Sample records for assessment lake ontario

  1. Lake Ontario benthic prey fish assessment, 2015 (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Holden, Jeremy P.; Connerton, Michael J.


    Benthic prey fishes are a critical component of the Lake Ontario food web, serving as energy vectors from benthic invertebrates to native and introduced piscivores. Since the late 1970’s, Lake Ontario benthic prey fish status was primarily assessed using bottom trawl observations confined to the lake’s south shore, in waters from 8 – 150 m (26 – 492 ft). In 2015, the Benthic Prey Fish Survey was cooperatively adjusted and expanded to address resource management information needs including lake-wide benthic prey fish population dynamics. Effort increased from 55 bottom trawl sites to 135 trawl sites collected in depths from 8 - 225m (26 – 738 ft). The spatial coverage of sampling was also expanded and occurred in all major lake basins. The resulting distribution of tow depths more closely matched the available lake depth distribution. The additional effort illustrated how previous surveys were underestimating lake-wide Deepwater Sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, abundance by not sampling in areas of highest density. We also found species richness was greater in the new sampling sites relative to the historic sites with 11 new fish species caught in the new sites including juvenile Round Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum, and Mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdii. Species-specific assessments found Slimy Sculpin, Cottus cognatus abundance increased slightly in 2015 relative to 2014, while Deepwater Sculpin and Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus, dramatically increased in 2015, relative to 2014. The cooperative, lake-wide Benthic Prey Fish Survey expanded our understanding of benthic fish population dynamics and habitat use in Lake Ontario. This survey’s data and interpretations influence international resource management decision making, such as informing the Deepwater Sculpin conservation status and assessing the balance between sport fish consumption and prey fish populations. Additionally a significant Lake Ontario event occurred in May 2015 when a single

  2. Benthic prey fish assessment, Lake Ontario 2013 (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Connerton, Michael J.


    The 2013 benthic fish assessment was delayed and shortened as a result of the U.S. Government shutdown, however the assessment collected 51 of the 62 planned bottom trawls. Over the past 34 years, Slimy Sculpin abundance in Lake Ontario has fluctuated, but ultimately decreased by two orders of magnitude, with a substantial decline occurring in the past 10 years. The 2013 Slimy Sculpin mean bottom trawl catch density (0.001 ind.·m-2, s.d.= 0.0017, n = 52) and mean biomass density (0.015 g·m-2 , s.d.= 0.038, n = 52) were the lowest recorded in the 27 years of sampling using the original bottom trawl design. From 2011-2013, the Slimy Sculpin density and biomass density has decreased by approximately 50% each year. Spring bottom trawl catches illustrate Slimy Sculpin and Round Goby Neogobius melanostoma winter habitat overlaps for as much as 7 months out of a year, providing opportunities for competition and predation. Invasive species, salmonid piscivory, and declines in native benthic invertebrates are likely all important drivers of Slimy Sculpin population dynamics in Lake Ontario. Deepwater Sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii, considered rare or absent from Lake Ontario for 30 years, have generally increased over the past eight years. For the first time since they were caught in this assessment, Deepwater Sculpin density and biomass density estimates declined from the previous year. The 2013 abundance and density estimates for trawls covering the standard depths from 60m to 150m was 0.0001 fish per square meter and 0.0028 grams per square meter. In 2013, very few small (recruitment. Nonnative Round Gobies were first detected in the USGS/NYSDEC Lake Ontario spring Alewife assessment in 2002. Since that assessment, observations indicate their population has expanded and they are now found along the entire south shore of Lake Ontario, with the highest densities in U.S. waters just east of the Niagara River confluence. In the 2013 spring-based assessment, both the

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Bottom trawl assessment of Lake Ontario prey fishes (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Connerton, Michael J.; Holden, Jeremy


    Managing Lake Ontario fisheries in an ecosystem-context requires prey fish community and population data. Since 1978, multiple annual bottom trawl surveys have quantified prey fish dynamics to inform management relative to published Fish Community Objectives. In 2017, two whole-lake surveys collected 341 bottom trawls (spring: 204, fall: 137), at depths from 8-225m, and captured 751,350 fish from 29 species. Alewife were 90% of the total fish catch while Deepwater Sculpin, Round Goby, and Rainbow Smelt comprised the majority of the remaining total catch (3.8, 3.1, and 1.1% respectively). The adult Alewife abundance index for US waters increased in 2017 relative to 2016, however the index for Canadian waters declined. Adult Alewife condition, assessed by the predicted weight of a 165 mm fish (6.5 inches), declined in 2017 from record high values observed in spring 2016. Spring 2017 Alewife condition was slightly less than the 10-year average, but the fall value was well below the 10-year average, likely due to increased Age-1 Alewife abundance. The Age-1 Alewife abundance index was the highest observed in 40 years, and 8-times higher than the previous year. The Age-1 index estimates Alewife reproductive success the preceding year. The warm summer and winter of 2016 likely contributed to the large year class. In contrast the relatively cool 2017 spring and cold winter may result in a lower than average 2017 year class. Abundance indices for Rainbow Smelt, Cisco, and Emerald Shiner either declined or remained at low levels in 2017. Pelagic prey fish diversity continues to be low since a single species, Alewife, dominates the catch. Deepwater Sculpin were the most abundant benthic prey fish in 2017 because Round Goby abundance declined sharply from 2016. Slimy Sculpin density continued to decline and the 2017 biomass index for US waters was the lowest ever observed. Prior to Round Goby proliferation, juvenile Slimy Sculpin comprised ~10% of the Slimy Sculpin catch, but

  5. Spatial extent and dissipation of the deep chlorophyll layer in Lake Ontario during the Lake Ontario lower foodweb assessment, 2003 and 2008 (United States)

    Watkins, J. M.; Weidel, Brian M.; Rudstam, L. G.; Holek, K. T.


    Increasing water clarity in Lake Ontario has led to a vertical redistribution of phytoplankton and an increased importance of the deep chlorophyll layer in overall primary productivity. We used in situ fluorometer profiles collected in lakewide surveys of Lake Ontario in 2008 to assess the spatial extent and intensity of the deep chlorophyll layer. In situ fluorometer data were corrected with extracted chlorophyll data using paired samples from Lake Ontario collected in August 2008. The deep chlorophyll layer was present offshore during the stratified conditions of late July 2008 with maximum values from 4-13 μg l-1 corrected chlorophyll a at 10 to 17 m depth within the metalimnion. Deep chlorophyll layer was closely associated with the base of the thermocline and a subsurface maximum of dissolved oxygen, indicating the feature's importance as a growth and productivity maximum. Crucial to the deep chlorophyll layer formation, the photic zone extended deeper than the surface mixed layer in mid-summer. The layer extended through most of the offshore in July 2008, but was not present in the easternmost transect that had a deeper surface mixed layer. By early September 2008, the lakewide deep chlorophyll layer had dissipated. A similar formation and dissipation was observed in the lakewide survey of Lake Ontario in 2003.

  6. Assessing diet compositions of Lake Ontario predators using fatty acid profiles of prey fishes (United States)

    Happell, Austin; Pattridge, Robert; Rinchard, Jacques; Walsh, Maureen


    Fatty acid profiles are used in food web studies to assess trophic interactions between predator and prey. The present study provides the first comprehensive fatty acid dataset for important prey and predator species in Lake Ontario. Three major prey fish (alewife, rainbow smelt, and round goby) were collected at three sites along the southern shore of Lake Ontario during the spring and fall of 2013, and predator species were collected in similar locations during the summer of 2013. Fatty acid compositions were compared among all prey species, all predator species, and information from both predator and prey was used to infer foraging differences among predators. Seasonal differences in fatty acids were found within each prey species studied. Differences among prey species were greater than any spatio-temporal differences detected within species. Fatty acids of predators revealed species-specific differences that matched known foraging habits. Chinook and Coho salmon, which are known to select alewife as their dominant prey item, had relatively little variation in fatty acid profiles. Conversely, brown trout, lake trout, yellow perch and esocids had highly variable fatty acid profiles and likely highly variable diet compositions. In general, our data suggested three dominant foraging patterns: 1) diet composed of nearly exclusively alewife for Chinook and Coho Salmon; 2) a mixed diet of alewife and round goby for brown and lake trout, and both rock and smallmouth bass; 3) a diet that is likely comprised of forage fishes other than those included in our study for northern pike and chain pickerel.

  7. Overview of the environmental impact assessment for the proposed expansion of the Elliot Lake Ontario uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Graham, R.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.


    As a result of the resurgence in the demand for uranium, Denison Mines Limited and Rio Algom Limited began preparations, in 1973 and 1974 respectively, for expansion of their facilities at Elliot Lake, Ontario. These programmes involved not only the expansion of facilities currently in operation in the area, but also the rehabilitation of non-operating properties that were previously used during the 1960's. This paper reviews the methodology employed during the environmental assessment study of the proposed expansion and highlights the long and short-term strategies recommended

  8. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario (United States)

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.


    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  9. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario (United States)

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  10. A fluvial mercury budget for Lake Ontario. (United States)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S; Driscoll, Charles T; Mason, Edward; Branfireun, Brian; Warnock, Ashley


    Watershed mercury (Hg) flux was calculated for ten inflowing rivers and the outlet for Lake Ontario using empirical measurements from two independent field-sampling programs. Total Hg (THg) flux for nine study watersheds that directly drain into the lake ranged from 0.2 kg/yr to 13 kg/yr, with the dominant fluvial THg load from the Niagara River at 154 kg/yr. THg loss at the outlet (St. Lawrence River) was 68 kg/yr and has declined approximately 40% over the past decade. Fluvial Hg inputs largely (62%) occur in the dissolved fraction and are similar to estimates of atmospheric Hg inputs. Fluvial mass balances suggest strong in-lake retention of particulate Hg inputs (99%), compared to dissolved total Hg (45%) and methyl Hg (22%) fractions. Wetland land cover is a good predictor of methyl Hg yield for Lake Ontario watersheds. Sediment deposition studies, coupled atmospheric and fluvial Hg fluxes, and a comparison of this work with previous measurements indicate that Lake Ontario is a net sink of Hg inputs and not at steady state likely because of recent decreases in point source inputs and atmospheric Hg deposition.

  11. Sulphate deposition by precipitation into Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R W; Whelpdale, D M


    Measurements of sulphate concentration in precipitation from individual snow storms of several hours duration in the western Lake Ontario region indicate that approximately 9-66 mg/M/sub 2/ of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ is being deposited into the lake per storm. This amount is up to several times more than daily average values over long periods found by other workers. Using a mean sulphate concentration of 4 mg/l and an annual accumulation of precipitation of 760 mm, the yearly sulphate deposition by precipitation is about 0.1% of the total mass of sulphate in the lake; however, more significantly, it is of the same order of magnitude as that discharged directly into the lake by industry.

  12. Modeling wetland plant community response to assess water-level regulation scenarios in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River basin (United States)

    Hudon, Christiane; Wilcox, Douglas; Ingram, Joel


    The International Joint Commission has recently completed a five-year study (2000-2005) to review the operation of structures controlling the flows and levels of the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system. In addition to addressing the multitude of stakeholder interests, the regulation plan review also considers environmental sustainability and integrity of wetlands and various ecosystem components. The present paper outlines the general approach, scientific methodology and applied management considerations of studies quantifying the relationships between hydrology and wetland plant assemblages (% occurrence, surface area) in Lake Ontario and the Upper and Lower St. Lawrence River. Although similar study designs were used across the study region, different methodologies were required that were specifically adapted to suit the important regional differences between the lake and river systems, range in water-level variations, and confounding factors (geomorphic types, exposure, sediment characteristics, downstream gradient of water quality, origin of water masses in the Lower River). Performance indicators (metrics), such as total area of wetland in meadow marsh vegetation type, that link wetland response to water levels will be used to assess the effects of different regulation plans under current and future (climate change) water-supply scenarios.

  13. Application of a Spectral Wave Model to Assess Breakwater Configurations at a Small Craft Harbour on Lake Ontario

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    Amelia H. Cooper


    Full Text Available A surface wave model using three nested grids is applied to the eastern end of Lake Ontario to investigate wave propagation from an open lake environment to a small craft harbour protected by a breakwater. The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN spectral wave model, coupled with the Delft3D hydrodynamic model, is applied to simulate a series of storms in November, 2013. The model results are compared to observations from two pressure sensors, and used to quantify wave properties around existing and future breakwaters to evaluate the bulk changes to the harbour configuration. Overall, the results indicate that the rubblemound breakwater reduces wave heights in the existing harbour by 63% compared to no breakwater, and that the addition of a surface breakwater extension could reduce wave heights by an additional 54%. Wave height attenuation was found to be highly dependent on the incident wave direction relative to breakwater orientation. The spectral wave model is useful for simulating wave transformation for broad directional spectra in wind-sea conditions over large scales to semi-protected areas such as small craft harbours.

  14. Investigating Summer Thermal Stratification in Lake Ontario (United States)

    James, S. C.; Arifin, R. R.; Craig, P. M.; Hamlet, A. F.


    Seasonal temperature variations establish strong vertical density gradients (thermoclines) between the epilimnion and hypolimnion. Accurate simulation of vertical mixing and seasonal stratification of large lakes is a crucial element of the thermodynamic coupling between lakes and the atmosphere in integrated models. Time-varying thermal stratification patterns can be accurately simulated with the versatile Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Lake Ontario bathymetry was interpolated onto a 2-km-resolution curvilinear grid with vertical layering using a new approach in EFDC+, the so-called "sigma-zed" coordinate system which allows the number of vertical layers to be varied based on water depth. Inflow from the Niagara River and outflow to the St. Lawrence River in conjunction with hourly meteorological data from seven local weather stations plus three-hourly data from the North American Regional Reanalysis govern the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic responses of the Lake. EFDC+'s evaporation algorithm was updated to more accurately simulate net surface heat fluxes. A new vertical mixing scheme from Vinçon-Leite that implements different eddy diffusivity formulations above and below the thermocline was compared to results from the original Mellor-Yamada vertical mixing scheme. The model was calibrated by adjusting solar-radiation absorption coefficients in addition to background horizontal and vertical mixing parameters. Model skill was evaluated by comparing measured and simulated vertical temperature profiles at shallow (20 m) and deep (180 m) locations on the Lake. These model improvements, especially the new sigma-zed vertical discretization, accurately capture thermal-stratification patterns with low root-mean-squared errors when using the Vinçon-Leite vertical mixing scheme.

  15. 2001 USACE LRE Topobathy Lidar: Lake Ontario (NY) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Office for Coastal Management received the 2001 Lake Ontario dataset with 2 separate metadata records in 2013 on a hard-drive device from the USGS Center for...

  16. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich


    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  17. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.


    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  18. 137Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.


    The distribution of 137 Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with 210 Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with 137 Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.


    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  20. Status of rainbow smelt in the U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 2013 (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Connerton, Michael J.


    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are the second most abundant pelagic prey fish in Lake Ontario after Alewife Alosa psuedoharengus. The 2013, USGS/NYSDEC bottom trawl assessment indicated the abundance of Lake Ontario age-1 and older Rainbow Smelt decreased by 69% relative to 2012. Length frequency-based age analysis indicated that age-1 Rainbow Smelt constituted approximately 50% of the population, which is similar to recent trends where the proportion of age-1 has ranged from 95% to 42% of the population. While they constituted approximately half of the catch, the overall abundance index for age 1 was one of the lowest observed in the time series, potentially a result of cannibalism from the previous year class. Combined data from all bottom trawl assessments along the southern shore and eastern basin indicate the proportion of the fish community that is Rainbow Smelt has declined over the past 30 years. In 2013 the proportion of the pelagic fish catch (only pelagic species) that was Rainbow Smelt was the second lowest in the time series at 3.1%. Community diversity indices, based on bottom trawl catches, indicate that Lake Ontario fish community diversity, as assessed by bottom trawls, has sharply declined over the past 36 years and in 2013 the index was the lowest value in the time series. Much of this community diversity decline is driven by changes in the pelagic fish community and dominance of Alewife.

  1. 77 FR 30451 - Safety Zone; Olcott Fireworks, Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY (United States)


    ... Lake Ontario, Olcott, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Ontario during the Olcott fireworks display. The safety zone established by this proposed rule is necessary to protect spectators, participants, and vessels from the hazards associated with firework display...

  2. Review of Reports on Lake Erie - Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix D. Economics. (United States)


    Venezuela (29 percent). Canada produced 48.3 million tons of iron ore in 1970 ,of which 23.9 million tons were exported to the United States (14.4 million...grain traffic, 1971 D-14 D-6 U.S. - Great Lakes grain exports 1960 - 1971 and projected D-15 D-7 U.S. doal traffic, Lake Erie - Lake Ontario, 1958-1970...Soybeans Wheat Barley Oats Rice Sorghum Grains Flaxseed Oilseeds, n.e.c. Tobacco, leaf Hay and Fodder Field crops, n.e.c. Fresh fruits Co ffee Cocoa beans

  3. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.


    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  4. Hypothesis carbon flow through the deepwater Lake Ontario foodweb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, R.W.


    Several accounts in recent years have attempted to conceptualize foodwebs in valuable fishery systems, producing useful heuristic tools to help shape research and management policy. Here a mass balance conceptual model of the Lake Ontario deepwater foodweb is developed to evaluate energy pathways and determine available nutrition for predatory salmonines. A number of different trophic links were defined from phytoplankton, through the various forage species, to the tertiary consumers. Phytoplankton photosynthesis resulted in 178 g C/m/sup 2//yr production at the base of the foodweb. Approximately 60% of primary production was counted as required support for pelagic zooplankton and benthos. Dominant forage fish (alewife, smelt and sculpin) annually appeared to consume all smaller zooplankton carbon production, 93% of mysid production, 66% of most benthic community production, and, more specifically, 94% of amphipod carbon production. The model indicated that approximately 1.22 g C/m/sup 2//yr was available for support of top level predators. Based upon historic fishery records and stocking rates, these predators required approximately half of the annual carbon available as nutritional support. Impacts of trophic rearrangements in the Lake Ontario foodweb are discussed based upon model results

  5. A synthesis of ecological and fish-community changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000 (United States)

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.


    We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario

  6. Improving regional climate and hydrological forecasting following the record setting flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Seglenieks, F.; Bruxer, J.; Fortin, V.; Noel, J.


    In the spring of 2017, water levels across Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River exceeded record high levels, leading to widespread flooding, damage to property, and controversy over regional dam operating protocols. Only a few years earlier, water levels on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron (upstream of Lake Ontario) had dropped to record low levels leading to speculation that either anthropogenic controls or climate change were leading to chronic water loss from the Great Lakes. The contrast between low water level conditions across Earth's largest lake system from the late 1990s through 2013, and the rapid rise prior to the flooding in early 2017, underscores the challenges of quantifying and forecasting hydrologic impacts of rising regional air and water temperatures (and associated changes in lake evaporation) and persistent increases in long-term precipitation. Here, we assess the hydrologic conditions leading to the recent record flooding across the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system, with a particular emphasis on understanding the extent to which those conditions were consistent with observed and anticipated changes in historical and future climate, and the extent to which those conditions could have been anticipated through improvements in seasonal climate outlooks and hydrological forecasts.

  7. Effect of rearing density on poststocking survival of lake trout in Lake Ontario (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Ostergaard, David E.; Schneider, Clifford P.


    Six paired lots of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) reared at densities of 41,000 and 51,000 fish per raceway during their last 9 months in the hatchery were stocked in Lake Ontario. Poststocking survival of the high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) fish was not different for the 1982 year-class. However, for the 1983 year-class, mean survival was significantly different between HD and LD fish (P Mean survival of HD fish was only 76% that of LD fish (P Mean size at stocking was not different for HD and LD fish of the 1982 year-class, but for the 1983 year-class, the LD fish were 6% longer and 22% heavier than the HD fish. Mean lengths and weights of LD and HD fish were not different in samples collected in Lake Ontario at age 2 and older. Size at stocking was not likely the factor that caused the difference in survival. Rather, the rearing conditions (probably water exchange rate in relation to number of fish in the raceway) that resulted in slower growth of the HD fish of the 1983 year-class also caused them to be poorer physiologically than the LD fish. The number of yearling lake trout per rearing unit that will result in maximum contribution to populations in the Great Lakes after stocking may be lower than the rearing densities customarily used at some hatcheries.

  8. Aquatic dispersion modelling of a tritium plume in Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klukas, M.H.; Moltyaner, G.L.


    Approximately 2900 kg of tritiated water, containing 2.3E+15 Bq of tritium, were released to Lake Ontario via the cooling water discharge when a leak developed in a moderator heat exchanger in Unit 1 at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) on 1992 August 2. The release provided the opportunity to study the dispersion of a tritium plume in the coastal zone of Lake Ontario. Current direction over the two-week period following the release was predominantly parallel to the shore, and elevated tritium concentrations were observed up to 20 km east and 85 km west of the PNGS. Predictions of the tritium plume movement were made using current velocity measurements taken at 8-m depth, 2.5 km offshore from Darlington and using a empirical relationship where alongshore current speed is assumed to be proportional to the alongshore component of the wind speed. The tritium migration was best described using current velocity measurements. The tritium plume dispersion is modelled using the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Transport parameters are the alongshore current speed and longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Longitudinal dispersion coefficients, estimated by fitting the solution of the advection-dispersion equation to measured concentration distance profiles ranged from 3.75 to 10.57 m 2 s -1 . Simulations using the fitted values of the dispersion coefficient were able to describe maximum tritium concentrations measured at water supply plants located within 25 km of Pickering to within a factor of 3. The dispersion coefficient is a function of spatial and temporal variability in current velocity and the fitted dispersion coefficients estimated here may not be suitable for predicting tritium plume dispersion under different current conditions. The sensitivity of the dispersion coefficient to variability in current conditions should be evaluated in further field experiments. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 12 figs

  9. The ecology and impact of the invasion of Lake Ontario by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussel (D. bugensis) (United States)

    Negley, T.L.; Mills, E.L.; Baldwin, B.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Munawar, M.


    In this chapter we present a detailed description of the zebra and quagga mussel invasion in Lake Ontario, with specific emphasis on: (1) the development of the Dreissena populations in Lake Ontario, (2) previously unreported data from 1997 and 1998 for Dreissena populations at Nine-Mile Point in Lake Ontario, (3) factors influencing dreissenid development in Lake Ontario, and (4) the effects of dreissenid colonization on the biota of the Lake Ontario ecosystem.

  10. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario (United States)

    Carl, L.M.


    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. National Lakes Assessment Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  12. Seasonal variation in mercury and food web biomagnification in Lake Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liang; Campbell, Linda M.; Johnson, Timothy B.


    Seasonal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations and food web structure was assessed for eastern Lake Ontario. Hg concentrations, measured in 6 species of invertebrates and 8 species of fishes, tended to be highest in the spring and lowest in the summer for most biota. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exhibited significant ontogenetic shifts in diet and Hg, although such patterns were not evident for other species. Food web structure, as indicated by stable isotope values (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) was not static. Log-transformed Hg data were strongly and consistently correlated with δ 15 N values for the whole food web in each of the three seasons (slopes, 0.17–0.24) and across the entire year (slope, 0.2). While significantly different between seasons, the regression slope values are still consistent with published global Hg biomagnification rates. Our results indicate that the assessment of Hg trends in Great Lakes must take into account seasonal patterns and time of sampling. - Graphical abstract: Total mercury concentrations and trophic level (δ 15 N) regressions for organisms from the littoral Lake Ontario food web of Waupoos in 2009. Filled circles represent invertebrates while open circles represent fish. Dashed lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “whole” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the upper left hand corner in each plot), and solid lines represents the regression between δ 15 N and THg of “fish-only” food web (log-Hg-δ 15 N regression equations in the lower right hand corner of each plot). Note that the y-axis is untransformed Hg concentrations plotted along a logarithmic scale, while the equations are based on log-transformed Hg values. Highlights: ► Most fish in littoral Lake Ontario had higher Hg concentrations in spring and lower Hg in summer. ► Log Hg consistently biomagnified throughout the food web in each season and for the year. ► Biomagnification rates (e.g., log Hg-δ 15 N slopes) vary

  13. Analysis of strontium-90 in the bones of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, C.G. Jr.; Kinney, R.M.; Lisk, D.J.


    Radionuclides such as Sr-90, mainly from liquid effluent releases from nuclear power generating facilities, can contaminate water and biota. Lake Ontario ultimately receives the outflow from each of the other Great Lakes. In the work reported, brown trout (Salmo trutta) were captured from Lake Ontario and their entire skeletal bone material analyzed for Sr-90. They showed an average concentration of Sr-90 approximately four times greater than control brown trout captured from nearby Cayuga Lake in Central New York State which has no nuclear generating facilities. The results are discussed considering fallout and hydrographic considerations. (author)

  14. Analysis of three cisco forms (Coregonus, Salmonidae) from Lake Saganaga and adjacent lakes near the Minnesota/Ontario border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etnier, DA; Skelton, CE


    Based on examination of 655 ciscoes from Lake Saganaga, a Minnesota/Ontario border lake, three forms, about 90% separable on gill raker counts, are present. Form L, with the lowest gill raker counts (26-40, mean = 31.9, n = 96) is tentatively identified as Coregonus zenithicus. Form M, with

  15. SF6 ventilation study at Agnew Lake Mines, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In September 1978, James F. MacLaren Limited was awarded a contract by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to undertake a ventilation study at an underground uranium mine using sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer gas. The mine selected for the study was that of Agnew Lake Mines Limited in Northern Ontario. This is a relatively new mine with the combined mine/mill facilities first operational in mid-1977. Uranium is recovered from broken ore by in-situ leaching. The ventilation study was divided into two phases. A laboratory study was undertaken to develop a practical sampling technique, provide an evaluation of the logistics of long range sample transport and develop a laboratory analytical technique. Field programmes demonstrated the SF 6 tracer gas technique for mine ventilation trouble-shooting with the intent of providing information which will lead to more efficient use of existing mine ventilation capacity. This report outlines the findings of the laboratory study and the two field programmes

  16. 2013 status of the Lake Ontario lower trophic levels (United States)

    Holeck, Kristen T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Hotaling, Christopher; McCullough, Russ D.; Lemon, Dave; Pearsall, Web; Lantry, Jana R.; Connerton, Michael J.; LaPan, Steve; Trometer, Betsy; Lantry, Brian F.; Walsh, Maureen; Weidel, Brian C.


    Phosphorus showed high variation across nearshore (10 m depth) sites but was more stable at offshore (20 m and deeper) stations. In June and July, sites at the mouth of the Niagara River and at Oak Orchard had high phosphorus concentrations (20 – 46 μg/L). Epilimnetic average April-Oct total phosphorus (TP) ranged between 6.9 and 19.9 μg/L in the nearshore and between 5.8 and 10.2 μg/L in the offshore. Average April-Oct soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) ranged from 0.9 to 7.3 μg/L in the nearshore and 0.8 to 1.4 μg/L in the offshore. TP and SRP were significantly higher in the nearshore than in the offshore.Spring TP has declined in the longer data series (since 1981), but not since 1995. It averaged 8.4 μg/L in the nearshore and 5.0 μg/L in the offshore in 2013—below the 10 μg/L target set by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1978 for offshore waters of Lake Ontario.Offshore summer chlorophyll-a declined significantly in both the short- (1995-2013) and long-term (1981-2013) time series at a rate of 3-4% per year. Nearshore chlorophyll-a increased after 2003 but then declined again after 2009. Epilimnetic chlorophyll-aaveraged between 0.5 and 1.3 μg/L across sites with no difference between nearshore and offshore habitats. Average seasonal Secchi disk depth ranged from 4.5 m to 10.6 m and was higher in the offshore (average 8.1 m) than nearshore stations (6.3 m). These values are indicative of oligotrophic conditions in both habitats.In 2013, Apr/May - Oct epilimnetic zooplankton size and total biomass were significantly higher in the offshore than the nearshore. However, with the exception of Limnocalanus (higher in offshore), there were no differences between habitats for any of the zooplankton groups.Most of the zooplankton biomass was in the metalimnion and hypolimnion during the day in 2013. Between 65 and 98% of zooplankton biomass was found below the thermocline throughout the year.The predatory cladoceran Cercopagis continued to be

  17. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, Patricia L.; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A.; Marvin, Chris H.


    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events. - Highlights: • We determine the amount of microplastics in Lake Ontario shore and bottom sediments. • Pellet preservation in shoreline sediment is unlikely. • Microplastics have been accumulating in bottom sediments over <38 years. • Buried plastics in lake bottom sediment have a high potential for preservation. - Microplastics were identified in bottom sediments of Lake Ontario. Their burial could result in microplastics preservation in the future rock record

  18. 2014 status of the Lake Ontario lower trophic levels (United States)

    Holeck, Kristen T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Hotaling, Christopher; McCullough, Russ D.; Lemon, Dave; Pearsall, Web; Lantry, Jana; Connerton, Michael J.; LaPan, Steve; Biesinger, Zy; Lantry, Brian F.; Walsh, Maureen; Weidel, Brian C.


    Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations have been stable in nearshore and offshore habitats since 1998 (0.4 – 3.3 μg/L). SRP concentrations were low in 2014; Apr/May – Oct mean values were Water Quality Agreement of 1978 for offshore waters of Lake Ontario. TP concentrations were low at both nearshore and offshore locations; Apr/May – Oct mean values from individual sites ranged from 4.6 – 9.1 μg/L. Spring TP has declined significantly in the longer data series (since 1981), but not since 1995 indicating stable nutrient loading into Lake Ontario for nearly two decades. It averaged 7.8 μg/L in the nearshore and 5.6 μg/L in the offshore in 2014.Chlorophyll-a and secchi depth values are indicative of oligotrophic conditions in nearshore and offshore habitats. Offshore summer chlorophyll-a declined significantly in both the short- (2000-2014) and long-term (1981-2014) time series at a rate of 4-6% per year. Nearshore chlorophyll-a increased after 2003 but then declined again after 2009. Epilimnetic chlorophyll-a averaged between 0.6 and 1.6 μg/L across sites with no difference between nearshore and offshore habitats. Apr/May – Oct Secchi depth ranged from 4.0 m to 10.8 m at individual sites and was higher in the offshore (average 9.1 m) than nearshore (5.9 m).In 2014, Apr/May – Oct epilimnetic zooplankton density, size, and biomass were not different between the offshore and the nearshore, and there were no differences in epilimnetic biomass between offshore and nearshore areas for any of the zooplankton groups.Zooplankton density and biomass peaked in September, an atypical pattern. This coincided with peaks in calanoid copepod, daphnid, and Holopedium biomass. Holopedium biomass in the nearshore increased significantly since 1995.The predatory cladoceran Cercopagis continued to be abundant in the summer, peaking at ~10 mg/m3in the offshore. Bythotrephes biomass was at its lowest level since 2005 in both offshore and nearshore habitats

  19. Utilization of bathymetry data to examine lead sediment contamination distributions in Lake Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H. Marvin


    Full Text Available Bathymetry data offer interesting opportunities for the analysis of contaminant distribution patterns. This research utilized lead surficial sediment sample data from Lake Ontario that were collected by the Canada Centre for Inland Waters in 1968 and 1998. Traditionally, two-dimensional analyses such as dot maps or proportional circle representation have been utilized to examine pollutant levels. Generating area estimates allows for expanded spatial analysis of contaminant distribution patterns. Lake-wide surfaces were derived using the ordinary kriging technique. These were then layered on bathymetry data to examine three-dimensional relationships between observed pollution patterns and lake-bottom features. Spatial variability was observed in both the 1968 and 1998 datasets. Contamination levels in 1998 dropped substantially, especially in areas that were previously the most heavily polluted and above the Probable Effect Level (4660.23 km2 or 26.72% of the common analysis area lake-bottom in 1998 versus 6189.07 km2 or 62.00% in 1968. Conversely, areas below the Threshold Effect Level increased from 922.09 km2 (5.29% in 1968 to 3484.22 km2 (19.98% in 1998. In both years, shallow and sill/ridge areas tended to have lower levels of contamination than deeper lake basins or contaminant inflow areas. The 1968 dataset likely provides a more detailed estimation surface as there were more points available for interpolation procedures. The kriging surfaces when combined with bathymetry, sedimentology information, and knowledge of physical processes provide a comprehensive illustration of the contaminant distributions whether they are high (1968 or when loadings are significantly reduced (1998. The results have implications for future sediment assessment programs and survey design on a lake-wide basis. The bathymetry data allowed for enhanced interpretation and an improved understanding of observed lead pollution patterns.

  20. A heuristic simulation model of Lake Ontario circulation and mass balance transport (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Chalupnicki, M.A.


    The redistribution of suspended organisms and materials by large-scale currents is part of natural ecological processes in large aquatic systems but can contribute to ecosystem disruption when exotic elements are introduced into the system. Toxic compounds and planktonic organisms spend various lengths of time in suspension before settling to the bottom or otherwise being removed. We constructed a simple physical simulation model, including the influence of major tributaries, to qualitatively examine circulation patterns in Lake Ontario. We used a simple mass balance approach to estimate the relative water input to and export from each of 10 depth regime-specific compartments (nearshore vs. offshore) comprising Lake Ontario. Despite its simplicity, our model produced circulation patterns similar to those reported by more complex studies in the literature. A three-gyre pattern, with the classic large counterclockwise central lake circulation, and a simpler two-gyre system were both observed. These qualitative simulations indicate little offshore transport along the south shore, except near the mouths of the Niagara River and Oswego River. Complex flow structure was evident, particularly near the Niagara River mouth and in offshore waters of the eastern basin. Average Lake Ontario residence time is 8 years, but the fastest model pathway indicated potential transport of plankton through the lake in as little as 60 days. This simulation illustrates potential invasion pathways and provides rough estimates of planktonic larval dispersal or chemical transport among nearshore and offshore areas of Lake Ontario. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Confirmation of cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario using an egg pumping device (United States)

    George, Ellen M.; Stott, Wendylee; Young, Brian; Karboski, Curtis T.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Roseman, Edward; Rudstam, Lars G.


    Cisco Coregonus artedi, a historically abundant and commercially important fish in the Great Lakes, have declined drastically in the last century due to the impacts of invasive species, overfishing, and habitat degradation. Chaumont Bay, New York is believed to contain one of the last remaining spawning populations of cisco in Lake Ontario although direct evidence of spawning has remained elusive. We document cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay for the first time in decades through the use of an egg pumping device specifically developed to sample through lake ice. Forty-one eggs were identified as cisco using genetic barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Cisco eggs were associated with shallow, rocky shoals. Contemporary knowledge of spawning behavior is an important step toward the successful restoration of cisco in Lake Ontario and across the Great Lakes.

  2. The offshore fish community in southern Lake Ontario, 1972-1998 (United States)

    Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Munawar, M.


    The authors document the status of Lake Ontario's open-water fish community in 1972, near the beginning of an era of massive fish stocking and when phosphorus levels in the lake from anthropogenic inputs, were near their peak. They then describe changes that occurred in the fish community in 1978-98. This was a period when large numbers of young salmonid piscivores were released annually, sea lamprey control continued to improve, and phosphorus levels were declining due to successful nutrient abatement programs. Coincident with the above, the lower food web was changed by the addition of new exotic invertebrates, the zooplankter Bythotrephes cederstroemi and particularly the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga mussel, D. bugensis. The picture of the fish community structure is drawn from records of catches in bottom trawls and gill nets during surveys of southern Lake Ontario conducted the the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), from records of fish stocked in Lake Ontario by the NYDEC, and from a creel census of boat anglers returning to southern Lake Ontario ports conducted by the NYDEC.

  3. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006 (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.


