, it is important to assess the vulnerability of a territory: what exactly, and to which extent, is exposed to adverse climate impacts? The accomplished research will help develop an action plan consistent with the current unstable climate and extreme weather events, as well as with projections by the leading research institutions of Roshydromet and the Russian Academy of Science. Today, methodologies have been developed and successfully tested for some natural zones. The conservation science is now facing a new challenge: how to combine collected information with climate projections and identify development perspectives for concrete territories.

  1. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails: joseluisrt@iee.unsj.edu.ar, colome@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  2. METHODOLOGY OF SYSTEM APPROACHE TO SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT AND REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Abakarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ensuring of urban areas seismic safety is a task which do not require delay. But it cannot be solved by separate parts. It is essential that all components of the seismic hazard must be grouped together in one problem based on the system approach. In the present paper is presented not only the main flowchart of systems approach to ensuring the territory seismic safety but also the flowcharts of components of each main unit. They cover the whole package of measures for a full assessment of territory seismic hazard, seismic risk and its reduction.The proposed methodology can be carried out for design and implementation of regional territory seismic safety programs. 

  3. Critical review of elementary flows in LCA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Ashley; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Rodríguez, Cristina; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; de Almeida, Artur Ribeiro; Wernet, Gregor

    2017-07-01

    Elementary flows are essential components of data used for life cycle assessment. A standard list is not used across all sources, as data providers now manage these flows independently. Elementary flows must be consistent across a life cycle inventory for accurate inventory analysis and must correspond with impact methods for impact assessment. With the goal of achieving a global network of LCA databases, a critical review of elementary flow usage and management in LCA data sources was performed. Flows were collected in a standard template from various life cycle inventory, impact method, and software sources. A typology of elementary flows was created to identify flows by types such as chemicals, minerals, land flows, etc. to facilitate differential analysis. Twelve criteria were defined to evaluate flows against principles of clarity, consistency, extensibility, translatability, and uniqueness. Over 134,000 elementary flows from five LCI databases, three LCIA methods, and four LCA software tools were collected and evaluated from European, North American, and Asian Pacific LCA sources. The vast majority were typed as "Element or Compound" or "Group of Chemicals" with less than 10% coming from the other seven types Many lack important identifying information including context information (environmental compartments), directionality (LCIA methods generally do not provide this information), additional clarifiers such as CAS numbers and synonyms, unique identifiers (like UUIDs), and supporting metadata. Extensibility of flows is poor because patterns in flow naming are generally complex and inconsistent because user defined nomenclature is used. The current shortcomings in flow clarity, consistency, and extensibility are likely to make it more challenging for users to properly select and use elementary flows when creating LCA data and make translation/conversion between different reference lists challenging and loss of information will likely occur. We recommend the

  4. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Villa

    Full Text Available Ecosystem Services (ES are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services, which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  5. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  6. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  8. Methodological Approach for the Sustainability Assessment of Development Cooperation Projects for Built Innovations Based on the SDGs and Life Cycle Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D. Maier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological approach for a sustainability assessment of development cooperation projects. Between the scientific disciplines there is no agreement on the term of “sustainability”. Whereas the definition of sustainability within the context of development cooperation frequently highlights the long-term success of an intervention, the United Nations herald the inclusion of social, economic and environmental aspects. This paper proposes to bridge this gap by providing an analytical framework that uses nine impact category groups based on thematic priorities of sustainable development derived from the Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, the long-term effectiveness of a project is taken into consideration. These impact category groups comprise the analytical framework, which is investigated by the Life Cycle Assessment and an indicator-based analysis. These data are obtained through empirical social research and the LCA inventory. The underlying concept is based on life cycle thinking. Taking up a multi-cycle model this study establishes two life cycles: first, the project management life cycle; and, second, the life cycle of a project’s innovation. The innovation’s life cycle is identified to have the greatest impact on the target region and the local people and is consequently of primary interest. This methodological approach enables an ex-post sustainability assessment of a built innovation of a development cooperation project and is tested on a case study on Improved Cooking Stoves in Bangladesh.

  9. Evaluation of bioaugmentation using multiple life cycle assessment approaches: A case study of constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyue; Yang, Jixian; Zhang, Xuedong; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology to enhance the removal of specific pollutants; however, environmental impacts of implementing bioaugmentation have not been considered in most studies. Appropriate methodology is required for the evaluation from both in-depth and comprehensive perspectives, which leads to this study initiating the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioaugmentation. Two LCA methods (CML and e-Balance) were applied to a bioaugmentation case with the aim of illustrating how to evaluate the environmental impacts of bioaugmentation from different perspectives based on the selection of different LCA methods. The results of the case study demonstrated that the LCA methods with different methodology emphasis produced different outcomes, which could lead to differentiated optimization strategies depending on the associated perspectives. Furthermore, three important aspects are discussed, including coverage of impact categories, the selection of characterization modeling for specific pollutants, and the requirement of including economic indicators for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  11. Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Klaus; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    of buildings (as expressed in EU Directive 2002/91/EC), may in the future be supplemented by requirements to the environmental impact of buildings. This can be seen by the fact that EU recently has given EN mandate to prepare standards for environmental assessment of buildings (CEN/TC 350).......Thsi paper describes recent efforts made by the Danish Building Research Institute regarding the integration of a life cycle assessment (LCA) method into a whole building hygro-thermal simulation tool. The motivation for the work is that the increased requirements to the energy performance...

  12. Stochastic and epistemic uncertainty propagation in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Guyonnet, Dominique; Tonini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    When performing uncertainty propagation, most LCA practitioners choose to represent uncertainties by single probability distributions and to propagate them using stochastic methods. However, the selection of single probability distributions appears often arbitrary when faced with scarce information...... manner and apply it to LCA. A case study is used to show the uncertainty propagation performed with the proposed method and compare it to propagation performed using probability and possibility theories alone.Basic knowledge on the probability theory is first recalled, followed by a detailed description...

  13. Introducing Athena {sup TM} v. 2.0 : an LCA based decision support tool for assessing the environmental impact of the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusty, W.B.; Meil, J.K. [Athena Sustainable Materials Inst., Merrickville, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute helps the building community meet environmental challenges and improve the environmental performance of buildings by providing data, tools and services. The Institute has recently developed the Athena {sup TM} environmental decision support tool which provides builders with high quality environmental data and which helps with complex evaluations needed to make informed environmental choices during the conception design stage of a project. Athena {sup TM} helps builders to choose material mixes and other design options that will minimize a building's potential life cycle environmental impacts. It also helps promote sustainable development. Architects, researchers and policy analysts can access the Institute's database through Athena {sup TM} to assess the environmental effects of geographically sensitive design options for a building over its life cycle. Specific features include the ability to model a building's complete structure and envelope, including cladding, insulation, gypsum wall board, roofing and windows. Athena {sup TM} can also model maintenance and replacement life cycle effects based on the type of building and its location. It can also convert operating energy to primary energy and can calculate emissions related to a building's energy system. An end-of-life module is also incorporated to help simulate demolition energy. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Comparative analysis of gas and coal-fired power generation in ultra-low emission condition using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Liu, Guicai; Liu, Zhichao; Yu, Zhaosheng; Guo, Shaode; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    Energy consumption and pollutant emission of natural gas combined cycle power-generation (NGCC), liquefied natural gas combined cycle power-generation (LNGCC), natural gas combined heat and power generation (CHP) and ultra-supercritical power generation with ultra-low gas emission (USC) were analyzed using life cycle assessment method, pointing out the development opportunity and superiority of gas power generation in the period of coal-fired unit ultra-low emission transformation. The results show that CO2 emission followed the order: USC>LNGCC>NGCC>CHP the resource depletion coefficient of coal-fired power generation was lower than that of gas power generation, and the coal-fired power generation should be the main part of power generation in China; based on sensitivity analysis, improving the generating efficiency or shortening the transportation distance could effectively improve energy saving and emission reduction, especially for the coal-fired units, and improving the generating efficiency had a great significance for achieving the ultra-low gas emission.

  15. A life cycle methodology for mapping the flows of pollutants in the urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Azapagic, Adisa; Pettit, Carol; Sinclair, Phil

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated life cycle methodology for mapping the flows of pollutants in the urban environment, following the pollutants from their sources through the environment to receptors. The sources of pollution that can be considered by this methodology include products, processes and human activities. Life cycle assessment (LCA), substance flow analysis (SFA), fate and transport modelling (F&TM) and geographical information systems (GIS) have been used as tools for these p...

  16. Methodology for Assessment and Optimization of Industrial Eco-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zondervan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging trend in evaluating industrial activities using principles of industrial ecology because of the emphasis on sustainability initiatives by major process industries. Attention has also been targeted at developing planned industrial ecosystems (IEs across the globe. We point out the current state-of-the art in this exciting discipline and subsequently identify the challenges that have not been encountered by the scientific community yet. Ecological Input Output Analysis (EIOA may be considered as an “all-inclusive model” for the assessment of an IE because of its ability to capture the economic, environmental, and societal behavior of an IE. It could also be utilized to illustrate the detailed inter-relationships among the entities of an IE. Optimization of a fully integrated IE using conventional multi-objective optimization techniques would be too complex. For such multi-objective optimization problems, Hierarchical-Pareto optimization discussed in the literature has shown promise, but there is a need to establish a methodology to assess and/or improve the robustness of an IE using such techniques.

  17. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  18. Towards the evaluation of current wind farm assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, J.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Wind Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Canada's wind energy industry is experiencing significant growth. Government initiatives such as the wind power production incentive program (WPPI) may result in a cumulative installed wind energy capacity of up to 10,000 MW by 2015. However, the methods used to assess wind farm performance have never been thoroughly investigated in a specifically Canadian context. This project was conducted to provide a more accurate understanding of the limitations of various wind farm performance measuring methods and recommend effective methodologies based on the effect of terrain, the position of the wind turbines, and wind characteristics. The study was conducted at 5 wind farms in various Canadian locations, including Prince Edward Island (PEI). A full year of data for each wind farm was used to determine wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, power, and Nacelle orientation. Various wind resource assessment software programs were analyzed in order to evaluate topography and roughness effects, wake analyses, and to compare results from the models with actual wind speed data. tabs., figs.

  19. Environmental Assessment of Industrial Bamboo Products : Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lugt, P.; Vogtländer, J.G.; van der Vegte, JH; Brezet, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the commonly accepted methodology to systematically assess the environmental impact of a material over the full life cycle, from the extraction of resources until the end phase of demolition or recycling (from cradle till grave).
    The first objective of this study

  20. A Methodology for Inclusion of Terrestrial Ecotoxic Impacts of Metals in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecotoxicity is in most cases not addressed or to a very limited extent in life cycle assessment (LCA). We are developing a new method for calculating terrestrial ecotoxicity characterization factor (CF) of metals for application in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). e method takes...... into account metal speciation and interactions with soil organic constituents, because these mechanisms control metal bioavailability and inuence their toxic properties. Transfer functions and geochemical speciation models are employed to calculate reactive and available fractions of metals in 1300 soils...... and the contribution of EF to the CF is within the same order of magnitude or lower comparing to that of the BF. us, FIAMs can be employed to calculate EFs for metals for which TBLMs are not available. From a set of spatially explicit CFs, site-generic CFs can be derived at global or continental scales...