    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  4. Geochemical distribution of trace metals and organochlorine contaminants of a lake ontario shoreline marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glooschenko, W A; Capocianco, J; Coburn, J; Glooschenko, V


    Rattray Marsh, an 8 ha marsh on the Lake Ontario shoreline at Mississauga, Ontario, is an important local habitat for waterfowl and shorebirds during spring and fall migration. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) and potential trace metal and organochlorine pollutants in the marsh as evidenced by the sedimentary concentrations of these compounds. Generally, copper, zinc, lead, and mercury were higher in concentration in local soils than in Lake Ontario sediments. Metals and organic carbon levels did not correlate, and the metals appeared to be associated with silts and clays. Organochlorine contaminants include p,p1-DDE, p,p1-DDD, p,p1-DDT, alpha-chlordane, PCB, mirex, and HCB.

  5. Constraints and motivations related to fishing along the Lake Ontario coast (United States)

    Matthew P. Brincka; Diane M. Kuehn; Valerie Luzadis


    The number of nonresident anglers along the Lake Ontario coast has decreased over the past 15 years. Therefore, in order to sustain a strong sport fishing industry, local businesses and tourism promoters might want to tap into the large resident angler market group. This study examines resident anglers' social, environmental, and economic constraints/facilitators...

  6. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.


    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge

  7. Ground-water availability in the eastern part of the Lake Ontario Basin, New York (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.


    A set of three maps show surficial geology, significant unconsolidated aquifers and well yield, and selected well locations for the Lake Ontario basin, New York. In the low areas , glaciers and wave action of former high-level lakes deposited permeable sand and gravel to form aquifers that yield more than 10 gal/min of water to wells. Small quantities of water (less than 2 gal/min) can be pumped from dug wells that top till and fine lake-sediment deposits. (USGS)

  8. Assessing the financial positions of Ontario`s new electricity companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, T. [Standard and Poor`s, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    This paper describes the methodology, including the criteria factors, comparable ratings and key credit issues used in assessing the financial positions of Ontario Power Generation Inc., and the Ontario Hydro Services Company. The rating criteria factors include both business factors (such as ownership structure, regulation, service area, operations, management, etc.,) and financial factors (e.g. financial policies and guidelines, recent financial performance, margin analysis, capital structure and borrowing plans, financial projections and sensitivities). Key credit issues include considerations of competitive dynamics, nuclear portfolio performance (for Genco), regulatory changes, cost control, capital spending program, retail business exposure, future financial performance. Comparisons are made with corresponding positions of comparable entities in Australia, Finland, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. In the case of Ontario Power Generation Inc., the company is assessed to have significant advantages initially, but various uncertainties over the medium term warrant a more cautious view of the credit profile. For the Ontario Hydro Services Company the business risks appear to be low and moderate leverage entails a strong, stable credit profile. The overall assessment of the two companies is that while certain questions such as the workability and credibility of the new industry structure, the problem of stranded debt and questions about the liquidity of market participants remain unsolved, Ontario Power Generation Inc., and the Ontario Hydro Services Company ratings compare favorably with ratings of global industry peers.

  9. Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments. (United States)

    Ballent, Anika; Corcoran, Patricia L; Madden, Odile; Helm, Paul A; Longstaffe, Fred J


    Microplastics contamination of Lake Ontario sediments is investigated with the aim of identifying distribution patterns and hotspots in nearshore, tributary and beach depositional environments. Microplastics are concentrated in nearshore sediments in the vicinity of urban and industrial regions. In Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour microplastic concentrations were consistently >500 particles per kg dry sediment. Maximum concentrations of ~28,000 particles per kg dry sediment were determined in Etobicoke Creek. The microplastic particles were primarily fibres and fragments microplastics in terms of how and where to implement preventative measures to reduce the contaminant influx. Although the impacts of microplastics contamination on ecosystem health and functioning is uncertain, understanding, monitoring and preventing further microplastics contamination in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb [AECOM, 99 Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3P 0Y7 (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Arey, Jimi [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ontario (Canada)


    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  11. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb; Vandergaast, Gary; Arey, Jimi


    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  12. Dynamics of turbidity plumes in Lake Ontario. [Welland Canal and Niagara, Genesee, and Oswego Rivers (United States)

    Pluhowski, E. J. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. Large turbidity features along the 275 km south shore of Lake Ontario were analyzed using LANDSAT-1 images. The Niagara River plume, ranging from 30 to 500 sq km in area is, by far, the largest turbidity feature in the lake. Based on image tonal comparisons, turbidity in the Welland Canal is usually higher than that in any other water course discharging into the lake during the shipping season. Less turbid water enters the lake from the Port Dalhousie diversion channel and the Genesee River. Relatively clear water resulting from the deposition of suspended matter in numerous upstream lakes is discharged by the Niagara and Oswego Rivers. Plume analysis corroborates the presence of a prevailing eastward flowing longshore current along the entire south shore. Plumes resulting from beach erosion were detected in the images. Extensive areas of the south shore are subject to erosion but the most severely affected beaches are situated between Fifty Mile Point, Ontario and Thirty Mile Point, New York along the Rochester embayment, and between Sodus Bay and Nine Mile Point.

  13. Lake Ontario: Food web dynamics in a changing ecosystem (1970-2000) (United States)

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.


    We examined stressors that have led to profound ecological changes in the Lake Ontario ecosystem and its fish community since 1970. The most notable changes have been reductions in phosphorus loading, invasion by Dreissena spp., fisheries management through stocking of exotic salmonids and control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and fish harvest by anglers and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). The response to these stressors has led to (i) declines in both algal photosynthesis and epilimnetic zooplankton production, (ii) decreases in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, (iii) declines in native Diporeia and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), (iv) behavioral shifts in alewife spatial distribution benefitting native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) populations, (v) dramatic increases in water clarity, (vi) predation impacts by cormorants on select fish species, and (vii) lake trout recruitment bottlenecks associated with alewife-induced thiamine deficiency. We expect stressor responses associated with anthropogenic forces like exotic species invasions and global climate warming to continue to impact the Lake Ontario ecosystem in the future and recommend continuous long-term ecological studies to enhance scientific understanding and management of this important resource.

  14. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef MacLeod


    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  15. Assessing Ontario's Personal Support Worker Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Laporte


    Full Text Available In response to the growing role of personal support workers (PSWs in the delivery of health care services to Ontarians, the Ontario government has moved forward with the creation of a PSW registry. This registry will be mandatory for all PSWs employed by publicly funded health care employers, and has the stated objectives of better highlighting the work that PSWs do in Ontario, providing a platform for PSWs and employers to more easily access the labour market, and to provide government with information for human resources planning. In this paper we consider the factors that brought the creation of a PSW registry onto the Ontario government’s policy agenda, discuss how the registry is being implemented, and provide an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy change.

  16. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.


    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  17. The radiation safety self-assessment program of Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, G.; Chase, W.J.


    Ontario Hydro has developed a self-assessment program to ensure that high quality in its radiation safety program is maintained. The self-assessment program has three major components: routine ongoing assessment, accident/incident investigation, and detailed assessments of particular radiation safety subsystems or of the total radiation safety program. The operation of each of these components is described

  18. Crustacean plankton communities in forty-five lakes in the experimental lakes area, northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patalas, K


    Zooplankton communities were characterized on the basis of samples taken in summer as vertical net hauls in the central part of lakes. Twenty-eight species of crustaceans were found in the 45 lakes studied. The highest number of species as well as the highest numbers of individuals (per unit of area) usually occurred in the largest deepest lakes with most transparent water.

  19. Occurrence and food habits of the round goby in the profundal zone of southwestern Lake Ontario (United States)

    Walsh, M.G.; Dittman, D.E.; O'Gorman, R.


    Little is known about the ecology of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive benthic fish, in the profundal zone of the Great Lakes. In April 2002–2005 we caught increasing numbers of round gobies with a bottom trawl in the 45–150 m depth range of southwestern Lake Ontario. In 2005, we examined gut contents of 30 round gobies from each of three depths, 55, 95, and 130 m, and qualitatively compared gut contents with density of benthic invertebrates determined by Ponar grabs. Round goby guts contained mostly Dreissena spp. and opposum shrimp, Mysis relicta (Mysis); the frequency of occurrence of dreissenids in guts decreased with depth, whereas the frequency of occurrence of Mysis in guts increased with depth. Abundance of these invertebrates in the environment followed the same pattern, although dreissenids of optimum edible size (3–12 mm) were still abundant (1,373/m2) at 130 m, where round gobies primarily consumed Mysis, suggesting that round gobies may switch from dreissenids to more profitable prey when it is available. Other food items were ostracods and fish, with ostracods generally eaten by smaller round gobies and fish eaten by larger round gobies. Occurrence and increasing abundance of round gobies in the profundal zone and predation on Mysis by round goby could have far-reaching consequences for the Lake Ontario fish community.

  20. Ground-water availability in the central part of Lake Ontario basin, New York (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Krebs, Martha M.


    A set of three maps showing surficial geology, distribution of glacial aquifers, and potential well yield in the 708 sq mi central part of the Lake Ontario basin are presented at a scale of 1:125,000. The basin is parallel to Lake Ontario and extends from Rochester in the west to Oswego in the east. Aquifers consisting primarily of sand and gravel formed where meltwaters from glaciers deposited kame and outwash sand and gravel and where wave action along shores of glacial lakes eroded, reworked , and deposited beaches. Thick deposits of well-sorted sand and gravel yield relatively large quantities of water - typically more than 100 gal/min. Aquifers consisting of thin beds of sand and (or) gravel or thick gravel that contain a large proportion of silt and fine sand yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Dug and driven wells that tap fine to medium sand deposits typically yield 1 to 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  1. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.


    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  2. Correlates of mercury in fish from lakes near Clyde Forks, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, A.L.M.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Bond, D.E.


    Subsurface soils near Clyde Forks, Ontario, Canada, can have naturally high concentrations of mercury (Hg) from local geological sources. To investigate Hg in local aquatic food webs, Hg was measured in fish dorsal muscle (mainly yellow perch [YP] and pumpkinseed sunfish [PS]) and surface sediments from 10 regional lakes. Water chemistry, along with fork length, weight, and stable isotopes (δ 15 N, δ 13 C, δ 34 S) in fish were also measured. No lake sediments had elevated (>0.3 μg/g dw) Hg, and average Hg concentrations in fish were not sufficiently high ( 13 C), and certain lake variables (e.g., pH for YP). PS with more pelagic feeding habits had higher δ 34 S and Hg than those with more littoral feeding habits. Potential biological linkages between fish Hg and δ 34 S, a parameter that may be related to the lake sulphate-reducing bacteria activity, requires further investigation. - Fish from lakes near a localized geological Hg source do not have elevated Hg concentrations

  3. Comparison of genetic and visual identification of cisco and lake whitefish larvae from Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario (United States)

    George, Ellen M.; Hare, Matthew P.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Lantry, Brian F.; Rudstam, Lars G.


    Cisco Coregonus artedi are an important component of native food webs in the Great Lakes, and their restoration is instrumental to the recovery of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Difficulties with visual identification of larvae can confound early life history surveys, as cisco are often difficult to distinguish from lake whitefish C. clupeaformis. We compared traditional visual species identification methods to genetic identifications based on barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene for 726 coregonine larvae caught in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario. We found little agreement between the visual characteristics of cisco identified by genetic barcoding and the most widely used dichotomous key, and the considerable overlap in ranges of traditionally utilized metrics suggest that visual identification of coregonine larvae from Chaumont Bay is impractical. Coregonines are highly variable and plastic species, and often display wide variations in morphometric characteristics across their broad range. This study highlights the importance of developing accurate, geographically appropriate larval identification methods in order to best inform cisco restoration and management efforts.

  4. Is reduced benthic flux related to the Diporeia decline? Analysis of spring blooms and whiting events in Lake Ontario (United States)

    Watkins, James M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Walsh, Maureen


    Benthic monitoring by USGS off the southern shore of Lake Ontario from October 1993 to October 1995 provides a detailed view of the early stages of the decline of the native amphipod Diporeia. A loss of the 1994 and 1995 year classes of Diporeia preceded the disappearance of the native amphipod at sites near Oswego and Rochester at depths from 55 to 130 m. In succeeding years, Diporeia populations continued to decline in Lake Ontario and were nearly extirpated by 2008. Explanations for Diporeia 's decline in the Great Lakes include several hypotheses often linked to the introduction and expansion of exotic zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena sp.). We compare the timeline of the Diporeia decline in Lake Ontario with trends in two sources of organic matter to the sediments — spring diatom blooms and late summer whiting events. The 1994–95 decline of Diporeia coincided with localized dreissenid effects on phytoplankton in the nearshore and a year (April 1994 to May 1995) of decreased flux of organic carbon recorded by sediment traps moored offshore of Oswego. Later declines of profundal (> 90 m) Diporeia populations in 2003 were poorly associated with trends in spring algal blooms and late summer whiting events. Lake Ontario/Diporeia/Dreissena/remote sensing.

  5. Shifts in the diets of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Ontario following the collapse of the burrowing amphipod Diporeia (United States)

    Owens, Randall W.; Dittman, Dawn E.


    In Lake Ontario, the diets of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis shifted from a diet dominated by the burrowing amphipod, Diporeia, and to a lesser extent, Mysis, to a more diverse diet, after Diporeia collapsed, to one dominated by Mysis and prey that were formerly less important or uncommon such as Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Ostracoda. Additionally, lake whitefish still preyed on native mollusks like Sphaeriidae and Gastropoda, but also preyed on exotic mollusks, Dreissena spp., which are swallowed intact and subsequently crushed in its muscular stomach. Whether Diporeia was abundant (1992) or scarce (1999), selection indices for Diporeia by slimy sculpins was positive, suggesting that Diporeia was a preferred prey. Unlike lake whitefish, slimy sculpins avoided Dreissena; therefore, energy diverted to Dreissena production was a real loss for slimy sculpins. The shifts in the diet of these benthic fishes corresponded with drastic changes in the benthic community between 1992 and 1999. The collapse of Diporeia, formerly the most abundant macroinvertebrate in the benthic community, along with sharp declines in the abundance of Oligochaeta and Sphaeriidae, coincided with the establishment and rapid expansion of Dreissena bugensis, the quagga mussel, and to a lesser degree Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. It appears that the Diporeia population first collapsed at depths >70 m in southeastern Lake Ontario by autumn 1992, at shallower depths in the eastern Lake Ontario by 1995, and along the entire south shore line at depths 100 m by 1999. In response to the disappearance of Diporeia, populations of two native benthivores, slimy sculpin and lake whitefish, collapsed in eastern Lake Ontario, perhaps due in part to starvation, because Diporeia was their principal prey. Presently, alternative food resources do not appear sufficient to sustain these two benthivores at their former levels of abundance. We do not expect slimy

  6. Integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed (Ontario, Canada) as a socio-ecological system. (United States)

    Neumann, Alex; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Perhar, Gurbir; Arhonditsis, George B


    Striving for long-term sustainability in catchments dominated by human activities requires development of interdisciplinary research methods to account for the interplay between environmental concerns and socio-economic pressures. In this study, we present an integrative analysis of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada, as viewed from the perspective of a socio-ecological system. Key features of our analysis are (i) the equally weighted consideration of environmental attributes with socioeconomic priorities and (ii) the identification of the minimal number of key socio-hydrological variables that should be included in a parsimonious watershed management framework, aiming to establish linkages between urbanization trends and nutrient export. Drawing parallels with the concept of Hydrological Response Units, we used Self-Organizing Mapping to delineate spatial organizations with similar socio-economic and environmental attributes, also referred to as Socio-Environmental Management Units (SEMUs). Our analysis provides evidence of two SEMUs with contrasting features, the "undisturbed" and "anthropogenically-influenced", within the Lake Simcoe watershed. The "undisturbed" cluster occupies approximately half of the Lake Simcoe catchment (45%) and is characterized by low landscape diversity and low average population density watershed management practices and provides directions in order to promote environmental programs for lake conservation and to increase public awareness and engagement in stewardship initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...


    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  9. Hydroelectric project EA's [environmental assessments]: The Magpie development in northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, K.


    Great Lakes Power recently constructed a hydroelectric plant on the Magpie River near Wawa, Ontario. The project involved three main elements: construction of a 33 m high dam, a 15.5 MW power station, and a spillway at Steephill Falls; construction of a 3.5 m high overflow weir just above the crest of scenic Magpie Falls, creating a head pond to supply a 15 MW power plant; and construction of a weir and 15 MW power plant at Mission Falls. Although this was a private development and therefore not automatically subject to Ontario's Environmental Assessment Act, Great Lakes Power decided to conform with the act's requirements and undertook a comprehensive environmental assessment (EA). Environmental issues were focused on changes in hydrology and water quality, impacts on fisheries and natural resources, slope stability and erosion, socioeconomic impacts, impacts on heritage resources, and impacts on tourism and recreation. The project was approved subject to conditions which included implementation of mitigation and monitoring requirements outlined in the EA document. Environmental specialists worked closely with the engineers at the detailed design stage of the project, resulting in modifications to the preliminary design to minimize environmental impacts

  10. Radionuclide levels in vegetation growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pave, N.K.; Cloutier, N.R.; Lim, T.P.


    In Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, most of the inactive uranium tailings have been reclaimed by revegetation where a thick vegetation cover has been established. The surface amendments have also prompted volunteer growth of various species of local trees and shrubs on tailings. Radionuclide levels were measured in various tissues of grasses, legumes and trees growing on uranium tailings at different sites. Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  11. Jarosite formation in the uranium processing circuit of Denison Mines Limited, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrizac, J.E.


    Jarosite precipitation occurs in several parts of the uranium processing circuit of Denison Mines Limited, Elliot Lake, Ontario. Extensive precipitation of jarosite takes place in the filter cloth and on the drum face of the secondary drum filters, and this precipitation causes severe operating difficulties. Precipitation of jarosite is also observed in the ion exchange beads, but it is not known whether the jarosite is responsible for the observed decrease in resin efficiency. The resin beads are also rimmed with significant quantities of silica, lead, phosphate, sulphate, etc. which could be responsible for the fouling of the resin. In every instance, potassium jarosite, containing only minor amounts of sodium or ammonium, was the observed species; the potassium likely originates from the acid leaching of muscovite in the ore. Potential methods of avoiding the jarosite problem are discussed, but these may not be compatible with the overall process requirements

  12. Further study on source parameters at Quirke Mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.


    A further analysis on source parameters for thirty-seven mining-induced seismic events at Quirke Mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, has been carried out to study the self-similarity assumption in scaling law of seismic spectrum for mining-induced microearthquakes, and to understand the focal mechanism in the mine. Evidence from high P-wave energy in a ratio E p /E s of 5% to 30%, and about 80% of the events with E s /E p L ). For the same total seismic energy, the apparent stress is limited by 80 GN.m and 800 GN.m of seismic moment. The observed stress drop is dependent on the seismic moment, which implies a breakdown in scaling law for events induced by mining. An analysis of peak particle velocity and acceleration presents the evidence for seismic attenuation over the fractured zone above the rock burst area in the mine

  13. Structural contour, isopach and feature maps of quaternary sediments in Western Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.F.M.; King, E.L.; Todd, B.J.; Blasco, S.M.


    A systematic high-resolution acoustic reconnaissance survey of Quaternary sediments (> 50 m thick, in places) and the underlying bedrock surface was completed for western Lake Ontario between Burlington and Port Hope, Ontario, to determine if geophysical lineaments through the area of Pickering and Darlington nuclear power stations are potentially seismically active. A total of 2530 line-km of data were obtained along N-S and E-W lines spaced 10 and 5 km respectively, using a high-resolution subbottom profiler (boomer and IKB-SEISTEC), a 100 kHz sidescan sonar (150-m range) with 3.5 kHz profiler, a 10 or 40 cu. in. sleeve gun seismic reflection system, and, intermittently, a marine magnetometer. Six piston cores up to 15-m long were collected to compare sediment lithology with key regional seismic reflectors. Sediments deposited over the past 13,000 years were imaged with vertical resolution in the order of 10-30 cm just below the lakebed and less than 1 m at the bedrock surface; resolution for the sleeve gun system is approximately 3-5 m. Digital processing and rescaling of selected seismic profiles aided interpretation. Structural contour maps for three Quaternary sequence boundaries and the bedrock surface were generated together with the related sequence isopach maps. Three additional maps portray lakebed features identified on sidescan sonar records and subsurface features identified on seismic profiles. All maps are at 1:250,000 scale. (author). 2 tabs., 48 figs., 12 maps


    This recent publication uses data from EPA's long-term Great Lakes monitoring programs and data from Environment Canada to investigate Dreissenid impacts on calcium concentrations and summer water clarity in Lake Ontario. Since the dreissenid invasion of the lower Great Lakes, c...

  15. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the Western Lake Ontario Region -relocation of the seismic events phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, A.A.


    Earthquake hazard analysis in Canada relies mainly on recorded earthquake data. The ability to record earthquakes of a given magnitude has varied considerably over time as has the accuracy of location determinations. Recomputation of earthquake locations has been suggested as a possible means of improving the existing data base for better definition of seismic sources. In this study, the locations of more than 50 small to moderate magnitude earthquakes (M≤5), in the western Lake Ontario region, were examined. Available seismograph records in the Record Centre of the National Archives of Canada were examined for events that occurred prior to 1978. The events recorded after this date showed increasing accuracy in their location determinations due to initiation and improvements of the Eastern Canada Telemetry Network (ECTN). Data compiled from the study are based on the relocated and/or selected events with the minimum travel time residuals at the Canadian and American stations. Except for a few scattered events in the south-central part of the Lake Ontario region, microearthquakes (M<3.5) cluster along or at the intersection of prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, within the Toronto-Hamilton Seismic Zone. This is indicative of certain seismotectonic relationships in this region. The depth distribution or the better located events show that a range of 5 to 20 km is dominant and, therefore, they are not near-surface stress relief phenomena. However, details of the structural manifestation of inferred seismogenic features need further ground truthing, backed by long term seismic monitoring. (author) 66 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  16. The deep chlorophyll layer in Lake Ontario: Extent, mechanisms of formation, and abiotic predictors (United States)

    Scofield, Anne E.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.; Rudstam, Lars G.


    Epilimnetic production has declined in Lake Ontario, but increased production in metalimnetic deep chlorophyll layers (DCLs) may compensate for these losses. We investigated the spatial and temporal extent of DCLs, the mechanisms driving DCL formation, and the use of physical variables for predicting the depth and concentration of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) during April–September 2013. A DCL with DCM concentrations 2 to 3 times greater than those in the epilimnion was present when the euphotic depth extended below the epilimnion, which occurred primarily from late June through mid-August. In situ growth was important for DCL formation in June and July, but settling and photoadaptation likely also contributed to the later-season DCL. Supporting evidence includes: phytoplankton biovolume was 2.4 × greater in the DCL than in the epilimnion during July, the DCL phytoplankton community of July was different from that of May and the July epilimnion (p = 0.004), and there were concurrences of DCM with maxima in fine particle concentration and dissolved oxygen saturation. Higher nutrient levels in the metalimnion may also be a necessary condition for DCL formation because July metalimnetic concentrations were 1.5 × (nitrate) and 3.5 × (silica) greater than in the epilimnion. Thermal structure variables including epilimnion depth, thermocline depth, and thermocline steepness were useful for predicting DCM depth; the inclusion of euphotic depth only marginally improved these predictions. However, euphotic depth was critical for predicting DCM concentrations. The DCL is a productive and predictable feature of the Lake Ontario ecosystem during the stratified period.

  17. The impact of acid deposition and forest harvesting on lakes and their forested catchments in south central Ontario: a critical loads approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Watmough


    Full Text Available The impact of acid deposition and tree harvesting on three lakes and their representative sub-catchments in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of south-central Ontario was assessed using a critical loads approach. As nitrogen dynamics in forest soils are complex and poorly understood, for simplicity and to allow comparison among lakes and their catchments, CLs (A for both lakes and forest soils were calculated assuming that nitrate leaching from catchments will not change over time (i.e. a best case scenario. In addition, because soils in the region are shallow, base cation weathering rates for the representative sub-catchments were calculated for the entire soil profile and these estimates were also used to calculate critical loads for the lakes. These results were compared with critical loads obtained by the Steady State Water Chemistry (SSWC model. Using the SSWC model, critical loads for lakes were between 7 and 19 meq m-2yr-1 higher than those obtained from soil measurements. Lakes and forests are much more sensitive to acid deposition if forests are harvested, but two acid-sensitive lakes had much lower critical loads than their respective forested sub-catchments implying that acceptable acid deposition levels should be dictated by the most acid-sensitive lakes in the region. Under conditions that assume harvesting, the CL (A is exceeded at two of the three lakes and five of the six sub-catchments assessed in this study. However, sulphate export from catchments greatly exceeds input in bulk deposition and, to prevent lakes from falling below the critical chemical limit, sulphate inputs to lakes must be reduced by between 37% and 92% if forests are harvested. Similarly, sulphate leaching from forested catchments that are harvested must be reduced by between 16 and 79% to prevent the ANC of water draining the rooting zone from falling below 0 μeq l-1. These calculations assume that extremely low calcium leaching losses (9–27 μeq l-1 from

  18. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.C.; Price, R.A.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Klimkiewicz, G.C.; McGuire, R.K.


    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. The format of each session involved invited presentations of relevant data followed by open presentations by participants, a general discussion focusing on the relevance of the presented information for seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario, then development of conclusions and recommendations. In the final session, the conclusions and recommendations were summarized and an open discussion was held to develop consensus. This report presents perspective summaries of the workshop technical sessions together with conclusions and recommendations prepared by the session chairs and the general chairman. 2 refs

  19. Predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in Ontario and Quebec lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, M.D.; Collins, N.C.; Purchase, C.F. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Tremblay, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    In both North America and Europe, high levels of mercury have been reported in lakes that do not receive obvious point-source mercury inputs. Concern over high contaminant levels in waterfowl and fish have prompted several government-issued advisories on safe levels of fish and wildlife intake for humans. Although the primary source of mercury in pristine lakes is directly through atmospheric deposition or indirectly via terrestrial runoff, there can be large variations in mercury concentrations in organisms in neighbouring lakes. Therefore, factors other than atmospheric deposition must influence bioavailability and accumulation of mercury in aquatic organisms. For that reason, multivariate analyses on benthic invertebrate methylmercury concentrations and water chemistry from 12 Quebec water bodies were used to construct simple, predictive models of benthic invertebrate methylmercury in 23 lakes in Ontario and Quebec. The study showed that the primary means of mercury accumulation for organisms in higher trophic positions is dietary through the assimilation of organic forms of mercury, principally methylmercury. The data from 12 Quebec water bodies, revealed that benthic invertebrates in reservoirs have higher methylmercury than those in natural lakes, and methylmercury is generally higher in predatory invertebrates. Reservoir age was found to correlate with fish, benthic invertebrate methylmercury, and also with lake chemistry parameters such as pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of the study was to determine the appropriate level of taxonomic or functional resolution for generating benthic invertebrate methylmercury models, and to identify which environmental variables correlate most with benthic invertebrate methylmercury. Empirical models using these correlations were constructed and their predicted efficiency was tested by cross-validation. In addition, the effect of exposure to fish digestive enzymes on invertebrate methylmercury was

  20. Phytoplankton community responses to acidification of Lake 223, Experimental Lakes Area, Northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, D.L.; Kasian, S.E.


    From 1976 to 1983 the pH of Lake 223 was artificially lowered by additions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. From an initial level of 6.7, the pH was lowered at a rate of 0.5 pH units a year until it reached 5.0 and was held there for 3 yr. The decrease in pH caused major changes in the epilimnetic phytoplankton community in this lake. Biomass increased as pH decreased. Chlorophyte (Chlorella) abundance increased as pH decreased from 6.1 to 5.6 while Cyanophytes (Merismopedia and Chroococcus) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium and Peridinium) dominated once pH decreased below 5.6. Community diversities decreased because of these species shifts and a decrease in the number of species. The amount of edible biomass increased as the pH decreased from 6.7 to 5.6, then declined as pH decreased to 5.0. 25 refs.

  1. Competency assessment of microbiology medical laboratory technologists in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann


    Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program--Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant, all communicate results to staff, and most take remedial action to correct the deficiencies. Although most accredited laboratories have a program to assess the ongoing competency of their staff, the methods used are not standardized or consistently applied, indicating that there is room for improvement. The survey successfully highlighted potential areas for improvement and allowed the QMP-LS Microbiology Committee to provide guidance to Ontario laboratories for establishing or improving existing microbiology-specific competency assessment programs. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of the East Bay gold trend, Red Lake, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun; Camacho, Alfredo; Fayek, Mostafa; Epp, Mark; Spell, Terry L.; Armstrong, Richard


    The Red Lake greenstone belt is situated in northwestern Ontario within the Uchi Subprovince, Superior Province. Most gold deposits therein are associated with major deformation corridors; the east-west oriented "Mine trend" hosts most of the large deposits and the northeast-southwest "East Bay trend" hosts several small deposits and showings. Gold along the East Bay trend typically occurs in quartz replacement veins that were emplaced into pre-existing quartz-carbonate veins. Gold can occur as free gold or along vein margins associated with pyrite and pyrrhotite. Most primary fluid inclusions, preserved in relatively undeformed portions of veins, are carbonaceous with lesser quantities of aqueous inclusions. The average homogenization temperature of aqueous fluids is 250 °C; however, the abundance of three-phase inclusions, variation in liquid-vapor ratios, and a wide range in homogenization temperatures indicate that immiscibility, effervescence, and fluid mixing are mechanisms associated with gold deposition. The age ( 2550 Ma) of alteration minerals in the Abino area is considerably younger (by 100 Myr) than alteration minerals in other deposits in the Red Lake district, indicating that the mineralizing fluid history was more protracted than previously thought. Along the East Bay trend, barren veins generally have lower δ18OVSMOW values (0.0 to 8.5‰) relative to auriferous veins (9.6 and 13.1‰). Consequently, the oxygen isotopic composition of quartz could be used as a vector for gold mineralization. The genetic model for the East Bay trend involves several stages of vein formation. Auriferous veins formed near the upper boundary of the mesozonal regime (depth of 5-6 km).

  3. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Flame Retardant in Top Predator Fish across Canada and its 36-Year Temporal Trends for Lake Ontario. (United States)

    Su, Guanyong; McGoldrick, Daryl; Clark, Mandi G; Evans, Marlene; Gledhill, Melissa; Garron, Christine; Armellin, Alain; Backus, Sean; Letcher, Robert J


    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a high concern environmental pollutant due to its persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. The spatial distribution of HBCDD was investigated in top predator fish (Lake Trout, Walleye or Brook Trout) collected in 2013 (n=165) from nineteen sampling sites and in 2015 (n=145) from twenty sites across Canada. HBCDD was measurable in at least one sample at each sampling site regardless of sampling year with the exception of Walleye from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg (2013). Sampling sites in or near the Laurentian Great Lakes had greater HBCDD concentrations compared to locations to the west or east. The greatest mean HBCDD concentration was 72.6 ng/g lw in fish from Lake Huron-Goderich (2015). Regardless of the sampling sites, α-HBCDD was the dominant congener followed by γ-HBCDD, whereas β-HBCDD was barely detectable. In fish from the same waterbody there were comparable α/γ isomer concentration ratios. The greatest ratio was 20.8 in fish from Lake Ontario, whereas the lowest ratio was 6.3 for fish from Lac Memphrémagog (Québec) likely related to more recent emissions of technical HBCDD mixture. Temporal trends of HBCDD in Lake Trout from Lake Ontario showed a significant decreasing trend for γ-HBCDD with a half-life estimate of 10 years over a 36-year period (1979-2015), and for -HBCDD with a half-life of 11 years over the years of 2008 to 2015. The proportion of α-HBCDD to ΣHBCDD increased significantly during 1979 to 2015. The present study provided novel information on the isomer-specific HBCDDs in Canada freshwater fish.

  4. Expanded spatial extent of the Medieval Climate Anomaly revealed in lake-sediment records across the boreal region in northwest Ontario. (United States)

    Laird, Kathleen R; Haig, Heather A; Ma, Susan; Kingsbury, Melanie V; Brown, Thomas A; Lewis, C F Michael; Oglesby, Robert J; Cumming, Brian F


    Multi-decadal to centennial-scale shifts in effective moisture over the past two millennia are inferred from sedimentary records from six lakes spanning a ~250 km region in northwest Ontario. This is the first regional application of a technique developed to reconstruct drought from drainage lakes (open lakes with surface outlets). This regional network of proxy drought records is based on individual within-lake calibration models developed using diatom assemblages collected from surface sediments across a water-depth gradient. Analysis of diatom assemblages from sediment cores collected close to the near-shore ecological boundary between benthic and planktonic diatom taxa indicated this boundary shifted over time in all lakes. These shifts are largely dependent on climate-driven influences, and can provide a sensitive record of past drought. Our lake-sediment records indicate two periods of synchronous signals, suggesting a common large-scale climate forcing. The first is a period of prolonged aridity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, c. 900-1400 CE). Documentation of aridity across this region expands the known spatial extent of the MCA megadrought into a region that historically has not experienced extreme droughts such as those in central and western north America. The second synchronous period is the recent signal of the past ~100 years, which indicates a change to higher effective moisture that may be related to anthropogenic forcing on climate. This approach has the potential to fill regional gaps, where many previous paleo-lake depth methods (based on deeper centrally located cores) were relatively insensitive. By filling regional gaps, a better understanding of past spatial patterns in drought can be used to assess the sensitivity and realism of climate model projections of future climate change. This type of data is especially important for validating high spatial resolution, regional climate models. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An assessment of the environmental benefits of demand management for the province of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagiannakos, T.; Fordyce, A.; Boone, C.; Gooder, B.; Camacho, F.


    This study focused on the environmental impacts of fossil-fired generation that is expected to be displaced by electrical efficiency improvement programs and higher efficiency standards in the province on Ontario by the year 2000. Air emission dispersions were modelled by generating station. The impacts of air emission reductions on human mortality, human morbidity, building materials, agricultural crops, forests and lakes and fisheries were quantified using dose-response functions taken from the literature or estimated for the province of Ontario. Environmental impacts were monetized using cost data specific to Ontario. The final outcome was an estimate of the environmental benefits associated with emission reductions in fossil-fuelled power plants due to efficiency improvements in electricity use in the province of Ontario. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Fractures and fracture infillings of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton, Atikokan, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Denver; Kamineni, D.C.


    Fractures in the Eye-Dashwa pluton near Atikokan, Ontario can be subdivided on the basis of their filling materials. These materials include aplite, epidote, chlorite, and gypsum-carbonate-clay, listed in order of decreasing age established from crosscutting relations. Textues indicate that infilling occurred during fracture growth. Continuous cooling of the pluton during fracturing is inferred from the expected crystallization temperatures of fillings. Fracturing began before the pluton was completely solidified (650-600 0 C) and continued to temperatures below 100 0 C. Many fractures appear to have been sealed by the filling materials after initiation but were subsequently sheared and filled by lower temperatue materials. Apparently the majority of fractures formed during or immediately after pluton solidification and new fractures became smaller and more restricted in location as cooling progressed. Fractures and filling materials are seen as important features in assessing the possibility of movement of radionuclides in aqueous solutions away from a nuclear fuel waste repository

  7. Erosional dynamics and morphological analysis along the southeastern Lake Ontario shoreline, New York state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, D.M.; Pinet, P.R.; McClennen, C.E.; Knotts, K.A.


    Glacial drumlins, trending near perpendicular to the southeastern shore of Lake Ontario, display two distinct forms of coastal erosion. Some drumlins are eroding into beachfront bluffs that feature amphitheater-shaped gullies with steep headwalls and moderately sloping floors, separated by narrow, resistant, steep-sided ridges. Other drumlins of similar till composition, vegetative cover, and wave exposure are eroding into bluff's characterized by steep, planar (i.e., ungullied) surfaces. Aerial photograph and topographic analyses, combines with field observations, clearly indicate that the dominant factors controlling these morphological differences are bluff height and the manner of erosional retreat. The large volume of sediments supplied to the base of high (>30 m) bluffs creates broad (≤15 m) and thick (≤2 m) colluvial terraces between the beach and bluff base. Except during severe storms, these colluvial deposits reduce or prevent wave undercutting of the cliff base and subsequent slumping of the cliff face. This results in channeling and headward erosion of the bluff faces that, in time, evolve into a deeply incensed (>10 m) gully system. In contrast, at the base of low (<20 m) bluffs, colluvial beach terraces are smaller (≤10 m broad; <0.5 m thick) or nonexistent because the rate of wave erosion exceeds the rate of sediment supply from the bluffs. Thus, the gullying effects of surface water runoff, mud flows, rain and wind attack, so influential on high bluffs, are overwhelmed by the frequency of the slumping and sliding processes, producing planar morphologies on low-lying bluffs. Drumlin bluffs of intermediate height are affected by both slumping and gullying processes, and tend to develop a quasi-planar channeled surface

  8. Diet shift of double-crested cormorants in eastern Lake Ontario associated with the expansion of the invasive round goby (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair


    The proliferation of the invasive round goby (Apollonia melanostoma) in the Great Lakes has caused shifts in the trophic ecology in some areas. We examined the diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritas) prior to, and immediately after, round goby population expansion at two colonies, Pigeon and Snake Islands, in eastern Lake Ontario from 1999 to 2007. Cormorant diet was determined from the examination of 10,167 pellets collected over the nine-year period. By the second year round gobies were found in the diet (2002 at Snake Island and 2003 at Pigeon Island) they were the main species consumed by cormorants at each colony. The dominance of round goby in cormorant diets had a significant effect on both daily fish consumption and seasonal trends in fish consumption compared to the pre-goby years. Seasonal differences that were observed during the pre-goby years were lost once gobies became the main diet component of cormorants. The rapid switch to a benthic prey such as round goby, from a largely limnetic fish diet demonstrates the adaptive foraging ability of cormorants. Round goby may act as a buffer for yellow perch and smallmouth bass, two sport fish impacted by cormorant predation in eastern Lake Ontario.

  9. Report on investigation of remedial measures for the radiation reduction and radioactive decontamination of Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the fourth annual report on a program to monitor and reduce radon daughter exposures in the town of Elliot Lake, Ontario. Twelve month's WL survey measurements were completed in 1980 and showed that 22 houses exceeded the remedial action criterion of 0.02 WL. In a few cases gamma radiation levels were high enough to require remedial action in driveways and public areas, but not inside houses. During 1980 remedial work was carried out on 85 buildings; work was completed on 58. The most frequent routes of entry for radon and radon daughters were untrapped weeping tile connected to a floor drain or sump, and the wall to floor joint

  10. Quantification of virus genes provides evidence for seed-bank populations of phycodnaviruses in Lake Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Short, Cindy M; Rusanova, Oksana; Short, Steven M


    Using quantitative PCR, the abundances of six phytoplankton viruses DNA polymerase (polB) gene fragments were estimated in water samples collected from Lake Ontario, Canada over 26 months. Four of the polB fragments were most related to marine prasinoviruses, while the other two were most closely related to cultivated chloroviruses. Two Prasinovirus-related genes reached peak abundances of >1000 copies ml(-1) and were considered 'high abundance', whereas the other two Prasinovirus-related genes peaked at abundances bank populations with members that can become numerically dominant when their host abundances reach appropriate levels.

  11. Use of the emergency room in Elliot Lake, a rural community of Northern Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Harris, L; Bombin, M; Chi, F; DeBortoli, T; Long, J


    There is ample documentation that use of hospital emergency facilities for reasons other than urgencies/emergencies results in clogged services in many urban centers. However, little has been published about similar misuse of emergency rooms/departments in rural and remote areas, where the situation is usually compounded by a scarcity of healthcare professionals. In Canada there is a shortage of physicians in rural and remote areas as a consequence of misdistribution (most physicians staying in southern urban centers after residence), and there is a chronic misuse of facilities meant for urgencies/emergencies to cope with primary healthcare needs. We address the problem in Elliot Lake, a rural Northern Ontario community of 12,000 people. The economy of Elliot Lake was based on uranium mining until the mid-1990s, when it drastically changed to become a center for affordable retirement and recreational tourism. As a consequence, at the present time the proportion of seniors in Elliot Lake doubles the Canadian average. Our objectives are to elucidate the demographics of emergency room (ER) clients and the effect of the elderly population; the nature of ER use; the perceived level of urgency of clients versus health professionals; and possible alternatives offered to non-urgent/emergency visits. This is the first study of the kind in Northern Ontario, a region the size of France. The study, conducted in July 2001, used a prospective survey, completed by patients and attending clinicians at the time of a patient's presentation to the ER of St Joseph's General Hospital. This hospital is staffed by family physicians, a nurse practitioner, and registered nurses (RNs). The catchment area population (town plus surrounding areas) of the hospital is approximately 18,000 people. ER clients were interviewed verbally, and the attending health professionals responded to written questionnaires. Demographics were recorded (age, sex, employment and marital status), as was each client

  12. Effect of stock size, climate, predation, and trophic status on recruitment of alewives in Lake Ontario, 1978-2000 (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert; Lantry, Brian F.; Schneider, Clifford P.


    The population of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario is of great concern to fishery managers because alewives are the principal prey of introduced salmonines and because alewives negatively influence many endemic fishes. We used spring bottom trawl catches of alewives to investigate the roles of stock size, climate, predation, and lake trophic status on recruitment of alewives to age 2 in Lake Ontario during 1978–2000. Climate was indexed from the temperature of water entering a south-shore municipal treatment plant, lake trophic status was indexed by the mean concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in surface water in spring, and predation was indexed by the product of the number of salmonines stocked and relative, first-year survival of Chinook salmonOncorhynchus tshawytscha. A Ricker-type parent–progeny model suggested that peak production of age-1 alewives could occur over a broad range of spawning stock sizes, and the fit of the model was improved most by the addition of terms for spring water temperature and winter duration. With the addition of the two climate terms, the Ricker model indicated that when water was relatively warm in spring and the winter was relatively short, peak potential production of young was nine times higher than when water temperature and winters were average, and 73 times higher than when water was cold in spring and winters were long. Relative survival from age 1 to recruitment at age 2 was best described by a multiple linear regression with terms for adult abundance, TP, and predation. Mean recruitment of age-2 fish in the 1978–1998 year-classes predicted by using the two models in sequence was only about 20% greater than the observed mean recruitment. Model estimates fit the measured data exceptionally well for all but the largest four year-classes, which suggests that the models will facilitate improvement in estimates of trophic transfer due to alewives.

  13. contaminant migration in a sand aquifer near an inactive uranium tailings impoundment, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, K.A.; Cherry, J.A.


    An investigation of the movement of contaminated groundwater from inactive uranium tailings through a sand aquifer is being conducted at the Nordic Main tailings impoundment near Elliot Lake, Ontario. During 1979 and 1980, multilevel bundle-type piezometers were installed at several locations around the edge of the tailings impoundment. Chemical analysis of water samples from the bundle piezometers indicate that a major contaminant plume extends outward through a sand aquifer from the southeastern part of the Nordic Main impoundment dam. In the vincinity of the contaminant plume, the sand aquifer varies in thickness from about 9 to 15 m. The plume has two distinct segments, referred to as the inner core and the outer zone. The inner core, which has a pH of 4.3-5.0 and extends about 15 m from the foot of the tailings dam, contains several grams per litre of iron and sulfate, and tens of pCi/L of 226 Ra and 210 Pb. Water levels in piezometers within the inner core show that groundwater is moving horizontally, away from the tailings impoundment, with a velocity of up to several hundred metres per year. The outer zone, which extends a few hundred metres downgradient from the dam, is characterized by hundreds to thousands of milligrams per litre of iron and sulfate, less than 15pCi/L of 226 Ra, and a pH greater than 5.7. Comparison of 1979 and 1980 data shows that the front of the inner core is advancing a few metres per year, which is less than a few percent of the groundwater velocity. This retardation of movement of the inner core is caused by neutralization of the acidic water as a result of dissolution of calcium carbonate in the sand. With the rise in pH, precipitation of iron carbonate and possibly some iron hydroxide occurs and the contaminants of main concern such as 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and uranium are removed from solution by adsorption or coprecipitation

  14. Modelling the long term impact of climate change on the carbon budget of Lake Simcoe, Ontario using INCA-C. (United States)

    Oni, S K; Futter, M N; Molot, L A; Dillon, P J


    This study presents a process-based model of dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) in catchments draining into Lake Simcoe, Ontario. INCA-C, the Integrated Catchment model for Carbon, incorporates carbon biogeochemical processes in a terrestrial system with hydrologic flow paths to simulate watershed wide [DOC]. The model successfully simulates present-day inter-annual and seasonal [DOC] dynamics in tributaries draining catchments with mixed or contrasting land cover in the Lake Simcoe watershed (LSW). The sensitivity of INCA-C to soil moisture, hydrologic controls and land uses within a watershed demonstrates its significance as a tool to explore pertinent environmental issues specific to the LSW. Projections of climate change under A1B and A2 SRES scenarios suggest a continuous monotonic increase in [DOC] in surface waters draining into Lake Simcoe. Large variations in seasonal DOC dynamics are predicted to occur during summer with a possibility of displacement of summer [DOC] maxima towards winter and a prolongation of summer [DOC] levels into the autumn. INCA-C also predicts possible increases in dissolved inorganic carbon in some tributaries with rising temperature suggesting increased CO(2) emissions from rivers as climate changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.


    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  16. Assessing the financial positions of Ontario's new electricity companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, T. (Standard and Poor' s, Toronto, ON (Canada))


    This paper describes the methodology, including the criteria factors, comparable ratings and key credit issues used in assessing the financial positions of Ontario Power Generation Inc., and the Ontario Hydro Services Company. The rating criteria factors include both business factors (such as ownership structure, regulation, service area, operations, management, etc.,) and financial factors (e.g. financial policies and guidelines, recent financial performance, margin analysis, capital structure and borrowing plans, financial projections and sensitivities). Key credit issues include considerations of competitive dynamics, nuclear portfolio performance (for Genco), regulatory changes, cost control, capital spending program, retail business exposure, future financial performance. Comparisons are made with corresponding positions of comparable entities in Australia, Finland, New Zealand, the UK, and the USA. In the case of Ontario Power Generation Inc., the company is assessed to have significant advantages initially, but various uncertainties over the medium term warrant a more cautious view of the credit profile. For the Ontario Hydro Services Company the business risks appear to be low and moderate leverage entails a strong, stable credit profile. The overall assessment of the two companies is that while certain questions such as the workability and credibility of the new industry structure, the problem of stranded debt and questions about the liquidity of market participants remain unsolved, Ontario Power Generation Inc., and the Ontario Hydro Services Company ratings compare favorably with ratings of global industry peers.

  17. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis


    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  18. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D.; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh


    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ("2"2"6Ra, "2"1"0Pb and "2"1"0Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that "2"1"0Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of "2"1"0Pb and "2"2"6Ra were below conventional detection limits, "2"1"0Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of "1"3"4Cs. An average "1"3"7Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of "1"3"7Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern. - Highlights: • "2"1"0Po is the dominant radionuclide measured in a total of 125 fish samples. The average activity concentration was 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). • Activity concentration of "2"1"0Po in fish showed a negative dependency on fish size. • While an average "1"3"7Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed, none of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable

  19. Radiochemical tools at the experimental lakes area (ELA) in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitzner, J.; Brunskill, G.


    Full text: For over 20 years, Canadian research scientists have used radiochemical tracers added to remote and pristine lakes to study physical, chemical, and biological processes that could not be easily quantified by other methods. Lakes have also been manipulated by experimentally altering the hydrological cycle, chemical composition, and species of fish in selected lakes, and using companion lakes as controls. Varying additions of organic carbon, N, and P have been done, and the exchange rate of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and water was estimated using radon evasion rates from radium spikes in the lake water. Multinuclide spikes were done to follow the path of mine waste elements through the food chain and sediment accumulation. Lakes were experimentally acidified with HCl and HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 to simulate acid rain, and to study natural buffering capacity of the hydrological cycle. Some of this research has been used to legislate pollution control in the St. Laurence Great Lakes and across Canada and USA. ELA research team spirit has survived several forest fires, bear attacks on the kitchen, massive cut-backs in funding and reduction in staff of Fisheries and Ocean Canada

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...


    Sediment box cores have frequently been used to determine organochlorine chemical loading histories of lakes and reservoirs. 137Cs and 210Pb radionuclide dating techniques are employed synchronously with chemical analyses of the contaminants for thin sections extruded from adjace...

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats along the nearshore of Lake Ontario. (United States)

    Ibsen, Michael; Fernando, Dinesh M; Kumar, Ayush; Kirkwood, Andrea E


    The alga Cladophora glomerata can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of Cladophora, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in Cladophora-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities, since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources. Statistically significant differences in aquatic bacterial abundance and ABR were found between down-gradient beach samples and up-gradient coastal wetland samples (ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test, p Cladophora sampled near the STP had the highest bacterial densities overall, including on ampicillin- and vancomycin-treated plates. However, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the ABR genes ampC, tetA, tetB, and vanA from environmental communities showed a different pattern. Some of the highest ABR gene levels occurred at the 2 coastal wetland sites (vanA). Overall, bacterial ABR profiles from environmental samples were distinguishable between living and decaying Cladophora, inferring that Cladophora may control bacterial ABR depending on its life-cycle stage. Our results also show how spatially and temporally dynamic ABR is in nearshore aquatic bacteria, which warrants further research.

  3. A Review of (Elementary) School Self-Assessment Processes: Ontario and Beyond (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Telfer, Leslie


    This review draws attention to issues related to school self-assessment. This process has been similarly implemented in a variety of jurisdictions globally in the past decade hence their inclusion herein as an attempt to understand the school self-assessment process which has also been developed for use in local Ontario (Canadian) elementary…

  4. Calcium and sodium as regulators of the recovery of four Daphnia species along a gradient of metal and base cations in metal contaminated lakes in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Patricia Celis-Salgado


    Full Text Available Smelting of sulphur-rich metallic ores in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, has caused acidification and metal contamination of thousands of lakes in the region. Recent reductions in smelter emissions have resulted in much ecological recovery, but the recovery of Daphnia species has been poor. To determine if Cu and Ni toxicity could explain differences in daphniid recovery among lakes, we compared results of 14 d static with renewal bioassays in waters from Blue Chalk Lake, an uncontaminated reference lake 200 km from Sudbury, and from five Sudbury lakes ranging in distance from the smelters and varying in metal and cation concentrations. We spiked Blue Chalk Lake water with Cu and Ni to levels resembling those of the Sudbury lakes and also tested the lake waters for toxicity. Survival of Daphnia pulex, D. pulicaria and D. mendotae decreased monotonically with increasing metal concentrations in the spiked Blue Chalk Lake treatments, falling from 90% in the controls to 0% at the two highest Cu and Ni levels, reflecting levels of Middle and Hannah lakes. In contrast, survival in waters collected from the actual Sudbury lakes did not monotonically track their total metal concentrations. Rather, survival fell to 0% in Clearwater Lake water, a lake with intermediate metal contamination (8.9 and 79.9 μg L–1 of Cu and Ni, respectively vs 70-100% in the other lakes. We performed an additional assay with Clearwater Lake waters increasing its Ca and Na concentrations, singly and in combination to levels that reflected the levels in Middle Lake. The survival of the four daphniid species increased from 0% up to 80-100% with added Ca and from 0% to 60-90% with added Na. Lipid-ovarian indices had a similar trend to survival for D. mendotae and D. pulicaria in Bioassay 1, varying with the cation concentrations in the lakes for the daphniids in Bioassay 2. The bioassays results imply that regional recovery patterns of daphniids in Sudbury lakes cannot be understood


    Sediment box cores have frequently been used to determine organochlorine chemical loading histories of lakes and reservoirs. ? Typical profiles for PCBs or DDT show concentrations that increase from around 1940 to 1970 and then decline to the present. Applying these data to retr...

  6. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Gaborit


    Full Text Available This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE  √  (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE  √  in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the

  7. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Xu, Xiaoyong; Seglenieks, Frank; Tolson, Bryan; Fry, Lauren M.; Hunter, Tim; Anctil, François; Gronewold, Andrew D.


    This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow) land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE) but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE √ (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows) is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE √ in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the complexity and computation burden of the

  8. An investigation of roof runoff during rain events at the Royal Military College of Canada and potential discharge to Lake Ontario. (United States)

    Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D; White, Steven D


    The Royal Military College of Canada, located on the north eastern shore of Lake Ontario, possesses an abundance of copper roofs and lacks surface water treatment prior to discharge into Lake Ontario. Rainwater, roof runoff and soil samples were collected and analyzed for copper and other parameters. Copper was consistently detected in runoff samples with average concentrations of 3200 +/- 2100 microg/L. Multivariable linear regression analysis for a dependant copper runoff concentration yielded an adjusted R2 value of 0.611, based on an independent variable model using minimum temperature, maximum temperature, total precipitation, and wind speed. Lake water samples taken in the vicinity of storm water outfalls draining areas with copper roofs ranged from 2.0 to 40 microg/L copper. Such data exceed the 2.0 microg/L Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life as outlined by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). Analysis of raw, filtered and digested forms suggested that the majority of copper present in runoff and lake water samples was in a dissolved form. The majority of soils taken in this study displayed copper concentrations below the 63 microg/g CCME residential/parkland land use limits. These findings suggested that ion exchange processes between runoff water and soil do not occur to a sufficient extent to elevate copper levels in soil. It may therefore be concluded that the eventual fate of copper, which is not discharged via storm water outfalls, is lost to the water table and Lake Ontario through the sub-soil.

  9. Cycling of acid and base cations in deciduous stands of Huntington Forest, New York, and Turkey Lakes, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, N W; Morrison, I K [Forestry Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Mitchell, M J [State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (USA); Shepard, J P [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (USA)


    Annual nutrient fluxes within two forests exposed to acidic deposition were compared for a 1-year period. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) was the dominant cation in throughfall and soil solutions from tolerant hardwood dominated Spodosols (Podzols) at both Huntington Forest (HF), New York, and the Turkey Lakes watershed (TLW), Ontario. There was a net annual export of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} from the TLW soil, whereas base cation inputs in precipitation equalled outputs at HF. In 1986, leaching losses of base cations were five times greater at TLW than at HF. A higher percentage of the base cation reserves was leached from the soil at TLW (5%) than at HF (1%). Relative to throughfall, aluminum concentrations increased in forest-floor and mineral-soil solutions, especially at HF. The TLW soil appears more sensitive to soil acidification. Deposited atmospheric acidity, however, was small in comparison with native soil acidity (total and exchangeable) and the reserves of base cations in each soil. Soil acidity and base saturation, therefore, are likely only to change slowly. 57 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Ra-226 concentrations in blueberries Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. near an inactive uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.


    Ra-226 concentrations were measured in blueberries growing around the Stanrock uranium tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. Elevated levels of total Ra-226 ranging between 20 to 290 mBq g -1 were observed in samples collected within 500 m from the tailings. Highest levels, approx. 285 mBq g -1 , were observed in a sample collected on a tailings spill. For sites located more than 500 m away in the upwind direction, and those situated at distances greater than 1 km downwind from the waste pile, the total Ra-226 concentrations approached background levels which were measured as 2 to 6 mBq g -1 . Approximately 17% of the total Ra-226 measured was removable by washing the samples with distilled water. Wind dispersal of the tailings material and its deposition in the form of dust on blueberries was believed to be responsible for the external contamination. Based on the ICRP recommended dose limits for oral intake of Ra-226, it was calculated that approximately 160 kg a -1 , 3350 kg a -1 and 47 kg a -1 of washed blueberries from inside and outside the influenced zone, and from the tailings spill site, respectively, would need to be consumed before the individual annual limit for the general public was exceeded. (author)

  11. Uranium budget of the Thames River, Ontario, Great Lakes Region: partitioning between dissolved and microorganism components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, H.; Fyfe, W.S.


    The average level of dissolved U in the Thames River of southern Ontario is 1.45 ± 0.61 ppb, representing about twice the global mean riverine U solute concentration of 0.6 ppb. Systematic seasonal variations of dissolved U occur, peaking over the fall and winter months September-February, contrasting with depressed levels during the spring and summer: the winter and fall peaks correlate with higher discharge rates during thawing and rainfall maxima respectively, and the peak during thawing is probably indigenous to a transient melt-water surge. Whereas variations in discharge rate of up to 100-fold occur over a year, the magnitude of differences in aqueous U are at most a factor of 2, such that the U supply to the river is over-compensated for by extra water in the river system. Algae are abundant in Thames River waters at all seasons, constituting a significant fraction of the suspended > 0.45-μm particulates: they have enhanced U contents of 10 3 -10 5 times that of the river water, and an average of 28,000 ppb U. The average weight of suspended algae in river water is 9.7 mg l -1 (± 6.6 1σ), and these microorganisms carry ∼ 15% of the total riverine U flux. A correlation exists between levels of dissolved U and the U abundance of suspended algae, implying a relatively uniform partitioning of U between algae and water of 2x10 4 . 13 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. 18-month outlook : An assessment of the adequacy of the Ontario electricity system from January 2002 to June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) has monitored the state of electricity demand and available supply in Ontario and has reported its findings to the Minister of Energy, Science and Technology and to the Ontario Energy Board. This report presents the IMO's assessment of the adequacy of resources and transmission for the Ontario electricity system for the 18-month period from January 2002 to June 2003. The assessment was based on current information on forecasts of electricity demand and available supply. The existing installed generation within Ontario was summarized. Existing power facilities include nuclear, coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, wind-powered, wood and waste-fuelled generation. The installations range from less than 1 MW in size to 881 MW net electrical output. The total generating capacity in Ontario is 29,523 MW, excluding embedded generators that are not managed by the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation or generation not connected to the IMO-controlled grid. In addition, the Bruce Nuclear Unit was not included because it is currently in laid-up state. This report discussed changes from the previous 18-month outlook in terms of power demand. It also presented outlooks of the transmission outage plan, system voltage, thermal concerns and forced outages. The general conclusion reached in this report is that there will be sufficient resources and transmission available to Ontario to supply Ontario demands and to meet the Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC) resource criteria for the next 18 months. tabs., figs

  13. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU


    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  14. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.


    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  15. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cheng


    Full Text Available Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA, northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, mercury bound to fine airborne particles (<2.5 μm (PHg, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM, photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM, road-salt particles with absorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM, crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  16. Radionuclide uptake by various plants growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.


    Detectable levels of Ra-226 (0.2 to 27.6 pCi/g), Ra-223 (<= 0.1 to 4.3 pCi/g) and Pb-210 (0.6 to 6.9 pCi/g) were measured in various species of vegetation growing on various uranium tailings in Elliot Lake. On the other hand levels of Th-232 (<= 0.1 pCi/g), Th-230 (<= 0.1 pCi/g) were near detection limits in the same vegetation samples. In tailings substrates, all radionuclides investigated were detectable: Ra-226 (8.8 to 552 pCi/g), Ra-223 (3.1 to 213 pCi/g), Pb-210 (5.4 to 441 pCi/g), Th-232 (1.6 to 15.4 pCi/g), Th-230 (4.9 to 62 pCi/g) and Th-228 (1.3 to 38 pCi/g). Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  17. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattle, Robert


    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  18. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Recorded proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario was conducted on June 19-21, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources; Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information. Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources. Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents transcripts from recordings made of the presentations and discussion from the workshop. It will be noted, in some sections of the document, that the record is incomplete. This is due in part to recording equipment malfunction and in part due to the poor quality of recording obtained for certain periods.

  19. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Recorded proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario was conducted on June 19-21, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources; Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information. Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources. Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents transcripts from recordings made of the presentations and discussion from the workshop. It will be noted, in some sections of the document, that the record is incomplete. This is due in part to recording equipment malfunction and in part due to the poor quality of recording obtained for certain periods

  20. Evaluating the potential for scoping in the Ontario environmental assessment process. Manuscript report No. MR23-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattrysse, L F


    Boundary setting and focusing were identified as problems encountered in the Halton Region environmental assessment (EA) study and in other experiences with the Ontario process. This study was conducted to examine the nature of the problems encountered in the Ontario EA process using the Halton Region EA example; evaluate the potential for utilizing the Everitt and Colnett (1987) scoping method with the Ontario EA process according to the set of normative principles adapted from Ross et al. (1986); and establish some fundamental problems and prerequisites for operationalizing scoping mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of hydrological features of portions of the Lake Ontario basin using Skylab and aircraft data (United States)

    Polcyn, F. C. (Principal Investigator); Rebel, D. L.; Colwell, J. E.


    The author has identified the following significant results. S190A and S190B photography proved to be useful for mapping large scale geomorophological features, and for assessing water depth and water quality. Available S192 data were affected by low frequency noise caused by diode light. Hydrological features were classified, and upland green herbaceous vegetation was separated into several classes based on percent vegetation cover. A model for estimating surface soil moisture based on red and near infrared reflectance data was developed and subsequently implemented.

  2. The impacts of future climate change and sulphur emission reductions on acidification recovery at Plastic Lake, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aherne


    Full Text Available Climate-induced drought events have a significant influence on sulphate export from forested catchments in central Ontario, subsequently delaying the recovery of surface waters from acidification. In the current study, a model chain that employed a statistical downscaling model, a hydrological model and two hydrochemical models was used to forecast the chemical recovery of Plastic Lake sub-catchment 1 (PC1 from acidification under proposed deposition reductions and the A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Any predicted recovery in stream acid neutralising capacity and pH owing to deposition reductions were clearly offset by large acid effluxes from climate-induced drought events. By 2100, ANC is predicted to show large variations ranging between 10 and −30 μmolc L−1. Similarly, predicted pH in 2100 is lower (>0.05 of a pH unit than the value simulated for 2000 (pH 4.35. Despite emission reductions, the future scenario paints a bleak picture of reacidification at PC1 to levels commensurate with those of the late 1970s. The principal process behind this reacidification is the oxidation of previously stored (reduced sulphur compounds in wetlands during periods of low-flow (or drought, with subsequent efflux of sulphate upon re-wetting. Simulated catchment runoff under the A2 emissions scenario predictes increased intensity and frequency of low-flow events from approximately 2030 onwards. The Integrated Catchments model for Carbon indicated that stream DOC concentrations at PC1 will also increase under the future climate scenario, with temperature being the principal driver. Despite the predicted (significant increase in DOC, pH is not predicted to further decline (beyond the climate-induced oxidation scenario, instead pH shows greater variability throughout the simulation. As echoed by many recent studies, hydrochemical models and model frameworks need to incorporate the drivers

  3. Conflict Management in Participatory Approaches to Water Management: A Case Study of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Furber


    Full Text Available The International Joint Commission (IJC has been involved in a 14-year effort to formulate a new water regulation plan for the Lake Ontario St. Lawrence River (“LOSLR” area that balances the interests of a diverse group of stakeholders including shipping and navigation, hydropower, environment, recreational boating, municipal and domestic water supply, First Nations, and shoreline property owners. It has embraced the principles of collaborative and participatory management and, applying a Shared Visioning Planning (SVP approach, has worked closely with stakeholders throughout all stages of this process; however, conflicts between competing stakeholders have delayed and complicated this effort. The overarching aim of this paper is to consider the extent to which the SVP approach employed by the IJC was effective in managing conflict in the LOSLR context. Audio recordings and transcriptions of public and technical hearings held by the IJC in 2013 have been systematically analysed using stakeholder mapping and content analysis methods, to gain insight into the stakeholder universe interacting with the IJC on Plan 2014.  The principal conclusions of this paper are that (a the Shared Vision Planning approach employed by the IJC had some significant successes in terms of conflict management—particularly notable is the success that has been achieved with regards to integration of First Nation concerns; (b there is a distinct group of shoreline property owners, based in New York State, who remain opposed to Plan 2014—the IJC’s public outreach and participation efforts have not been successful in reconciling their position with that of other stakeholders due to the fact that this stakeholder group perceive that they can only lose out from any regulation change and are therefore unlikely to be motivated to engage productively in any planning dialogue; and (c a solution would require that the problem be reframed so that this stakeholder can see

  4. 18 month outlook : an assessment of the adequacy of the Ontario electricity system from October 2001 to March 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    One of the responsibilities of Ontario's Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is to make sure that existing and proposed generation and transmission facilities can meet the province's energy needs. This report presents an assessment of the adequacy of resources and transmission for Ontario's electricity system for the 18 month period from October 2001 to March 2003. It is also meant to advise the Ontario Energy Board of any adverse conditions that might be avoided through adjustment or coordination of maintenance plans for generation and transmission equipment. The assessment is based on forecasts of electricity demand, available supply and capability of the existing transmission system. Outage plans of generators and transmitters were based on information as of August 3, 2001. An 18 month forecast of electricity demand for Ontario was presented along with the resources and transmission systems that are expected to be available during the study period. The overall assessment is that there will be sufficient resources and transmission available in Ontario to supply the predicted energy demand and to meet the specified reserve margins under the forecasted conditions. The report included graphs which depicted how the weekly peak Ontario demand plus a weekly reserve requirement can be met for each week of the Outlook timeframe. The resource adequacy assessment takes into account all types of weather conditions on a probabilistic basis. 16 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Great Lakes Bathymetry (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  6. Using Data From Ontario's Episode-Based Funding Model to Assess Quality of Chemotherapy. (United States)

    Kaizer, Leonard; Simanovski, Vicky; Lalonde, Carlin; Tariq, Huma; Blais, Irene; Evans, William K


    A new episode-based funding model for ambulatory systemic therapy was implemented in Ontario, Canada on April 1, 2014, after a comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy with providers and administrators. An analysis of the data from the first year of the new funding model provided an opportunity to assess the quality of chemotherapy, which was not possible under the old funding model. Options for chemotherapy regimens given with adjuvant/curative intent or palliative intent were informed by input from disease site groups. Bundles were developed and priced to enable evidence-informed best practice. Analysis of systemic therapy utilization after model implementation was performed to assess the concordance rate of the treatments chosen with recommended practice. The actual number of cycles of treatment delivered was also compared with expert recommendations. Significant improvement compared with baseline was seen in the proportion of adjuvant/curative regimens that aligned with disease site group-recommended options (98% v 90%). Similar improvement was seen for palliative regimens (94% v 89%). However, overall, the number of cycles of adjuvant/curative therapy delivered was lower than recommended best practice in 57.5% of patients. There was significant variation by disease site and between facilities. Linking funding to quality, supported by knowledge transfer and exchange, resulted in a rapid improvement in the quality of systemic treatment in Ontario. This analysis has also identified further opportunities for improvement and the need for model refinement.

  7. Ontario Hydro's DSP update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Ontario Hydro's Demand/Supply Plan (DSP), the 25 year plan which was submitted in December 1989, is currently being reviewed by the Environmental Assessment Board (EAB). Since 1989 there have been several changes which have led Ontario Hydro to update the original Demand/Supply Plan. This information sheet gives a quick overview of what has changed and how Ontario Hydro is adapting to that change

  8. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Doane, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.


    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations

  9. Benthic fauna of 41 acid sensitive headwater lakes in north central Ontario. [Chironomidae salinarius; Chironomidae anthracinus; Tanytarsini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, R.; Kelso, J.R.M.; Douglas, A.


    The benthic fauna of 41 nonhumic, soft water lakes situated north of lakes Superior and Huron were sampled during 1980. The pH range of the lakes sampled was 4.6 to 7.7. The benthic infauna displayed regional differences in abundance and composition, with large variation with each district. Total abundance, biomass, and number of taxa were not correlated with lake pH or alkalinity. The Chironomidae displayed a slight change in percent composition of the major species with lower pH. The Tanytarsini and Chironomus Salinarius group decreased, while C. anthracinus group increased in relative abundance in those lakes with lower pH. Other factors appear to control the distribution of the various invertebrate orders, with depth and sediment nature being important variables.

  10. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information

  11. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information.

  12. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.


    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  13. Heavy metal pollution assessment in the sediments of lake Chad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments were collected from Dumba and KwataYobe of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.The aim was to assess the pollution statusof the sediments of the lake. The concentration of heavy metals, Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Z (Zn) and Arsenic (As) were ...

  14. Market profile and conservation opportunity assessment for small businesses in Ontario : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report discussed the results of a study that analysed electric energy efficiency, fuel substitution and demand response (CDM) opportunities for small and medium-sized commercial enterprises (SME) in Ontario and made recommendations. The report first provided a market overview of the SME. It addressed the study methodology, building inventory, electricity use and performance, and interpretation of results. Next, the report provided market profiles of priority sub-sectors. These included: office, food retail, food service, shopping malls, as well as an interpretation of results. A stakeholder assessment and energy management opportunity assessment were then provided. Insight into the experience of other jurisdictions relating to energy conservation were also addressed. Last, the report presented recommendations. It was concluded that, the SME Commercial sector demonstrated good potential for energy conservation and demand management. tabs., figs.

  15. Ontario Power Generation's proposed L and ILW deep geologic repository: geo-scientific assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mark; Raven, Ken; Leech, Robert


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) on behalf of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has conducted multi-disciplinary geo-scientific studies at the Bruce nuclear site to confirm the suitability of the site to host a proposed Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L and ILW) from OPG owned or operated nuclear generating facilities. An Environmental Assessment for the proposed DGR is currently underway in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Bruce nuclear site, situated 225 km northwest of Toronto on the eastern shore of Lake Huron, is underlain by an 850 m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Devonian age near-horizontally layered, weakly deformed shales, carbonates and evaporites of the Michigan Basin. Within this sedimentary pile, the proposed DGR would be excavated within the low permeability argillaceous limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of 680 m, which is overlain by 200 m of Upper Ordovician shale formations (Figure 1). A key aspect of the DGR Safety Case is the predictable nature and long-term stability and integrity of the sedimentary sequence to contain and isolate L and ILW at time frames on the order of 1 Ma. Early in the project, geo-scientific studies that considered regional and site-specific public domain data sets indicated favourable geologic conditions for implementation of the DGR concept (Golder, 2003; Mazurek, 2004). Geo-scientific studies for the DGR were initiated in 2006 following decision by the Municipality of Kincardine to support the DGR concept. Geo-scientific activities were divided into two key areas; i) Site-specific geo-scientific studies of the Bruce nuclear site (i.e., Descriptive Geosphere Site Model); and ii) a Geo-synthesis to convey an understanding of past, present and future evolution of Geosphere enclosing the DGR relevant to communicating notions of

  16. Assessment of the estrogenic potency of effluents from petrochemical facilities and a petroleum refinery in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, J.P.; Trepanier, T.; Tinson, C.; Munro, S.