  1. Downcycling versus recycling of construction and demolition waste: Combining LCA and LCC to support sustainable policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Andrea; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Acker, Karel

    2018-02-02

    Urgent solutions are needed in Europe to deal with construction and demolition waste (CDW). EU policy has contributed to significantly reducing the amount of CDW going to landfill, but most of the effort has been put in downcycling practices. Therefore, further policies are needed to stimulate high-quality recycling of CDW. The present paper presents a combined life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies to analyse the environmental and the economic drivers in four alternative CDW end-of-life scenarios in the region of Flanders, in Belgium. The four analysed alternatives are (i) landfilling, (ii) downcycling, (iii) advanced recycling and (iv) recycling after selective demolition. LCA results show that landiflling is the scenario having the highest environmental impacts in terms of person equivalent (PE), followed by downcycling and recycling (-36%) and recycling after selective demolition (-59%). The decrease in environmental impacts is mostly due to the avoided landfilling of CDW and the recovery of materials from selective demolition. LCC results indicate that landfilling is the scenario bearing the highest total economic costs. This is due to the high landfill tax in Flanders. The recycling after selective demolition bears the second highest cost. The increase of high-quality CDW recycling can significantly reduce the overall environmental impact of the system. Implementing a high landfill tax, increasing the gate fee to the recycling plant, and boosting the sales price of recycled aggregates are the most effective drivers to facilitate a transition towards a more sustainable CDW management system. The paper demonstrates that the combined LCA and LCC results can highlight the environmental and economic drivers in CDW management. The results of the combined analysis can help policymakers to promote the aspects contributing to sustainability and to limit the ones creating a barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko

    2009-03-01

    The Vercelli rice district in northern Italy plays a key role in the agri-food industry in a country which accounts for more than 50% of the EU rice production and exports roughly 70%. However, although wealth and jobs are created, the sector is said to be responsible for environmental impacts that are increasingly being perceived as topical. As a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation is necessary to understand and manage the environmental impact of the agri-food chain, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied to the rice production system: from the paddy field to the supermarket. The LCA has pointed out the magnitude of impact per kg of delivered white milled rice: a CO2eq emission of 2.9 kg, a primary energy consumption of 17.8 MJ and the use of 4.9 m3 of water for irrigation purposes. Improvement scenarios have been analysed considering alternative rice farming and food processing methods, such as organic and upland farming, as well as parboiling. The research has shown that organic and upland farming have the potential to decrease the impact per unit of cultivated area. However, due to the lower grain yields, the environmental benefits per kg of the final products are greatly reduced in the case of upland rice production and almost cancelled for organic rice. LCA has proved to be an effective tool for understanding the eco-profile of Italian rice and should be used for transparent and credible communication between suppliers and their customers.

  3. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  4. Development of a Carbon Emission Calculations System for Optimizing Building Plan Based on the LCA Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle thinking has become widely applied in the assessment for building environmental performance. Various tool are developed to support the application of life cycle assessment (LCA method. This paper focuses on the carbon emission during the building construction stage. A partial LCA framework is established to assess the carbon emission in this phase. Furthermore, five typical LCA tools programs have been compared and analyzed for demonstrating the current application of LCA tools and their limitations in the building construction stage. Based on the analysis of existing tools and sustainability demands in building, a new computer calculation system has been developed to calculate the carbon emission for optimizing the sustainability during the construction stage. The system structure and detail functions are described in this paper. Finally, a case study is analyzed to demonstrate the designed LCA framework and system functions. This case is based on a typical building in UK with different plans of masonry wall and timber frame to make a comparison. The final results disclose that a timber frame wall has less embodied carbon emission than a similar masonry structure. 16% reduction was found in this study.

  5. Broadening GHG accounting with LCA: application to a waste management business unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Sophie; Martineau, Geneviève; Bécaert, Valérie; Margni, Manuele; Deschênes, Louise; Samson, Réjean; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    In an effort to obtain the most accurate climate change impact assessment, greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting is evolving to include life-cycle thinking. This study (1) identifies similarities and key differences between GHG accounting and life-cycle assessment (LCA), (2) compares them on a consistent basis through a case study on a waste management business unit. First, GHG accounting is performed. According to the GHG Protocol, annual emissions are categorized into three scopes: direct GHG emissions (scope 1), indirect emissions related to electricity, heat and steam production (scope 2) and other indirect emissions (scope 3). The LCA is then structured into a comparable framework: each LCA process is disaggregated into these three scopes, the annual operating activities are assessed, and the environmental impacts are determined using the IMPACT2002+ method. By comparing these two approaches it is concluded that both LCA and GHG accounting provide similar climate change impact results as the same major GHG contributors are determined for scope 1 emissions. The emissions from scope 2 appear negligible whereas emissions from scope 3 cannot be neglected since they contribute to around 10% of the climate change impact of the waste management business unit. This statement is strengthened by the fact that scope 3 generates 75% of the resource use damage and 30% of the ecosystem quality damage categories. The study also shows that LCA can help in setting up the framework for a annual GHG accounting by determining the major climate change contributors.

  6. Lights and shadows in consequential LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamagni, Alessandra; Guinée, Jeroen B.; Heijungs, Reinout; Masoni, Paolo; Raggi, Andrea

    Purpose Consequential LCA (CLCA) is becoming widely used in the scientific community as a modelling technique which describes the consequences of a decision. However, despite the increasing number of case studies published, a proper systematization of the approach has not yet been achieved. This

  7. MODERN METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS SELF-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Astanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of standardization of foreign language training at the higher school is becoming currently topical. With regard to the processes of globalization, the international educational projects and students exchange programs gain greater international recognition. Such international programmes involve foreign language knowledge graded as not only high certified academic levels but also as basic language skills. The lack of foreign language competence becomes the obstacle for successful training, depriving a future graduate of a part of chances to become the competitive and popular expert in the chosen profession. The success of a foreign language course completion among students depends on many factors; the most important factor is motivation which can affect self-assessment of training results. The aim of the study is to describe possibilities of the CanDos tools implementation for the organization of students self-consciousness and self-assessment of own achievements in order to influence the motivation for mastering a foreign language.Methodology and research methods. The research is based on competencybased approach. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, and generalization.Results and scientific novelty. The questionnaire developed for the experiment helped to collect the data concerning the effectiveness of the CanDos software implementation for self-assessment of students’ foreign language skills. The corresponding self-assessment helps students to carry out a self-reflection of own knowledge and abilities, and to find “weak points” in language proficiency which need additional practice and improvement. By regularly using CanDos software as self-assessment tools, students learn to identify the correspondence of their language competence to the external requirements and standards of education. Orientation to training results will help future experts to create self-motivation that positively

  8. EHS & LCA assessment for 7-ACA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Richard K; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Preston, Chris

    2008-01-01

    A Green Technology Comparison framework incorporating a life cycle approach and sustainability metrics has been used to compare the performance, and the environment, health, safety, and life cycle impacts of two synthetic methods used to produce 7-aminocephalosporic acid (7-ACA). The routes under...

  9. Use of LCA as decision support for the selection of remedial strategies for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water in Denmark and the general policy is to maintain the groundwater as a clean source of drinking water. The risk of groundwater contamination is therefore often the prime reason for remediating a contaminated site. Chlorinated solvents are among...... the contaminants most frequently found to be threatening the groundwater quality in Denmark and worldwide. Life cycle assessment has recently been applied as part of decision support for contaminated site management and subsurface remediation techniques. Impacts in the groundwater compartment have only gained...... little attention in established life cycle impact assessment methodologies. Often groundwater is included in a general freshwater compartment, is simply disregarded, or is only functioning as a sink for contaminant emissions. When applying LCA for decision support for contaminated site remediation...

  10. Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnveden, Göran; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Ekvall, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess the environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product’s life cycle, i.e., from raw material acquisition, via production and use phases, to waste management. The methodological development in LCA has been strong, and LCA is broadly applied...... on Life Cycle Impact Assessment we discuss the characteristics of the modelling as well as some recent developments for specific impact categories and weighting. In relation to the Interpretation the focus is on uncertainty analysis. Finally, we discuss recent developments in relation to some...

  11. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    , such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing......A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results...

  12. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability......, and cannot be applied for intercropping and agroforestry systems. The allocation approaches take into account the cropping system effects by establishing a mathematical relationship between crops present in the cropping systems. The model for integrative life-cycle assessment in agriculture (MiLA) approach...

  14. A Systematic Methodology for Gearbox Health Assessment and Fault Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology for gearbox health assessment and fault classification is developed and evaluated for 560 data sets of gearbox vibration data provided by the Prognostics and Health Management Society for the 2009 data challenge competition. A comprehensive set of signal processing and feature extraction methods are used to extract over 200 features, including features extracted from the raw time signal, time synchronous signal, wavelet decomposition signal, frequency domain spectrum, envelope spectrum, among others. A regime segmentation approach using the tachometer signal, a spectrum similarity metric, and gear mesh frequency peak information are used to segment the data by gear type, input shaft speed, and braking torque load. A health assessment method that finds the minimum feature vector sum in each regime is used to classify and find the 80 baseline healthy data sets. A fault diagnosis method based on a distance calculation from normal along with specific features correlated to different fault signatures is used to diagnosis specific faults. The fault diagnosis method is evaluated for the diagnosis of a gear tooth breakage, input shaft imbalance, bent shaft, bearing inner race defect, and bad key, and the method could be further extended for other faults as long as a set of features can be correlated with a known fault signature. Future work looks to further refine the distance calculation algorithm for fault diagnosis, as well as further evaluate other signal processing method such as the empirical mode decomposition to see if an improved set of features can be used to improve the fault diagnosis accuracy.

  15. From LCA to PSS – Making leaps towards sustainability by applying product/service-system thinking in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    their surrounding systems. This paper will exemplify that when broadening the ecodesign horizon to environmental product/service-system (PSS) design, there is a better possibility of applying a system-oriented life cycle thinking approach, and therefore a potential to yield extreme improvements towards......Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the standardised and globally recognised tool for quantifying environmental impact of goods and services. A key aspect in LCA is the consideration of whole life cycle systems. The application of LCA in product development inherently comprises the quest...

  16. Review of LCA studies of solid waste management systems--part I: lessons learned and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Alexis; Bakas, Ioannis; Clavreul, Julie; Bernstad, Anna; Niero, Monia; Gentil, Emmanuel; Hauschild, Michael Z; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-03-01

    The continuously increasing solid waste generation worldwide calls for management strategies that integrate concerns for environmental sustainability. By quantifying environmental impacts of systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool, which can contribute to answer that call. But how, where and to which extent has it been applied to solid waste management systems (SWMSs) until now, and which lessons can be learnt from the findings of these LCA applications? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 222 published LCA studies of SWMS. We first analysed the geographic distribution and found that the published studies have primarily been concentrated in Europe with little application in developing countries. In terms of technological coverage, they have largely overlooked application of LCA to waste prevention activities and to relevant waste types apart from household waste, e.g. construction and demolition waste. Waste management practitioners are thus encouraged to abridge these gaps in future applications of LCA. In addition to this contextual analysis, we also evaluated the findings of selected studies of good quality and found that there is little agreement in the conclusions among them. The strong dependence of each SWMS on local conditions, such as waste composition or energy system, prevents a meaningful generalisation of the LCA results as we find it in the waste hierarchy. We therefore recommend stakeholders in solid waste management to regard LCA as a tool, which, by its ability of capturing the local specific conditions in the modelling of environmental impacts and benefits of a SWMS, allows identifying critical problems and proposing improvement options adapted to the local specificities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LCA Experiences in Danish Industry: Results of a Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Christensen, Per

    1999-01-01

    of the products with subsequent new priorities in the environmental efforts. Only a few enterprises have built up in-house LCA competence whereas consultants are heavily involved in LCA work. In large enterprises LCA work is predominantly carried out by environmental staff members, but also product development...... to supply more environmentally friendly products is the most important incentive for the enterprises to engage in LCA activities. This pressure has, however, not emerged yet and the enterprises have not achieved the expected competitive advantages yet. LCA work has revealed new environmental aspects...