    Studies have shown that wastewater from refineries could induce vitellogenin (Vg) in juvenile rainbow trout. Vg is a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. This study reassessed the estrogenic potency of the wastewater from an Ontario refinery and assessed the estrogenicity of wastewater from 3 petrochemical facilities. A 21 day static renewal test was conducted to test the effluents and in which a competitive binding ELISA detected induced Vg. Statistical testing for tank effects was performed in a replicated tank design and the St. Clair River water from upstream industrial facilities was used as a negative reference. The positive control treatment was waterborne 17β-estradiol. Wastewater from the petroleum refinery induced Vg in the treated fish, but wastewater from the petrochemical effluents did not induce detectable levels of Vg in treated trout. The information obtained through this study will be used to determine the potential for responses in feral fish

  17. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou


    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang


    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  18. High-resolution lake sediment reconstruction of industrial impact in a world-class mining and smelting center, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Michael; Kamber, Balz S.


    Highlights: • High-resolution sampling of a lake-sediment core. • Resolution of historical events in a smelter-impacted area. • Perturbation of Cu and Ni in a sediment core. • Fingerprinting sediments and pollutants using Pb isotopes and trace elements. - Abstract: A lake sediment core from Vermillion Lake, Sudbury, Ontario was tightly sampled and analyzed for a wide range of trace elements as well as for Pb isotopes. The data resolve multiple historical events in the 140-a history of logging and mining in the Sudbury area in unprecedented detail. Lead-210 data, 137 Cs activity and historical information on the start of anthropogenic activities in the Sudbury area were combined to derive an age model for the sedimentary column. Using the age information, it is possible to identify sediment sections enriched and depleted in trace metal(loid)s, particularly Ni and Cu, the two most relevant metals in the Sudbury area. Maxima and minima in the chronology of Ni and Cu coincide well with local production values for both elements until environmental regulations in the 1990s resulted in a decrease in their emission and drainage into Vermillion Lake. Differences in the deposition rates of Ni and Cu, trace-metal distribution patterns throughout the sedimentary column, Pb-isotope data, and comparison with data for local rocks and ores in the Sudbury area were used to identify the sources of pollutants in the early and late periods of mining activities. In addition, the environmental impact on the sediment itself was also studied via the variation of water content and organic matter. Finally, a surficial Fe–Mn-enriched layer with elevated concentrations of the oxy-anions (PO 4 ) 3− , (AsO 4 ) 4− , and (MoO 4 ) 2− was identified. This can be distinguished from accumulation of Zn and an increase in the Y / Ho ratio in the upper core sections, which likely imply increasing drainage of fertilizers into the Vermillion River watershed. The chemistry, mineralogy, and

  19. Recent changes in mercury deposition and primary productivity inferred from sediments of lakes from the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazeau, Michelle L.; Poulain, Alexandre J.; Paterson, Andrew M.; Keller, Wendel; Sanei, Hamed; Blais, Jules M.


    Spatial and temporal changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations and organic carbon in lake sediments were examined from the Hudson Bay Lowlands to investigate whether Hg deposition to sediments is related to indicators of autochthonous production. Total organic carbon, “S2” carbon (mainly algal-derived OC), C:N and ∂ 13 C indicators suggest an increase in autochthonous productivity in recent decades. Up-core profiles of S2 concentrations and fluxes were significantly correlated with Hg suggesting that varying algal matter scavenging of Hg from the water column may play an important role in the temporal profiles of Hg throughout the sediment cores. Absence of significant relationship between total Hg and methyl Hg (MeHg) in surficial sediments suggested that inorganic Hg supply does not limit MeHg production. MeHg and OC were highly correlated across lakes in surface and deep sediment layers, indicating that sediment organic matter content explains part of the spatial variation in MeHg concentrations between lakes. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in sediment cores correlate with autochthonous organic production. ► Inorganic Hg supply in sediment does not limit MeHg production. ► Sediment methylmercury concentration is highly correlated with organic C content. - Increased mercury concentrations in lake sediment cores coincide with evidence of increased autochthonous production in lakes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada.

  20. Assessment of the economic impact of ozone on the agricultural sector in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallala, A.M.


    Ozone is the most damaging secondary pollutant to agricultural production, according to the literature. It is estimated that 90% of crop losses due to air pollution are caused by ozone. The economic impact of ozone on 20 agricultural commodities in Ontario is assessed in two steps. In the first, ozone contour maps are generated for the province. The results suggest an average ozone concentration of 40 ppB, higher than the natural background of 20 ppB. The second step measures the change in consumer and producer surplus that results from reductions in ozone levels in Ontario from 40 ppB to 20 ppB. Consumer plus producer surpluses correspond to the area below the demand curve and above the supply curve to the left of their intersection. A nonlinear programming model that maximizes consumer and producer surpluses, subject to a set of constraints, was run twice. The first run incorporates realized yields and production costs, and the second incorporates biological yield changes owing to ozone and the associated changes in production costs. The difference in value of the objective functions between the two runs shows the net benefits of reduced ozone levels. Results indicate an average net benefit of $64.3 million/y or 5.8% of the total value of all the crops considered. Average annual consumer benefits are $44.1 million and producer benefits $20.2 million. Not all producers benefit from ozone reductions; producers of fresh vegetables lose while producers of grain corn, soybeans, and winter wheat gain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering. (United States)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W F


    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L(-1), and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (<3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km(2)). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state.

  2. Hydrogeological impacts of road salt from Canada's busiest highway on a Lake Ontario watershed (Frenchman's Bay) and lagoon, City of Pickering (United States)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick; Howard, Ken W. F.


    The quantity of deicing salt applied to paved surfaces in urban watersheds in cold regions has had a significant and cumulative effect on groundwater quality. Whereas road deicing salt is known in general to impact groundwater and surface water quality, quantitative information on the impact of large transport routes is lacking. In this study, we provide a chloride mass balance for an urban stream crossed by a large transport route in south-central Ontario, Canada and quantify likely long-term impacts of salt loading on surface and groundwater resources. The chloride mass balance, supported by hydrochemical analysis, reveals that approximately 50% of the total road salt applied to Pine Creek (1700 tonnes per winter) is removed annually via overland flow with the remainder accumulating in the shallow subsurface resulting in severe degradation of groundwater quality. Moreover, results show that road salt migration is the primary reason for enhanced mineral weathering in the shallow aquifer. During the 2004-05 salting season, runoff and baseflow transport of road salts were responsible for chloride concentrations in the stream of up to 2000 mg L - 1 , and delivered approximately 850 tonnes of chloride (about 1400 tonnes of salt) to a shallow (< 3.5 m) semi-enclosed lagoon on the shore of Lake Ontario (Frenchman's Bay; 0.85 km 2). The total chloride delivery to the lagoon from its entire watershed is estimated at 3700 tonnes each year with up to 48% of the total load delivered by baseflow, the remainder from surface water runoff. Present day groundwater chloride concentrations are estimated to be about 80% of long-term concentrations when the system reaches steady state.

  3. An assessment of the reliability of the Ontario electricity system : 18-month outlook from April 2004 to September 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report presents a resource assessment by the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) for the 18-month period from April 2004 to September 2005. It is based on the IMO's forecast of electricity demand. The information was provided by power generators in Ontario. The outlook for the electricity system has improved due to the return to service of 3 nuclear units and the addition of more than 700 MW of generation. The return to service of the nuclear units has decreased Ontario's reliance on imports to help meet energy demand in the province. The shutdown of 1150 MW of coal-fired generation at Lakeview Thermal Generating Station in Mississauga emphasizes the importance of improving transmission and generation capacity in the Toronto area. This report also includes updated values for existing resource scenarios and planned resource scenarios. The reliability of Ontario's transmission system was also assessed along with the adequacy of the existing resource to meet the forecast demand. The existing installed generation resources include 5 nuclear stations generating 10,831 MW of electricity, 5 coal stations generating 7,564 MW of electricity, 22 oil and gas fired stations generating 4,364 MW of electricity, 61 hydroelectric stations generating 7,676 MW of electricity, and 2 other stations generating 66 MW of electricity. Although the existing resource scenario is better than in previous reports, imports will be required under extreme weather conditions to help meet electricity demand in Ontario during peak periods. 21 tabs., 10 figs

  4. Balance Assessment Practices and Use of Standardized Balance Measures Among Ontario Physical Therapists (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Straus, Sharon E.; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Salbach, Nancy M.


    Background Balance impairment is a significant problem for older adults, as it can influence daily functioning. Treating balance impairment in this population is a major focus of physical therapist practice. Objective The purpose of this study was to document current practices in clinical balance assessment and compare components of balance assessed and measures used across practice areas among physical therapists. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed to 1,000 practicing physical therapists in Ontario, Canada. Results Three hundred sixty-nine individuals completed the survey questionnaire. More than 80% of respondents reported that they regularly (more than 60% of the time) assessed postural alignment, static and dynamic stability, functional balance, and underlying motor systems. Underlying sensory systems, cognitive contributions to balance, and reactive control were regularly assessed by 59.6%, 55.0%, and 41.2% of the respondents, respectively. The standardized measures regularly used by the most respondents were the single-leg stance test (79.1%), the Berg Balance Scale (45.0%), and the Timed “Up & Go” Test (27.6%). There was considerable variation in the components of balance assessed and measures used by respondents treating individuals in the orthopedic, neurologic, geriatric, and general rehabilitation populations. Limitations The survey provides quantitative data about what is done to assess balance, but does not explain the factors influencing current practice. Conclusions Many important components of balance and standardized measures are regularly used by physical therapists to assess balance. Further research, however, is needed to understand the factors contributing to the relatively lower rates of assessing reactive control, the component of balance most directly responsible for avoiding a fall. PMID:21868613

  5. Assessment of lake hydromorphological status within the French territory (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Argillier, Christine; Reynaud, Nathalie; Nicolas, Delphine; Baudoin, Jean-Marc


    In France, in accordance with the expectations of the European Water Framework Directive, the biological and physico-chemical status of lakes have been assessed thanks to the use of different indicators and threshold values (Argillier et al., 2013; Roubeix et al., 2016). However, the hydromorphological conditions have not been included in the final evaluation of the lakes ecological status yet, due to i) a lack of indicators to evaluate these conditions, ii) a lack of knowledge on the combined impact of hydromorphological changes on the biota, and iii) the difficulties in defining reference conditions for the hydromorphology of lakes. Recently, the LAKe HYdromorphological Conditions tool (LAKHYC tool, Gay et al., in prep) has been developed to overcome this lack and assess the hydromorphological conditions of lakes in Europe. The tool is successfully applied on the 201 French lakes for which accurate data are available, and which represents 42% of the total number of lakes in France with an area greater than 50ha. The first results indicate that the obtained LAKHYC values cover the entire range of possible values (between 0 and 1). The values are then grouped into 5 classes according to quintile thresholds to highlight lakes presenting a very bad/very high hydromorphological status. No sign of particular geographical distribution patterns is found. This first application of the LAKHYC tool represents an important step in the final evaluation of the ecological status of French lakes considering the biological, the physico-chemical and the hydromorphological compartments altogether. It will certainly help stakeholders to define priority lakes for financial support to implement conservation or restoration practices. As perspectives to this work, the forthcoming detailed level fluctuations data will ensure a finer and more robust estimation of the lakes hydromorphological quality. Moreover, further investigations on the link between hydromorphological degradation and

  6. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F


    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  7. Health impact assessment of Ontario's green energy and green economy act. The roles of environmental informatics in sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattle, Robert


    Renewable energy received a boost in Ontario, Canada with the Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA), ushering in a new Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program modelled on programs from Germany, Spain, Denmark and other jurisdictions. Information about lessons learned elsewhere has clearly benefited the Ontario experience. Part of the Ontario program included streamlining the impact assessment process to facilitate the swift development of provincial renewable energy capacities. In this context, the GEGEA has been remarkably successful, generating renewable energy sector capacities, resources, projects and their spin-off benefits in Ontario, along with more sustainable electricity system. Environmentalists along with industry continue to laud the benefits of renewable energy and the GEGEA, and with good reason. Renewable energy generation in Ontario has grown from to 2 per cent in 2012 and is expected to reach 10 per cent in 2013. (orig.)

  8. Occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence River and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Lake Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, D. T.; Sullivan, C. A.; Maguire, R. J. [Envirronment Canada, National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON (Canada)


    Samples of 25 dead beluga whales from the St. Lawrence River estuary, as well as samples of 10 rainbow trout and three carps caught in western Lake Ontario were analyzed for total short and medium chain chlorinated paraffins using gas chromatography-low resolution negative chemical ionization spectroscopy. Both short and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins were quantitatively identified in all samples using two commercial preparations. Beluga results were found to be higher than concentrations reported for marine mammals in Europe, but comparable to total PCB and total DDT results for the same population of beluga whales. Results for freshwater species are comparable to those reported for fish sampled from other industrially impacted waterways in North America, but elevated compared to marine species from European studies. Comparisons of the results with gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectroscopy analysis from another study indicated that the two analytical techniques are not congruent. The differences may be accounted for by different effects of interfering organochlorine substances on the analysis of chlorinated paraffins. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Lake Chini Water Quality Assessment Using Multivariate Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Shuhaimi, Othman M.; Lim, E.C.; Aziz, Z.A.


    An analysis was undertaken using the multivariate approach to determine the important water quality for shallow lake water quality assessment. Fourteen water quality parameters which includes biological, physical and chemical components were collected monthly over twelve month period. The data were analysed using factor analysis which involves identification of factor correlation, factor extraction and factor permutations. The first process involved the clustering of high correlation parameters into its respective factor and the removal of parameters that have more than one factor. Agglomerative hierarchy (HACA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were also used to exhibit the important factors that has significant influence on lake water quality. The analysis showed that Lake Chini water quality was determined by more than one factor. The results indicated that the biological and chemical (nutrients) components have significant influence in determining the lake water quality. The biological parameters namely BOD5, COD, chlorophyll a and chemical (nitrate and orthophosphate) are important parameters in Lake Chini. All analysis demonstrated the importance of biological and chemical water quality components in the determination of Lake Chini water quality. (author)

  10. Microbial safety assessment of recreation water at Lake Nabugabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: Lake Nabugabo, microbial safety assessment, recreation water, water quality. ... the environment is favourable for growth (Jaiani et al., ... Swimming and bathing in inland waters are recognized .... in India. This can be attributed to variation in number of recreational users and the frequency of use of the various.


    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  12. Influences of smelter fumes upon the chemical composition of lake waters near Sudbury, Ontario, and upon the surrounding vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, E; Gordon, A G


    Analyses for sulphate, calcium, and pH have been made on surface waters from 102 lakes and ponds in the Sudbury metal-smelting district, and data are presented for 35 of these. Sulphur pollution is frequently high within about 5 miles of the three smelters, many ponds exhibiting more than three times the sulphate concentration normal for this area, and three waters more than 10 times this level. Outside about 15 miles distance the influence of smelter pollution upon sulphate concentrations in surface waters is negligible. As expected, many of the most polluted waters are strongly acid, with pH values going as low as 3.3. Sulphuric acid from air pollution has also led to increased weathering of calcium from soils and rocks, so that this ion tends to rise in concentration not only in waters above pH 6 (as expected) but also in those below pH 5. Damage to terrestrial vegetation is frequently marked within about 5 miles of the smelters, while it is seldom obvious to the untrained eye beyond this distance. Severe damage occurs chiefly within about 2 miles of the smelters.

  13. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali R.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.


    BACKGROUND: Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this

  14. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)


    textabstractBackground: Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  15. Assessing Lake Level Variability and Water Availability in Lake Tana, Ethiopia using a Groundwater Flow Model and GRACE Satellite Data (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Dokou, Z.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Tarhule, A.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Hong, Y.


    Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and Ethiopia's largest natural buffer against seasonal variations of rainfall. Assessing the interactions between the lake level fluctuation, hydroclimatic variabilities and anthropogenic factors is essential to detect drought conditions and identify the role of human management in controlling the Lake water balance. Via an extended record of Total Water Storage (TWS) anomalies for the period 1960-2016, a water budget model for the lake water inflow/outflow was developed. Estimates of Lake Level Altimetry (LLA) based on in-situ and satellite altimetry were composited from 1960-2016 and compared to the extended TWS anomalies, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the historical lake water levels and releases. In addition, the simulated lake levels and water budget from a coupled groundwater and lake model of the Lake Tana basin were compared to the above results. Combining the different approaches, the water budget of the lake can be monitored, the drought conditions can be identified and the role of human management in the lake can be determined. For instance, three major drought periods are identified, 1970 to 1977, 1979 to 1987 and 1990 to 1998, each succeeded with an interposed flooding related recovery year, i.e. 1978, 1988 and 1999. The drought/flooding events were attributed mainly to the ENSO interactions that resulted in lake level fluctuations. The period from 2002-2006 was associated with a remarkable decline of the lake level that was attributed partly in drought conditions and the full flow regulation of the Chara Chara weir at the lake outlet, initiated in 2001.

  16. Metal concentrations in zebra mussels and sediments from embayments and riverine environments of eastern Lake Erie, southern Lake Ontario, and the Niagara River. (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Day, D D


    Concentrations of 14 metals were studied in the soft tissues of zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments from 16 Great Lakes embayments and riverine environments. Samples were collected in 1993 and 1994 during the early and late autumn period when the body mass of mussels is least affected by reproductive activities. There was a significant difference in geometric mean concentrations of all metals except Cu in mussels sampled from different sites, and there was a significant difference in the geometric mean concentrations of all metals but Cd, Mn, and Zn between years. The higher metal concentrations in mussels from this study were generally similar to those in mussels from contaminated European and U.S. locations, and those with lower concentrations were similar to those from uncontaminated European and U.S. locations. Geometric mean sediment concentrations of all metals differed significantly among sites. Sediment concentrations of metals from some sites were above EPA guidelines for moderately polluted harbor sediments. Sites where zebra mussels had higher concentrations of Al, Cr, and V tended to be the same sites as those where sediment concentrations of these metals were also higher. However, there was not a significant statistical relationship between concentrations of metals in zebra mussels and sediments, except for Mg.

  17. The Challenge (Goldcorp Inc.): prospección aurífera vía Internet. Aplicación del modelo de zona de cizalla aurífera a la mina Red Lake (Ontario, Canadá)


    Oyarzun, Roberto; Castiñeiras García, Pedro; López Ruiz-Labranderas, Iván; Blanco García, Iván; Herrera, R.


    En marzo del 2000 la compañía canadiense Goldcorp Inc. invitó a geólogos de todo el mundo a presentar propuestas de exploración para su propiedad minera en Ontario (Red Lake mine). El concurso fue denominado “The Challenge”. Las propuestas tenían que: ser concisas, identificar objetivos específicos, estar sustentadas por un razonamiento geológico apropiado, y ser enviadas vía e-mail en inglés. Las propuestas podían ser presentadas por individuos o equipos. La información geológica so...

  18. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Emmer


    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard, and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  19. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.


    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  20. Substituting natural gas heating for electric heating: assessment of the energy and environmental effects in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.; Sy, E.; Gharghouri, P.


    A study was conducted to find practical ways to reduce Ontario's energy consumption and environmental emissions. A major portion of the study focused on the advantages of cogeneration in certain regions and sectors of Ontario. Substituting direct fuel heating with natural gas for electric heating was the principal recommendation. Results of a technical analysis of the effects of substituting electric heating with natural gas heating were described. One of the benefits of this substitution would be reduced fuel energy requirements for direct heating, relative to the two-step process of electricity generation followed by electric heating. It was suggested that natural gas should still be used for electricity generation because natural gas has many advantages as an electricity supply option including reductions in coal and uranium use and related emissions. It was recommended that developers and designers of energy systems seriously consider this option. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Assessing the effects of transboundary ozone pollution between Ontario, Canada and New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankov, Elvira; Henry, Robert F.; Civerolo, Kevin L.; Hao, Winston; Rao, S.T.; Misra, P.K.; Bloxam, Robert; Reid, Neville


    Observations and modeling results were used to examine spatial scales and transport patterns of ozone pollution in the Ontario-New York region. - We investigated the effects of transboundary pollution between Ontario and New York using both observations and modeling results. Analysis of the spatial scales associated with ozone pollution revealed the regional and international character of this pollutant. A back-trajectory-clustering methodology was used to evaluate the potential for transboundary pollution trading and to identify potential pollution source regions for two sites: CN tower in Toronto and the World Trade Center in New York City. Transboundary pollution transport was evident at both locations. The major pollution source areas for the period examined were the Ohio River Valley and Midwest. Finally, we examined the transboundary impact of emission reductions through photochemical models. We found that emissions from both New York and Ontario were transported across the border and that reductions in predicted O 3 levels can be substantial when emissions on both sides of the border are reduced

  2. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  3. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.


    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  4. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.


    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  5. Assessment of the microbial populations in field and test pit experiments at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, M.; Taylor, J.B.


    Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophic (organic carbon-using) bacteria shows the establishment of a microbial population on vegetated tailings. The development of a population of heterotrophic bacteria, 90% of which are obligate aerobes, in the top 5 cm of the tailings is indicative of normal soil formation. The cell concentration decrease is greater than that found in older, well-developed soils. Iron-oxidizing thiobacilli are rarely present in the revegetated tailings, and then only at depths below 40 cm and at cell concentrations less than 100 cells/g. On an adjacent unvegetated portion of the tailings, fewer heterotrophic bacteria are found in the top 5 cm of the tailings. Iron-oxidizing thiobacilli are present uniformly in the top 47 cm. Enumeration of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the effluents of four test pit experiments indicate blockage of the drainage tiles in two experiments. Chemical conditions of the effluents are suitable for the formation of basic ferric precipitates that could cause this blockage

  6. Climate change impacts: an Ontario perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortsch, L.


    Significant changes in the climate system which are likely to affect biophysical, social and economic systems in various ways, were discussed. Trends in greenhouse gas levels show that during the 20. century, human activity has changed the make-up of the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect properties. A pilot study on the impacts of climate change identified changes in the water regime such as declines in net basin supply, lake levels and outflows, as important concerns. These changes would have impacts on water quality, wetlands, municipal water supply, hydroelectric power generation, commercial shipping, tourism and recreation, and to a lesser extent, on food productions. Climate impact assessments suggest that world conditions will change significantly as a result. Those with less resources are likely to be most affected by climate change, and the impacts on other regions of the world will be more significant to Ontario than the direct impacts on Ontario itself. In an effort to keep pace with global changes, Ontario will have to limit emissions, conduct research in innovative technology and develop greater awareness of the risk of climate change. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario (United States)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  8. GIS-based pollution hazard mapping and assessment framework of shallow lakes: southeastern Pampean lakes (Argentina) as a case study. (United States)

    Romanelli, A; Esquius, K S; Massone, H E; Escalante, A H


    The assessment of water vulnerability and pollution hazard traditionally places particular emphasis on the study on groundwaters more than on surface waters. Consequently, a GIS-based Lake Pollution Hazard Index (LPHI) was proposed for assessing and mapping the potential pollution hazard for shallow lakes due to the interaction between the Potential Pollutant Load and the Lake Vulnerability. It includes easily measurable and commonly used parameters: land cover, terrain slope and direction, and soil media. Three shallow lake ecosystems of the southeastern Pampa Plain (Argentina) were chosen to test the usefulness and applicability of this suggested index. Moreover, anthropogenic and natural medium influence on biophysical parameters in these three ecosystems was examined. The evaluation of the LPHI map shows for La Brava and Los Padres lakes the highest pollution hazard (≈30 % with high to very high category) while Nahuel Rucá Lake seems to be the less hazardous water body (just 9.33 % with high LPHI). The increase in LPHI value is attributed to a different loading of pollutants governed by land cover category and/or the exposure to high slopes and influence of slope direction. Dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand values indicate a moderately polluted and eutrophized condition of shallow lake waters, mainly related to moderate agricultural activities and/or cattle production. Obtained information by means of LPHI calculation result useful to perform a local diagnosis of the potential pollution hazard to a freshwater ecosystem in order to implement basic guidelines to improve lake sustainability.

  9. Review of Reports on Lake Erie-Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix E. Impact Assessment and Environment Plan. (United States)


    Ostrya virginiana ), American hornbeam or blue beech (Carpinus caroliana), American elm (Ulnus americana), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple...921 4, 13, 780 Pears 7, 519, lt7 (,, 58t, 058 Cherries 7, 75,727 7, 147, 129 Plums and prunes 2. 892.85i 2, 352, 488 Grapes b, 874, 9e,) 8, t 2 4...drained soils), 10 percent peaches, 15-20 percent grapes, and 5 percent plums and prunes . A high per- centage of new plantings, up to 20 percent for

  10. Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Standridge


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to address the wind energy potential over Lake Michigan to support a commercial wind farm.  Lake Michigan is an inland sea in the upper mid-western United States.  A laser wind sensor mounted on a floating platform was located at the mid-lake plateau in 2012 and about 10.5 kilometers from the eastern shoreline near Muskegon Michigan in 2013.  Range gate heights for the laser wind sensor were centered at 75, 90, 105, 125, 150, and 175 meters.  Wind speed and direction were measured once each second and aggregated into 10 minute averages.  The two sample t-test and the paired-t method were used to perform the analysis.  Average wind speed stopped increasing between 105 m and 150 m depending on location.  Thus, the collected data is inconsistent with the idea that average wind speed increases with height. This result implies that measuring wind speed at wind turbine hub height is essential as opposed to using the wind energy power law to project the wind speed from lower heights.  Average speed at the mid-lake plateau is no more that 10% greater than at the location near Muskegon.  Thus, it may be possible to harvest much of the available wind energy at a lower height and closer to the shoreline than previously thought.  At both locations, the predominate wind direction is from the south-southwest.  The ability of the laser wind sensor to measure wind speed appears to be affected by a lack of particulate matter at greater heights.   Keywords: wind assessment, Lake Michigan, LIDAR wind sensor, statistical analysis. Article History: Received June 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017 Available online How to Cite This Article: Standridge, C., Zeitler, D., Clark, A., Spoelma, T., Nordman, E., Boezaart, T.A., Edmonson, J.,  Howe, G., Meadows, G., Cotel, A. and Marsik, F. (2017 Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development

  11. Lakes sensitivity to climatic stress – a sociological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackowska Marta


    Full Text Available One of the conditions for effective water resources management in protected areas is local decision makers’ knowledge about potential threats caused by climate changes. Our study, conducted in the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve of Tuchola Forest in Poland, analyses the perception of threats by local stakeholders. Their assessments of the sensitivity of four lakes to the extreme weather events are compared with hydrological studies. The survey shows that the lakes’ varying responses to extreme weather conditions is rarely noticed by ordinary observers. Their perception is usually far from the hydrological facts, which indicates a lack of relevant information or a failure in making it widely accessible and understandable. Moreover, it is rather the human impact, not climate change, which is seen as the biggest threat to the lakes. Insufficient environmental knowledge may hinder the effective protection and management of natural resources, due to bad decisions and lack of the local communities’ support for adaptation and mitigation policies.

  12. Value distribution assessment of geothermal development in Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchman, C.W.; Nelson, H.G.; Eacret, K.


    A value distribution assessment is defined as the determination of the distribution of benefits and costs of a proposed or actual development, with the intent of comparing such a development with alternative plans. Included are not only the social and economic effects, but also people's perceptions of their roles and how they are affected by the proposed or actual development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: on morality and ethics; the vanishing community; case study of pre-development planning--Lake County; methodology for research; Lake County geothermal energy resource; decision making; Planning Commission hearing; communication examples; benefit tracing; response to issues raised by the report of the State Geothermal Task Force; and, conclusions and recommendations. (JGB)

  13. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijian Wang


    Full Text Available Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model for the artificial wetland was established based on cost–benefit analysis by means of field monitoring, social surveys, GIS geostatistics, raster calculation methods, etc. Empirical analysis and calculations were performed on the case study region. The following conclusions were drawn: (1 after ecological restoration, ecosystem services of Jiuli Lake wetland which has become a national level wetland park yield positive values; (2 the improved environment of the Jiuli Lake wetland has a spillover effect on the price of surrounding land, resulting in land price appreciation; (3 using GIS geostatistics and raster calculation methods, the impact range, strength, and value of the spillover effect can be explicitly measured; (4 through the establishment of a value assessment model of the artificial wetland, incomes of the ecological restoration was found to be sufficient to cover the implementation costs, which provides a research foundation for economic feasibility of ecological restoration of mining subsided lakes.

  14. Market profile and conservation opportunity assessment for large industrial operations in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, C.; Balbaa, I.; Cuthbert, D.; Young, D.


    In view of the expected electricity shortages in Ontario, there is an urgent need for not only new supply but also a significant increase in conservation and load shifting efforts. This report presented the results of a study focused on key technology or market areas that presented opportunities for implementation of energy efficient measures. The materials, analytical results, and outcomes of the study could be utilized as a framework for developing future program delivery models. The report provided a comprehensive market analysis for large industrial operations in Ontario. A market profile was presented for the following sectors: mining; pulp and paper; iron and steel; the chemical industry; petroleum refining; motor vehicle, body and parts manufacturing; cement; and food. Opportunities for conservation and demand management were identified. The report also presented an analysis and recommendations for energy conservation demand management and demand response applicable to large industry. Examples of programs in other jurisdictions in Canada as well as the United States were discussed. 34 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs., 1 appendix.

  15. Hydrocarbon assessment summary report of Buffalo Lake area of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, Y. [Northwest Territories Geoscience Office, Yellowknife, NT (Canada)


    The Northwest Territories (NWT) Protected Areas Strategy (PAS) is a process to identify the known cultural, ecological and economic values of areas in the NWT. This report presented a hydrocarbon resource potential assessment of Buffalo Lake area of interest located in the Great Slave Plain region. It covers an area greater than 2100 square km. The region is almost entirely covered by a thick mantle of glacial deposits. It is underlain by a southwest-dipping, relatively undisturbed succession dominated by Paleozoic carbonate rocks and Cretaceous clastic rocks. Six exploration wells have been drilled within, or near the outer limit of Buffalo Lake area of interest. Suitable source and reservoir rocks are present within Buffalo Lake area of interest, but the potential of significant petroleum discoveries is likely very low. Most of the prospective intervals are either shallow or exposed at surface. Other exploration risks, such as discontinuous distribution and isolation from source rocks, are also anticipated for some of the plays. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Climate Change Assessments for Lakes Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Erol


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges for forestry. Forests are known to be most efficient natural tools to ensure availability and quality of water in many regions. Besides, planning of forest resources towards water quality and quantity is essential in countries that are expected to face with more frequent drought periods in the next decades due to climate change. Watershed management concept has been supposed as the primary tool to plan natural resources in a more efficient and sustainable way by both academicians and practitioners to mitigate and adapt climate change. Forest cover among other land use types provides the best regulating mechanism to mitigate erosion, sedimentation, desertification, and pollution. In addition, climate change can potentially affect forest stand dynamics by influencing the availability of water resources. Therefore, the amount of forest cover in a watershed is an indicator of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Climate change is a concern and risk for the sustainability of water resources in Lakes Region of Turkey. The objective of this study is to make a comprehensive assessment in lake watersheds of the Lakes region considering the forest cover. For this purpose, the study gives a general view of trends in climatic parameters using Mann Kendall trend test. The results showed that Mann Kendall trend test for temperature and precipitation data is not enough to evaluate the magnitude of potential changes of climate in terms of forest cover. Understanding impacts of changes in temperature and precipitation on forest cover, runoff data should be evaluated with temperature and precipitation for watersheds of forest areas in Lakes Region.

  17. 18-month outlook : an assessment of the reliability of the Ontario Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This paper provides an 18 month forecast of the Ontario electricity system, as well as an outline of activities and recent developments relating to the issue of reliability. An additional aim of the paper was to identify potentially adverse conditions that may require adjustment or coordination of maintenance plans for generation and transmission equipment. Requests for proposals (RFPs) for renewable generation within the specified time-frame were also discussed, as well as the return to service of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering Unit 1. Reduced reserve levels for the summer of 2005 were anticipated, and details of forecasted peak demand, generator maintenance, new generation and price-responsive demand adjustments and forced outage rates were presented. It was suggested that adequate market mechanisms were in place to manage reserve levels. Developments concerning the new Parkway Transformer station were reviewed. A resource outlook was provided. Available resources were expected to exceed planning requirements with the exception of 6 weeks in the summer of 2005. A projected capacity increase was also anticipated, due to the return of Pickering 1 and an additional 515 MW in the fall of 2005. Price-responsive demands were forecasted to exceed 650 MW due to increases in dispatchable load. It was suggested that in order to ensure power demand during peak periods, imports may be required under extreme weather conditions, combined with the possible deferral or cancellation of generation maintenance. Transmission impacts due to shutdowns were discussed. Voltage system requirements were reviewed, along with details of the installation of additional shunt capacitors and transformer controls. The electricity market was reviewed in the context of current overall economic conditions. Data forecasting normal peak demand was presented for the entire outlook period. 19 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.


    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  19. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.


    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  20. Lake whitefish and Diporeia spp. in the Great lakes: an overview (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Henderson, Bryan A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Schneeberger, Philip J.


    Because of growing concern in the Great Lakes over declines in abundance and growth of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and declines in abundance of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp., a workshop was held to examine past and current trends, to explore trophic links, and to discuss the latest research results and needs. The workshop was divided into sessions on the status of populations in each of the lakes, bioenergetics and trophic dynamics, and exploitation and management. Abundance, growth, and condition of whitefish populations in Lakes Superior and Erie are stable and within the range of historical means, but these variables are declining in Lakes Michigan and Ontario and parts of Lake Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp., a major food item of whitefish, has been a factor in observed declines, particularly in Lake Ontario, but density-dependent factors also likely played a role in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp. is temporally linked to the introduction and proliferation of dreissenid mussels, but a direct cause for the negative response of Diporeia spp. has not been established. Given changes in whitefish populations, age-structured models need to be re-evaluated. Other whitefish research needs to include a better understanding of what environmental conditions lead to strong year-classes, improved aging techniques, and better information on individual population (stock) structure. Further collaborations between assessment biologists and researchers studying the lower food web would enhance an understanding of links between trophic levels.

  1. Improving work-up of the abnormal mammogram through organized assessment: results from the ontario breast screening program. (United States)

    Quan, May Lynn; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Holloway, Claire M D; O'Malley, Frances P; Chiarelli, Anna M


    Women with an abnormal screening mammogram should ideally undergo an organized assessment to attain a timely diagnosis. This study evaluated outcomes of women undergoing work-up after abnormal mammogram through a formal breast assessment affiliate (BAA) program with explicit care pathways compared with usual care (UC) using developed quality indicators for screening mammography programs. Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, a total of 320,635 women underwent a screening mammogram through the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP), of whom 25,543 had an abnormal result requiring further assessment. Established indicators assessing timeliness, appropriateness of follow-up, and biopsy rates were compared between women who were assessed through either a BAA or UC using χ(2) analysis. Work-up of the abnormal mammogram for patients screened through a BAA resulted in a greater proportion of women attaining a definitive diagnosis within the recommended time interval when a histologic diagnosis was required. In addition, use of other quality measures including specimen radiography for both core biopsies and surgical specimens and preoperative core needle biopsy was greater in BAA facilities. These findings support future efforts to increase the number of BAAs within the OBSP, because the pathways and reporting methods associated with them result in improvements in our ability to provide timely and appropriate care for women requiring work-up of an abnormal mammogram.

  2. Great Lakes Ice Charts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  3. Ecological Assessment of Lake Hora, Ethiopia, Using Benthic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Lake Hora needs protection management strategies to maintain its sustainable use. Key words: Benthic Fauna, Ethiopia, Lake Hora, Specimens, Weed-bed. 1. ..... Loam soils often contain a good amount of organic matter. 3.3. Ecological ...

  4. Modelling and water yield assessment of Lake Sibhayi | Smithers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A yield analysis of simulated results with historical developments in the catchment for the 65-year period of observed climate record was undertaken using both a fixed minimum allowable lake level or a maximum drop from a reference lake level as criteria for system failure. Results from simulating lake levels using the ...

  5. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashaw Tesfaye


    Full Text Available Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia, very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus,common carp Cyprinus carpióand catfish Clarias gariepinus.Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20 097 fish specimens (distributed as 7 933 tilapia, 6 025 catfish and 6 139 common carp were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (L m,the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L x, Kand the growth performance index 0' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus,74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpioand 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus,respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpioand C. gariepinus,respectively. Our study suggest

  6. Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence: a survey of Ontario's HIV/AIDS sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke Sean B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery. To better support CBOs to find and use research evidence, we sought to assess the capacity of CBOs in the HIV/AIDS sector to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence in their work. Methods We invited executive directors of HIV/AIDS CBOs in Ontario, Canada (n = 51 to complete the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" survey. Findings Based on responses from 25 organizations that collectively provide services to approximately 32,000 clients per year with 290 full-time equivalent staff, we found organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence to be low. CBO strengths include supporting a culture that rewards flexibility and quality improvement, exchanging information within their organization, and ensuring that their decision-making processes have a place for research. However, CBO Executive Directors indicated that they lacked the skills, time, resources, incentives, and links with experts to acquire research, assess its quality and reliability, and summarize it in a user-friendly way. Conclusion Given the limited capacity to find and use research evidence, we recommend a capacity-building strategy for HIV/AIDS CBOs that focuses on providing the tools, resources, and skills needed to more consistently acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence. Such a strategy may be appropriate in other sectors and jurisdictions as well given that CBO Executive Directors in the HIV/AIDS sector in Ontario report low capacity despite being in the enviable position of having stable government infrastructure in place to support them, benefiting from long-standing investment in capacity building, and being part of an active provincial network. CBOs in other

  7. Assessment of microcystins in lake water and fish (Mugilidae, Liza sp.) in the largest Spanish coastal lake. (United States)

    Romo, Susana; Fernández, Francisca; Ouahid, Youness; Barón-Sola, Ángel


    Cyanobacteria dominance and cyanotoxin production can become major threats to humans and aquatic life, especially in warm shallow lakes, which are often dominated by cyanobacteria. This study investigates the occurrence and distribution of microcystins (MCYST) in water, cell-bound and in the tissues of the commercial mugilid Liza sp. in the largest, coastal, Spanish Mediterranean lake (Albufera of Valencia). This is the first report concerning microcystin accumulation in tissues of mugilid fish species. Considerable amounts of microcystins were found in the water and seston, which correlated with development of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in the lake. The MCYST concentrations found in Lake Albufera (mean 1.7 and 17 μg/L and maximum 16 and 120 μg/L in water and seston, respectively) exceeded by one to two orders of magnitude the guideline levels proposed by the World Health Organization and were higher than that reported in other lakes of the Mediterranean zone. The presence of MCYST was found in all the fishes studied and accumulated differently among tissues of the commercial species Liza sp. Toxin accumulation in fish tissues showed that although the target organ for MCYST was the liver, high concentrations of microcystins were also found in other analysed tissues (liver>intestine>gills>muscle). Human tolerable daily intake for microcystins is assessed relative to the WHO guidelines, and potential toxicological risks for humans, wildlife and related ecosystems of the lake are discussed.

  8. Clinical Telemedicine Utilization in Ontario over the Ontario Telemedicine Network. (United States)

    O'Gorman, Laurel D; Hogenbirk, John C; Warry, Wayne


    Northern Ontario is a region in Canada with approximately 775,000 people in communities scattered across 803,000 km(2). The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) facilitates access to medical care in areas that are often underserved. We assessed how OTN utilization differed throughout the province. We used OTN medical service utilization data collected through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and provided by the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Using census subdivisions grouped by Northern and Southern Ontario as well as urban and rural areas, we calculated utilization rates per fiscal year and total from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. We also used billing codes to calculate utilization by therapeutic area of care. There were 652,337 OTN patient visits in Ontario from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Median annual utilization rates per 1,000 people were higher in northern areas (rural, 52.0; urban, 32.1) than in southern areas (rural, 6.1; urban, 3.1). The majority of usage in Ontario was in mental health and addictions (61.8%). Utilization in other areas of care such as surgery, oncology, and internal medicine was highest in the rural north, whereas primary care use was highest in the urban south. Utilization was higher and therapeutic areas of care were more diverse in rural Northern Ontario than in other parts of the province. Utilization was also higher in urban Northern Ontario than in Southern Ontario. This suggests that telemedicine is being used to improve access to medical care services, especially in sparsely populated regions of the province.

  9. Survey and assessment of post volcanic activities of a young caldera lake, Lake Cuicocha, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunkel


    Full Text Available Cuicocha is a young volcano adjacent to the inactive Pleistocene Cotacachi volcano complex, located in the western cordilleras of the Ecuadorian Andes. A series of eruptions with intensive ash emission and collapse of the caldera occurred around 4500–3000 y BP. A crater 3.2 km in diameter and a maximum depth of 450 m was formed. Further eruptions of the volcano occurred 1300 y BP and formed four smaller domes within the caldera. Over the last few hundred years, a caldera lake has developed, with a maximum depth of 148 m. The lake water is characterized by sodium carbonate with elevated concentrations of manganese, calcium and chloride. Nowadays, an emission of gases, mainly CO2, and an input of warm spring water occur in Lake Cuicocha. The zone of high activity is in the western basin of the lake at a depth of 78 m, and continuous gas emissions with sediment resuspension were observed using sonar. In the hypolimnion of the lake, CO2 accumulation occurs up to 0.2% saturation, but the risk of a limnic eruption can be excluded at present. The lake possesses monomictic stratification behaviour, and during overturn an intensive gas exchange with the atmosphere occurs. Investigations concerning the sedimentation processes of the lake suggest only a thin sediment layer of up to 10–20 cm in the deeper lake basin; in the western bay, in the area of gas emissions, the lake bottom is partly depleted of sediment in the form of holes, and no lake colmation exists. Decreases in the lake water level of about 30 cm y−1 indicate a percolation of water into fractures and fissures of the volcano, triggered by a nearby earthquake in 1987.

  10. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)


    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  11. Managing an oak decline crisis in Oakville, Ontario: lessons learned (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; John W. McNeil; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Robert A. Haack


    The town of Oakville, Ontario, is located along the north shore of Lake Ontario between Toronto and Hamilton. In the fall of 2002, significant oak (Quercus spp.) mortality was observed at Oakville's Iroquois Shoreline Woods Park, an environmentally significant forest remnant noted for its oak-dominated forests. Investigations suggested that oak...

  12. Implications of sustainability assessment for electricity system design: The case of the Ontario Power Authority's integrated power system plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Gibson, Robert B.; Markvart, Tanya; Gaudreau, Kyrke; Taylor, Jennifer


    This paper explores the results and implications of an illustrative application of a sustainability assessment framework in the design and evaluation of a major integrated power system plan. The paper examines the integrated power system plan developed by the Ontario Power Authority in 2007. The basic framework rests on a generic set of evaluation criteria reflecting basic requirements for progress towards sustainability that was adopted, reinterpreted and applied by the Authority in support of its proposed plan. In response to evident deficiencies in the Authority's work, the authors and colleagues undertook a re-examination using a more fully elaborated sustainability assessment framework, specified for application to power system planning. The results point to a plan and plan components substantially different from those proposed by the Authority. More generally, the results highlight three advantages of applying such a sustainability assessment framework: comprehensive coverage of key requirements for progress towards sustainability while ensuring careful attention to the context and concerns of the sector; emphasis on identifying plan options that avoid major trade-offs among the sustainability criteria and recognition of interactions among the social, ecological, economic and technological realms favouring options that offer multiple, mutually reinforcing and lasting benefits.

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects: Rate adjustment: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the proposed firm power rate increase for the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (Integrated Projects) power would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, 42 USC 4321, et seq.) and, as such, does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS). This determination is based on an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the Western Area Power Administration (Western) dated August 1990 (DOE/EA-0457). The EA identifies and evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and based on the analysis contained therein, DOE concludes that the impacts to the human environment resulting from the implementation of the rate increase would be insignificant

  14. Water quality assessment in a shallow lake used for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembowska Ewa A.


    Full Text Available The routine evaluation of water quality is limited to lakes with the largest area. In Poland, only lakes with an area exceeding 50 hectares are monitored by the State Environmental Monitoring System. For many local communities, however, small lakes are more important. This applies mainly to areas with a small number of lakes, where even the smallest lakes are used for various purposes. This paper presents the results of phytoplankton analysis in a small and shallow lake used for recreation. The study was conducted at three sites located in different parts of the lake. A total of 122 algae taxa were identified in the phytoplankton, mainly diatoms and green algae. The most constant taxa in the lake were: Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum tetras and Crucigenia tetrapedia. The average phytoplankton biomass was 37 mg l−1. The maximum biomass, almost 140 mg dm−3, was recorded in late July at the site located near the beach. At that time, there was a massive cyanobacterial bloom composed of Microcystis wesenbergii and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. Based on these studies, the lake should be classified as hypertrophic with bad ecological status. This lake should not be used for recreational purposes in the current state.

  15. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Assessing Improvements to the Flow Circulation in a Small Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng He


    Full Text Available Kamaniskeg Lake is a long, narrow, and deep small lake located in the northern part of Ontario, Canada. The goals of this paper were to examine various options to improve the water quality in the northern part of the lake by altering the local hydraulic flow conditions. Towards this end, a preliminary screening suggested that the flow circulation could be increased around a central island (Mask Island in the northern part of the lake by opening up an existing causeway connecting the mainland and central island. Three-dimensional (3D hydraulic and transport models were adopted in this paper to investigate the hydraulic conditions under various wind forces and causeway structures. The modelling results show that opening the causeway in a few places is unlikely to generate a large flow circulation around the central island. Full circulation only appears to be possible if the causeway is fully removed and a strong wind blows in a favourable direction. The possible reasons for existing water quality variations at the intake of a local WTP (water treatment plant are also explored in the paper.

  16. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Penfold, J.S.S.; Egan, M.J.; Leung, H.


    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  17. Oncology Nurses' Attitudes Toward the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System: Results From a Large Cancer Care Ontario Study. (United States)

    Green, Esther; Yuen, Dora; Chasen, Martin; Amernic, Heidi; Shabestari, Omid; Brundage, Michael; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Klinger, Christopher; Ismail, Zahra; Pereira, José


    To examine oncology nurses' attitudes toward and reported use of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and to determine whether the length of work experience and presence of oncology certification are associated with their attitudes and reported usage.
. Exploratory, mixed-methods study employing a questionnaire approach.
. 14 regional cancer centers (RCCs) in Ontario, Canada.
. Oncology nurses who took part in a larger province-wide study that surveyed 960 interdisciplinary providers in oncology care settings at all of Ontario's 14 RCCs.
. Oncology nurses' attitudes and use of ESAS were measured using a 21-item investigator-developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Kendall's tau-b or tau-c test were used for data analyses. Qualitative responses were analyzed using content analysis.
. Attitudes toward and self-reported use of standardized symptom screening and ESAS.
. More than half of the participants agreed that ESAS improves symptom screening, most said they would encourage their patients to complete ESAS, and most felt that managing symptoms is within their scope of practice and clinical responsibilities. Qualitative comments provided additional information elucidating the quantitative responses. Statistical analyses revealed that oncology nurses who have 10 years or less of work experience were more likely to agree that the use of standardized, valid instruments to screen for and assess symptoms should be considered best practice, ESAS improves symptom screening, and ESAS enables them to better manage patients' symptoms. No statistically significant difference was found between oncology-certified RNs and noncertified RNs on attitudes or reported use of ESAS.
. Implementing a population-based symptom screening approach is a major undertaking. The current study found that oncology nurses recognize the value of standardized screening, as demonstrated by their attitudes toward ESAS.
. Oncology nurses are integral to providing high

  18. Application of ecological risk assessment to establish nonhuman environmental protection at nuclear generating stations in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismer, D.A.


    A screening ecological risk assessment was performed for regulatory compliance at three Ontario nuclear generating station sites to establish design requirements for a routine contaminant monitoring program and to address the need for non-contaminant stressor management. Site specific assessments went beyond traditional contaminant risk assessment to include stressors associated with land-use change, cooling water systems and site storm water runoff. Valued terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem components were selected from species lists after stakeholder consultation, and contaminants of concern were selected based on their relative loadings, and with respect to regulatory and literature-based benchmarks. Predictive modeling was used to estimate chemical and radionuclide exposures and likelihood of effects. Adverse effects on individual biota were predicted for aqueous emissions of chlorine and storm water but not for radionuclides. Retrospective analyses of past field monitoring were used to determine likelihood of effects from non-contaminant stressors. Individual-level adverse effects were observed for fish losses from cooling water withdrawal. Depending on the site and the biological species, either beneficial or adverse effects from thermal discharge and land-use change were observed. Followup studies include monitoring, laboratory study, computer modeling and mitigation. Field monitoring will generate more precise species-level estimates of intake fish losses, magnitude of fish response to thermal discharge and chlorine concentrations in near-field discharge waters. Laboratory study is determining the effectiveness of intake fish loss mitigation technology. Computer fish population models are being used to design field studies and interpret individual level effects. Mitigation includes storm water controls and habitat biodiversity management projects to offset past losses from site development and construction. Routine contaminant monitoring is planned to

  19. Assessment of glacial lake development and prospects of outburst susceptibility: Chamlang South Glacier, eastern Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodar Lamsal


    Full Text Available Chamlang South Tsho has been identified as one of the six high-priority glacial lakes in terms of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF danger in Nepal Himalaya, despite the fact that no detailed investigations of the lake had been hitherto undertaken. We conducted detailed mapping of the lake and its surroundings along with field surveys in October 2009 to determine the developmental history of Chamlang South Tsho and to assess its potential for GLOF. The lake expanded rapidly between 1964 (0.04 km2 and 2000 (0.86 km2 and has been stable ever since. Future lake expansion is improbable as its sides are confined by relatively stable landforms. The lake is 87-m deep with a water volume of approximately 34.9–35.6 × 106 m3. Hanging glaciers on the steep surrounding mountain slopes and prominent seepage water in the terminal moraine dam could be potential triggers for a future outburst flood. Additionally, the debris-covered dead-ice dam, which is higher than the lake water level, is narrow and low; therefore, it could be overtopped easily by surge waves. Furthermore, the pronounced difference in elevation between the lake and the base of the terminal moraine dam makes the lake susceptible for a large flood.

  20. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  1. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdon, P. G.; Ruiz, Z.; Brodersen, K. P.


    in the original calibration or extended datasets. However, since the transfer functions are based on weighted averages of the trophic optima for the taxa present and not on community similarities, reasonable downcore inferences were produced. Ordination analyses also showed that the lakes retain their 'identity......1. Total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) chironomid inference models ( Brodersen & Lindegaard, 1999 ; Brooks, Bennion & Birks, 2001 ) were used in an attempt to reconstruct changes in nutrients from three very different lake types. Both training sets were expanded, particularly at the low....... A response to nutrients (TP or total nitrogen (TN) ) at this site is also indirect, and the TP reconstruction therefore cannot be reliably interpreted. The third lake, March Ghyll Reservoir has little change in historic chironomid communities, suggesting that this well mixed, relatively unproductive lake has...


    Microcystins have been the most frequently reported class of cyanotoxins historically. In the 2007 US EPA National Lake Assessment (2007 NLA), the USGS found that microcystins were detected in integrated photic zone samples of approximately 30% of sampled lakes (n= 1028). Based o...

  3. Assessment of Wetland Hydrological Dynamics in a Modified Catchment Basin: Case of Lake Buninjon, Victoria, Australia. (United States)

    Yihdego, Yohannes; Webb, John A


      The common method to estimate lake levels is the water balance equation, where water input and output result in lake storage and water level changes. However, all water balance components cannot always be quickly assessed, such as due to significant modification of the catchment area. A method that assesses general changes in lake level can be a useful tool in examining why lakes have different lake level variation patterns. Assessment of wetlands using the dynamics of the historical hydrological and hydrogeological data set can provide important insights into variations in wetland levels in different parts of the world. A case study from a saline landscape, Lake Buninjon, Australia, is presented. The aim of the present study was to determine how climate, river regime, and lake hydrological properties independently influence lake water levels and salinity, leaving the discrepancy, for the effect of the non-climatic/catchment modification in the past and the model shows that surface inflow is most sensitive variable. The method, together with the analysis and interpretation, might be of interest to wider community to assess its response to natural/anthropogenic stress and decision choices for its ecological, social, scientific value, and mitigation measures to safe guard the wetland biodiversity in a catchment basin.

  4. Implications of climatic change for tourism and recreation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.; Harrison, R.; Kinnaird, V.; McBoyle, G.; Quinland, C.


    Scenarios for climatic change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide were employed in an assessment of the impacts of climate change on tourism and recreation in Ontario. A warmer climate resulting from such change may mean declining lake levels with associated changes in the ecological interest and recreational potential of wetlands, as shown by case studies on two parks near Great Lakes shorelines. In the skiing industry, the length of ski seasons will be reduced in the northern part of the province, but the key holiday periods (when a large portion of total business is conducted) should still fall within the reliable ski season. Further south, the ski season in the South Georgian Bay region could be eliminated. Summer recreational activities are likely to have extended seasons, and the viability of summer recreational enterprises may increase, with associated positive benefits to neighboring communities. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Clinical balance assessment: perceptions of commonly-used standardized measures and current practices among physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Sibley, Kathryn M; Straus, Sharon E; Inness, Elizabeth L; Salbach, Nancy M; Jaglal, Susan B


    Balance impairment is common in multiple clinical populations, and comprehensive assessment is important for identifying impairments, planning individualized treatment programs, and evaluating change over time. However, little information is available regarding whether clinicians who treat balance are satisfied with existing assessment tools. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of balance assessment practices among physiotherapists in Ontario, Canada, and reported on the use of standardized balance measures (Sibley et al. 2011 Physical Therapy; 91: 1583-91). The purpose of this study was to analyse additional survey data and i) evaluate satisfaction with current balance assessment practices and standardized measures among physiotherapists who treat adult or geriatric populations with balance impairment, and ii) identify factors associated with satisfaction. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 practicing physiotherapists. This analysis focuses on questions in which respondents were asked to rate their general perceptions about balance assessment, the perceived utility of individual standardized balance measures, whether they wanted to improve balance assessment practices, and why. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics and utility of individual measures was compared across clinical practice areas (orthopaedic, neurological, geriatric or general rehabilitation). The questionnaire was completed by 369 respondents, of which 43.4% of respondents agreed that existing standardized measures of balance meet their needs. In ratings of individual measures, the Single Leg Stance test and Berg Balance Scale were perceived as useful for clinical decision-making and evaluating change over time by over 70% of respondents, and the Timed Up-and-Go test was perceived as useful for decision-making by 56.9% of respondents and useful for evaluating change over time by 62.9% of respondents, but there were significant differences across practice groups. Seventy

  6. Assessing trends in fishery resources and lake-water aluminum from paleolimnological analyses of siliceous algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, J.C.; Birks, H.J.B.; Uutala, A.J.; Cummings, B.F.; Smol, J.P.


    Lake water aluminum concentrations have a significant influence on the composition of microfossil assemblages of diatoms and chrysophytes deposited in lake sediments. With the paleolimnological approach of multilake datasets in the Adirondack region of New York, USA, the authors use canonical correspondence analysis to describe past trends in lake water Al. Four lakes, previously investigated regarding acidification and fishery trends, are used to demonstrate that paleolimnological assessment can also provide direction, timing, and magnitude of trends for both toxic metals and fish resources. Additionally, the authors use weighted average regression and calibration to obtain quantitative reconstructions of past lake water Al concentrations. Such reconstructions provide further insight into fishery resource damage and can be compared with modelling results. According to paleolimnological reconstructions, some of the naturally most acidic lakes in the Adirondack region had preindustrial lake water concentrations of inorganic monomeric Al near 4/micromol times L. Although these high concentrations are surprising from a geochemical point of view, they may partially explain the preindustrial absence of fish, as has been independently determined by paleolimnological analysis of phantom midges (Chaoborus). Fishery resource deterioration in acidified Adirondack lakes was coincident with major increases in lake water Al concentrations

  7. Decision and Order in the matter of an application by Superior Wind Prince Power Inc. for an Order or Orders pursuant to section 92 of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 granting leave to construct a 230 kV transmission line and associated facilities to connect a proposed 99 MW wind farm to the transmission system of Great Lakes Power Ltd. near Sault Ste Marie[In the matter of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 15, Schedule B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Betts, B.; Vlahos, P.


    Superior Wind Prince Power Inc. plans to construct and operate a 99 MW wind generation facility near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It has also filed an application with the Ontario Energy Board to construct transmission facilities to connect the wind farm to the transmission system of Great Lakes Power Ltd. This includes a substation with a 34.5/230 kV transformer, a high voltage breaker, and low voltage switchgear. It also includes an 11.2 km long, 230 kV transmission line and a switching station with a 230 kV breaker and related facilities. The entire project is scheduled for completion by March, 2006. The Board will proceed with the application by way of a written hearing. This document presents evidence of the applicant with reference to the request for proposals for 300 MW of Renewable Energy. The wind farm includes 66 wind turbine generators providing an output of 99 MW. Plans for a second phase would add 101 MW to the wind farm. Different high voltage and low voltage configurations have been examined on the basis of environmental and economic considerations and system reliability. The best configuration was a 34.5 kV underground collector system and a 230 kV above ground transmission line. Four alternative routes for the line were examined on the basis of environmental, technical and economic factors. This document also provided evidence of PUC Distribution Inc. and addressed issues regarding a system impact assessment, customer impact assessment, and environmental assessment. The Board questioned whether the project is needed, what impact it will have on transmission rates, and reliability of supply. It also examined if all land-use matters have been addressed. The Board approved the project subject to certain conditions regarding communications, monitoring and reporting requirements. 2 refs., 1 appendix.

  8. Rabbit Lake uranium mining a-zone, d-zone, eagle point: report of the environmental assessment panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts

  9. Rabbit Lake uranium mining a-zone, d-zone, eagle point: report of the environmental assessment panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts.

  10. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae (United States)

    Evans, Mary


    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River ( finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  11. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W


    assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  12. Assessment of the fish tumor beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at selected Great Lakes Areas of Concern (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.


    A total of 878 adult Brown Bullhead were collected at 11 sites within the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages from 2011 to 2013. The sites included seven Areas of Concern (AOC; 670 individuals), one delisted AOC (50 individuals) and three non-AOC sites (158 individuals) used as reference sites. These fish were used to assess the “fish tumor or other deformities” beneficial use impairment. Fish were anesthetized, weighed, measured and any external abnormalities documented and removed. Abnormal orocutaneous and barbel tissue, as well as five to eight pieces of liver, were preserved for histopathological analyses. Otoliths were removed and used for age analyses. Visible external abnormalities included reddened (raised or eroded), melanistic areas and raised growths on lips, body surface, fins and barbels. Microscopically, these raised growths included papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteoma and osteosarcoma. Proliferative lesions of the liver included bile duct hyperplasia, foci of cellular alteration, bile duct (cholangioma, cholangiocarcinoma) and hepatocellular (adenoma, hepatic cell carcinoma) neoplasia. The two reference sites (Long Point Inner Bay, Conneaut Creek), at which 30 or more bullhead were collected had a skin tumor prevalence of 10% or less and liver tumor prevalence of 4% or less. Presque Isle Bay, recently delisted, had a similar liver tumor prevalence (4%) and slightly higher prevalence (12%) of skin tumors. The prevalence of skin neoplasms was 15% or less at sites in the Black River, Cuyahoga River and Maumee AOCs, while more than 20% of the bullheads from the Rochester Embayment, Niagara River, Detroit River and Ashtabula River AOCs had skin tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors was greater than 4% at all AOC sites except the Old Channel site at the Cuyahoga River AOC, Wolf Creek within the Maumee AOC and the upper and lower sites within the Niagara River AOC.

  13. Modelling assessment of End Pit Lakes meromictic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The use of End Pit Lakes have been proposed as a remediation solution for oil sands reclamation and operational waters. This report modelled the main factors controlling the occurrence of stratification in Pit Lakes in order to establish design and management guidelines for the Cumulative Environmental Management Association's End Pit Lake Sub-group. The study focused on End Pit Lake size, depth, starting lake salinity concentrations, inflow rates and inflow salinity flux, and investigated their influence on density gradients. One-dimensional modelling and limited 2-D modelling simulations were conducted to examine meromictic potential for a large range of End Pit Lake configurations and conditions. Modelling results showed that fall is the governing season for determining meromixis. The expelling of salt from saline water upon ice formation and its effect on stratification potential and the effect of fresh water loading on stratification potential during spring melt events were not observed to be dominant factors governing meromictic potential for the scenarios examined in the study. Results suggested that shallow End Pit Lakes showed a high turn-over rate with seasonal heating and cooling cycles. Moderately deep End Pit Lakes demonstrated a meromictic potential that was inversely proportional to lake size and require higher starting salinities. With a 2 or 10 million m 3 /yr inflow rate and a 5 parts per thousand starting salinity, a 50 m deep End Pit Lake achieved meromixis at all 3 size ranges considered in the study. Results also showed that the rate of influent salinity decrease was the least important of the parameters influencing meromixis. It was observed that meromixis was a temporary condition in all of the End Pit Lake scenarios envisioned due to the lack of a constant, positive salt replenishment over the long term. It was concluded that further 3-D modelling is required to represent littoral areas as well as to account for extreme winter conditions. A

  14. Remote assessment of reserve capacity of outburst alpine lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov


    Full Text Available Results of distant satellite sounding (the TERRA satellite of high-mountainous areas and digital models SRTM 4.1 and ASTER DEM G2 of the same relief were used to calculate the following parameters of high-mountain dammed glacial lakes: area, depth, the water volume, excess of the dam above the water level. It is important for estimation of the water volume that can be dangerous for a break-through of a dammed lake. Formulas deduced to calculate the depth and volume of a lake for several sections of its area were tested and proposed. It is demonstrated that the regression equation V = Hmax × F, where Hmax is maximum depth of the lake, can be used as the parameterization of the formula «lake volume V equals the product of the area F on average depth D». More precise values of the coefficients a and b in the formula V = aFb were also obtained. Parameters and the water volumes of lakes were estimated for the river Gunt (right tributary of Pyanj River basin. According to [28], there are 428 high-mountain lakes in this region with their total area ≥ 2500 m2. For basin Inflow of melted snow and glacier water caused by the rise of mean summer air temperatures in 1931–2015 was estimated for the lake Rivankul basin (the Pamir Mountains.

  15. Ontario Hydro looks at security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Kee, B.


    Ontario Hydro operates 20 CANDU reactors on three different sites. Since 1984, a review of security arrangements on all the sites has taken place on a five-yearly basis. The review process for 1995 is outlined. The three objectives were as follows: to assess current security threats and risks to the stations; to assess the adequacy of the existing programme to protect against current threats; by comparing the security programme against those of comparable entities to establish benchmarks for good practice as a basis for improvements at Ontario Hydro. Valuable insights gained through the review are listed. These could be useful to other utilities. (UK)

  16. Assessment of Lake Water Quality and Quantity Using Satellite Remote Sensing (United States)

    Daniel, K. C.; Suresh, A.; Paredes Mesa, S.


    Lakes are one of the few sources of freshwater used throughout the world but due to human activities, its quality and availability has been decreasing. The drying of lakes is a concerning issue in different communities around the world. This problem can affect jobs and the lives of individuals who use lakes as a source of income, consumption and recreation. Another dilemma that has occurred in lakes is eutrophication which is the buildup of excess nutrients in the lakes caused by runoff. This natural process can lead to anoxic conditions that may have a detrimental impact on surrounding ecosystems. Therefore, causing a devastating impact to economies and human livelihood worldwide. To monitor these issues, satellite data can be used to assess the water quality of different lakes throughout the world. Landsat satellite data from the past 10 years was used to conduct this research. By using the IOP (Inherent Optical Properties) of chlorophyll and suspended solids in the visible spectrum, the presence of algal blooms and sediments was determined. ARCGIS was used to outline the areas of the lakes and obtain reflectance values for quantity and quality assessment. Because there is always a certain amount of contamination in the lake, this research is used to evaluate the condition of the lakes throughout the years. Using the data that we have collected, we are able to understand how the issues addressed can harm civilians seasonally. Key Words: Lakes, Water Quality, Algal Blooms, Eutrophication, Remote Sensing, Satellite DataData Source: Landsat 4, Landsat 5, Landsat 7, Landsat 8

  17. Life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production and biochar land application in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krish Homagain; Chander Shahi; Nancy Luckai; Mahadev Sharma


    Background:Replacement of fossil fuel based energy with biochar-based bioenergy production can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions while mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change and global warming.However,the production of biochar-based bioenergy depends on a sustainable supply of biomass.Although,Northwestern Ontario has a rich and sustainable supply of woody biomass,a comprehensive life cycle cost and economic assessment of biochar-based bioenergy production technology has not been done so far in the region.Methods:In this paper,we conducted a thorough life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) of biochar-based bioenergy production and its land application under four different scenarios:1) biochar production with low feedstock availability;2) biochar production with high feedstock availability;3) biochar production with low feedstock availability and its land application;and 4) biochar production with high feedstock availability and its land application-using SimaPro(R),EIOLCA(R) software and spreadsheet modeling.Based on the LCCA results,we further conducted an economic assessment for the break-even and viability of this technology over the project period.Results:It was found that the economic viability of biochar-based bioenergy production system within the life cycle analysis system boundary based on study assumptions is directly dependent on costs of pyrolysis,feedstock processing (drying,grinding and pelletization) and collection on site and the value of total carbon offset provided by the system.Sensitivity analysis of transportation distance and different values of C offset showed that the system is profitable in case of high biomass availability within 200 km and when the cost of carbon sequestration exceeds CAD S60 per tonne of equivalent carbon (CO2e).Conclusions:Biochar-based bioenergy system is economically viable when life cycle costs and environmental assumptions are accounted for.This study provides a medium scale slow-pyrolysis plant scenario and

  18. Cyanotoxins in Inland Lakes of the United States: Occurrence and Potential Recreational Health Risks in the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007 (United States)

    A large nation-wide survey or cyanotoxlns (1161 lakes)in the United States (U.S.) was conducted dunng the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse to...

  19. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.


    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  20. Ontario Hydro's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCredie, J.


    This report briefly describes Ontario Hydro's nuclear program, examining the design and construction status, and the future from Ontario Hydro's perspective. Ontario Hydro relies heavily on nuclear power. Nuclear fuel was responsible for approximately 34% of Ontario Hydro's energy production in 1983. The nuclear proportion was supplied by twelve operating units located: NPD, Douglas Point, Pickering A and B. It is expected that by approximately 1992, 65% of the total energy needs will be generated through nuclear power

  1. Water quality in Danube Delta Lakes: An assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAM Orhan


    Full Text Available An assessment of the ecological status of selected lakes in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve was done based on temporal and spatial variation of macroinvertebrate communities during 2012 and 2013. Macroinvertebrate communities and measures of these communities were evaluated and a baseline characterization of assemblages was determined for the analyzed sites. Each year, three sampling campaigns, one for each ice-free season were organized for data collection. Macroinvertebrate samples have been collected in every lake from three different stations with the use of an Ekmann dredge. The highest taxa richness are recorded in Fortuna and Isac lakes in 2013. Total abundance followed a pattern similar to taxa number with Fortuna and Isac lakes having the highest yearly values (maximum number of individuals – 225 - per sample has been recorded in September 2013, in Isac Lake.Using saprobic index as an indicator of ecological status Isac lake was classifies as moderate and other three lakes, Merhei, Furtuna and Rosu as good ecological status. Lack of correlation between diversity indices and the saprobic values suggests that other assessment methods could be more effective and provide better information than saprobic index does at least for Danube Delta.

  2. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.


    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  3. Ecotoxicity of Lake Druksiai waters assessed by biotesting with rainbow trout spawn and larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskiene, N.; Cepuliene, Z.


    The toxicity of Lake Druksiai was assessed by testing with spawn and larvae of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We sampled Ignalina NPP waste waters of various biotopes of the lake. Larvae of trout were found to be more sensitive to wastewaters than spawn. The hatching stage was one of the most sensitive stages in ontogenesis. Our data showed that the wastewater of Ignalina NPP was the most toxic, however waters of some biotopes of the lake were also toxic. That suggested that toxicants discharged into cooling reservoirs with NPP wastewater might affect test-organisms, disturbing their development and growth. The observed effects were irreversible and caused death. (author)

  4. Artificial reefs and reef restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes (United States)

    McLean, Matthew W.; Roseman, Edward; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Manny, Bruce A.


    We reviewed the published literature to provide an inventory of Laurentian Great Lakes artificial reef projects and their purposes. We also sought to characterize physical and biological monitoring for artificial reef projects in the Great Lakes and determine the success of artificial reefs in meeting project objectives. We found records of 6 artificial reefs in Lake Erie, 8 in Lake Michigan, 3 in Lakes Huron and Ontario, and 2 in Lake Superior. We found 9 reefs in Great Lakes connecting channels and 6 reefs in Great Lakes tributaries. Objectives of artificial reef creation have included reducing impacts of currents and waves, providing safe harbors, improving sport-fishing opportunities, and enhancing/restoring fish spawning habitats. Most reefs in the lakes themselves were incidental (not created purposely for fish habitat) or built to improve local sport fishing, whereas reefs in tributaries and connecting channels were more frequently built to benefit fish spawning. Levels of assessment of reef performance varied; but long-term monitoring was uncommon as was assessment of physical attributes. Artificial reefs were often successful at attracting recreational species and spawning fish; however, population-level benefits of artificial reefs are unclear. Stressors such as sedimentation and bio-fouling can limit the effectiveness of artificial reefs as spawning enhancement tools. Our investigation underscores the need to develop standard protocols for monitoring the biological and physical attributes of artificial structures. Further, long-term monitoring is needed to assess the benefits of artificial reefs to fish populations and inform future artificial reef projects.

  5. Integrated hazard assessment of Cirenmaco glacial lake in Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas (United States)

    Wang, Weicai; Gao, Yang; Iribarren Anacona, Pablo; Lei, Yanbin; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Shenghai; Lu, Anxin


    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) have recently become one of the primary natural hazards in the Himalayas. There is therefore an urgent need to assess GLOF hazards in the region. Cirenmaco, a moraine-dammed lake located in the upstream portion of Zhangzangbo valley, Central Himalayas, has received public attention after its damaging 1981 outburst flood. Here, by combining remote sensing methods, bathymetric survey and 2D hydraulic modeling, we assessed the hazard posed by Cirenmaco in its current status. Inter-annual variation of Cirenmaco lake area indicates a rapid lake expansion from 0.10 ± 0.08 km2 in 1988 to 0.39 ± 0.04 km2 in 2013. Bathymetric survey shows the maximum water depth of the lake in 2012 was 115 ± 2 m and the lake volume was calculated to be 1.8 × 107 m3. Field geomorphic analysis shows that Cirenmaco glacial lake is prone to GLOFs as mass movements and ice and snow avalanches can impact the lake and the melting of the dead ice in the moraine can lower the dam level. HEC-RAS 2D model was then used to simulate moraine dam failure of the Cirenmaco and assess GLOF impacts downstream. Reconstruction of Cirenmaco 1981 GLOF shows that HEC-RAS can produce reasonable flood extent and water depth, thus demonstrate its ability to effectively model complex GLOFs. GLOF modeling results presented can be used as a basis for the implementation of disaster prevention and mitigation measures. As a case study, this work shows how we can integrate different methods to GLOF hazard assessment.