  18. Life cycle assessment applied to wastewater treatment; Analyse de cycle de vie appliquee aux systemes de traitement des eaux usees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renou, S.

    2006-01-15

    Nowadays, the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems are not properly analyzed. Thus, the development of an exhaustive and reliable method is needed to help stakeholders to choose the best environmental solutions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was selected as a starting point to answer this problem. LCA has been tested. This tool is essential to analyze the environmental performances of wastewater treatment systems. In order to fulfill our goal, the best compromise seems to be the association of LCA, to assess global impacts, with others methodologies, to assess local impacts. Finally, a software has been developed to compare urban sludge treatment and recovering process trains. Two impacts, energy and greenhouse effect, are currently included in. The software and its development steps are described and illustrated through two case studies. This tool has made LCA easier to apply and more useful to wastewater field stakeholders. (author)

  19. Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G.; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related......As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force...... terminology as well as to discuss modelling implications. The task force has worked from the perspective that footprints should be based on LCA methodology, underpinned by the same data systems and models as used in LCA. However, there are important differences in purpose and orientation relative to LCA...

  20. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...

  1. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal...... by the methodological development of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and the advancement of research in quantifying environmental emissions associated with wastewater and sewage sludge treatment processes. Thus, large discrepancies were found in the selection of the environmental emissions to be included...... processes for multiple scales, ranging from process selection to policy evaluation. The results of LCA are, in principle, unique to the goal and scope of each study, reflecting its local conditions and comparison between different LCAs is not intended. Furthermore, the assessments are limited...

  2. Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program: Overview of Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Over the last three years, a team of national laboratory experts, working in partnership with the energy industry, has successfully applied the methodology as part of OCIP's Vulnerability and Risk Analysis Program (VRAP...

  3. Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS): User’s Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-14

    287 THE RON CORPORATION 1801 Randolph Road. S E. Albuquerque, NM 87106 0 505) 848-5000 Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ...S.E., Albuquerque, NM 87106 * (505) 848-5000 RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SOFTWARE SUPPORTABILITY ( RAMSS ) USER’S HANDBOOK April 14, 1986 BDM/A.-85...NThe Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability ( RAMSS ) was developed for the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center (AFOTEC) to

  4. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  5. Evaluation of the effect of accounting method, IPCC v. LCA, on grass-based and confinement dairy systems' greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Patton, J; Buckley, F; Grainger, C; Wallace, M

    2012-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guideline methodology, which are the principal greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, were evaluated in this study using a dairy farm GHG model. The model was applied to estimate GHG emissions from two contrasting dairy systems: a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. Data used to quantify emissions from these systems originated from a research study carried out over a 1-year period in Ireland. The genetic merit of cows modelled was similar for both systems. Total mixed ration was fed in the Confinement system, whereas grazed grass was mainly fed in the grass-based system. GHG emissions from these systems were quantified per unit of product and area. The results of both methods showed that the dairy system that emitted the lowest GHG emissions per unit area did not necessarily emit the lowest GHG emissions possible for a given level of product. Consequently, a recommendation from this study is that GHG emissions be evaluated per unit of product given the growing affluent human population and increasing demand for dairy products. The IPCC and LCA methods ranked dairy systems' GHG emissions differently. For instance, the IPCC method quantified that the Confinement system reduced GHG emissions per unit of product by 8% compared with the grass-based system, but the LCA approach calculated that the Confinement system increased emissions by 16% when off-farm emissions associated with primary dairy production were included. Thus, GHG emissions should be quantified using approaches that quantify the total GHG emissions associated with the production system, so as to determine whether the dairy system was causing emissions displacement. The IPCC and LCA methods were also used in this study to simulate, through a dairy farm GHG model, what effect management changes within both production systems have on GHG emissions. The findings suggest that

  6. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental management tool used to examine and evaluate the environmental impactsassociated with the existence of products. The focus of LCA is on the entire life cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of theraw materials through the production...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...... for the model are e.g. distribution of the wasteproduct in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components.Output data of the model are product specific estimates of 1) emissions to atmosphere 2) emissions to aquatic recipients 3) remainsin...

  7. Systematic, efficient and consistent LCA calculations for chemical and biochemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petchkaewkul, Kaesinee; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is a technique, which is applied for the study and evaluation of quantitative environmental impacts through the entire life cycle of products, processes or services in order to improve and/or evaluate the design of existing as well as new processes. The LCA factors can...... that allow a wider coverage of chemical and biochemical processes. Improvements of LCIA calculations and eco-efficiency evaluation are introduced. Also, a new model for photochemical ozone formation has been developed and implemented. Performance of LCSoft in terms of accuracy and reliability is compared...... with another well-known LCA-software, SimaPro for a biochemical process – the production of bioethanol from cassava rhizome. The results show a very good match of new added impact categories. Also, the results from a new feature in LCSoft, which is eco-efficiency evaluation, are presented....

  8. Exposure to chemicals in food packaging as a sustainability trade-off in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Muncke, Jane; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    packaging in a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) framework. To put exposure during use in a life cycle context we perform a screening-level LCA of several life cycle stages of high impact polystyrene packaging (HIPS), with a functional unit of containing and delivering one kilogram of yogurt......Hazardous chemicals in packaging, including ‘eco-friendly’ and recycled food packaging, can migrate into food and expose humans. LCA has been fundamental to indicate more ‘eco-friendly’ packages, but currently LCA does not consider exposure to chemical migrants and methods have not yet been...... developed. In this study we question if exposure to chemicals in food packaging should be considered as a sustainable design consideration, i.e. if this human health risk is relevant in a life cycle context. To answer this question, we focus on developing methods to quantify exposure to chemicals in food...

  9. LCA case study on lawn establishment and maintenance with various peat and compost contents in substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvenius, Frans; Niemeläinen, Oiva; Kurppa, Sirpa

    2016-07-01

    The environmental impacts of the establishment and maintenance of lawn, including the production and use of various substrates, were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA). The project focused on comparing substrates with different peat and compost contents using pilot substrates and developed a calculation tool to optimize landscaping from an ecological perspective. The impact categories were climate change, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, and use of primary energy. Life cycle assessment methodology and ISO standards 14040 and 14044 were used. Two thousand tons of substrates per hectare of lawn area were assumed to be needed; this large amount explains the importance of the substrate properties for all of the impact categories. Degradation of peat was the most significant factor of the influence of climate; thus, the most effective means of reducing the impact of landscaping on climate is to replace peat with compost. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were related to the use of compost, but most of these emissions will occur regardless of how the sludge or biowaste is treated. Ammonia emissions from composting were the most important factor for acidification. The significance of fuel consumption by machinery in lawn establishment and mowing was low. The high contents of N and P in compost-based substrates may lead to high nutrient emissions into water systems, which can have significant local impact. The tool helps optimize substrate contents to minimize the environmental effects. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:459-464. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Incorporating Health Impacts from Exposure to Chemicals in Food Packaging in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Trier, Xenia; Jolliet, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) on the environmental and public health impacts of food and beverage packaging materials have found some advantages to plastic over glass. Entirely missing from these evaluations are the health impacts of possible chemical, e.g. endocrine dis-ruptor, exposure through...... within the CPCAT database related to food-contact materials; out of these 107 are potential endocrine disruptors according to the TEDX list of endocrine disruptors. We also build a framework in an effort to begin harmonizing LCA to include health impacts of chemical exposure related to food packaging...

  11. An LCA study of an electricity coal supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    emissions. However, the energy consumption for this subsystem is significant (excluding the mine mouth case, and transportation distance is found to have a substantial effect on the oil consumption and non-coal energy consumption. (5 In electricity coal supply chain, the biggest environmental impact of waste gas emissions is GWP, followed by EP, AP, POCP and ODP, and regional impact is greater than the global impact. Practical implications: The model and methodology established in this paper could be used for environmental impact assessment of waste gas emissions in electricity coal supply chain and sensitivity analysis in China, and it could supply reference and example for similar researches. The data information on life cycle inventory, impact assessment and sensitivity analysis could supply theory and data reference for waste gas emissions control in electricity coal supply chain. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to study the environmental influence of electricity coal supply chain by employing a LCA approach from life cycle of electricity coal.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...... their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...... environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...

  13. Assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for a best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Un Chul; Jang, Jin Wook; Lim, Ho Gon; Jeong, Ik [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Best estimate methodology for evaluation of ECCS proposed by KEPCO(KREM) os using thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code and the topical report for the methodology is described that it meets the regulatory requirement of USNRC regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory guide. In this research the assessment of compliance with regulatory requirements for the methodology is performed. The state of licensing procedure of other countries and best-estimate evaluation methodologies of Europe is also investigated, The applicability of models and propriety of procedure of uncertainty analysis of KREM are appraised and compliance with USNRC regulatory guide is assessed.

  14. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T

    2009-09-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  15. Methodology for Integrated Socio-economic Assessment of Multi-use Offshore Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koundouri, Phoebe; Dávila, Osiel G.; Stithou, Mavra; Babalos, Vasilis; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Antypas, Antonis; Kourogenis, Nikolaos; Mousoulides, Aris; Mousoulides, Marianna; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Zagonari, Fabio; Lange, Manfred A.; Jimenez, Carlos; Rosén, Lars; Lindhe, Andreas; Norrman, Jenny; Söderqvist, Tore; Troianos, Dimitris; Frentzos, Athanasios; Krontira, Yukiko; Diaz Simal, Pedro; Guanche, Raul; Bel, de Mark; He, Wei; Kabdasali, Sedat; Elginoz, Nilay; Bagci, Taylan; Bas, Bilge; Cantu, Matteo; Masotti, Matteo; Suffredini, Roberto; Stuiver, M.; Giannakis, Elias; Tsani, Stella

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the methodology employed for the Integrated Socio-Economic Assessment (MISEA) of different designs of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms (MUOPs). The methodology allows for the identification, the valuation and the assessment of the potential impacts and their magnitude. The analysis

  16. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and

  17. Soil-plant interrelations: the significance of soil degradation and the risk assessment methodology for salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagyó, A.; Tóth, T.; Bloem, E.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Horváth, E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous methodologies are used in the EU Member States to assess the risk for different soil threats related to various agricultural practices (erosion, salinisation, organic matter decline, compaction and landslides). Our aim was to evaluate the risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) utilized for

  18. Health assessments for health governance-concepts and methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Alexanderson, Kristina; Favaretti, Carlo; de Jong, Judith; La Torre, Giuseppe; Lim, Tek-Ang; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Mekel, Odile C L; Michelsen, Kai; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Verschuuren, Marieke; de Waure, Chiara; Zeegers Paget, Dineke

    2017-08-01

    For better supporting the science-governance interface, the potential of health assessments appears underrated. To identify what various types of health assessment have in common; how they differ; which assessment(s) to apply for which purpose; and what needs and options there are for future joint development. This review is based on five types of health assessment: monitoring/surveillance/reporting, assessment of health impact, of health technology, of health systems performance, health-related economic assessment. The approach is exploratory and includes: applying an agreed set of comparative criteria; circulating and supplementing synoptic tables; and interpreting the results. Two of the assessments deal with the question 'Where do we stand?', two others with variants of 'What if' questions. Economic Assessment can take place in combination with any of the others. The assessments involve both overall 'procedures' and a variety of 'methods' which inescapably reflect some subjective assumptions and decisions, e.g. on issue framing. Resources and assistance exist for all these assessments. The paper indicates which type of assessment is appropriate for what purpose. Although scientific soundness of health assessments is not trivial to secure, existing types of health assessment can be interpreted as a useful 'toolkit' for supporting governance. If current traces of 'silo' thinking can be overcome, the attainability of a more unified culture of health assessments increases and such assessments might more widely be recognized as a prime, 'tried and tested' way to voice Public Health knowledge and to support rational governance and policy-making.