  6. Assessing Lake Trophic Status: A Proportional Odds Logistic Regression Model (United States)

    Lake trophic state classifications are good predictors of ecosystem condition and are indicative of both ecosystem services (e.g., recreation and aesthetics), and disservices (e.g., harmful algal blooms). Methods for classifying trophic state are based off the foundational work o...

  7. Multiple alteration events in the East Bull Lake anorthosite-gabbro layered complex, NE Ontario, Canada: evidence from fracture mineralogy and 40Ar-39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamineni, D.C.; McCrank, G.F.; Stone, D.; Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario)


    The East Bull Lake anorthosite-gabbro layered complex contains a variety of alteration minerals. Some of the more common ones are calcic amphiboles, biotite, epidote, adularia, quartz, chlorite, calcite, prehnite, pumpellyite, laumontite, gypsum, iron hydroxides and clays. The mode of occurrence and the data related to the stability of the alteration minerals suggest that they were formed under pressure-temperature conditions of: (1) epidote-amphibolite/greenschist facies; (2) prehnite-pumpellyite facies; (3) zeolite facies; and (4) low-temperature mineral facies. 40 Ar- 39 Ar data of hornblende and adularia indicate that the pluton is affected by distinct alteration events. Two mafic dyke intrusions, that overlap the alteration events, are recognised in the pluton. Synthesis of available radiometric ages suggests that the pluton intruded at 2472 +- 70 Ma, and was subjected to alteration as late as the Paleozoic and Cenozoic Eras. (author)

  8. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.


    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  9. The interaction of large amplitude internal seiches with a shallow sloping lakebed: observations of benthic turbulence in Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Cossu

    Full Text Available Observations of the interactions of large amplitude internal seiches with the sloping boundary of Lake Simcoe, Canada show a pronounced asymmetry between up- and downwelling. Data were obtained during a 42-day period in late summer with an ADCP and an array of four thermistor chains located in a 5 km line at the depths where the thermocline intersects the shallow slope of the lakebed. The thermocline is located at depths of 12-14 m during the strongly stratified period of late summer. During periods of strong westerly winds the thermocline is deflected as much as 8 m vertically and interacts directly with the lakebed at depth between 14-18 m. When the thermocline was rising at the boundary, the stratification resembles a turbulent bore that propagates up the sloping lakebed with a speed of 0.05-0.15 m s(-1 and a Froude number close to unity. There were strong temperature overturns associated with the abrupt changes in temperature across the bore. Based on the size of overturns in the near bed stratification, we show that the inferred turbulent diffusivity varies by up to two orders of magnitude between up- and downwellings. When the thermocline was rising, estimates of turbulent diffusivity were high with KZ ∼10(-4 m(2s(-1, whereas during downwelling events the near-bed stratification was greatly increased and the turbulence was reduced. This asymmetry is consistent with previous field observations and underlines the importance of shear-induced convection in benthic bottom boundary layers of stratified lakes.

  10. Evaluation of ecosystem simulation models as tools for assessment of power plant impacts on fish populations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzman, G.L.


    This report summarizes work on evaluating the usefulness of models in assessing power plant impacts. Models were found to be most useful in suggesting frequency and replication for monitoring programs. Models also were useful in indicating where further data are needed. The modeling work on Lake Ontario and Lake Keowee indicated difficulties in using monitoring data for model construction and validation

  11. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  12. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China (United States)

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng


    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  13. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document

  14. Expansion of the uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report forms the response of the government of Ontario to an earlier report issued by an Envrionmental Assessment Board. Specifically, the report deals with the rapid growth of the town of Elliot Lake due to expansion of several uranium mine-mill operations. Rapid growth of small communities presents considerable problems in providing housing, essential services, and educational facilities. Several specific actions taken by the government to help the town cope with rapid growth are presented. (O.T.)

  15. Strategic assessment of the magnitude and impacts of sand mining in Poyang Lake, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.; Shankman, D.; Wu, G.; Boer, de W.F.; Burnham, J.; He, Q.; Yesou, H.; Xiao, J.


    Planning for the extraction of aggregates is typically dealt with at a case to case basis, without assessing environmental impacts strategically. In this study we assess the impact of sand mining in Poyang Lake, where dredging began in 2001 after sand mining in the Yangtze River had been banned. In

  16. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  17. Assessment methodology for new cooling lakes. Volume 3. Limnological and fisheries data and bibliography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the data volume of the report entitled Assessment Methodology for New Cooling Lakes. Limnological and fisheries data were compiled in this volume for potential users in the utility industry. Published papers, reports, other written information, computer files, and direct contracts were used to compile a matrix of information. This volume presents data and the bibliographic sources of the power plant and geographical, limnological, and fisheries information for 181 lakes and reservoirs, of which 134 were used for cooling purposes. Data for 65 lakes were completed with respect to the limnology and fisheries parameters so that complete statistical analysis could be performed. Of these 65 lakes, 42 are used for cooling. Tables in this report contain data arranged by utility, power plant, limnology, water quality, morphoedaphic, and fishery categories. The data in the tables are keyed to a lake code. The references for the data shown are keyed to a numerical listing of the bibliography. Author, state, lake, and subject indexes facilitate searching for bibliographic information

  18. Geochemical speciation and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments from Nansi Lake, China. (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Wang, Longfeng; Wang, Yunqian; Zhang, Wei


    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected from Nansi Lake to analyze geochemical speciation of heavy metals including Cd, As, Pb, Cr, and Zn, assess their pollution level, and determine the spatial distribution of the non-residual fraction. Results showed that Cd had higher concentrations in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. As and Pb were mainly observed as humic acid and reducible fractions among the non-residual fractions, while Cr and Zn were mostly locked up in a residual fraction. The mean pollution index (P i) values revealed that the lower lake generally had a higher enrichment degree than the upper lake. Cd (2.73) and As (2.05) were in moderate level of pollution, while the pollution of Pb (1.80), Cr (1.27), and Zn (1.02) appeared at low-level pollution. The calculated pollution load index (PLI) suggested the upper lake suffered from borderline moderate pollution, while the lower lake showed moderate to heavy pollution. Spatial principle component analysis showed that the first principal component (PC1) including Cd, As, and Pb could explain 56.18 % of the non-residual fraction. High values of PC1 were observed mostly in the southern part of Weishan Lake, which indicated greater bioavailability and toxicity of Cd, As, and Pb in this area.

  19. Ecological status assessment of regulated lakes; Saeaennoesteltyjen jaervien ekologisen tilan arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, A.; Sutela, T.; Aroviita, J.; Tarvainen, A.; Haemaelaeinen, H.; Hellsten, S.; Vehanen, T.; Marttunen, M.


    Although regulated lakes have been studied extensively during the last 20 years in Finland, biological data are still scattered. Especially in mildly regulated lakes, data have been insufficient to determine reference conditions and to estimate ecological status as required by the Water Framework Directive. The objective of this study was to increase information about the biological quality elements in order to develop ecological classification system and to define environment objectives for regulated lakes. Both existing and new data were collected from littoral fishes, littoral macroinvertebrates and macrophytes from regulated lakes and unregulated reference lakes. New biological classification metrics were then developed and tested. Moreover, alternative combinations of the biological classification parameters were tested for assessment of ecological status of lakes. Impacts of water-level regulation were found in all three biological quality elements: the littoral fishes, macroinvertebrates and macrophytes. The ecological status of the study lakes was at its worst when winter draw-down of water-level exceeded 2-3 meters. Very sensitive species for water-level regulation were recognized in all three biological quality elements. In macrophytes these species were large isoetids, in macroinvertebrates species with at least two-year life cycle and in fishes' minnow and European bullhead. In a same lake, the status of littoral fishes, macroinvertebrates and macrophytes often differed from each other As a result, when results from different biological quality elements are combined to an overall ecological status, quite large differences can exist depending on the method used to derive the overall status; i.e., whether the most sensitive quality element (i.e. the 'one-out all-out' principle) or a median value over all quality elements is used. (orig.)

  20. Adapting to climate variability and change in Ontario : volume 4 of the Canada country study : climate impacts and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Lavender, B. [Smith and Lavender Envrironmental Consultants, ON (Canada); Auld, H.; Broadhurst, D.; Bullock, T. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Ontario Region


    An assessment of how climate change will affect Ontario over the next century, including its social, biological and economic environment, is presented. The most significant impacts are expected to result from changes in precipitation patterns, in soil moisture, and in greater intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. Some of the major impacts of changing climate discussed in this volume include: (1) more pollution episodes, (2) increased heat stress, (3) lowering of average water levels of the Great Lakes, (4) changes in the hydrologic cycle which could result in variability of water supply for hydroelectric power production, (5) warming waters of the Great Lakes which could cause fish species to shift northward, (6) cool temperate, moderate temperate and grassland regions could expand northwards as the boreal forest retreats, (7) longer crop growing seasons, (8) decreased snow loads, and (9) reduced ice on the Great Lakes which would increase the length of the shipping season. The general conclusion is that adapting to changing climate will require a knowledge of how climate changes occur and how the changes are likely to affect the environment, society and economy. Changes in other key variables such as technology, personal preferences and social values will also influence the rate of climate change and Ontario`s ability to adapt to it. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y., E-mail:


    improve our capacity to identify consistent patterns of bioaccumulation and drivers of elevated trace element concentrations under naturally high levels of variability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed bioaccumulation of MeHg and 5 trace elements across trophic levels Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patterns were compared across multiple sample dates in 7 New England lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each element had a unique pattern of bioaccumulation, consistent across lakes Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizing such patterns requires spatial and temporal replication in sampling.

  2. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y.


    improve our capacity to identify consistent patterns of bioaccumulation and drivers of elevated trace element concentrations under naturally high levels of variability. - Highlights: ► We assessed bioaccumulation of MeHg and 5 trace elements across trophic levels ► Patterns were compared across multiple sample dates in 7 New England lakes ► Each element had a unique pattern of bioaccumulation, consistent across lakes ► Characterizing such patterns requires spatial and temporal replication in sampling

  3. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota. (United States)

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R


    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  4. Assessment of biomass cogeneration in the Great Lakes region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.


    Many biomass cogeneration facilities have successfully entered into power sales agreements with utilities across the country, often after overcoming various difficulties or barriers. Under a project sponsored by the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, DynCorp sm-bullet Meridian has conducted a survey of biomass facilities in the seven Great Lakes states, selecting 10 facilities for case studies with at least one facility in each of the seven states. The purpose of the case studies was to address obstacles that biomass processors face in adding power production to their process heat systems, and to provide examples of successful strategies for entering into power sales agreements with utilities. The case studies showed that the primary incentives for investing in cogeneration and power sales are to reduce operating costs through improved biomass waste management and lower energy expenditures. Common barriers to cogeneration and power sales were high utility stand-by charges for unplanned outages and low utility avoided cost payments due to excess utility generation capacity

  5. Aquatic environmental assessment of Lake Balaton in the light of physical-chemical water parameters. (United States)

    Sebestyén, Vitkor; Németh, József; Juzsakova, Tatjana; Domokos, Endre; Kovács, Zsófia; Rédey, Ákos


    One of the issues of the Hungarian Water Management Strategy is the improvement and upgrading of the water of Lake Balaton. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) specifies and sets forth the achievement of the good ecological status. However, the assessment of the water quality of the lake as a complex system requires a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation procedure. Measurements were carried out around the Lake Balaton at ten different locations/sites and 13 physical-chemical parameters were monitored at each measurement site.For the interpretation of the water chemistry parameters the Aquatic Environmental Assessment (AEA) method devised by authors was used for the water body of the Lake Balaton. The AEA method can be used for all types of the water bodies since it is flexible and using individual weighting procedure for the water chemistry parameters comprehensive information can be obtain. The AEA method was compared with existing EIA methods according to a predefined criterion system and proved to be the most suitable tool for evaluating the environmental impacts in our study.On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the status of the quality of studied area on the Lake Balaton can be categorized as proper quality (from the outcome of the ten measurement sites this conclusion was reached at seven sites).

  6. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.


    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  7. Assessing heat fluxes and water quality trends in subalpine lakes from EO (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Elli, Chiara; Valerio, Giulia; Pilotti, Marco


    ones. The atmospherically corrected L8 data were then processed through a site-specific parameterised bio-optical model for water constituents' concentration retrieval. The EO products thus obtained were then analysed as follows. 1) Statistical analyses of water reflectance, a new Essential Climate Variables within the ESA CCI+ initiative, and chl-a concentration, a proxy of trophic status, were performed. Both water reflectance and chl-a concentration were obtained from the MERIS 10-years time series and were analyzed to identify spatial patterns, temporal trends and the onset of phytoplankton growth. 2) Combination of field shortwave and longwave radiation data with the one estimated from L8 OLI and TIRS atmospherically corrected imagery, was exploited to assess the heat fluxes and evaporation rates. In both cases, the analysis was supported by field data to highlight the accuracy of measurements obtained from EO technology. A comparative analysis among the lakes is finally presented. In addition, future work aimed at extending the MERIS time series to the new Sentinel-3-OLCI time series (2016-on going) is discussed, in expectation that EO technology will augment information for lake management and geosciences (lake's ecology and climate, in particular).

  8. Glacial lake outburst flood risk assessment using combined approaches of remote sensing, GIS and dam break modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Aggarwal


    Full Text Available A great number of glacial lakes have appeared in many mountain regions across the world during the last half-century due to receding of glaciers and global warming. In the present study, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF risk assessment has been carried out in the Teesta river basin located in the Sikkim state of India. First, the study focuses on accurate mapping of the glaciers and glacial lakes using multispectral satellite images of Landsat and Indian Remote Sensing satellites. For glacier mapping, normalized difference snow index (NDSI image and slope map of the area have been utilized. NDSI approach can identify glaciers covered with clean snow but debris-covered glaciers cannot be mapped using NDSI method alone. For the present study, slope map has been utilized along with the NDSI approach to delineate glaciers manually. Glacial lakes have been mapped by supervised maximum likelihood classification and normalized difference water index followed by manual editing afterwards using Google Earth images. Second, the first proper inventory of glacial lakes for Teesta basin has been compiled containing information of 143 glacial lakes. Third, analysis of these lakes has been carried out for identification of potentially dangerous lakes. Vulnerable lakes have been identified on the basis of parameters like surface area, position with respect to parent glacier, growth since 2009, slope, distance from the outlet of the basin, presence of supraglacial lakes, presence of other lakes in downstream, condition of moraine, condition of the terrain around them, etc. From these criterions, in total, 18 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous glacial lakes. Out of these 18 lakes, further analysis has been carried out for the identification of the most vulnerable lake. Lake 140 comes out to be the most vulnerable for a GLOF event. Lastly, for this potentially dangerous lake, different dam break parameters have been generated using satellite data

  9. Development of FVSOntario: A Forest Vegetation Simulator Variant and application software for Ontario (United States)

    Murray E. Woods; Donald C. E. Robinson


    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources is leading a government-industry partnership to develop an Ontario variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Based on the Lake States variant and the PrognosisBC user-interface, the FVSOntarioproject is motivated by a need to model the impacts of intensive forest management...

  10. Toxicity evaluation of a conservation effects assessment program watershed, Beasley Lake, in the Mississippi Delta, USA (United States)

    Beasley Lake was assessed monthly in 2005 for biological impairment from 17 historic and current-use pesticides in water and leaf litter using Hyalella azteca (Saussure). Sixteen pesticides were detected in both water and leaf litter with peak detections in spring and summer. Detections ranged fro...

  11. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  12. Environmental assessment: Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Winnemucca Dry Lake, Pershing, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the DOE decision to drill and log ten (10) holes of under 7-in. diameters to depths of 100 to 1500 feet in the northern margin of Winnemucca Dry Lake, Pershing County, Nevada, to obtain subsurface information related to uranium favorability

  13. Assessment of Water and Sediment Physical-Chemical Composition in the West Coast of Maracaibo Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moronta-Riera


    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the physical and chemical composition of the water streams and sediments of the Maracaibo Lake in three sampling areas located in Tía Juana, Lagunillas and Ceuta in order to know the level of contamination and assess water quality based on permissible values established by the 883 Decree. The results indicate that the overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and sediments are above permissible levels. It is concluded that petroleum prospection is the root cause of the lake contamination.

  14. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.


    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  15. Waterborne parasites and physico-chemical assessment of selected lakes in Malaysia. (United States)

    Onichandran, Subashini; Kumar, Thulasi; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Chye, Tan Tian; Ithoi, Init; Dungca, Julieta Z; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling, Lau Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot


    The objective of this study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and waterborne parasites in selected recreational lakes from Malaysia. Samples were collected from seven stations of Recreational Lake A (RL-A) and six stations of Recreational Lake B (RL-B). The samples were processed to detect the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using immunomagnetic separation kit, helminth eggs or ova by bright field microscopy and Acanthamoeba spp. by cultivation in non-nutrient agar. Chemical parameters such as ammonia, chlorine, fluoride, nitrate and nitrite and physical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH, salinity, temperature and total dissolved solid were also measured. Both lakes were freshwater with salinity ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 ppt. Most stations of these lakes were contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Ascaris spp. and hookworm. Schistosoma spp. was found in RL-B only, while Acanthamoeba spp. was found in all stations. Of all sampling sites, station 5 of RL-B is the most contaminated. Linear regression and correlation analysis revealed that Giardia spp. and Schistosoma spp. showed a significant negative correlation with turbidity (p Malaysia. Future work on heavy metals (chromium, copper, mercury and zinc) is recommended to enhance the overall water quality monitoring and to take appropriate safety measures to ensure maintenance of good water standards.

  16. A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid (United States)

    Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.


    Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier setting on the Balkans, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Among the major (well-known) threats with high impact are nutrient input (particularly of phosphorus), habitat conversion and silt load. Other threats are potentially of high impact but less well known. Such threats include pollution with hazardous substances (from sources such as mines, former industries, agriculture) or climate change. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international

  17. Ontario electricity industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objective of Ontario's electricity industry restructuring was described as an effort to enhance Ontario's competitiveness. It is believed that restructuring can be accomplished without an increase in electricity rates. In a series of charts, the report provides the timeline of restructuring from the time of the Macdonald report in 1995 to the beginning of open competition in Ontario electricity markets. It oulines the principles underlying the financial restructuring and the financial results of restructuring, including the size of the stranded debt ($ 7.8 billion). It lists the changes that have occurred since October 1998, explains some key factors in valuing the successor companies and profiles the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Restructuring of the industry is expected to have a neutral to positive impact on Ontario's fiscal position. The residual stranded debt of $7.8 billion will be retired through revenues generated by the electricity sector, without recourse to the Provincial Treasury. 9 figs

  18. Market surveillance in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, H.


    On May 1, 2002 both wholesale and retail electricity markets in Ontario were opened to competition. Wholesale electricity market sales of 150 TWh were valued at over $11 billion with 27,500 MW in service installed capacity and 4,000 to 6,000 MW import/export capability with strong interconnections to the Quebec, the Midwest and the Northeast. The key players in Ontario's electricity market are the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO), Ontario Power Generation, and Hydro One. The OEB regulatory framework includes licensing and front line, daily monitoring of whole sale market. Serious capacity problems in Ontario have manifested themselves in tight supply and demand situations and highly volatile prices. The paper included graphs of available reserves for 1996 to 2002, HOEP trends and frequency, HOEP comparison, and a sensitivity to demand forecast. 1 tab., 6 figs

  19. Ontario energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This publication provides a review of the developments in Ontario in relation to the national and international energy scene. Ontario is the largest energy consumer in Canada and is highly dependent on external energy sources. Several developments have significantly altered the Ontario energy scene. Oil and gas markets have become deregulated and market forces increasingly determine prices. A free trade agreement with the United States makes Ontario even more affected by international markets. Oil and gas prices have fallen from the high levels of the 1980s, but energy efficiency and conservation continue to be extremely important because they affect economic performance and the environment. In the next few years the greatest challenges will be to continue improving energy efficiency, to reduce the impact of energy on the environment, and to ensure the availability of sufficient energy supplies for future needs. This review contains statistics on energy in Ontario and explains them for the non-specialist. (7 tabs., figs.)

  20. An assessment of hopanes in settled dust and air as indicators of exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Windsor, Ontario (United States)

    Curran, Jason

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been linked with several adverse health effects. We investigated hopanes, markers of primary particle emissions from gasoline and diesel engines, in house dust as an alternative approach for assessing exposure to TRAP in Windsor, Ontario. Settled house dust was collected from the homes of 28 study participants (10 -- 13 yrs). The dust was then analyzed for a suite of hopanes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We calculated correlations between dust hopane concentrations and estimates of annual average NO2 concentrations derived from an existing LUR model. Hopanes were consistently present in detectable quantities in house dust. Annual average outdoor NO2 estimated was moderately correlated with hopanes in house dust (r = 0.46; pefficiency or the presence of an attached garage. Hopanes measured in settled house dust show promise as an indicator of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Keywords: hopane; air pollution; traffic; dust; exposure; TRAP.

  1. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan (United States)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.


    The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, δ13C and δ15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (combustion of coniferous wood, was generally the most abundant PAH amongst those reported, demonstrating the importance of forest fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes δ13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. δ15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values observed in more recent sediments in some lakes suggest a potential input of depleted bioavailable nitrogen, as might be expected from anthropogenic NOx emissions. This

  2. An assessment of the adequacy of generation and transmission facilities to meet electricity needs in Ontario: From January 2002 to December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A ten year forecast of electric power generation and transmission capacity, covering the period 2002 to 2011, is provided. The assessment of the Independent Market Operator is that based on existing and proposed facilities, Ontario has a reliable supply of electricity for the next ten years under a wide variety of conditions, even without taking advantage of opportunities to improve the efficiency of the Ontario electricity market. The key assumptions underlying this forecast were a median growth scenario, with energy demand growing at 1.2 per cent per year, from 152 terawatt-hours in 2002 to 168 terrawatt-hours at the end of the forecast period. Median increase in peak demand is expected to rise from 23,700 MW to 26,000 MW at the end of the period. A low demand growth scenario (0.8 per cent ) and a high demand growth scenario (1.7 per cent) were also studied. Support from neighbouring systems was assumed to be limited to the magnitude of existing firm purchase contracts already identified by the IMO. The Pickering A units are assumed to be recommissioned in 2002 on schedule, but the two Bruce A units, also announced to be returning to service during the period, have not been included in the calculations. This forecast also estimates the collective impact of all proposed new generation projects that have been identified to the IMO. If all generation proposals are built and operated, the amount of generation that is exclusively gas fuelled would comprise about 21 per cent of all installed capacity by 2005. Another 6 per cent would be dual-fuelled with gas. It is the judgement of the IMO that the transmission interfaces studied are capable of supplying the various transmission zones under the generation and demand scenarios considered in this study. A major transmission addition , i.e. 1,250 MW high voltage direct current (HVDC) interconnection between Ontario and Quebec near Ottawa, will improve transfer capabilities between the two provinces. This interconnection

  3. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver


    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  4. Compliance with school nutrition policies in Ontario and Alberta: An assessment of secondary school vending machine data from the COMPASS study. (United States)

    Vine, Michelle M; Harrington, Daniel W; Butler, Alexandra; Patte, Karen; Godin, Katelyn; Leatherdale, Scott T


    We investigated the extent to which a sample of Ontario and Alberta secondary schools are being compliant with their respective provincial nutrition policies, in terms of the food and beverages sold in vending machines. This observational study used objective data on drinks and snacks from vending machines, collected over three years of the COMPASS study (2012/2013-2014/2015 school years). Drink (e.g., sugar-containing carbonated/non-carbonated soft drinks, sports drinks, etc.) and snack (e.g., chips, crackers, etc.) data were coded by number of units available, price, and location of vending machine(s) in the school. Univariate and bivariate analyses were undertaken using R version 3.2.3. In order to assess policy compliancy over time, nutritional information of products in vending machines was compared to nutrition standards set out in P/PM 150 in Ontario, and those set out in the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (2012) in Alberta. Results reveal a decline over time in the proportion of schools selling sugar-containing carbonated soft drinks (9% in 2012/2013 vs. 3% in 2014/2015), crackers (26% vs. 17%) and cake products (12% vs. 5%) in vending machines, and inconsistent changes in the proportion selling chips (53%, 67% and 65% over the three school years). Conversely, results highlight increases in the proportion of vending machines selling chocolate bars (7% vs. 13%) and cookies (21% vs. 40%) between the 2012/2013 and 2014/2015 school years. Nutritional standard policies were not adhered to in the majority of schools with respect to vending machines. There is a need for investment in formal monitoring and evaluation of school policies, and the provision of information and tools to support nutrition policy implementation.

  5. What fraction of the total metal flux into lakes is retained in the sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K.T.


    The concentrations of, and deposition rates for, the pollutant metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd) and the rare earth elements are reported for the sediments and settling particulates in a large, remote lake (Lake Opeongo) in the Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Using a mass conservation model based on the rare earth elements, it is estimated that only 40 to 60% of pollutant metals getting into the lake is retained by the sediments. The low retention rate may explain the widely reported intrabasin and intra-lake differences in metal contents of sediments and casts some doubt on the use of pollutant metal profiles in retrospective assessment of the human contribution to the metal flux into many lake basins. 22 references.

  6. An overall assessment of the responsiveness of households to time-of-use electricity rates: The Ontario experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, D.C.


    From 1982 to 1988, Ontario Hydro conducted an experiment in residential time-of-use pricing. A selection of households was offered one of 14 time-of-use treatments and each was monitored for electricity consumption on a 15-minute basis. The different rate structures were designed to reflect time variations in future system and distribution costs, both at the bulk and at the municipal level. Results were analyzed in terms of econometric models which to date have yielded information on the experimental changes in residential load shapes resulting from the time-of-use rates. The results are presented in the form of economic elasticities, percentage impacts, load changes at the household level, and simulated province-wide load changes. Also included are comparisons of results with other jurisdictions, comparisons of impacts on households with and without electric heating and with and without air conditioning, and comparisons across rate treatments with varying lengths of peak periods and relative prices. A fundamental conclusion is that time-of-use electricity rates do make a difference in residential load shapes. 17 refs., 8 tabs

  7. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  8. Spatiotemporal assessment of water chemistry in intermittently open/closed coastal lakes of Southern Baltic (United States)

    Astel, Aleksander M.; Bigus, Katarzyna; Obolewski, Krystian; Glińska-Lewczuk, Katarzyna


    Ionic profile, pH, electrolytic conductivity, chemical oxygen demand and concentration of selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) were determined in water of 11 intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) located in Polish coastline. Multidimensional data set was explored by the use of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique to avoid supervised and predictable division for fully isolated, partially and fully connected lakes. Water quality assessment based on single parameter's mean value allowed classification of majority of lakes to first or second class of purity according to regulation presenting classification approach applicable to uniform parts of surface waters. The SOM-based grouping revealed seven clusters comprising water samples of similar physico-chemical profile. Fully connected lakes were characterized by the highest concentration of components characteristic for sea salts (NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4, K2SO4 and MgBr2), however spring samples from Łebsko were shifted to another cluster suggesting that intensive surface run-off and fresh-water inflow through Łupawa river decreases an impact of sea water intrusions. Forecasted characteristic of water collected in Resko Przymorskie lake was disturbed by high contamination by nitrites indicating accidental and local contamination due to usage of sodium nitrite for the curing of meat. Some unexpected sources of contamination was discovered in intermittently open and closed lakes. Presumably Zn contamination is due to use of wood preservatives to protect small wooden playgrounds or camping places spread around one of the lake, while increased concentration of Ni could be connected with grass and vegetation burning. Waters of Jamno lake are under the strongest anthropogenic impact due to inefficient removal of phosphates by waste water treatment plant and contamination by Fe and Mn caused by backwashing of absorption filters. Generally, the quality of ICOLLs' water was diversified, while

  9. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality in the Al-Saad Lake, Abha Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Mallick, Javed


    Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality investigations have been carried out at Abha, located in Saudi Arabia, where Al-Saad Lake represents a rare example of natural endorheic lake. The ecosystem within and around the Al-Saad Lake including catchment area is of great social, cultural, aesthetic, environmental and economic values to Abha. Sampling and experiments of lake water has been carried out with the aim of characterizing the main physico-chemical parameters, such as DO, EC, TDS, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO4 2-, Cl-, HCO3, NO3 - and F- concentration. The ordinary kriging (OK) method was used to produce the spatial patterns of water quality. The Result of DO (mean 5.38 mg/L) trend in Al-Saad Lake is not very encouraging as majority of the lake area is under DO stress or marginally above it. So, proper management strategies are needed to be formulated to protect flora and fauna of the lake. Furthermore, the chemical analysis results show the abundance of the major cations in the order Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ whereas the abundance of anions are in the order SO4 2- > Cl- > HCO3 > NO3 - > F-. The result obtained in this investigation inferred that the cations in water i.e. sodium and iron are within the permissible limits but magnesium and potassium have exceeded the permissible limit. Whereas anions such as nitrate and fluoride are within the permissible range but chloride and sulphate have exceeded the permissible limits. The concentration of cation, magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) in the lake water has exceeded the desirable range (30, 10 mg/L, respectively). This may be due to weathering and transported from rocks and particularly from sulphate deposits such as gypsum and anhydride and subsequently ends up in water. The concentration of anion, Sulphate (SO4) and chloride are above the desirable limit. The major source of bicarbonate are the carbonate rocks containing calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium

  10. Metal pollution assessment in the surface sediment of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Goher


    Full Text Available Eight heavy metals were measured seasonally in the sediment of Lake Nasser during 2013. 27 sites were chosen through 9 sectors across the main channel of the lake from Abu-Simbel to Aswan High Dam to assess the levels of the selected metals. The abundance of these metals was in the order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd, with mean concentrations of 12.41 mg/g, 279.56, 35.38, 30.79, 27.56, 21.78, 11.21 and 0.183 μg/g, respectively. Heavy metals are positively correlated with fine particles (mud fractions and organic matter accumulation. The results showed perspicuous spatial high significant differences (P < 0.01 for all the measured metals. Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd exhibited temporally high significant differences (P < 0.01 before and after the flood period. Four Pollution Indices were used for the environmental assessment of Lake Nasser sediment. The indices included three single indices, Enrichment Factor (EF, Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Contamination Factor (CF. While the fourth, Pollution Load Index (PLI was an integrated index. The pollution indexes confirmed that the Lake Nasser sediment was not contaminated with these elements. Sediments of Lake Nasser may be represented as a reference for the pre-industrial background of River Nile Sediments downstream Aswan High Dam.

  11. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jocelyn M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Janz, David M., E-mail: [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)


    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  12. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jocelyn M.; Janz, David M.


    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  13. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie. (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N


    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  14. RADARSAT SAR data assessment of oil lakes in the Greater Burgan Oil Field, Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwarteng, A. Y.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Singhroy, V.; Saint-Jean, R.


    RADARSAT images recorded in different beam modes were processed and used to assess the oil lakes in the Burgan oil field in Kuwait created by the fire setting of oil wells by the retreating Iraqi forces in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The images were geometrically registered to each other and used as input to a change detection program. The main interest was to map and differentiate between the oil lakes, tarmats, vegetation, buried oil lakes, and also to evaluate the usefulness of RADARSAT's beam modes in characterizing such features. Results of the RADARSAT imagery analysis were compared to similar studies using optical and SIR-C/X-SAR data. Initially, there have approximately 300 oil lakes covering an area of about 49 sq km. Twenty-one million barrels of oil were recovered and exported; about one million barrels of unrecoverable oil was left in the oil fields. Since then most of the oil has evaporated, dried up to form tarmats, or has been covered by a veneer of sand and is no longer visible on the surface

  15. Multi-contamination (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of littoral sediments and the associated ecological risk assessment in a large lake in France (Lake Bourget). (United States)

    Lécrivain, Nathalie; Aurenche, Vincent; Cottin, Nathalie; Frossard, Victor; Clément, Bernard


    The lake littoral sediment is exposed to a large array of contaminants that can exhibit significant spatial variability and challenge our ability to assess contamination at lake scale. In this study, littoral sediment contamination was characterized among ten different sites in a large peri-alpine lake (Lake Bourget) regarding three groups of contaminants: 6 heavy metals, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls. The contamination profiles significantly varied among sites and differed from those previously reported for the deepest zone of the lake. An integrative approach including chemical and biological analyses was conducted to relate site contamination to ecological risk. The chemical approach consisted in mean PEC quotient calculation (average of the ratios of the contaminants concentration to their corresponding Probable Effect Concentration values) and revealed a low and heterogeneous toxicity of the contaminant mixture along the littoral. Biological analysis including both laboratory (microcosm assays) and in situ (Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measurements) experiments highlighted significant differences among sites both in the field and in laboratory assays suggesting a spatial variation of the biota response to contamination. Linear regressions were performed between mean PEC quotients and biological results to assess whether littoral ecological risk was explained by the contamination profiles. The results highly depended on the study benthic or pelagic compartment. Regarding autochthonous Corbicula fluminea, no significant relationship between mean PEC quotients and biomarker activity was found while a significant increase in AChE was observed on autochthonous chironomids, suggesting different stress among benthic organisms. Both AChE and GST in caged pelagic Daphnia magna showed a significant positive relationship with mean PEC quotients. This study underlines the importance of

  16. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson


    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  17. Ecological Health and Water Quality Assessments in Big Creek Lake, AL (United States)

    Childs, L. M.; Frey, J. W.; Jones, J. B.; Maki, A. E.; Brozen, M. W.; Malik, S.; Allain, M.; Mitchell, B.; Batina, M.; Brooks, A. O.


    Big Creek Lake (aka J.B. Converse Reservoir) serves as the water supply for the majority of residents in Mobile County, Alabama. The area surrounding the reservoir serves as a gopher tortoise mitigation bank and is protected from further development, however, impacts from previous disasters and construction have greatly impacted the Big Creek Lake area. The Escatawpa Watershed drains into the lake, and of the seven drainage streams, three have received a 303 (d) (impaired water bodies) designation in the past. In the adjacent ecosystem, the forest is experiencing major stress from drought and pine bark beetle infestations. Various agencies are using control methods such as pesticide treatment to eradicate the beetles. There are many concerns about these control methods and the run-off into the ecosystem. In addition to pesticide control methods, the Highway 98 construction projects cross the north area of the lake. The community has expressed concern about both direct and indirect impacts of these construction projects on the lake. This project addresses concerns about water quality, increasing drought in the Southeastern U.S., forest health as it relates to vegetation stress, and state and federal needs for improved assessment methods supported by remotely sensed data to determine coastal forest susceptibility to pine bark beetles. Landsat TM, ASTER, MODIS, and EO-1/ALI imagery was employed in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), as well as to detect concentration of suspended solids, chlorophyll and water turbidity. This study utilizes NASA Earth Observation Systems to determine how environmental conditions and human activity relate to pine tree stress and the onset of pine beetle invasion, as well as relate current water quality data to community concerns and gain a better understanding of human impacts upon water resources.

  18. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts (United States)

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.