  19. Modelling sensitivity and uncertainty in a LCA model for waste management systems - EASETECH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    In the new model, EASETECH, developed for LCA modelling of waste management systems, a general approach for sensitivity and uncertainty assessment for waste management studies has been implemented. First general contribution analysis is done through a regular interpretation of inventory and impact...

  20. Multiple data sets and modelling choices in a comparative LCA of disposable beverage cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, van der E.J.M.; Potting, J.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study used multiple data sets and modelling choices in an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare typical disposable beverage cups made from polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (PLA; bioplastic) and paper lined with bioplastic (biopaper). Incineration and recycling were considered as

  1. The Use of Facade Mockups in in LCA Based Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is increasingly becoming important in façade architectural design. The presented research aims to describe an LCA architectural design approach based on the use of a Façade Mockup. The approach is applied and tested for the design Telecom Sustainable Campus’ façade, in Rome...

  2. The use of LCA in the water industry and the case for an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the use of environmental life-cycle assessments (LCAs) in the water industry internationally and locally. An LCA conducted on the water supply, treatment and recycling in the eThekwini Municipality is used for demonstrative purposes. Many of the LCAs reviewed, including the case study, have ...

  3. Toward a computational structure for life cycle sustainability analysis: unifying LCA and LCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, R.; Settanni, E.; Guinée, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A widely used theory of the computational structure of life cycle assessment (LCA) has been available for more than a decade. The case of environmental life cycle cost (LCC) is still less clear: even the recent Code of Practice does not specify any formula to use. Methods: This paper does

  4. Bringing Science and Pragmatism together - a Tiered Approach for Modelling Toxicological Impacts in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guinée, J; De Koning, A; Pennington, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The EU 5th framework project OMNIITOX will develop models calculating characterisation factors for assessing the potential toxic impacts of chemicals within the framework of LCA. These models will become accessible through a web-based information system. The key object...

  5. Quantitative assessments of distributed systems methodologies and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bruneo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Distributed systems employed in critical infrastructures must fulfill dependability, timeliness, and performance specifications. Since these systems most often operate in an unpredictable environment, their design and maintenance require quantitative evaluation of deterministic and probabilistic timed models. This need gave birth to an abundant literature devoted to formal modeling languages combined with analytical and simulative solution techniques The aim of the book is to provide an overview of techniques and methodologies dealing with such specific issues in the context of distributed

  6. Basis for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of cleaning-in-place systems in milk processing plants; Bases para el analisis de ciclo de vida de los sistemas de limpieza in situ en plantas de la industria lactea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barral, S.; Laca Perez, A.; Gutierrez Lavin, A.; Diaz Fernandez, M.; Rendueles de la Vega, M.; Iglesias Gonzalez, E.

    2006-07-01

    Milk processing requires high hygienic operations in order to assure safe products of high quality and suitable for human diet. The cleaning operations that take place during milk processing, do cause environmental impact, because of the high volume of wastewater generated, which is contaminated with rests of milk, detergents and other chemical products. The life cycle assessment of cleaning operations can be a powerful tool to evaluate the environmental impact associated with different operation methodologies. In this work, two current alternatives are studied, by means of operational data of a dairy plant. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  8. Environmental Assessment of Micro/Nano Production in a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2006-01-01

    The concept of life cycle assessment (LCA) is build upon the object of assessment, namely the functional unit, i.e. all impacts etc. are related to a specific service or function in the society. In a LCA context, the assessment of emerging technologies like Nanotechnology is challenging due...... LCA” may be useful because future changes are taken into account. However, it still does not suffice for emerging technologies. In a recent “Green Technology Foresight” project a methodology was developed based on five elements: Life-cycle thinking, systems approach, a broad dialogue based...... to a number of knowledge gaps. It may not be known exactly what is the function (or functional unit) or what the technology may substitute and production may still be at an experimental level, raising questions about technology or materials choice. For prospective LCA studies methodologies like “consequential...

  9. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  10. Risk assessment by convergence methodology in RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Olga Maria Oliveira de; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Rebello, Wilson Freitas; Silva, Gabriel Fidalgo Queiroz da, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    An RDD event occurs by explosion and radioactive material dispersion where particles containing radioactive material can reach great distances from original point of the explosion and generating a plume of contamination. The use of a RDD is regarded as the most likely scenario involving radiological terrorist material. Accurate information on the population and the estimated dose are essential for analysis during the decision process. This work intends to present a proposal for a convergence of methodologies using the computer simulation codes Hotspot Health Physics 3.0 and the statistical model Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to calculate the approximate dose depending on the distance of the original point of the explosion of an RDD. From those data, the relative risk of developing tumors is estimated, as well as the probability of causation. At a later stage, the proposed combination of actions intended to help the decision-making and employment response personnel in emergency protection measures, such as sheltering and evacuation through the RESRAD-RDD software. The convergence of the proposed methodology can accelerate the process of acquiring information during the first hours of a radiological scenario and provide proper management of medical response and organization of the overall response. (author)

  11. How Well Does LCA Model Land Use Impacts on Biodiversity?--A Comparison with Approaches from Ecology and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Michael; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Antón, Assumpció; Teixeira, Ricardo F M; Michelsen, Ottar; Vidal-Legaz, Beatriz; Sala, Serenella; Milà i Canals, Llorenç

    2016-03-15

    The modeling of land use impacts on biodiversity is considered a priority in life cycle assessment (LCA). Many diverging approaches have been proposed in an expanding literature on the topic. The UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative is engaged in building consensus on a shared modeling framework to highlight best-practice and guide model application by practitioners. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of 31 models from both the LCA and the ecology/conservation literature (20 from LCA, 11 from non-LCA fields) according to a set of criteria reflecting (i) model completeness, (ii) biodiversity representation, (iii) impact pathway coverage, (iv) scientific quality, and (v) stakeholder acceptance. We show that LCA models tend to perform worse than those from ecology and conservation (although not significantly), implying room for improvement. We identify seven best-practice recommendations that can be implemented immediately to improve LCA models based on existing approaches in the literature. We further propose building a "consensus model" through weighted averaging of existing information, to complement future development. While our research focuses on conceptual model design, further quantitative comparison of promising models in shared case studies is an essential prerequisite for future informed model choice.

  12. INFORMATION SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT USING EXISTING LEGAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Trubei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a survey of the existing regulatory framework for information security riskmanagement. Practical methods for information security risk and vulnerability assessment are proposed.

  13. Development of a Malicious Insider Composite Vulnerability Assessment Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... There are very few vulnerability and impact models capable of providing information owners with the ability to comprehensively assess the effectiveness an organization's malicious insider mitigation strategies...

  14. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  15. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated.

  16. Probabilistic assessment methodology for continuous-type petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The analytic resource assessment method, called ACCESS (Analytic Cell-based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System), was developed to calculate estimates of petroleum resources for the geologic assessment model, called FORSPAN, in continuous-type petroleum accumulations. The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory in the form of a computer spreadsheet system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

  18. Dietary Assessment Methodology for Adolescents: A Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this review is to explore the validity and/or reproducibility of dietary assessment methods used to assess food and nutrient intakes of adolescents. Method: A detailed literature search was undertaken to trace articles reporting on the validity and/or reproducibility of food records, food frequency questionnaires ...

  19. Advanced Bridge Capacity and Structural Integrity Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    bridges , including reinforced concrete bridges with continuous girders across a support and prestressed structures. Identifying the class of...assessment of reinforced concrete bridges by making improved estimates of the level of longitudinal and shear reinforcement. The pro- posed assessment...Figure 7. AASHTO HS20-44 Truck (Precast/ Prestressed Concrete Institute 2003). ......................... 11 Figure 8. California Permit Truck (Caltrans

  20. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  1. Axiomatic safety-critical assessment process (ASCAP) simulation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, L.M.; Giras, T.C. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Center for Safety-Critical Ssytems

    2000-07-01

    The ASCAP simulation methodology models continuous train movement using a hybrid simulation consisting of both time and event driven portions. The actual train movement is predicated upon the solution of a series of discrete equations to determine its velocity, acceleration and braking profile at a specific time in tandem with the behavior of the train crew and the dispatcher agents in relationship to the behavioral states of the various stationary and mobile objects that a given train encounters. From this hybrid simulation, it is possible to generate accident scenarios. By performing multiple experiments to collect data for various accident scenarios, it will be possible to statistically quantify the risk associated with the various accident scenarios that are identified. (orig.)

  2. Eco-efficiency analysis of Spanish WWTPs using the LCA + DEA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Chenel, Sergio; Marín-Navarro, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as units designed for the efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients from polluted wastewaters, avoiding their discharge into the environment. Despite these benefits, they have also been found to be highly energy intensive, with consequent increased emissions in terms of greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts. Therefore, it has become imperative to monitor thoroughly the overall functioning of WWTPs from an integrated perspective with the aim of understanding how these can improve their eco-efficiency. In this case study, a group of 113 WWTPs located in regions across Spain were analysed using the methodology that combines life cycle assessment (LCA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The aim of this work was to determine the operational efficiency of each unit in order to obtain environmental benchmarks for inefficient plants. Thereafter, the environmental gains linked with the inputs reduction proposed for the DEA model for each unit were computed in order to verify eco-efficiency criteria. The operational complexity of WWTPs resulted in several identified factors affecting their efficiency which are discussed in depth, including the size of the facility, the climatic influence, the influent load and the over- or underuse of the plant.

  3. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  4. Risk assessment methodology for the forniture industrial sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Matilde A.

    2014-01-01

    Companies need to constantly make decisions about risk. They need to decide if a certain risk level is low enough or if some measures for its reduction are still needed. In this regard, risk assessment appears as a basis for the decision-making about risks. However, risk acceptance is an important issue related to the risk assessment process, which may put into question its appropriateness. Despite the importance of risk acceptance, this subject is insufficiently discussed in the literature r...

  5. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    , various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved...

  6. Comparison of three assessment methodologies of virtual learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin INSUASTY PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to exemplify the evaluation of a Learning Object «Construir la Geometría» using three different proposals that produce similar results for the object being evaluated. We describe two ways to perform an assessment, the internal and external; are used for evaluating proposals Rodríguez Sanz, Dodero et al. (2008, Morales Morgado (2007 and the assessment instrument used in the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes (Mexico.

  7. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  8. Capabilities for modelling of conversion processes in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Zarrin, Bahram; Tonini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was traditionally used for modelling of product design and optimization. This is also seen in the conventional LCA software which is optimized for the modelling of single materials streams of a homogeneous nature that is assembled into a final product. There has therefore been...... and waste management, the material being addressed is of a very heterogeneous nature. Between treatment facilities receiving materials with different compositions, but also at the individual treatment facility where the temporal composition of a treated material varies considerably. To address this......, EASETECH (Clavreul et al., 2014) was developed which integrates a matrix approach for the functional unit which contains the full chemical composition for different material fractions, and also the number of different material fractions present in the overall mass being handled. These chemical substances...

  9. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...... from the system are only those fractions of the applied dose which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Based on existing tools for hazard or risk assessment of pesticides......, a model is presented developed, allowing estimation of emission factors based on characteristics of application and substance, which are normally available....

  10. Quality Assessment of Sharpened Images: Challenges, Methodology, and Objective Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasula, Lukas; Le Callet, Patrick; Fliegel, Karel; Klima, Milos

    2017-01-10

    Most of the effort in image quality assessment (QA) has been so far dedicated to the degradation of the image. However, there are also many algorithms in the image processing chain that can enhance the quality of an input image. These include procedures for contrast enhancement, deblurring, sharpening, up-sampling, denoising, transfer function compensation, etc. In this work, possible strategies for the quality assessment of sharpened images are investigated. This task is not trivial because the sharpening techniques can increase the perceived quality, as well as introduce artifacts leading to the quality drop (over-sharpening). Here, the framework specifically adapted for the quality assessment of sharpened images and objective metrics comparison in this context is introduced. However, the framework can be adopted in other quality assessment areas as well. The problem of selecting the correct procedure for subjective evaluation was addressed and a subjective test on blurred, sharpened, and over-sharpened images was performed in order to demonstrate the use of the framework. The obtained ground-truth data were used for testing the suitability of state-ofthe- art objective quality metrics for the assessment of sharpened images. The comparison was performed by novel procedure using ROC analyses which is found more appropriate for the task than standard methods. Furthermore, seven possible augmentations of the no-reference S3 metric adapted for sharpened images are proposed. The performance of the metric is significantly improved and also superior over the rest of the tested quality criteria with respect to the subjective data.

  11. Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Guitton, Matthieu J

    2013-07-01

    Excessive internet use is becoming a concern, and some have proposed that it may involve addiction. We evaluated the dimensions assessed by, and psychometric properties of, a range of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction. Fourteen questionnaires were identified purporting to assess internet addiction among adolescents and adults published between January 1993 and October 2011. Their reported dimensional structure, construct, discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were assessed, as well as the methods used to derive these. Methods used to evaluate internet addiction questionnaires varied considerably. Three dimensions of addiction predominated: compulsive use (79%), negative outcomes (86%) and salience (71%). Less common were escapism (21%), withdrawal symptoms (36%) and other dimensions. Measures of validity and reliability were found to be within normally acceptable limits. There is a broad convergence of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction suggesting that compulsive use, negative outcome and salience should be covered and the questionnaires show adequate psychometric properties. However, the methods used to evaluate the questionnaires vary widely and possible factors contributing to excessive use such as social motivation do not appear to be covered. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Methodological development: structured outcome assessment and community risk monitoring (SORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grann, Martin; Sturidsson, Knut; Haggård-Grann, Ulrika; Hiscoke, Ulrika L; Alm, Per-Olof; Dernevik, Mats; Gumpert, Clara; Hallqvist, Johan; Hallquist, Tommy; Kullgren, Gunnar; Långström, Niklas; Lotterberg, Malin; Nordström, Kristina; Ståhle, Birgitta; Woodhouse, Anni

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a clinical tool for the continuous monitoring of risk for violence in forensic mental health clients who have left their institutions and who are dwelling in the community on a conditional release basis. The model is called Structured Outcome Assessment and Community Risk Monitoring (SORM). The SORM consists of 30 dynamic factors and each factor in SORM is assessed in two ways: The current absence, presence or partial och intermittent presence of the factors, which is an actuarial (systematized and 'objective') assessment. Secondly, the risk effect, i.e. whether the presence/absence of factors currently increases, decreases or is perceived as unrelated to violence risk, is a clinical (or impressionistic) assessment. Thus, the factors considered via the SORM can be coded as risk factors or protective factors (or as factors unimportant to risk of violence) depending on circumstances that apply in the individual case. Further, the SORM has a built-in module for gathering idiographical information about risk-affecting contextual factors. The use of the SORM and its potential as a risk monitoring instrument is illustrated via preliminary data and case vignettes from an ongoing multicenter project. In this research project, patients leaving any of the 9 participating forensic hospitals in Sweden is assessed at release on a variety of static background factors, and the SORM is then administered every 30 days for 2 years.

  13. Integrating groundwater into land planning: a risk assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-05-01

    Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of tyre/road noise assessment methodology in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ali Boodihal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this research study was to develop a methodology to evaluate tyre/road noise of the various road types and sections in Bangalore. The scope of the effort included field noise measurements of the 17 conventional asphalt concrete (AC, four Portland cement concrete (PCC, and two plastic modified asphalt concrete (PMAC in Bangalore city covering about 24 km of roadway stretches at varying traffic speeds. Field noise measurements were performed using a noise meter mounted underneath a trailer developed in this study and attached to the parent vehicle. Overall, PMAC sections produced the highest noise levels than the PCC followed by the conventional AC sections; PMAC mix type had an average difference of about 6–8 decibels (dB(A compared with the AC mix, and 1–2 dB(A in comparison with the PCC mix types. It is noteworthy that although many traffic noise studies have been conducted in India, the contribution of tyre/road noise to the overall noise has not been developed and/or established till date. The approach taken in this study is first of its kind within the framework of tyre/road noise research and development in India.

  15. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  16. LCA and emergy accounting of aquaculture systems: towards ecological intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfart, Aurélie; Prudhomme, Jehane; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Aubin, Joël

    2013-05-30

    An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product's life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  18. Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Van Bruggen, Jan; Hermans, Henry; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Burgers, Jan; Koper, Rob; Latour, Ignace

    2005-01-01

    Giesbers, B., van Bruggen, J., Hermans, H., Joosten-ten Brinke, D., Burgers, J., Koper, R., & Latour, I. (2007). Towards a methodology for educational modelling: a case in educational assessment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (1), 237-247.

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE DEGREE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BUSINESS ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMMES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan-Cristian Dabija; Catalin Postelnicu; Nicolae Al Pop

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing the degree of internationalization of undergraduate, Master's and doctoral business programmes with the aid of complex indicators...

  20. Status of sperm morphology assessment: an evaluation of methodology and clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, L. van den; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Verbeet, J.G.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize methodological changes in sperm morphology assessment and to correlate sperm morphology with clinical outcome. DESIGN: In this observational study, sperm morphology profiles of patients were analyzed. The percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa were evaluated

  1. The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Richard

    2006-03-31

    In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS.

  2. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A qualitative risk assessment methodology for scientific expert panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; Plée, L; Moutou, F; Boisseleau, D; Chartier, C; Durand, B; Ganière, J P; Guillotin, J; Lancelot, R; Saegerman, C; Thébault, A; Hattenberger, A M; Toma, B

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment can be either quantitative, i.e. providing a numeric estimate of the probability of risk and the magnitude of the consequences, or qualitative, using a descriptive approach. The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), formerly the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), bases its assessments on the opinions of scientific panels, such as the ANSES Animal Health Scientific Panel (AH-SP). Owing to the lack of relevant data and the very short period of time usually allowed to assess animal health risks on particular topics, this panel has been using a qualitative risk method for evaluating animal health risks or crises for the past few years. Some experts have drawn attention to the limitations of this method, such as the need to extend the range of adjectives used for the lower probabilities and to develop a way to assess consequences. The aim of this paper is to describe the improved method now established by the AH-SP, taking into account the limitations of the first version. The authors describe a new set of levels for probabilities, as well as the items considered when addressing either animal or human health consequences.

  4. Assessment of soil nutrient balance: approaches and methodologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.N.; Misra, R.V.; Lesschen, J.P.; Smaling, E.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient-balance assessments are valuable tools for delineating the consequences of farming on soil fertility. Various approaches and methods for different situations have been used. This bulletin presents a state-of-the-art overview of nutrient-balance studies. It brings out the evolution of the

  5. Regional-scale risk assessment methodology using the Relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... paper presents an integrated approach to carry out regional-scale ecological risk assessments using a Relative Risk Model. (RRM) adapted ..... Recreational activities. Dams&wiers. Plantations. Gold mine. Habitat alteration. Sugar mill. Sugar. Mixed. Flow alterations. Forestry. 1. Irrigation - dam. Exotic fish.

  6. Assessment of intelligibility using children's spontaneous speech: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerberg, Tove B; Åsberg, Jakob; Hartelius, Lena; Persson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Intelligibility is a speaker's ability to convey a message to a listener. Including an assessment of intelligibility is essential in both research and clinical work relating to individuals with communication disorders due to speech impairment. Assessment of the intelligibility of spontaneous speech can be used as an overall indicator of the severity of a speech disorder. There is a lack of methods for measuring intelligibility on the basis of spontaneous speech. To investigate the validity and reliability of a method where listeners transcribe understandable words and an intelligibility score is calculated on the basis of the percentage of syllables perceived as understood. Spontaneous speech from ten children with speech-sound disorders (mean age = 6.0 years) and ten children with typical speech and language development (mean age = 5.9 years) was recorded and presented to 20 listeners. Results were compared between the two groups and correlation with percentage of consonants correct (PCC) was examined. The intelligibility scores obtained correlated with PCC in single words and differed significantly between the two groups, indicating high validity. Inter-judge reliability, analysed using intra-class correlation (ICC), was excellent in terms of the average measure for several listeners. The results suggest that this method can be recommended for assessing intelligibility, especially if the mean across several listeners is used. It could also be used in clinical settings when evaluating intelligibility over time, provided that the same listener makes the assessments. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Methodological Considerations in the Assessment of Depression in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Michie N.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared three instruments assessing depression in alcoholics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-II), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression scale (MMPI D), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The number of subjects who were diagnosed as "depressed" varied considerably according to the…

  8. The methodology of multicriterial assessment of Petri nets’ apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashchenko Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the effectiveness and relevance of the using of the apparatus of Petri nets for modeling of complex computing systems. Due to the fact that the methods of analysis existing in this theory do not allow estimating the resources required to build the desired model of the system, there is a problem of shortage of criteria for its evaluation in terms of the complexity of the construction. In the article we consider the method of analysis of a random Petri net based on the complexity of its building and relationships of internal units - subnets. The purpose of this article is a software implementation of such an assessment within the theory of PN structures. Due to the fact, that structural approach allows to perform the operation of decomposition of the original system, this model can be divided into subnets of minimal dimension, that will allow to make its quantitative assessment - ranking. To determine the total assessment of the input and output data of the system we will perform the analysis of head and tail positions of the net taking into account the weights of the input and output arcs of these positions. In order to identify an extent of the cost required to build the system, the number of operations of union of subnet transitions and positions. These subnets have minimal dimension in the original PN. Thus, the article demonstrates the formal implementation of assessment technique modules with using of algebra of sets, and the rules of splitting the PN structure into elementary blocks are formulated. The example of a comparative assessment of the two Petri nets based on the proposed complexity criteria is given; the plots of PN in different coordinate systems are displayed. The article presents the results of the research - a plot of PN structures in three-dimensional space, implemented using described software. It demonstrates the accuracy of PN assessment by structural analysis in comparing with a non