    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  19. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes to assess lake restoration effect (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Zou, Changxin; Zhao, Yanwei


    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. This paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The coupled lake models including a hydrodynamics and water quality model established by MIKE21 and a compartmental ecological model used STELLA software have been established for middle-sized Baiyangdian Lake to realize the simulation of spatial variations of ecological conditions. On the basis of the flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21 hydrodynamics model, four water area zones were used as an example for compartmental ecological model calibration and validation. The results revealed that the developed coupled lake models can reasonably reflected the changes of the key state variables although there remain some state variables that are not well represented by the model due to the low quality of field monitoring data. Monitoring sites in a compartment may not be representative of the water quality and ecological conditions in the entire compartment even though that is the intention of compartment-based model design. There was only one ecological observation from a single monitoring site for some periods. This single-measurement issue may cause large discrepancies particularly when sampled site is not representative of the whole compartment. The

  20. Assessment of water pollution induced by human activities in Burullus Lake using Landsat 8 operational land imager and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zeiny


    Full Text Available Burullus Lake is the second largest lake along the Mediterranean Sea and represents one of the most subjected lakes to pollution at the delta’s coastline. The present study explores the use of Landsat data and GIS for assessing water pollution at Burullus Lake, Egypt. Multi-spectral Landsat-8 OLI image dated 2015 provided the necessary information to this study. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections were applied to the image. Land use/cover map was obtained to identify natural resources and types of human activities in the area surrounding the Lake. Three previously developed water quality empirical models for BOD, total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP were applied on the calibrated image. Then, a GIS model was generated to identify areas recording high levels of BOD, TN and TP. Results confirmed that the Lake water is subjected to pollution from multiple sources; particularly domestic and agricultural drains. Shallow water (i.e. Lake Shores, where human activities are influencing, reported high levels of water studied pollutants. The model indicated that south western and north eastern parts of the Lake are the most polluted parts, recording relatively high levels of BOD, TN and TP; >4.46 mg L−1, >18.33 mg L−1 and >15.59 mg L−1, respectively. Results were ascertained based on water quality investigations in relevant research studies on the Lake. It was concluded that Burullus Lake is extensively subjected to interrupting human activities which have a great negative impact on water quality. Also data-observation techniques and water quality empirical models were successful in assessing and mapping water pollution.

  1. Spatial and temporal ecological risk assessment of unionized ammonia nitrogen in Tai Lake, China (2004-2015). (United States)

    Li, Yabing; Xu, Elvis Genbo; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Liu, Hongling; Li, Di; Liu, Zhengtao; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia


    Ammonia toxicity varies largely due to its pH- and temperature-dependent speciation (unionized ammonia nitrogen, NH 3 -N). The seasonal and long-term trend of ammonia risk in ecologically significant sections of Tai Lake, China was unknown. In this study, a two-level (deterministic and quantitative) method was developed to assess the special ecological risks posed by NH 3 -N at 37 sites during two seasons (February and September) of 2014 in Tai Lake. The long-term temporal (2004-2015) risk posed by NH 3 -N was also assessed by comparing annual quantitative risk values (probability of exceeding acute or chronic threshold values) in three key sections of Tai Lake. The results indicated the species living in the Tai Lake were at a 0.04% and 32.45% chance of risk due to acute exposure, and a 1.97% and 92.05% chance of risk due to chronic exposure in February and September of 2014, respectively. Alarmingly, the chronic ecological risks of NH 3 -N in the Lanshanzui section of the Tai Lake remained >30% from 2004 to 2011. The chronic risk of NH 3 -N in all three key sections of Tai Lake started to decrease in 2011. This was likely the consequence of the control practice of eutrophication implemented in the Tai Lake. A significant decline in diversity of the benthic invertebrate community of the Tai Lake could be associated with continuous exposure to ammonia over decades given different sensitivity of taxa to ammonia. The results laid a scientific foundation for risk assessment and management of ammonia in Tai Lake, China, and the developed two-level risk assessment approach can also be applied to other similar aquatic regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water. (United States)

    Amorós, I; Alonso, J L; Romaguera, S; Carrasco, J M


    A new Aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, in the Albufera lake, a protected area near Valencia. Viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of Aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. Data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between A. caviae counts of viability markers at the studied concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate). The effects of Roundup on microbial biota present in the lake were assessed by measuring the number of indigenous mesophilic Aeromonas in presence of different amounts of the herbicide at 0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate. In samples containing 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate a significant (PAlbufera lake water to Microtox luminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) also was determined. The EC50 values obtained were 36.4 mg l-1 and 64.0 mgl-1 of glyphosate respectively. The acidity (pH 4.5) of the herbicide formulation was the responsible of the observed toxicity.

  3. Great Lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2013 (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Weidel, Brian C.


    Lake Michigan. In general, trends in year-class strengths were less concordant across the basin and only coregonids showed statistical agreement across the upper Great Lakes. The appearance of strong and moderate year-classes of Bloater in Lake Huron in 2005- 2011 countered the trend of continuing weak year-classes of coregonids in Lakes Michigan and Superior. Not shown in our analysis is the appearance of the 2013 year-class of Bloater in Huron, the largest to date. There was no agreement in cross-basin trends in year-class strengths for Rainbow Smelt and Alewife, although there was agreement between pairs of lakes. Although there was statistical agreement in trends of age-0 and older Round Goby biomass among lakes where this species has successfully invaded (Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario), temporal patterns of biomass in each lake were different. Round Goby may be approaching equilibrium in Lake Erie, peaking in Lake Huron, and expanding in Lake Michigan. The trend in Lake Ontario remains unclear. Declining abundance in Lake Erie has corresponded with evidence that Round Goby have become increasingly incorporated into piscivore diets, e.g., Lake Trout, Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, Yellow Perch, and Burbot in Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Round Goby continue to be absent from spring bottom trawl assessments in Lake Superior, but their presence in the harbors and embayments of Duluth and Thunder Bay (U.S. Geological Survey and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, unpublished data), suggests that there is potential for future colonization.

  4. Pesticides in the surface waters of Lake Vistonis Basin, Greece: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment. (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia


    A study was undertaken for the evaluation of the pesticide pollution caused by the agricultural activities in the basin of Lake Vistonis, Greece during the years 2010-2012. Water samples were collected from Lake Vistonis, four major rivers and various small streams and agriculture drainage canals. The concentration of 302 compounds was determined after solid-phase extraction of the water samples and subsequent LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts. Overall, herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides (57%), followed by insecticides (28%) and fungicides (14%). In Lake Vistonis 11 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 75% of the samples (maximum concentration 0.088 μg/L) whereas lambda-cyhalothrin was detected in all the samples of spring 2011 and alphamethrin in all the samples of spring 2012 (maximum concentration 0.041 and 0.168 μg/L, respectively). In the rivers and drainage canals 68 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 53% of the samples (maximum concentration 317.6 μg/L) followed by chlorpyrifos and prometryn (16 and 13% of the samples respectively). An environmental risk assessment was performed by employing the Risk Quotient (RQ) method. The risk assessment revealed that at least one pesticide concentration led to a RQ>1 in 20% of the samples. In Lake Vistonis, alphamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin concentrations resulted in RQ>1, whereas in the other water bodies this was mainly the result of chlorpyrifos-methyl and alphamethrin exposure. In contrast, herbicide and fungicide concentrations contributed substantially less to environmental risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling. (United States)

    Valinia, Salar; Englund, Göran; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn N; Köhler, Stephan J; Bishop, Kevin; Fölster, Jens


    Quantifying the effects of human activity on the natural environment is dependent on credible estimates of reference conditions to define the state of the environment before the onset of adverse human impacts. In Europe, emission controls that aimed at restoring ecological status were based on hindcasts from process-based models or paleolimnological reconstructions. For instance, 1860 is used in Europe as the target for restoration from acidification concerning biological and chemical parameters. A more practical problem is that the historical states of ecosystems and their function cannot be observed directly. Therefore, we (i) compare estimates of acidification based on long-term observations of roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations with hindcast pH from the hydrogeochemical model MAGIC; (ii) discuss policy implications and possible scope for use of long-term archival data for assessing human impacts on the natural environment and (iii) present a novel conceptual model for interpreting the importance of physico-chemical and ecological deviations from reference conditions. Of the 85 lakes studied, 78 were coherently classified by both methods. In 1980, 28 lakes were classified as acidified with the MAGIC model, however, roach was present in 14 of these. In 2010, MAGIC predicted chemical recovery in 50% of the lakes, however roach only recolonized in five lakes after 1990, showing a lag between chemical and biological recovery. Our study is the first study of its kind to use long-term archival biological data in concert with hydrogeochemical modeling for regional assessments of anthropogenic acidification. Based on our results, we show how the conceptual model can be used to understand and prioritize management of physico-chemical and ecological effects of anthropogenic stressors on surface water quality. © 2014 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cogeneration markets in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poredos, S.


    Cogeneration offers a key strategy which supports global competitiveness for Ontario businesses, encourages energy efficiency and environmental protection, and offers natural gas utilities and producers stable long-term incremental markets. By supporting cogeneration projects, electric utilities will benefit from increased flexibility. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for cogeneration, which can in most cases be easily integrated into existing operations. In Ontario, electric demand grew along with the gross domestic product until 1990, but has decreased with the recent economic recession. The provincial utility Ontario Hydro is resizing itself to stabilize total rate increases of 30% over the last three years and supporting reduction of its high debt load. Rate increases are supposed to be limited but this may be difficult to achieve without further cost-cutting measures. Cogeneration opportunities exist with many institutional and industrial customers who are trying to remain globally competitive by cutting operating costs. In general, cogeneration can save 20% or more of total annual energy costs. Due to excess capacity, Ontario Hydro is not willing to purchase electric power, thus only electric load displacement projects are valid at this time. This will reduce overall savings due to economies of scale. In southwestern Ontario, Union Gas Ltd. has been successful in developing 40 MW of electric displacement projects, providing a total load of 5 billion ft 3 of natural gas (50% of which is incremental). Over 3,000 MW of technical cogeneration potential is estimated to exist in the Union Gas franchise area

  7. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results (United States)

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bolpagni


    Full Text Available A functional characterization of the littoral and shore vegetation was performed in the Lake Idro to assess its ecological quality and hydromorphological alteration. A detailed survey of hydro-hygrophilous vegetation was carried out in 2010-2012. Three multimetric indices were calculated: the MacroIMMI (the Italian macrophytic index for mid-size subalpine lakes with a maximum depth < 125 m, the SFI (Shorezone Functional Index, and the LHS (Lake Habitat Survey. The MacroIMMI (0.76 classified the lake in a good ecological status, although the dominant aquatic species were exotic (Elodea nuttallii and Lagarosiphon major. The SFI pointed out that the 50% of total shorelines displayed a very good or excellent conservation status; conversely, the LHS revealed high levels of morphological alteration coupled with rather good levels of habitat diversity, likely due to the high colonization rates of macrophytes along the lake shore. The lacustrine multimetric indices seem suitable for assessing the conservation status of mid-size lakes. However, for the present case-study, the metrics used require further implementation to suit the peculiarities of Italian subalpine lakes.

  9. Assessment of the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Thomson, J.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Aktar, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.


    In 2003, there were 54 fixed-crest lamprey barriers used in the Great Lakes region, with more construction planned. Although the barriers are relatively small structures of about 1-2 m in height, they present a drowning hazard. On the downstream side of the structure, a submerged hydraulic jump creates a strong vortex flow that even an experienced swimmer cannot escape. This study developed a method to assess the risk of hazardous flows at the barrier sites to enable dam owners to decide whether or not mitigative measures need to be undertaken at their sites. This hazard assessment was demonstrated for 2 existing lamprey barriers in Ontario, namely the Duffins Creek Barrier at Ajax and the Little Otter Creek Barrier near Straffordville. However, the work can be applied to the dam safety assessment and the development of potential mitigative strategies for drowning at other low-head dams and weirs. A flow-duration curves was developed for each site in order to determine the risk of having a drowning hazard at the barrier sites. In the flow-duration analysis, the percentage time, or probability, that a given flow rate was equalled or exceeded was calculated directly from observations of the average daily discharge in the channel. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Modelling the Loktak Lake Basin to Assess Human Impact on Water Resources (United States)

    Eliza, K.


    Loktak Lake is an internationally important, Ramsar designated, fresh water wetland system in the state of Manipur, India. The lake was also listed under Montreux Record on account of the ecological modifications that the lake system has witnessed over time. A characteristic feature of this lake is the extensive occurrence of coalesced, naturally or otherwise, vegetative masses floating over it. A contiguous 40 km2 area of Phumdis, as these vegetative masses are locally referred to, also constitutes the only natural home of the endemic and endangered species of Manipur's brow-antlered deer popularly known as Sangai. Appropriately notified as Keibul Lamjao National Park by Government of India, this natural feature is known to be the world's largest floating park. Water quality and sediment deposition on account of soil erosion in its catchments are some of the emerging concerns along with a reported enhanced frequency and duration of flooding of the shore areas, reduced fish catch within a visibly deteriorated overall natural ecosystem. Disturbances of watershed processes, command area management practices, ineffective as indeed largely absent, waste management practices and management interventions linked to the Loktak Hydroelectric Project are often cited as the principal triggers that are seen to be responsible for the damage. An effective management protocol for the Lake requires a rigorous understanding of its hydrobiology and eco-hydrodynamics. The present study is carried out to establish such a characterization of the various rivers systems draining directly into the Lake using MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 HD and MIKE 11 ECO Lab modelling platforms. Water quality modelling was limited to dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and water temperature. Model calibration was done using the available measured water quality data. The derived results were then investigated for causal correlation with anthropogenic influences to assess human impact on water

  11. Assessment of primary production in a eutrophic lake from carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of a carnivorous fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Takahito


    The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of Hypomesus transpacificus (a pond smelt) in a eutrophic lake, Lake Suwa, were measured from April to September in 1986 and 1987. The differences in the isotope ratios between these two years were observed. The stable isotopes were transferred from phytoplankton to zooplankton and pond smelt, associated with organic matters. Therefore, the difference in the isotope ratios in two years seemed to reflect the differences of the proceeding of primary production. It was suggested that the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of animal, whose trophic level is far from primary producer, can be the qualitative indicators for assessing the primary production in a lake ecosystem. (author)

  12. Water quality assessment of sacred glacial Lake Satopanth of Garhwal Himalaya, India (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh C.; Kumar, Rahul


    Satopanth Lake is a glacial lake, located at an altitude of 4600 m above sea level in Garhwal Himalaya of Uttarakhand state in India where an attempt was made to assess the water quality. A total of sixteen physico-chemical parameters including temperature, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, calcium, magnesium, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates and phosphates were recorded during 2014 and 2015 between June and August in ice-free period. The mean values of pH ranged from 6.85 to 7.10; water temperature fluctuated from 0.1 to 0.3 °C; dissolved oxygen varied from 5.90 to 6.0 mg.L-1; free CO2 varied from 8.40 to 8.60 mg.L-1; total dissolved solids varied from 88.0 to 89.5 mg.L-1; calcium from 7.88 to 7.95 mg.L-1; magnesium from 0.53 to 0.66 mg.L-1. All the physico-chemical values were within the prescribed WHO/BIS limit for drinking water. Water Quality Index (WQI) calculated based on these parameters also revealed the excellent quality of lake water.

  13. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, C S; Patterson, R W; Upton, M S [Chemistry and Metallurgy Department, Central Production Services, Ontario Hydro, ON (Canada)


    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  14. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.S.; Patterson, R.W.; Upton, M.S.


    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  15. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake. (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi


    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10 -5 to 10 -4 ). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  16. Assessment of Atmospheric Correction Methods for Sentinel-2 MSI Images Applied to Amazon Floodplain Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Souza Martins


    Full Text Available Satellite data provide the only viable means for extensive monitoring of remote and large freshwater systems, such as the Amazon floodplain lakes. However, an accurate atmospheric correction is required to retrieve water constituents based on surface water reflectance ( R W . In this paper, we assessed three atmospheric correction methods (Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV, ACOLITE and Sen2Cor applied to an image acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI on-board of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2A platform using concurrent in-situ measurements over four Amazon floodplain lakes in Brazil. In addition, we evaluated the correction of forest adjacency effects based on the linear spectral unmixing model, and performed a temporal evaluation of atmospheric constituents from Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC products. The validation of MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD indicated satisfactory retrievals over the Amazon region, with a correlation coefficient (R of ~0.7 and 0.85 for Terra and Aqua products, respectively. The seasonal distribution of the cloud cover and AOD revealed a contrast between the first and second half of the year in the study area. Furthermore, simulation of top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance showed a critical contribution of atmospheric effects (>50% to all spectral bands, especially the deep blue (92%–96% and blue (84%–92% bands. The atmospheric correction results of the visible bands illustrate the limitation of the methods over dark lakes ( R W < 1%, and better match of the R W shape compared with in-situ measurements over turbid lakes, although the accuracy varied depending on the spectral bands and methods. Particularly above 705 nm, R W was highly affected by Amazon forest adjacency, and the proposed adjacency effect correction minimized the spectral distortions in R W (RMSE < 0.006. Finally, an extensive validation of the methods is required for

  17. Towards a rapid assessment protocol for identifying pit lakes worthy of restoration. (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Genthe, B; Hill, L; Oberholster, P J


    Before the introduction of reclamation legislation in South Africa, final cut lakes in mining areas were left without any restoration while the final excavation was not back filled. Characteristics of these lacustrine water bodies vary considerably, but they are often linear in shape, large (1-30 ha), deep (2-30 m) and have poorly developed littoral zones. With water tables often near the surface; a variety of vascular hydrophytes can colonize these bodies, thus establishing emerging wetland type ecosystems. These, man-made aquatic structures that are (unintentionally) created potentially offers some realistic and inexpensive mitigation options for some of the negative impacts associated with mining, i.e. these water bodies can become useful by yielding potentially valuable services. However, no method currently exists to compare and rank these water bodies according ecological integrity and the expected monetary value to be derived from them in order to select sites for restoration. To answer this need, we applied an index to determine the ability of these water bodies to provide useful services in their current state. The index was then used to derive estimates of the monetary value of potential services in order to allow comparison with the cost of restoring the water body in question or to compare with other pit lakes. We present a South African case study to illustrate the method. As far as could be established, this is the first attempt towards creating a rapid assessment tool as standardised way of comparing pit lakes that allows for the ranking and identification of those pit lakes worthy of restoration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario

  19. Ontario Hydro statistical yearbook 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ontario Hydro was created in 1906 by a special statute of the Province of Ontario. It is a financially self-sustaining corporation without share capital. The yearbook is a compilation of financial data detailed by financial statements and sales and revenue figures for the year 1990. It is broken down by municipalities served in Ontario.

  20. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.


    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C


    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health ri...

  1. Great Lakes Literacy Principles (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey


    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  2. Ontario hydro waste storage concepts and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Mentes, G.A.


    Ontario Hydro presently operates 2,200 MWe of CANDU heavy water reactors with a further 11,000 MWe under design or construction. The annual quantities of low and medium level solid wastes expected to be produced at these stations are tabulated. In order to manage these wastes, Ontario Hydro established a Radioactive Waste Operations Site within the Bruce Nuclear Power Development located on Lake Huron about 250 km northwest of Toronto. The Waste Operations Site includes a 19-acre Storage Site plus a Radioactive Waste Volume Reduction Facility consisting of an incinerator and waste compactor. Ontario has in use or under construction both in-ground and above-ground storage facilities. In-ground facilities have been used for a number of years while the above-ground facilities are a more recent approach. Water, either in the form of precipitation, surface or subsurface water, presents the greatest concern with respect to confinement integrity and safe waste handling and storage operations

  3. Reappraisal of the seismotectonics of southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, A.A.


    The fundamental objectives of this study were to review and improve the seismological data base as an aid in more realistic evaluation of seismic hazard in southern Ontario. For this purpose, the following procedures have been undertaken: In the first stage, the types of errors in earthquake location files are identified, sources of uncertainties are discussed and a sensitivity analysis of the errors to different parameters is presented. In the second stage, a group location technique, Joint Hypocenter Determination (JHD), has been utilized to improve the locations of a group of 67 well-recorded events, mostly from the more active region near the Ottawa River and in western Quebec. The third stage, to relocate smaller and less reliably detected events in southern Ontario, utilized a nw algorithm, 'HYPOCENTER', which proved very efficient and flexible in the test runs for handling local explosion and natural events. A preliminary interpretation of the seismicity patterns in the study regions shows that earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger tend to align along preferred seismic trends which may, in turn, be controlled by weakness planes in the Earth's crust. These inferred trends coincide with dominant northwesterly and northeasterly striking structural directions. For earthquakes smaller than magnitude 4 prior to 1970 and for microearthquakes (M<3) which occurred near the Lake Ontario shoreline, the detection coverage was not sufficient to conclusively discuss accurate locations and causative mechanisms

  4. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes (United States)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody


    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  5. A DPSIR model for ecological security assessment through indicator screening: a case study at Dianchi Lake in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake's ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes.

  6. Assessment of whether upstream passage for Lake Sturgeon is needed at the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (Winnipeg River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, T.


    This document reviewed Manitoba Hydro's proposal to modernize the Pointe du Bois Generating Station (GS) on the Winnipeg River, with particular reference to the potential impacts on Lake Sturgeon in Management Unit 5 (MU5) where large numbers of the fish spawn at the base of the falls. The modernization will involve replacing the spillway, dam segments and replacing or repairing the powerhouse. The pros and cons of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon and the generating station were outlined. The only spawning area in the MU5 area may be altered considerably due to changes in water flow, depending on the design chosen for modernization. A potential benefit of providing upstream fish passage for Lake Sturgeon would be to increase genetic diversity within the Winnipeg River. Another potential benefit would be to allow Lake Sturgeon, from the relatively dense population below the GS, to move upstream into MU4 where unfilled habitat may be available and Lake Sturgeon abundance is lower. A potential disadvantage of providing fish passage would be the loss of individual Lake Sturgeon from the healthy population in MU5 with no accompanying benefit to MU4. There would be no net gain to MU4 or MU5 if migrating Lake Sturgeon returned to MU5 rather than proceeding upstream. It was concluded that these current gaps in knowledge must be filled in order to fully assess the environmental impacts. 2 figs.

  7. An assessment tool to ensure compliance for the Imperial Oil Cold Lake operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nixon, J.K. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    In order to address noise issues at Imperial Oil Resources' (IOR) Cold Lake facility, HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp. was hired to develop a noise assessment tool. The innovative tool which has been used successfully by IOR for the past 2 years to self-monitor IOR's predicted sound level contributions for the Cold Lake Operations Lease area, consists of a noise computer model and a noise assessment spreadsheet. The tool is designed to ensure that the sound levels are below those designated by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) Permissible Sound Level of 40 dBa from a facility to the nearest or most impacted residence. The tool has exceeded design expectations and goals and the spreadsheet has proven to be effective in predicting non-compliance concerns prior to a new facility being constructed or operated. The tool has been incorporated into IOR's corporate project planning process. The tool has shown that the noise contributions from the Cold Lake Lease area are below the EUB Permissible Sound Levels. IOR does not believe that the noise contribution from this area will increase over the life of the project unless a facility is added close to a residence. The IOR-EUB Compliance Self-Assessment Framework, which allows IOR to self-manage noise for its operations, made it possible for IOR to implement this new, site specific regulatory tool which provides accurate, immediate and auditable due-diligence documentation. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.


    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  9. Neotectonic investigations in Southern Ontario. Prince Edward County - Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFall, G.H.; Allam, A.


    This report summarizes the preliminary results of geological and geophysical investigations and offshore side scan sonar surveys of the bedrock and unconsolidated sediments in Prince Edward County, Southern Ontario, by the Ontario Geological Survey in 1989. Investigations were focused on deformations in the bedrock and the surficial deposits. Some of these deformations may be neotectonic in origin. Low magnitude seismicity in the Prince Edward County region appears to be spatially related to a major regional fault system that crosses Lake Ontario and consists of the seismically active Clarendon-Linden Fault System in New York State, the Picton-Napanee and Rideau Faults, the Frontenac-Sharbot Lake Terrane Boundary and the assumed Salmon River Fault in Ontario. Detailed observations were made in the Long Point study area and the Mountain View and Picton Quarries. Bedrock structural features were documented, including: joints; normal, reverse and strike strip faults; brittle folds; and Jurassic age ultramafic dyke. Detailed refraction seismic surveys were conducted across a local fault and possible fold structures. Magnetic surveys, conducted in conjunction with the offshore side scan sonar surveys, documented large magnetic anomalies southeast of Point Petre and at the northeast end of Long Reach. Side scan sonar surveys of the lake bottom to the east of Point Petre confirm the presence of pop-ups in that area of the lake bottom which is immediately adjacent to where pop-ups are observed on land. The pop-ups present in the lake bottom have similar orientations to those mapped in the study area

  10. Assessing the toxicity and risk of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early life stages of freshwater mussels in the Canadian province of Ontario. (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Rochfort, Q; McInnis, R; Exall, K; Gillis, P L


    In temperate urbanized areas where road salting is used for winter road maintenance, the level of chloride in surface waters has been increasing. While a number of studies have shown that the early-life stages of freshwater mussels are particularly sensitive to salt; few studies have examined the toxicity of salt-impacted winter road runoff to the early-life stages of freshwater mussels to confirm that chloride is the driver of toxicity in this mixture. This study examines the acute toxicity of field-collected winter road runoff to the glochidia of wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) (48 h exposure) and newly released juvenile fatmucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) (road run-off created with moderately hard synthetic water (∼80 mg CaCO 3 /L) were 1177 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1011-1344 mg Cl - /L) and 2276 mg Cl - /L (95% CI: 1698-2854 mg Cl - /L), respectively. These effect concentrations correspond with the toxicity of chloride reported in other studies, indicating that chloride is likely the driver of toxicity in salt-impacted road-runoff, with other contaminants (e.g., metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) playing a de minimis role. Toxicity data from the current study and literature and concentrations of chloride in the surface waters of Ontario were used to conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of chloride to early-life stage freshwater mussels. The assessment indicated that chronic exposure to elevated chloride levels could pose a risk to freshwater mussels; further investigation is warranted to ensure that the most sensitive organisms are protected. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response (United States)

    Heap, James


    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  12. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.


    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  13. International Cooperative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes. Programme Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.; Forsius, M.; Jeffries, D. [and others


    The International Cooperative Programme for Assessment of Acidification of Rivers and lakes (ICP Waters) was established in 1985 by the UN/ECE Executive Body for the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Achieving the programme objectives requires that both the temporally intensive and regionally extensive data are collected on a continuing basis. To guide the development and harmonization of the various national contributions, a manual was worked out. The present report is an expanded and consolidated revision of that manual. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Ontario's energy action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the fall of 2002, the government of Ontario announced an action plan designed to ensure stable electricity prices while additional electricity generating capacity is built. The action plan included a strategy for encouraging major private sector investments in wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. The strategies for new renewable energy projects include: property tax incentives, business income tax incentives, and sales tax rebates. Initiatives to increase supply include: Toronto's Portland 550 megawatt, natural gas-fired generating station, Niagara Falls' Beck Tunnel Project, and Windsor's 580 megawatt natural gas-fired generating station. The government is promoting energy conservation by reducing its electricity consumption by 10 per cent, and setting a target where 20 per cent of electricity consumed in the province must be from renewable energy sources. The use of interval meters by Ontario residents is being encouraged. A provincial sales tax rebate is being offered to customers buying select energy efficient appliances. In its commitment to environmental protection, the Ontario government is phasing out coal, offering rebates for solar energy systems, implementing measures to reduce acid rain, and investing $3.25 billion over ten years to renew and expand public transit. In Chatham, Ontario, a plant producing ethanol from corn was built, and others are planned for other parts of the province. Tax incentives are also offered for alternative fuel users. 1 ref., 1 tab

  15. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R


    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p factors (EF operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions of sediment at the sites differed spatially, indicating that the Pb (and other trace elements by association) originated from different natural sources at the two locations.

  16. Assessing Canadian inventories to understand the environmental impacts of mercury releases to the Great Lakes region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trip, Luke; Bender, Tonya; Niemi, David


    North American pollutant release and transfer registries have been continuously developing with an eye to understanding source/receptor relationships and ensuring that the polluter-paid principle is applied to the appropriate parties. The potential contribution of mercury to the Great Lakes Basin arising from the rerelease of historic mercury pollution from contaminated aquatic and terrestrial media is poorly understood and the subject of concern. Although a considerable amount of data may be available on the atmospheric component of mercury releases to the Basin, further inventory work is needed to quantify the rerelease of the historic mercury. Much of the related existing inventory information is either not derived from direct measurement or not bounded by a mass-balance accounting. Critical to this determination is an increased confidence in the inventories of mercury from past and current practices. This may be enhanced through comprehensive and thorough surveys of contributions from specific products and their life-cycle assessments. An even greater challenge is to determine the bioavailability of the mercury emanating from land-based sources and from aquatic media. This paper describes the interplay among the sources and receptors of mercury and provides a quantitative assessment of current Canadian contributions of mercury as a contaminant to the Great Lakes. Recommendations for improved assessments are provided

  17. Expanding exports, increasing smog : Ontario Power Generation's and Hydro One's strategies to continue coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.


    The production of coal-fired electricity increased by approximately 150 per cent in Ontario between 1995 and 2000. As a result, the smog-causing emissions generated by the five coal-fired power plants operated by Ontario Power Generation caused an increase in smog and worsened air quality in the province as well as affecting air quality as far afield as the Atlantic provinces. Between 2002 and 2005, it is expected that the Pickering and Bruce nuclear plants will be returned to service, making the electricity generated by the coal plants surplus to Ontario's needs. Increasing this surplus are the planned natural gas generating stations. Ontario Power Generation is planning on using this surplus to export it to the United States rather than phasing out its reliance on coal. The increase in exports to the United States Northeast and Midwest is planned with Hydro One, already busy increasing its transmission capacity to the United States by 1,000 megawatt (MW). This plan involves laying 975 MW submarine cable from the Nanticoke Generating Station (operated by Ontario Power Generation) under Lake Erie to Pennsylvania, Ohio, or both states. At the moment, the exports are constrained by the government emissions limits imposed by the Ontario government on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This constraint could be removed if Ontario Power Generation decides to pay further for pollution controls for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides at its coal stations. Unfortunately, increasing the exports would also result in emissions increases for 28 other uncapped pollutants such as lead, mercury and arsenic. The author recommended that the Ontario government ban non-emergency coal-fired electricity exports to improve air quality in the province. refs., 8 figs

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of Governance Performance of Lake Basins: Towards Transformation to Adaptive and Integrative Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emmanuel Cookey


    Full Text Available Governance is essential to lake basin management, but it is the most challenged and needs increased attention. Lake Basin Governance performance assessment is designed to measure the progress and impacts of policies, institutions and the roles of various actors in ensuring sustainability. It measures the performance of technical/operational, social/networks, and institutional arrangement that make up the socio-ecological system. Governance performance assessment becomes very necessary with over-emphasis of institutions on resources utilization and exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to present a governance performance assessment framework specifically for lake basins. The Adaptive Integrated Lake Basin Management (AILBM framework is a diagnostic and prescriptive performance assessment tool with an outcome to produce an adaptive and integrative system with equity, inclusiveness, transparency, accountability and flexibility to problem-solving and resilience. A case study on water governance performance assessment of the Songkhla Lake Basin (SLB in Thailand is provided for illustration and application and indicated a poor performance rating on governance in the Basin, revealing gaps, defects, strengths and weaknesses in the current system, necessary to recommend future improvements.

  19. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.


    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  20. Cooperatives and the State: The Case of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Laforest


    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the cooperative movement in Ontario came together in order to lobby its provincial government for active cooperative development support programs. Momentum was building for these types of programs. Already, many provincial governments had implemented active support programs in their jurisdiction. Despite having one of the largest cooperative sectors in Canada, Ontario was lagging behind. This article assesses the progress of the efforts of the Ontario cooperative movement to date. It details how the Ontario cooperative movement developed a sectoral identity for itself and framed its objectives in an effort to strengthen its relationship with the Ontario government. / Le mouvement coopératif en Ontario s'est rassemblé au début des années 2000 afin de faire pression sur le gouvernement provincial pour qu'il développe des programmes de soutient actif pour coopératives. Déjà plusieurs gouvernements provinciaux avaient mis en place de telles politiques. L'Ontario tardait malgré le fait qu'il avait un des plus grands secteurs coopératifs au Canada. Cet article examine le progrès qu'a connu le mouvement coopératif en Ontario dans ses efforts. Il décrit comment le mouvement coopératif a construit une identité sectorielle autour de laquelle il a pu ancrer ses demandes auprès du gouvernement ontarien.

  1. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger


    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  2. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard


    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  3. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein


    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  4. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatchew, Adonis; Baziliauskas, Andy


    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: → Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. → Most projects are either solar or wind. → Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) → Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  5. Assessing Timely Presentation to Care Among People Diagnosed with HIV During Hospital Admission: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Kendall, Claire E; Shoemaker, Esther S; Raboud, Janet; Mark, Amy E; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Burchell, Ann N; Loutfy, Mona; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare E; Rosenes, Ron; Rogers, Timothy; Antoniou, Tony


    Timely presentation to care for people newly diagnosed with HIV is critical to optimize health outcomes and reduce onward HIV transmission. Studies describing presentation to care following diagnosis during a hospital admission are lacking. We sought to assess the timeliness of presentation to care and to identify factors associated with delayed presentation. We conducted a population-level study using health administrative databases. Participants were all individuals older than 16 and newly diagnosed with HIV during hospital admission in Ontario, Canada, between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2015. We used modified Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios for the association between sociodemographic and clinical variables and the presentation to out-patient HIV care by 90 days following hospital discharge. Among 372 patients who received a primary HIV diagnosis in hospital, 83.6% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable analysis, we did not find associations between patient sociodemographic or clinical characteristics and presentation to care by 90 days. In a secondary analysis of 483 patients diagnosed during hospitalization but for whom HIV was not recorded as the principal reason for admission, 73.1% presented to care by 90 days. Following multivariable adjustment, we found immigrants from countries with generalized HIV epidemics (RR 1.265, 95% CI 1.133-1.413) were more likely to present to care, whereas timely presentation was less likely for people with a mental health diagnosis (RR 0.817, 95% CI 0.742-0.898) and women (RR 0.748, 95% CI 0.559-1.001). Future work should evaluate mechanisms to facilitate presentation to care among these populations.

  6. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China. (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei


    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes. (United States)

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David


    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  8. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Dredging in South Lake, China (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Yu; Feng, Jiang


    Environmental dredging is a primary remedial option for removal of the contaminated material from aquatic environment. Of primary concern in environmental dredging is the effectiveness of the intended sediment removal. A 5-year field monitoring study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the environmental dredging in South Lake, China. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphors, and heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, and As) before and after dredging in sediment were determined and compared. Multiple ecological risk indices were employed to assess the contamination of heavy metals before and after dredging. Our results showed that the total phosphorus levels reduced 42% after dredging. Similar changes for Hg, Zn, As Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed, with reduction percentages of 97.0, 93.1, 82.6, 63.9, 52.7, 50.1, 32.0, and 23.6, respectively, and the quality of sediment improved based on the criterion of Sediment Quality Guidelines by USEPA and contamination degree values (Cd) decreased significantly (paired t-test, p heavy metals from South Lake. Nevertheless, the dredging was ineffective to remove total nitrogen from sediment. We conclude that the reason for the observed increase in TN after dredging was likely ammonia release from the sediment impairing the dredging effectiveness.