  9. Published methodological quality of randomized controlled trials does not reflect the actual quality assessed in protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Magazin, Anja; Soares, Heloisa P.; Kumar, Ambuj

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether reported methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reflect the actual methodological quality, and to evaluate the association of effect size (ES) and sample size with methodological quality. Study design Systematic review Setting Retrospective analysis of all consecutive phase III RCTs published by 8 National Cancer Institute Cooperative Groups until year 2006. Data were extracted from protocols (actual quality) and publications (reported quality) for each study. Results 429 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Overall reporting of methodological quality was poor and did not reflect the actual high methodological quality of RCTs. The results showed no association between sample size and actual methodological quality of a trial. Poor reporting of allocation concealment and blinding exaggerated the ES by 6% (ratio of hazard ratio [RHR]: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.88, 0.99) and 24% (RHR: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.43), respectively. However, actual quality assessment showed no association between ES and methodological quality. Conclusion The largest study to-date shows poor quality of reporting does not reflect the actual high methodological quality. Assessment of the impact of quality on the ES based on reported quality can produce misleading results. PMID:22424985

  10. Tracer methodology: an appropriate tool for assessing compliance with accreditation standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Chantal; Jean, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Tracer methodology has been used by Accreditation Canada since 2008 to collect evidence on the quality and safety of care and services, and to assess compliance with accreditation standards. Given the importance of this methodology in the accreditation program, the objective of this study is to assess the quality of the methodology and identify its strengths and weaknesses. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to evaluate consistency, appropriateness, effectiveness and stakeholder synergy in applying the methodology. An online questionnaire was sent to 468 Accreditation Canada surveyors. According to surveyors' perceptions, tracer methodology is an effective tool for collecting useful, credible and reliable information to assess compliance with Qmentum program standards and priority processes. The results show good coherence between methodology components (appropriateness of the priority processes evaluated, activities to evaluate a tracer, etc.). The main weaknesses are the time constraints faced by surveyors and management's lack of cooperation during the evaluation of tracers. The inadequate amount of time allowed for the methodology to be applied properly raises questions about the quality of the information obtained. This study paves the way for a future, more in-depth exploration of the identified weaknesses to help the accreditation organization make more targeted improvements to the methodology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessment of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis using ATC/DDD methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Fatma; Kaya, Safak; Gulsun, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Deveci, Özcan; Dayan, Saim; Hoşoglu, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In the light of international experience and guidelines and in order to improve the quality of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP), various hospitals have set up their own multidisciplinary healthcare teams and have evaluated the density of PAP through close supervision and interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare the density, quality, and cost of PAP before and after an intervention implemented at our hospital in order to increase the quality of PAP. PAP was monitored using a form prepared in line with the international guidelines, which was completed by the infection control nurse under the supervision of the infectious diseases specialist. In order to reduce the frequent errors in our PAP procedures, an intervention was implemented, and the period before this intervention (January-April 2011) was compared with the post-intervention period 1 year later (January-April 2012). The density of PAP was calculated according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) methodology. A total of 2398 patients received PAP during this period. The most frequently used antibiotic before and after the intervention was cefazolin. Its use further increased after the intervention (pDDD/100 procedures=3.1 DDD/procedure to 162.1 DDD/100 procedures=1.6 DDD/procedure. The quality of PAP may be improved through better compliance with healthcare guidelines, close supervision, and training activities. Also, surgical site infections and the cost of PAP may be reduced through more appropriate antibiotic use, thus contributing to the national healthcare budget. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methodology of an Aircraft Accident Response System Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Željko Županič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the ability to learn from an aircraft accident as the opportunities for learning diminish with the decline in the accident rate. A safety compromising case is studied as the processes of aircraft accident intervention and recovery can degrade the ability of an aircraft accident investigation process to enhance aviation safety by revealing accident causation. In the case study an assessment of the Slovenian aircraft accident response system was made. For the purpose of evaluating the successfulness of aircraft accident intervention and effectiveness of recovery, a model of aircraft accident response system requirements has been developed. Based on non-conformances identified by the model of requirements, remedial measures are proposed for the enhancement of the aircraft accident response system operation. Criteria for the definition of the transition from accident intervention to recovery are derived from the assessment findings in a manner not to impede the aircraft accident investigation effectiveness and efficiency.

  13. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  14. Assessment: A Military Methodology in Need of an Overhaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    important, it can lead the assessment team to fall victim to the old adage of losing the forest for the trees. High- tempo operations thus lead to a...entered. 1 BioMed Central, “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making,” BioMed Central, http...Success." Strategic Finance 93, no. 5 (November 2011): 27-33. BioMed Central. “BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making.” BioMed Central. http

  15. A Risk Assessment Methodology and Excel Tool for Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    RAND colleague Elliot Axelband for their thoughtful and constructive reviews of this document; Paul Deluca for his comments on an earlier draft of...2010, pp. 79–109. Kranz, Gordon M., Systems Engineering and Integration Challenges and Opportunities, briefing, July 2, 2009. Lebron, Ruben A...Lawrence Gresko, Ray Lowe, and Peter Nolte, System Readiness: Assessing Technical Risk Throughout the Lifecycle, PowerPoint Presentation, Office of

  16. Thermodynamic resource indicators in LCA : A case study on the titania produced in Panzhihua city, southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Wenjie; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt

    Purpose: While life cycle assessment (LCA) has standardized methods for assessing emission impacts, some comparable methods for the accounting or impact assessment of resource use exist, but are not as mature or standardized. This study contributes to the existing research by offering a

  17. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  18. Life cycle sustainability of solid oxide fuel cells: From methodological aspects to system implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Andi; McPhail, Stephen J.; Pumiglia, Davide; Carlini, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    This study reviews the status of life cycle assessment (LCA) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and methodological aspects, communicates SOFC environmental performance, and compares the environmental performance with competing power production technologies using a life cycle perspective. Results indicate that power generation using SOFCs can make a significant contribution to the aspired-to greener energy future. Despite superior environmental performance, empirical studies indicate that economic performance is predominantly the highest-ranked criterion in the decision making process. Future LCA studies should attempt to employ comprehensive dynamic multi-criteria environmental impact analysis coupled with economic aspects, to allow a robust comparison of results. A methodology framework is proposed to achieve simultaneously ambitious socio-economic and environmental objectives considering all life cycle stages and their impacts.

  19. LCA as an environmental technology development performance indicator of engineered nano-materials and their application in polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Engineered nano‐material (ENM) application in products has in recent years developed to an important market segment but with rising environmental concerns, as the environmental life cycle impacts, especially toxicity of nanoparticles, are not assessed. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic tool...... assessments LCA needs to be further developed and adjusted according to this material class as there is currently a large uncertainty related to the chemical and biological interactions and toxicological properties of ENM’s during their life cycle....... project is aimed to be holistic and thereby include the entire life cycle of the nano‐polymer products and not be like the current frequently applied nano‐material LCA case study approaches where the life cycle is reduced and system boundaries substantially limited. In order to perform accurate...

  20. LCA of pork products & evaluation of alternative super-chilling techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Bonou, Alexandra; Birkved, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This LCA study has two aims: 1) The environmental assessment of Danish pork products (Danish Landrace breed): The purpose is to put the pork production system into perspective and to identify the relative contribution of different life cycle stages; 2) The comparative assessment of alternative after cooling technologies, which affect the products’ shelf life: The purpose is to identify the technology leading to least environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective; also to facilitate a benc...

  1. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  2. The Development of Marine Accidents Human Reliability Assessment Approach: HEART Methodology and MOP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Pratiwi Bowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are one of the important factors in the assessment of accidents, particularly marine accidents. Hence, studies are conducted to assess the contribution of human factors in accidents. There are two generations of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA that have been developed. Those methodologies are classified by the differences of viewpoints of problem-solving, as the first generation and second generation. The accident analysis can be determined using three techniques of analysis; sequential techniques, epidemiological techniques and systemic techniques, where the marine accidents are included in the epidemiological technique. This study compares the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART methodology and the 4M Overturned Pyramid (MOP model, which are applied to assess marine accidents. Furthermore, the MOP model can effectively describe the relationships of other factors which affect the accidents; whereas, the HEART methodology is only focused on human factors.

  3. Sustainable Design with Respect to LCA Using Parametric Design and BIM Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsikos, Marios; Negendahl, Kristoffer

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry has many times been criticized for lack of control and management of its environmental impacts. In an attempt to monitor and minimize these impacts, the method of Life Cycle Assessment is being used more and more often during the design...... process of construction projects. Nevertheless, the whole process of performing a building’s LCA is considered time consuming which sometimes prevents the design teams from using it more than once in the end of the design as a way to assess the impacts of their final design. The aim of this study...... is to suggest a method which will render LCA a design tool used during the whole design process. The study focuses not only in creating a tool that will be able to assess a building’s environmental impacts, but will also be an analysis tool which will help the design teams make the right decisions and help them...

  4. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, L M G; Vrijhoef, H J M; van Merode, G G; Severens, J L; Spreeuwenberg, C

    2004-09-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of disease management cannot properly be measured with the existing methodologic quality assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent existing instruments are useful in assessing the methodologic quality of HTA of disease management. An inventory was made of the problems that arise when assessing the methodologic quality of six HTAs of disease management with three different instruments. Based on these findings, a new instrument is proposed and validated. Problems mainly concern the items related to the study design, criteria for selection and restriction of patients, baseline and outcome measures, blinding of patients and providers, and the description of (co)-interventions. With its more specific characteristics, the HTA-DM addresses the problems mentioned. The HTA-DM is a reliable instrument for methodologic quality assessment of HTA of disease management in comparison with the other three instruments.

  5. Quantitative assessment of brain volumes in fish: comparison of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Cowin, Gary; Collin, Shaun P

    2010-01-01

    When correlating brain areas with behavioral and environmental characteristics, a variety of techniques are employed. In fishes (elasmobranchs and teleosts), 2 methods, histology and the idealized ellipsoid and/or half-ellipsoid technique, are primarily used to calculate the volume of a brain area and therefore its relationship to social or ecological complexity. In this study on a perciform teleost, we have quantitatively compared brain volumes obtained using the conventional techniques of histology and approximating brain volume to an idealized ellipsoid (or half ellipsoid) and magnetic resonance imaging, an established clinical tool typically used for assessing brain volume in other vertebrates. Our results indicate that, when compared to brain volumes measured using magnetic resonance imaging of brain regions in situ, variations in brain shape and histological artifacts can lead to significant differences in brain volume, especially in the telencephalon and optic tecta. Consequently, in comparative studies of brain volumes, we advise caution when using the histological and/or ellipsoid methods to make correlations between brain area size and environmental, behavioral and social characteristics and, when possible, we propose the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Incremental Sampling Methodology: Applications for Background Screening Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, Penelope S; Goodrum, Philip E; Crumbling, Deana; Stuchal, Leah D; Roberts, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a numerical simulation study that was conducted to evaluate the performance of alternative statistical analysis methods for background screening assessments when data sets are generated with incremental sampling methods (ISMs). A wide range of background and site conditions are represented in order to test different ISM sampling designs. Both hypothesis tests and upper tolerance limit (UTL) screening methods were implemented following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidance for specifying error rates. The simulations show that hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests can meet standard performance criteria under a wide range of conditions, even with relatively small sample sizes. Key factors that affect the performance include unequal population variances and small absolute differences in population means. UTL methods are generally not recommended due to conceptual limitations in the technique when applied to ISM data sets from single decision units and due to insufficient power given standard statistical sample sizes from ISM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Patry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either the more, the better or not too much and not too little. This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between maximum performance and typical performance is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

  8. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  9. Life cycle assessment of soil and groundwater remediation technologies: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Life cycle assessment (LCA) is becoming an increasingly widespread tool in support systems for environmental decision-making regarding the cleanup of contaminated sites. In this study, the use of LCA to compare the environmental impacts of different remediation...... and scope definition and the applied impact assessment. The studies differ in their basic approach since some are prospective with focus on decision support while others are retrospective aiming at a more detailed assessment of a completed remediation project. Literature review The literature review showed...... scenarios in terms of their associated environmental burden. Main features An overview of the assessed remediation technologies and contaminant types covered in the literature is presented. The LCA methodologies of the 12 reviewed studies were compared and discussed with special focus on their goal...

  10. Quantitative life cycle assessment of products. 2. Classification, valuation and improvement analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guinée, Jeroen B.; Heijungs, Reinout; De Udo Haes, Helias A.; Huppes, Gjalt

    1993-01-01

    In a previous article about life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodological framework was proposed and two components of this framework were discussed in more detail: the goal definition and the inventory. In this second article, the other components of the framework are discussed in detail: the

  11. The potential role of life cycle assessment in regulation of chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2004-01-01

    reduction. In this process, LCA results might feed into a socio-economic analysis having similar objectives, but some methodological aspects related to system boundaries need to be sorted out. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of toxic effects has traditionally been inspired by the more regulatory...

  12. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  13. Assessment of methodological quality of economic evaluations in belgian drug reimbursement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations included in Belgian reimbursement applications for Class 1 drugs. For 19 reimbursement applications submitted during 2011 and Spring 2012, a descriptive analysis assessed the methodological quality of the economic evaluation, evaluated the assessment of that economic evaluation by the Drug Reimbursement Committee and the response to that assessment by the company. Compliance with methodological guidelines issued by the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre was assessed using a detailed checklist of 23 methodological items. The rate of compliance was calculated based on the number of economic evaluations for which the item was applicable. Economic evaluations tended to comply with guidelines regarding perspective, target population, subgroup analyses, comparator, use of comparative clinical data and final outcome measures, calculation of costs, incremental analysis, discounting and time horizon. However, more attention needs to be paid to the description of limitations of indirect comparisons, the choice of an appropriate analytic technique, the expression of unit costs in values for the current year, the estimation and valuation of outcomes, the presentation of results of sensitivity analyses, and testing the face validity of model inputs and outputs. Also, a large variation was observed in the scope and depth of the quality assessment by the Drug Reimbursement Committee. Although general guidelines exist, pharmaceutical companies and the Drug Reimbursement Committee would benefit from the existence of a more detailed checklist of methodological items that need to be reported in an economic evaluation.

  14. Life cycle assessment needs predictive spatial modelling for biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sim, Sarah; Hamel, Perrine; Bryant, Benjamin; Noe, Ryan; Mueller, Carina; Rigarlsford, Giles; Kulak, Michal; Kowal, Virginia; Sharp, Richard; Clavreul, Julie; Price, Edward; Polasky, Stephen; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Daily, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA. Comparing increased demand for bioplastics derived from two alternative feedstock-location scenarios for maize and sugarcane, we find that the LUCI-LCA approach yields results opposite to those of standard LCA for greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, and of different magnitudes for soil erosion and biodiversity. This approach highlights the importance of including information about where and how land-use change and related impacts will occur in supply chain and innovation decisions. PMID:28429710

  15. Verification of an emerging LCA design tool through real life performance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eon Christine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that low-emission houses often underperform, consuming more energy than predicted by their designs. Life cycle assessments (LCA have been employed to complement mandatory energy assessments, as they offer a more comprehensive evaluation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions over the building lifespan. This research monitored ten energy efficient Australian houses and recorded data about energy use and photovoltaic generation over 1 year. The houses were assessed with a relatively new LCA tool in addition to the Australian mandatory house energy assessment Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS. The objective of this study was twofold: first, to evaluate the results of the assessment tools compared to actual house energy requirements and second, to understand how design, renewable energy, and occupancy can impact the overall GHG emissions of the houses. The results show that energy use is positively related to NatHERS ratings, but some of the high performance houses perform poorly and there was significant variation in energy use between houses with the same ratings. The LCA revealed that modern houses have higher embodied energy than older houses, while solar panels are not always used to their full potential. This paper attributes some of the variations between theoretical and actual energy use to construction issues and occupant practices.

  16. Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

    2013-07-26

    We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

  17. An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janic, Milan

    2003-01-01

    An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

  18. A Methodology To Incorporate The Safety Culture Into Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghyun; Kim, Namyeong; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to incorporate organizational factors into PSA, a methodology needs to be developed. Using the AHP to weigh organizational factors as well as the SLIM to rate those factors, a methodology is introduced in this study. The safety issues related to nuclear safety culture have occurred increasingly. The quantification tool has to be developed in order to include the organizational factor into Probabilistic Safety Assessments. In this study, the state-of-the-art for the organizational evaluation methodologies has been surveyed. This study includes the research for organizational factors, maintenance process, maintenance process analysis models, a quantitative methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Success Likelihood Index Methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to incorporate the safety culture into PSA for obtaining more objective risk than before. The organizational factor considered in nuclear safety culture might affect the potential risk of human error and hardware-failure. The safety culture impact index to monitor the plant safety culture can be assessed by applying the developed methodology into a nuclear power plant.

  19. A methodology for assessment of road structures for the PBS pilot project in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology that is being used for the performance assessment of PBS vehicles in terms of road structures as part of the PBS pilot project in South Africa. The assessment approach has evolved from the standard “bridge...

  20. Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

  1. ARAMIS : Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Olivier; Kirchsteiger, C.; Delvosalle, Christian; Duijm, Nijs-Jan; Casal, J.; Goosens, L.; Mazzarotta, Barbara; Lebecki, K.; Wybo, J.L.; Dusserre, Gilles; Londiche, H.; Calzia, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the ARAMIS project accepted for funding in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, which should start end 2001. ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised implementation of the SEVESO II Directive.

  2. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    OpenAIRE

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles. The goal of this project is to develop comprehensive life-cycle assessment (LCA) models to quantify the...

  3. 20 CFR 655.734 - What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding... Specialty Occupations § 655.734 What is the fourth LCA requirement, regarding notice? An employer seeking to... before the date the LCA is filed with ETA, provide a notice of the filing of the LCA. The notice shall...

  4. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  5. Cancer risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: a critical review of methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, J.

    1998-01-01

    This review provides a discussion of cancer risk assessment methodology pertinent to developing a strategy for extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Approaches taken for chemical agents or ionizing radiation in six key topic areas are briefly reviewed, and then those areas are examined from the perspective of EMF, identifying issues to be addressed in developing a risk assessment strategy. The following recommendations are offered: 1) risk assessment should be viewed as ...

  6. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  7. Triangulation for the assessment of clinical nursing skills: a review of theory, use and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Diane

    2010-03-01

    To review the use and usefulness of the methodological strategy of triangulation in the assessment of skill in nursing curricula. Systematic search of the literature relevant to the definition and assessment of skill, reliability and validity of assessment methods and triangulation of assessment strategies. One hundred and twenty papers from nursing, medical, educational and social scientific databases, relevant websites and relevant books were reviewed. Forty papers were included based on their relevance to the theory and methodology of clinical skills assessment of health care professionals, particularly nurses. Papers concerning vocational skills assessment and the assessment of skill in school children were excluded. There is a current imperative within the field of health care professional education to assess clinical skills and to quantify this assessment. However, clinical skill, as it relates to cognition, is poorly defined concept and may be viewed as a quality of the practitioner and, as such, is difficult to quantify. Very many methods of assessing clinical skill have been documented and there are inherent issues in ensuring both reliability and validity of these assessment strategies for clinical skill. This has led commentators to suggest that the process of triangulation should be employed. The paper fundamentally questions whether the concept of triangulation can be applied to skills assessment without dependable measures of reliability and validity of the tools of assessment and concludes that the process of applying multiple modes of assessment should not be confused with the process of triangulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. M&A Performance and Economic Impact: Integration and Critical Assessment of Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Andriuskevicius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Existing methodologies employed within the M&A performance framework are investigated and critically discuss. Methodology/methods: The research has been carried out as a structured assessment of past literature. The findings from scientific articles and studies by various scholars have been categorized, grouped and summarized to discern a meta-analytic view of the work carried out to date. Scientific aim: The conducted research seeks to ascertain and evaluate theoretically existing methodologies used in empirical studies that would allow proper and critical understanding of the results of various findings in the holistic and global M&As area. Findings: The research elaborates on several key developments in M&A methodology and performance studies carried out in empirical works during the last two decades. The findings help to independently and objectively assess performance of M&A from a holistic perspective. Conclusions: Each methodology measuring either M&A performance on a corporate level or effects of M&A on the economy level shall be interpreted and relied on with caution as each of them dispose their limitations whereas application of these methodologies is subject to data availability and case specific.

  9. BayesLCA: An R Package for Bayesian Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur White

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The BayesLCA package for R provides tools for performing latent class analysis within a Bayesian setting. Three methods for fitting the model are provided, incorporating an expectation-maximization algorithm, Gibbs sampling and a variational Bayes approximation. The article briefly outlines the methodology behind each of these techniques and discusses some of the technical difficulties associated with them. Methods to remedy these problems are also described. Visualization methods for each of these techniques are included, as well as criteria to aid model selection.

  10. System and scenario choices in the life cycle assessment of a building – changing impacts of the environmental profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja; Birgisdóttir, Harpa; Birkved, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) case study of an office building. The case study investigates how the setting of free parameters (adopted from the CEN/TC 350 standards) influences the results of the building’s LCA in the DGNB certification scheme for sustainable buildings....... The parameters concern the reference study period and the energy supply scenarios. Furthermore, a set of toxicological impact categories are included in the assessment to test whether the toxicological impact potentials follow the same trends as the impact categories already included in the DGNB methodology...

  11. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    -off was investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and based on a literature review of advanced treatment performance. The LCA evaluation comprised sand filtration, ozonation and MBRs and assessed the effect of extending existing tertiary treatment with these technologies on a variety of micro......-pollutants being: heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni), endocrine disruptors (E2 and EE2), PAH, DEHP, and detergents (LAS & NPE). It was found, in some of the studied scenarios, that more environmental impact may be induced than removed by the advanced treatment. The study showed that for the 3 technologies, sand filtration...

  12. Life Cycle Thinking and the Use of LCA in Policies Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnemann, G.; Gemechu, E. D.; Sala, S.

    2018-01-01

    The chapter explains what Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is about, why it is about taking a life cycle approach and shows that SCP-related policies have been developed at the intergovernmental level and in different regions of the world. A key element at the international level...... relevant for policies focusing on design for sustainability, sustainable consumer information, sustainable procurement and waste management, minimization and prevention as well as sector-specific policies like sustainable energy and food supply. Examples of life cycle thinking and the use of LCA...... in policies are provided for numerous countries around the world but with a certain focus on the European Union. It can be expected that the use of LCA in policies for the sustainability assessment of products will further increase, also slowly covering more means of implementation such as incentives...

  13. A Review of Environmental Life Cycle Assessments of Liquid Transportation Biofuels in the Pan American Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonnard, David R; Klemetsrud, Bethany; Sacramento-Rivero, Julio; Navarro-Pineda, Freddy; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert; Suppen, Nydia; Donovan, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to many biofuel and bioenergy systems to determine potential environmental impacts, but the conclusions have varied. Different methodologies and processes for conducting LCA of biofuels make the results difficult to compare, in-turn making it difficult to make the best possible and informed decision. Of particular importance are the wide variability in country-specific conditions, modeling assumptions, data quality, chosen impact categories and indicators, scale of production, system boundaries, and co-product allocation. This study has a double purpose: conducting a critical evaluation comparing environmental LCA of biofuels from several conversion pathways and in several countries in the Pan American region using both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and making recommendations for harmonization with respect to biofuel LCA study features, such as study assumptions, inventory data, impact indicators, and reporting practices. The environmental management implications are discussed within the context of different national and international regulatory environments using a case study. The results from this study highlight LCA methodology choices that cause high variability in results and limit comparability among different studies, even among the same biofuel pathway, and recommendations are provided for improvement.

  14. Towards the development of a global probabilistic tsunami risk assessment methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of tsunami risk is on many levels still ambiguous and under discussion. Over the last two decades, various methodologies and models have been developed to quantify tsunami risk, most of the time on a local or regional level, with either deterministic or probabilistic background. Probabilistic modelling has significant difficulties, as the underlying tsunami hazard modelling demands an immense amount of computational time and thus limits the assessment substantially, being often limited to either institutes with supercomputing access or the modellers are forced to reduce modelling resolution either quantitatively or qualitatively. Furthermore, data on the vulnerability of infrastructure and buildings is empirically limited to a few disasters in the recent years. Thus, a reliable quantification of socio-economic vulnerability is still questionable. Nonetheless, significant improvements have been developed recently on both the methodological site as well as computationally. This study, introduces a methodological framework for a globally uniform probabilistic tsunami risk assessment. Here, the power of recently developed hardware for desktop-based parallel computing plays a crucial role in the calculation of numerical tsunami wave propagation, while large-scale parametric models and paleo-seismological data enhances the return period assessment of tsunami-genic megathrust earthquake events. Adaptation of empirical tsunami vulnerability functions in conjunction with methodologies from flood modelling support a more reliable vulnerability quantification. In addition, methodologies for exposure modelling in coastal areas are introduced focusing on the diversity of coastal exposure landscapes and data availability. Overall, this study introduces a first overview of how a global tsunami risk modelling framework may be accomplished, while covering methodological, computational and data-driven aspects.

  15. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last...

  16. Impact Assessment of University Libraries: A Consideration of Issues and Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on impact assessment of libraries and considers potentially useful methodologies for measuring the impact of university libraries, i.e., how library use affects students' academic performance. Topics discussed include categories of library use, purposes of library use, and indicators of library impact. The user panel methodology…

  17. Using Delphi Methodology to Design Assessments of Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manizade, Agida Gabil; Mason, Marguerite M.

    2011-01-01

    Descriptions of methodologies that can be used to create items for assessing teachers' "professionally situated" knowledge are lacking in mathematics education research literature. In this study, researchers described and used the Delphi method to design an instrument to measure teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. The instrument focused on a…

  18. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.; Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as “PHM methodology” or

  19. Using Critical Thinking Drills to Teach and Assess Proficiency in Methodological and Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Ted V.

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of critical thinking drills (CTDs), a repetitious classroom activity designed to improve methodological and statistical thinking in relation to psychological claims embedded in popular press articles. In each of four separate CTDs, students critically analyzed a brief article reporting a recent psychological…

  20. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  1. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  2. European Unconventional Oil and Gas Assessment (EUOGA) - Development and application of a unified methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelskamp, S.; Zijp, M.; Doornenbal, H.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Bocin-Dumitriu, A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, various international and national assessments of shale gas and shale oil resources for most EU-countries have been published. Due to methodological differences and in fundamental assumptions related to the quality and quantity of underlying geological information, these

  3. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate a semi-automated text analytics approach for the identification and categorization of information that can be used for country logistics assessments. In this paper, we develop the methodology on a set of documents for 21 countries using...... and the text analyst. Implications are discussed and future work is outlined....

  4. Water Footprint Symposium: where next for water footprint and water assessment methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillotson, M.R.; Kiu, J.; Guan, D.; Wu, P.; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Guoping; Pfister, S.; Pahlow, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive review of the tools and metrics for the quantification and assessment of water footprints, and allowing for the opportunity for open discussion on the challenges and future of water footprinting methodology, an international symposium on water footprint was

  5. Safety, mobility and comfort assessment methodologies of intelligent transport systems for vulnerable road users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Silla, A.; Johanssen, C.; Bell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the modification and development of methodologies to assess the impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) applications for Vulnerable Road users (VRUs) in the domains of safety, mobility and comfort. This effort was carried out in the context of the VRUITS

  6. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  7. Methodology for constructive assessment of IT-based systems in an organisational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, J

    1999-12-01

    Even if painted in black and white, there is no doubt that the assumptions for the application of traditional approaches for user requirements specification are more or less unfulfilled. This indicates a need for evolutionary system development combined with constructive assessment throughout the life-cycle of an IT-based solution. A methodology for constructive technology assessment is presented, which 1) covers the entire system life-cycle; 2) has users from the application domain of the future system, or their representatives, as the target users of the assessment methodology; 3) enables constructive assessment during the development of an IT-based solution; 4) is applicable independently of the system development approach; and 5) provides users of the IT-based solution with information enabling them to decide whether or not to take the system into real-life clinical usage.

  8. A trade-based method for modelling supply markets in consequential LCA exemplified with Portland cement and bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a method based on the analysis of trade networks over time for modelling the marginal supply of products in consequential life cycle assessment (LCA). It aims at increasing the geographical granularity of markets, accuracy of transport distances and modes and material losses...... releases of consequential life cycle inventory (LCI) databases....

  9. Novel methodologies and technologies to assess mid-palatal suture maturation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Isfeld, Darren; Lagravere, Manuel; Leon-Salazar, Vladimir; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. Methods A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until ...

  10. The development of methodological tools to assess the health sector with the resulting standardized index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansuvarova Evgenia Adolfovna

    2016-10-01

    The proposed assessment methodology resulting standardized health index in the various countries of the world allows you to define the country implementing an effective management strategy in the health sector. The leading positions belong to the countries where the state health policy has shown its greatest efficiency. This technique can be used not only for point scoring result of a standardized health index in the world, but also to assess in a particular country.

  11. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  12. Methodological approach to assessment of organizational resources of the productive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to solve the problem connected with development of theoretical and methodological provisions of formation of the assessment procedure of organizational resources of the productive activity. Theoretical results of our research are: improvement of the concept of development of organizational resources of the productive activity; identifying the impact of organizational resources on the productive activity; justification of the basic principles of formation of the assessment system of efficiency of the organizational resources' use. We proposed a unified methodological approach allowing to combine the complexity of assessment of both quantity of core resources of the productive activity and organizational resources, which significantly develops traditional systems of the productive activity management based on identifying quantitative parameters of the subsystems, their assessment, comparison and analysis. We also substantiated our opinion on assessment of organizational resources' values. It is focused on the development of the productive activity and allows to use the developed tools of the methodological approach for forecast assessment of the impact of the quantity of core resources, used in the productive activity, and organizational resources of the productive activity on the economic results of the enterprise.

  13. Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, P.A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

  14. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  15. Application of Master Curve Methodology for Structural Integrity Assessments of Nuclear Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattari-Far, Iradj [Det Norske Veritas, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallin, Kim [VTT, Esbo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    The objective was to perform an in-depth investigation of the Master Curve methodology and also based on this method develop a procedure for fracture assessments of nuclear components. The project has sufficiently illustrated the capabilities of the Master Curve methodology for fracture assessments of nuclear components. Within the scope of this work, the theoretical background of the methodology and its validation on small and large specimens has been studied and presented to a sufficiently large extent, as well as the correlations between the charpy-V data and the Master Curve T{sub 0} reference temperature in the evaluation of fracture toughness. The work gives a comprehensive report of the background theory and the different applications of the Master Curve methodology. The main results of the work have shown that the cleavage fracture toughness is characterized by a large amount of statistical scatter in the transition region, it is specimen size dependent and it should be treated statistically rather than deterministically. The Master Curve methodology is able to make use of statistical data in a consistent way. Furthermore, the Master Curve methodology provides a more precise prediction of the fracture toughness of embrittled materials in comparison with the ASME K{sub IC} reference curve, which often gives over-conservative results. The suggested procedure in this study, concerning the application of the Master Curve method in fracture assessments of ferritic steels in the transition region and the low shelf regions, is valid for the temperatures range T{sub 0}-50{<=}T{<=}T{sub 0}+50 deg C. If only approximate information is required, the Master Curve may well be extrapolated outside this temperature range. The suggested procedure has also been illustrated for some examples.

  16. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to [email protected] , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014...

  17. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  18. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...... to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen...

  19. Assessment of a methodology for transmission expansion planning around the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehnert, Stefan; Farahmand, Hossein; Voeller, Steve; Wolfgang, Ove; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The expected increase of wind power production in the North Sea area requires the access to resources of flexible power production. Since the Nordic hydro-based power system can provide such resources, a stronger interconnection between continental Europe and the Nordic is required. Transmission expansion planning is necessary to assess the benefit of potential new transmission lines. A transmission expansion methodology is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on merchant lines and is applied to a 2030 scenario of the Northern European power system. (orig.)

  20. A Hybrid Dynamic System Assessment Methodology for Multi-Modal Transportation-Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.T. van der Wardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrified transportation, be it in the form of buses, trains, or cars have become an emerging form of mobility. Electric vehicles (EVs, especially, are set to expand the amount of electric miles driven and energy consumed. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether EVs will be technically feasible within infrastructure systems. Fundamentally, EVs interact with three interconnected systems: the (physical transportation system, the electric power grid, and their supporting information systems. Coupling of the two physical systems essentially forms a nexus, the transportation-electricity nexus (TEN. This paper presents a hybrid dynamic system assessment methodology for multi-modal transportation-electrification. At its core, it utilizes a mathematical model which consists of a marked Petri-net model superimposed on the continuous time microscopic traffic dynamics and the electrical state evolution. The methodology consists of four steps: (1 establish the TEN structure; (2 establish the TEN behavior; (3 establish the TEN Intelligent Transportation-Energy System (ITES decision-making; and (4 assess the TEN performance. In the presentation of the methodology, the Symmetrica test case is used throughout as an illustrative example. Consequently, values for several measures of performance are provided. This methodology is presented generically and may be used to assess the effects of transportation-electrification in any city or area; opening up possibilities for many future studies.