  9. AQUATOX coupled foodweb model for ecosystem risk assessment of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in lake ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling


    The AQUATOX model considers the direct toxic effects of chemicals and their indirect effects through foodwebs. For this study, the AQUATOX model was applied to evaluating the ecological risk of Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a highly anthropogenically disturbed lake-Baiyangdian Lake. Calibration and validation results indicated that the model can adequately describe the dynamics of 18 biological populations. Sensitivity analysis results suggested that the model is highly sensitive to temperature limitation. PBDEs risk estimate results demonstrate that estimated risk for natural ecosystems cannot be fully explained by single species toxicity data alone. The AQUATOX model could provide a good basis in ascertaining ecological protection levels of “chemicals of concern” for aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, AQUATOX can potentially be used to provide necessary information corresponding to early warning and rapid forecasting of pollutant transport and fate in the management of chemicals that put aquatic ecosystems at risk. - Highlights: • AQUATOX model incorporates direct toxic effects and indirect ecological effects. • Ecological risk of PBDEs was assessed by the AQUATOX model. • The model could help determine ecological threshold of “chemicals of concern”. - Capsule abstract: Application of the AQUATOX model to assess the direct and indirect ecological risk of PBDEs

  10. An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Faisal


    Full Text Available The United Nations estimates that the global population is going to be double in the coming 40 years, which may cause a negative impact on the environment and human life. Such an impact may instigate increased water demand, overuse of power, anthropogenic noise, etc. Thus, modelling the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ becomes indispensable for a better city planning and an efficient urban sprawl control. This study aims to investigate the ability of using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques to model the UEQ with a case study in the city of Toronto via deriving different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Two techniques, GIS overlay and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Socio-economic parameters including family income, higher education and land value were used as a reference to assess the outcomes derived from the two integration methods. The outcomes were assessed through evaluating the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Preliminary findings showed that the GIS overlay represents a better precision and accuracy (71% and 65%, respectively, comparing to the PCA technique. The outcomes of the research can serve as a generic indicator to help the authority for better city planning with consideration of all possible social, environmental and urban requirements or constraints.

  11. A climatic environmental performance assessment method for ecological city construction: Application to Beijing Yanqi Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yi Fang


    Full Text Available In contrast to the input perspective for evaluating planning metrics, this research takes the climatic environmental output effects as the starting point for assessing ecological city construction. Based on approaches such as observation data analysis, meteorological model simulation, and remote sensing, a set of climatic environmental performance assessment methods is developed and established. These methods mainly focus on surface ventilation assessment and urban thermal environment assessment. With the Yanqi Lake ecological development demonstration area located in Huairou district, Beijing as an example, the assessment of the local climatic environment before and after the construction are conducted, and relevant policy suggestions for urban planning and construction are presented. The results show that after development, the ventilation capacity will decrease overall and the ventilation potential index will decrease from 0.53 to 0.44. While this is not a large reduction, and is still at a favorable level, the ventilation potential in some local areas will markedly decrease. Furthermore, the thermal environment will become poorer to some extent; the urban heat island (UHI area and intensity will increase compared with the current situation; continuous heat islands may occur in local areas; the UHI potential index of the core area will rise from 0.0878 to 0.1217 (still a favorable level. Therefore, urban surfaces should be carefully developed and arranged during planning. It is suggested that the negative impacts of large areas of urban construction on the local climatic environment in the Yanqi Lake could be mitigated by 1 strengthening the airflow by introducing fresh, cold, northwesterly air via constructed ventilation corridors, 2 increasing the number of ecological cold sources, particularly for water bodies and green belts to prevent the UHI in the southern region of Yanqi Lake from becoming linked with each other, and 3 considering a

  12. Wind power and bats : Ontario guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section


    None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.

  13. The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in Lake Chaohu, China: seasonal variation, potential source and risk assessment. (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Cao, Haiqun; Li, Xuede; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde


    The distribution and seasonal variation of fifteen antibiotics belonging to three classes (sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines) were investigated in Lake Chaohu, China. The concentrations of the selected antibiotics in the surface water, eight major inflowing rivers and sewage treatment plant (STP) samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The results indicated that sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin were the predominant antibiotics, with maximum concentrations of 95.6 and 383.4ngL(-1), respectively, in the river samples. In Lake Chaohu, the western inflowing rivers (the Nanfei and Shiwuli Rivers) were the primary import routes for the antibiotics, and the domestic effluent from four STPs were considered the primary source of the antibiotics. The level of antibiotics in Lake Chaohu clearly varied with seasonal changes, and the highest detectable frequencies and mean concentrations were found during the winter. The quality of water downstream of Lake Chaohu was influenced by the lake, and the results of risk assessment of the antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in the surface water of Lake Chaohu and inflowing rivers might pose a high risk to algae and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implications of climatic change for tourism and recreation in Ontario. Incidences du changement climatique sur le tourisme et les loisirs en Ontario; Sommaire de Phase 1 et 2. Le changement climatique et son incidence sur le tourisme et les loisirs en Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G; Harrison, R; Kinnaird, V; McBoyle, G; Quinland, C


    Scenarios for climatic change associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide were employed in an assessment of the impacts of climate change on tourism and recreation in Ontario. A warmer climate resulting from such change may mean declining lake levels with associated changes in the ecological interest and recreational potential of wetlands, as shown by case studies on two parks near Great Lakes shorelines. In the skiing industry, the length of ski seasons will be reduced in the northern part of the province, but the key holiday periods (when a large portion of total business is conducted) should still fall within the reliable ski season. Further south, the ski season in the South Georgian Bay region could be eliminated. Summer recreational activities are likely to have extended seasons, and the viability of summer recreational enterprises may increase, with associated positive benefits to neighboring communities. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Implications of climate change for water resources in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamen, M.


    Several authors have suggested the following impacts of global warming for the Great Lakes region. The average annual warming is predicted by one model to be ca 4.5 degree C, slightly more in winter and slightly less in summer. Annual precipitation is projected to increase by ca 8% for points in the central and western basin, but to decrease by 3-6% for the eastern basin. Basin snowpack could be reduced by up to 100% and the snow season shortened by 2-4 weeks, resulting in a reduction of more than 50% in available soil moisture. Buoyancy-driven turnovers of the water column on four of the six lakes may not occur at all. Presently the phenomena occurs twice per year on all the lakes. Ice formation would be greatly reduced. Maximum ice cover may decline from 72-0% for Lake Superior, 38-0% for Lake Michigan, 65-0% for Lake Huron, 90-50% for Lake Erie and 33-0% for Lake Ontario. Net basin supplies would be reduced probably in the range 15-25% below the current mean value. Possible responses include integrated studies and research, better and continually updated information, assessment of public policies in the U.S. and Canada, enhanced private planning efforts, and increased global cooperation

  16. Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Wang


    Full Text Available Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic carbon: TOC in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake was conducted. Results showed that the mean contents of TP, TN and TOC were 1.13-, 5.40- and 2.50- fold higher than their background values respectively. Most of the TN and TOC contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were four times as high or higher and twice as high or higher than the background values except the Zhaoyang sub-lake, and the spatial distribution of TN and TOC contents were remarkably similar over a large area. Nearly all the TP contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were all higher than its background values except most part of the Zhaoyang sub-lake. Based on the enrichment factor (EF and the organic pollution evaluation index (Org-index, TP, TOC and TN showed minor enrichment (1.13, minor enrichment (2.50 and moderately severe enrichment (5.40, respectively, and most part of the Dushan sub-lake and the vicinity of the Weishan island were in moderate or heavy sediments organic pollution, while the other parts were clean. Moreover, according to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, we deduced that anthropogenic TN and TOC were mainly came from industrial sources including enterprises distributed in Jining, Yanzhou and Zoucheng along with iron and steel industries distributed in the southern of the Weishan sub-lake, whereas TP mainly originated from runoff and soil erosion coming from agricultural lands located in Heze city and Weishan island, the local aquacultural activities as well as the domestic sewage discharge of Jining city.

  17. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. [Conterra AB (Sweden); Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nucelear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)


    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under `ambient` repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs.

  18. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Karlsson, Fred


    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under 'ambient' repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs

  19. Glacial lakes in the Horgos river basin and their outbreak risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Medeu


    Full Text Available The river Khorgos (in Kazakhstan – Korgas is a boundary river between Kazakhstan and China. Its basin is located in the central part of southern slope of Dzhungarskiy (Zhetysu Alatau range. According to agreement between Kazakhstan and China at the boundary transition of Khorgos in the floodplain of the river Khorgos the large Center of Frontier Cooperation is erected. Estimation of safety of the mentioned object including connection with possible glacial lakes outbursts has the importance of political-economical value. Nowadays development of glacial lakes in the overhead part of Khorgos river basin has reached apogee. As a roof we can mention the maximum of total glacial lakes area (1,7 million m² in 41 lakes and emptied kettles of former glacial lakes. Six lakes reached highly dangerous outburst stage: the volume of lakes reached some million m³, maximum depth up to 30–40 m. Focal ground filtration of the water from lakes takes place. Development of glacial lakes in Khorgos river basin will continue, and these lakes give and will give real danger for the Center of Frontier Cooperation in case of outburst of naturally dammed lake Kazankol with the similar mechanism of Issyk lake outburst, occurred in 1963 in ZailijskiyAlatau (Ile Alatau.

  20. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is a summary of a parent report (issued under separate cover) entitled Engineering Assessment of Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings for Vitro Site, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option 1), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present

  1. Multiple stressor effects on water quality in Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods, Canada: a midge-based assessment of hypolimnetic oxygen conditions over the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Summers


    Full Text Available Chironomid and Chaoborus (midge remains preserved in a dated sediment core from Poplar Bay, Lake of the Woods (LOW, Ontario, Canada, were used to assess the effects of multiple stressors (e.g., recent warming and shoreline development on water quality over the past ~200 years. As monitoring data for LOW do not extend beyond recent decades, paleolimnological methods are used to reconstruct long-term limnological trends and to establish pre-disturbance conditions. The effects of recent warming and shoreline development on Poplar Bay water quality are examined using an index of hypolimnetic oxygen (O2 status based on the ratio of Chaoborus to chironomid remains (chaob:chir and a midge-inferred volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO model. Our paleolimnological data indicate that hypolimnetic [O2] in Poplar Bay have been historically hypoxic (1-4 mg O2 L-1 but have declined further (generally <2 mg O2 L-1 over the last few decades. Significant relationships between air temperature and midge data indicate that substantial warming starting in the late-1970s has triggered a marked response in the midge assemblages that pre-dates the onset of cottage development (mid-1990s. These findings complement a diatom-based study on the same sediment core, likewise suggesting that recent warming has played a prominent role in structuring limnetic communities. However, it is likely that the full, compounded effects of recent warming and shoreline development have not yet been realized. Our study highlights the complexity of multiple stressor systems, such as Poplar Bay, and emphasizes the benefits of using multiple, independent lines of paleoenvironmental evidence in gaining a more complete understanding of historical water quality.

  2. Spatial distributions, fractionation characteristics, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of Chaohu Lake, a large eutrophic freshwater lake in eastern China. (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Rongqiong; Xi, Shanshan; Da, Chunnian; Liu, Fei


    The concentrations, spatial distribution, fractionation characteristics, and potential ecological risks of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co) in the surface sediment samples collected from 32 sites in Chaohu Lake were investigated. The improved BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to analyze the chemical forms of trace elements in sediments. The enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and risk assessment code (RAC) were employed to evaluate the pollution levels and the potential ecological risks. The results found that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments were 78.59, 36.91, 161.84, 98.87, 38.92, and 10.09 mg kg -1 , respectively. The lower concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni were almost found in the middle part of the lake, while Co increased from the western toward the eastern parts of the lake. Cr, Ni, Co, and Zn predominantly existed in the residual fractions, with the average values of 76.35, 59.22, 45.60, and 44.30%, respectively. Cu and Pb were mainly combined with Fe/Mn oxides in reducible fraction, with the average values of 66.4 and 69.1%, respectively. The pollution levels were different among the selected elements. Cu had the highest potential ecological risk, while Cr had the lowest potential ecological risk.

  3. Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca. (United States)

    Cáceres Choque, Luis Fernando; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E; Valdez Castro, Sulema N; Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R; Choque Mamani, Rocío G; Fernández Alcazar, Samuel G; Sracek, Ondra; Bhattacharya, Prosun


    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  4. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu


    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  5. Assessing Factors Contributing to Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms in U.S. Lakes (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Lunetta, R. S.; Mehaffey, M.; Schaeffer, B. A.


    Cyanobacteria Harmful Algal Blooms (CHABs) in inland lakes have emerged as a major threat to water quality from both ecological and public health standpoints. Understanding the factors and processes driving CHAB occurrence is important in order to properly manage ensuring more favorable water quality outcomes. High water temperatures and nutrient loadings are known drivers of CHABs; however, the contribution of landscape variables and their interactions with these drivers remains relatively unstudied at a regional or national scale. This study assesses upstream landscape variables that may contribute to or obstruct/delay nutrient loadings to freshwater systems in several hundred inland lakes in the Upper Mid-western and Northeastern United States. We employ multiple linear regression and random forest modeling to determine which variables contribute most strongly to CHAB occurrence. This lakeshed-based approach will rank the impact of each landscape variable on cyanobacteria levels derived from satellite remotely sensed data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor for the 2011 bloom season (July - October).

  6. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Torbick


    Full Text Available Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI, Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophylla and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 μg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost.

  7. [Uncertainty characterization approaches for ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in Taihu Lake]. (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Hui; Wu, Feng-Chang; He, Hong-Ping; Feng, Cheng-Lian; Zhang, Rui-Qing; Li, Hui-Xian


    Probabilistic approaches, such as Monte Carlo Sampling (MCS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), and non-probabilistic approaches, such as interval analysis, fuzzy set theory and variance propagation, were used to characterize uncertainties associated with risk assessment of sigma PAH8 in surface water of Taihu Lake. The results from MCS and LHS were represented by probability distributions of hazard quotients of sigma PAH8 in surface waters of Taihu Lake. The probabilistic distribution of hazard quotient were obtained from the results of MCS and LHS based on probabilistic theory, which indicated that the confidence intervals of hazard quotient at 90% confidence level were in the range of 0.000 18-0.89 and 0.000 17-0.92, with the mean of 0.37 and 0.35, respectively. In addition, the probabilities that the hazard quotients from MCS and LHS exceed the threshold of 1 were 9.71% and 9.68%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested the toxicity data contributed the most to the resulting distribution of quotients. The hazard quotient of sigma PAH8 to aquatic organisms ranged from 0.000 17 to 0.99 using interval analysis. The confidence interval was (0.001 5, 0.016 3) at the 90% confidence level calculated using fuzzy set theory, and the confidence interval was (0.000 16, 0.88) at the 90% confidence level based on the variance propagation. These results indicated that the ecological risk of sigma PAH8 to aquatic organisms were low. Each method has its own set of advantages and limitations, which was based on different theory; therefore, the appropriate method should be selected on a case-by-case to quantify the effects of uncertainties on the ecological risk assessment. Approach based on the probabilistic theory was selected as the most appropriate method to assess the risk of sigma PAH8 in surface water of Taihu Lake, which provided an important scientific foundation of risk management and control for organic pollutants in water.

  8. Ontario Hydro annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ontario Hydro is a corporation without share capital created by a special statute of the Province of Ontario in 1906. It now operates under the authority of the Power Corporation Act, R.S.O. 1980, Chapter 384, as amended, with broad powers to generate, supply and deliver electric power throughout the province. It is also authorized to produce and sell steam and hot water as primary products. The Corporation's prime objective is to supply the people of Ontario with electricity at the lowest feasible cost consistent with high safety and quality of service standards. Ontario Hydro's main activity is wholesaling electric power to municipal utilities in urban areas who, in turn, retail it to customers in their service areas. In 1985, approximately 3,166,000 customers were served by Ontario Hydro and the municipal utilities in the province. Ontario Hydro operates 81 hydraulic, fossil and nuclear generating stations and an extensive power grid across Ontario to meet the province's demands for electric energy. Interconnections with other systems place the Corporation in an extensive electrical grid that covers a large segment of the North American continent. Ontario Hydro is a financially self-sustaining corporation. The Province of Ontario guarantees bonds and notes issued to the public by the Corporation

  9. Integrated satellite InSAR and slope stability modeling to support hazard assessment at the Safuna Alta glacial lake, Peru (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Frey, Holger; Huggel, Christian; Strozzi, Tazio; Büechi, Emanuel; Cui, Fanpeng; Flores, Andrés; Saito, Carlos


    The Safuna glacial lakes (77˚ 37' W, 08˚ 50' S) are located in the headwater of the Tayapampa catchment, in the northernmost part of the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. The upper lake, Laguna Safuna Alta at 4354 m asl has formed in the 1960s behind a terminal moraine of the retreating Pucajirca Glacier, named after the peak south of the lakes. Safuna Alta currently has a volume of 15 x 106 m3. In 2002 a rock fall of several million m3 from the proximal left lateral moraine hit the Safuna Alta lake and triggered an impact wave which overtopped the moraine dam and passed into the lower lake, Laguna Safuna Baja, which absorbed most of the outburst flood from the upper lake, but nevertheless causing loss in cattle, degradation of agricultural land downstream and damages to a hydroelectric power station in Quitaracsa gorge. Event reconstructions showed that the impact wave in the Safuna Alta lake had a runup height of 100 m or more, and weakened the moraine dam of Safuna Alta. This fact, in combination with the large lake volumes and the continued possibility for landslides from the left proximal moraine pose a considerable risk for the downstream settlements as well as the recently completed Quitaracsa hydroelectric power plant. In the framework of a project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), the hazard situation at the Safuna Alta lake is assessed by a combination of satellite radar data analysis, field investigations, and slope stability modeling. Interferometric analyses of the Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) of ALOS-1 Palsar-1, ALOS-2 Palsar-2 and Sentinel-1 data from 2016 reveal terrain displacements of 2 cm y-1 in the detachment zone of the 2002 rock avalanche. More detailed insights into the characteristics of these terrain deformations are gained by repeat surveys with differential GPS (DGPS) and tachymetric measurements. A drone flight provides the information for the generation of a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), which is used for the

  10. Assessing the hydrological impacts of agricultural changes upstream of the Tunisian World Heritage sea-connected Ichkeul Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aouissi


    Full Text Available The impact of changes in agricultural land use and practices as a controlling driver of hydrologic response and as a source of diffuse pollution, are studied in the Joumine River basin, discharging into the Ichkeul Lake, northern Tunisia, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979. The lake is characterized by a very specific hydrological functioning based on a seasonal alternation of water levels and salinity through its link to the Mediterranean Sea. Three Landsat images, in situ surveys and SWAT modelling were used to simulate and assess streamflows and nitrate loads under retrospective land uses.

  11. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.


    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Using of zooplankton indicators in assessing the quality of waters in two lakes in the Gulf of Finland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Dmitry


    Full Text Available In 2012–2015 zooplankton studies were carried out and the quality of the waters of the Kopanskoe and the Gorovaldayskoe lakes belonging to the Gulf of Finland basin (Leningrad region was assessed. Under the frame of long-term monitoring studies on these waterbodies, such work has not previously been carried out. The sampling stations were located in the coastal part of the waterbodies. Zooplankton of the lakes included 46 taxons of species and subspecies ranks, it was typical of the North-West of Russia and represented mainly by eurybiontic species with high ecological plasticity. In Gorovaldayskoe lake most affected by the anthropogenic influence, in comparison with the Kopanskoe, showed the lowest species richness and the lowest values of the biodiversity index. Nevertheless, the mass development of Cladocera, which made the main contribution to the population and the biomass of the community, promoted the active development of the processes of biological self-purification of this lake, as evidenced by a decrease by coefficient trophicity. According to the saprobity index in the waters of the studied lakes belonged to the oligosaprobic – β-mesosaprobic zone.

  13. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue


    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure – assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kostoski


    Full Text Available Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact.

    Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier setting on the Balkans, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes.

    Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1 assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic biodiversity, (2 summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3 outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1 watershed impacts, (2 agriculture and forestry, (3 tourism and population growth, (4 non-indigenous species, (5 habitat alteration or loss, (6 unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7 global climate change.

    Among the major (well-known threats with high impact are nutrient input (particularly of phosphorus, habitat conversion and silt load. Other threats are potentially of high impact but less well known. Such threats include pollution with hazardous substances (from sources such as mines, former industries, agriculture or climate change. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species

  15. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.H.; Mortsch, L.D.


    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  16. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential (United States)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  17. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.


    along the Lake Turkana shoreline that are vulnerable to fluctuations in lake levels due to the Gibe III dam were also identified. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using existing multi-source satellite data in a basic modeling framework to assess the potential hydrological impact of an upstream dam on a terminal downstream lake. The results obtained from this study could also be used to evaluate alternative dam-filling scenarios and assess the potential impact of the dam on Lake Turkana under different operational strategies.

  18. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.


    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  19. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015 (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.


    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  20. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, H.A.; Woodhead, L.W.; Fanjoy, G.R.


    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations for the workers and the public

  1. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.W.; Woodhead, L.W.; Horton, E.P.; Nichols, M.J.; Daly, I.N.


    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on worker and public safety, operating performance and costs, and reliability of system components

  2. Ontario Hydro annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A financial report and statistics on Ontario energy demand are presented. Efforts to secure a reliable supply of coal and uranium are described. Ontario Hydro's expansion is now controlled by capital availability and not power demand, and this has affected 11 construction projects, including heavy water plants and nuclear generating stations. (E.C.B.)

  3. Monitoring and Assessment of Hydrological and Ecological Changes in Lake Manyas (United States)

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman


    Manyas Lake in the northwest of Turkey occupies an area of 165 square kilometers. The surface area of the lake is continuously changing due to human activities, hydrologic and climatic conditions. The objective of this study is to examine the changes in water level and the area of lake and the effects of these changes on the lake's ecosystem and human economic activities. In order to determine the changes lake level measurement data, 1/25000 scale topography maps, rainfall and temperature data and bathymetry maps were used and elevation models were made. During the study period the water level fluctuated between 14.0 and 17.8 meters, and surface area changed between 124,8 km2 and 170,6 km2 respectively. Prior to the construction of a flood barrier at the southern end of the lake in 1992 the maximum surface area of the lake was calculated at 209 km2. Lake Manyas is an important wetland on the route of migration of birds from/to Europe and Africa. 64 ha of the lake and its surroundings along with the entire National Park is a Ramsar site. Irrigated and dry farming is practiced around the lake and fishing is important economic activity. The changes in the water level as result of natural and human factors brought about negative effects on the lake's ecosystem in last ten years. Result of these effects, natural fluctuation of the lake changed and the marshes around the lake destroyed and the bird population decreased. Lowering the water level in the lake is also significantly reduced the number of fish and number of migratory birds. The construction of the flood barrier destroyed vegetation and bird life in about a 25% of area of the lake on the south. The natural ecosystem in this area has been adversely affected. Moreover, when the water level is low due to low rain fall and irrigation, vegetation on the lake's shore line dies and some areas turn to swamp. The fauna and flora are negatively affected by water level changes particularly in the protected National Park

  4. Ontario Hydro's integrated air management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.; Brown, D.; Camacho, F.; Howes, H.; Jantzi, B.; Lin, X.; Lui, P.; Melo, O.T.; Mortimer, W.P.; Reuber, B.


    Ontario Hydro is developing an integrated air management plan as a tool for comparing the environmental impacts of fossil-fuel power generation options. The goal is to relate equipment, location, emissions, and impacts and to identify the optimum way to manage the utility's fossil generation system in view of upcoming environmental regulations and public expectations. The eight steps of the plan are briefly described: definition of power generation scenarios (upgrading, conversion to natural gas, non-utility generation, alternative technologies); estimation of emissions for each generation and fuel option studied; identification of impact of air emissions on building materials, agriculture, forests, lakes, and fisheries; modelling of air emissions dispersion; quantification of damage to pollution receptors; quantification of full fuel cycle effects; and comparison of the scenarios. The scenario having the lowest overall environmental impact involved upgrading the existing fossil-fuel system with additional air emissions controls and two integrated gasification combined cycle plants. 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Assessment of multiple sources of anthropogenic and natural chemical inputs to a morphologically complex basin, Lake Mead, USA (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Van Metre, P.C.


    Lakes with complex morphologies and with different geologic and land-use characteristics in their sub-watersheds could have large differences in natural and anthropogenic chemical inputs to sub-basins in the lake. Lake Mead in southern Nevada and northern Arizona, USA, is one such lake. To assess variations in chemical histories from 1935 to 1998 for major sub-basins of Lake Mead, four sediment cores were taken from three different parts of the reservoir (two from Las Vegas Bay and one from the Overton Arm and Virgin Basin) and analyzed for major and trace elements, radionuclides, and organic compounds. As expected, anthropogenic contaminant inputs are greatest to Las Vegas Bay reflecting inputs from the Las Vegas urban area, although concentrations are low compared to sediment quality guidelines and to other USA lakes. One exception to this pattern was higher Hg in the Virgin Basin core. The Virgin Basin core is located in the main body of the lake (Colorado River channel) and is influenced by the hydrology of the Colorado River, which changed greatly with completion of Glen Canyon Dam upstream in 1963. Major and trace elements in the core show pronounced shifts in the early 1960s and, in many cases, gradually return to concentrations more typical of pre-1960s by the 1980s and 1990s, after the filling of Lake Powell. The Overton Arm is the sub-basin least effected by anthropogenic contaminant inputs but has a complex 137Cs profile with a series of large peaks and valleys over the middle of the core, possibly reflecting fallout from nuclear tests in the 1950s at the Nevada Test Site. The 137Cs profile suggests a much greater sedimentation rate during testing which we hypothesize results from greatly increased dust fall on the lake and Virgin and Muddy River watersheds. The severe drought in the southwestern USA during the 1950s might also have played a role in variations in sedimentation rate in all of the cores. ?? 2009.

  6. Ontario regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.


    This paper provides a summary of recent events which when combined add up to a gradual but unmistakable movement of the energy sector in Ontario towards a fully competitive market. Some of the events precipitating this movement towards competition include the passing of the Energy Competition Act of 1998 (Bill 35), electricity deregulation, regulatory reform of the natural gas sector, and changes to the consumer protection legislation. The role of the Ontario Energy Board was also updated to bring it in line with the demands of the competitive marketplace. Among the new roles that the Board will assume are to facilitate competition, to maintain fair and reasonable rates, and to facilitate rational expansion. Another objective is to provide opportunities for including energy efficiency in government policies. Implications of the changes in the OEB's mandate for market participants were also discussed, including (1) regulated gas sales and delivery mechanisms, (2) transactional services, (3) contract restructuring, (4) consumer protection, (5) supervision of competitive market participants, and (6) market surveillance

  7. Ontario electricity bill review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, G.


    Findings of an independent review of charges to electricity bills and recommendations to assist in the development of a standard, province-wide residential electricity bill for Ontario are discussed. The review was requested by the province's Minister of Energy in an effort to dispel growing confusion about the variations in customer billing practices used by the province's 90+ local distribution companies. Key recommendations and findings were as follows: (1)Consumer bill formats issued by local distribution companies should be more consumer-friendly, adhere to minimum design standards, adapt uniform terminology and common line charges; (2) charges on customer bills should be grouped into four standard line items, with full details available to customers: the four line items should be a basic service charge, a charge for delivering electricity to the customer, a charge for the electricity itself, and a separate charge for retiring the outstanding debt of the former Ontario Hydro; (3) bills should take advantage of opportunities for promoting province-wide energy conservation, such as encouraging the long-term use of interval meters, presenting historical consumption data on residential bills on a period-to-period basis, and education and communications initiatives. Details of the recommendations, including the calculation of the fixed and variable components of usage charges, an explanation of the concept of electricity system loss adjustments, a method for phasing in the recommendations, and the anticipated benefits to consumers are provided

  8. A model approach to assess the long-term trends of indirect photochemistry in lake water. The case of Lake Maggiore (NW Italy). (United States)

    Minella, Marco; Rogora, Michela; Vione, Davide; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio


    A model-based approach is here developed and applied to predict the long-term trends of indirect photochemical processes in the surface layer (5m water depth) of Lake Maggiore, NW Italy. For this lake, time series of the main parameters of photochemical importance that cover almost two decades are available. As a way to assess the relevant photochemical reactions, the modelled steady-state concentrations of important photogenerated transients ((•)OH, ³CDOM* and CO₃(-•)) were taken into account. A multivariate analysis approach was adopted to have an overview of the system, to emphasise relationships among chemical, photochemical and seasonal variables, and to highlight annual and long-term trends. Over the considered time period, because of the decrease of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of water and of the increase of alkalinity, a significant increase is predicted for the steady-state concentrations of the radicals (•)OH and CO₃(-•). Therefore, the photochemical degradation processes that involve the two radical species would be enhanced. Another issue of potential photochemical importance is related to the winter maxima of nitrate (a photochemical (•)OH source) and the summer maxima of DOC ((•)OH sink and ³CDOM* source) in the lake water under consideration. From the combination of sunlight irradiance and chemical composition data, one predicts that the processes involving (•)OH and CO₃(-•) would be most important in spring, while the reactions involving ³CDOM* would be most important in summer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary assessment of the impact of fluctuating water levels on northern pike in Reindeer Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.


    Reindeer Lake in north eastern Saskatchewan regulates water levels for the Island Falls hydroelectric power plant. Since inception of the Whitesand Dam on the lake, there have been concerns that fluctuating water levels could be adversely impacting the habitat and population of northern pike in the lake. The extent of water level fluctuations during the pike spawning period of Reindeer Lake and its effect on spawning success was investigated. Since construction of the Whitesand Dam in 1942 Reindeer Lake water levels have averaged ca 1.71 m higher than had the dam not existed, creating ca 430 km 2 of new surface area. Much of this area is shallow water and prone to growth of aquatic vegetation, which is suitable spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike. Annual and periodic water level fluctuations of Reindeer Lake have been higher than under natural conditions. During northern pike spawning and nursing periods, water levels in the lake have generally increased, in 60 out of 64 y. It is concluded that operation of the dam has not caused any direct negative impacts on the northern pike habitat in the lake. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. [Distribution and Pollution Assessment of Nutrient and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Lake Gehu in Southern Jiangsu Province, China]. (United States)

    Xiong, Chun-hui; Zhagn, Rui-lei; Wu, Xiao-dong; Feng, Li-hui; Wang, Li-qing


    This study investigated the horizontal distribution characteristics of nutrients and heavy metals (Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg) in January, 2014, and assessed the potential ecological risk of Lake Gehu. It was found that the average contents of TN and TP were 2,207.94 and 708.62 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively. TN and TP contents of the sediments at the centre were significantly highei than those in the north, while the TN content in the south was also significantly higher than that in the north of Lake Gehu. The average contents of Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg were 766.59, 350.66, 307.98, 59.54, 122.67, 168.97, 2.34, 0.41 mg · kg⁻¹, respectively. The content of Cu at the centre was significantly higher than that in the north, and the Zn content at the centre was significantly greater than that in the south of Lake Gehu, however the difference in the content of other heavy metals at these three areas was not significant. Furthermore, the obvious correlation between elements and granularity was only found in the aspect of TP, Cu and Hg. The comprehensive pollution index (PI) indicated that the Lake Gehu was heavily polluted, especially the centre and south areas. The potential ecological risk index (RI) showed that Cd, As and Hg had caused serious pollution in Lake Gehu while the other heavy metals only induced slight or medium pollution. According to the contribution of Cd, As and Hg to RI, it was concluded that the sediments in Lake Gehu were at a serious potential ecological risk.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Cyanobacteria Diversity and Toxic Potential in Ten Freshwater Lakes in Selangor, Malaysia. (United States)

    Sinang, Som Cit; Poh, Keong Bun; Shamsudin, Syakirah; Sinden, Ann


    Toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in magnitude and frequency worldwide. However, this issue has not been adequately addressed in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to better understand eutrophication levels, cyanobacteria diversity, and microcystin concentrations in ten Malaysian freshwater lakes. The results revealed that most lakes were eutrophic, with total phosphorus and total chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 15 to 4270 µg L(-1) and 1.1 to 903.1 µg L(-1), respectively. Cyanobacteria were detected in all lakes, and identified as Microcystis spp., Planktothrix spp., Phormidium spp., Oscillatoria spp., and Lyngbya spp. Microcystis spp. was the most commonly observed and most abundant cyanobacteria recorded. Semi-quantitative microcystin analysis indicated the presence of microcystin in all lakes. These findings illustrate the potential health risk of cyanobacteria in Malaysia freshwater lakes, thus magnifying the importance of cyanobacteria monitoring and management in Malaysian waterways.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of RAPS waste water disposal in RPS Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Hegde, A.G.; Sharma, L.L.; Venkatramani, B.


    The ecological risk assessment is important tool in predicting the likelihood of future adverse effects from a given facility. Ecological risk assessment in itself has several features that contribute to effective environmental decision making for supporting the management actions. This paper attempts to asses the ecological risk evaluated on the basis of thermal ecological studies carried out at Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) lake during 2002-2005. The study includes monitoring of several water quality parameters, biological and bacterial parameters and data on thermal stratification in respect of RPS reservoir. The monitored data on water quality were subjected to statistical analysis to evaluate the risk. Using fuzzy synthetic evaluation system on the basis of water quality guidelines from WHO, BIS and ICMR with combination of expert perception the water quality belongs to desirable category during all the seasons through out the year. The study reveals that there is no adverse effect on RPS water quality due to release of warmed effluents from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS). Moreover, it shows that RPS water is nearly homogeneous and shows weak thermocline and chemocline patterns. Based on monitoring data, the reservoir can be assigned mild eutrophic status. (author)

  13. Initial sustainability assessment of tapioca starch production system in Lake Toba area (United States)

    Situmorang, Asido; Manik, Yosef


    This study aims to explore to what extent the principles of sustainability have been applied in a tapioca industry located in Lake Toba area and to explore the aspects that open the opportunities for system improvement. In conducting such assessment, we adopted the life-cycle approach using Mass Flow Analysis methods that covers all cassava starch production processes from fresh cassava root till dry cassava starch. The inventory data were collected from the company, in the form of both production record and interviews. From data analysis the authors were able to present a linked flow that describes the production process of tapioca starch that quantifies into the functional unit of one pack marketable tapioca starch weighs 50 kg. In order to produce 50 kg of tapioca, 200 kg cassava root and 800 kg of water are required. This production efficiency translates to 25% yield. This system generates 40 kg of cassava peel, 60 kg of pulp and 850 kg of waste water. For starch drying 208.8 MJ of thermal energy is required in the form of heating fuel. The material flow analysis is employed for impact assessment. Several options in improving the operation are proposed includes utilization of pulp into more valuable co-products, integration of waste treatment plant to enable the use of water recycled from the extraction operation for the washing process, and to application of a waste water treatment system that produces biogas as a renewable energy, which reduces the consumption of fuel in dryer unit.

  14. Modelling assessment of oil sands pit lakes turn-over potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, I.; Vandenberg, J.; Lauzon, N.; Takyi, A.


    Pit lakes form when surface mining operations are discontinued and dewatering is terminated. Their use as a treatment step for oil sands surface mining reclamation waters was discussed. The goal of the End Pit Lake Subgroup of the Cumulative Environmental Management Association is to establish guidelines that will enable operators to achieve acceptable water quality for these lakes. Although both biological and physical processes affect turn-over potential, this presentation focused on the size of pit lakes, their depth, starting lake salinity concentrations, inflow rates and inflow salinity flux. These parameters where selected because of their influence on density gradients and turn-over potential. One-dimensional and two-dimensional modelling simulations were performed to examine turnover potential for a large range of pit lake configurations and conditions. The pit lake scenarios chosen for this modelling study included a wide range of changes in 3 lake sizes (1, 4 and 8 km 2 ), 3 lake depths (5, 20 and 50 m), 2 lake starting salinities (1 and 5 parts per thousand), 2 inflow rates (2 and 10 million m 3 per year), 3 starting inflow salinity concentrations (1, 2 and 4 parts per thousand) and 2 rates of influent salinity decrease (6- and 28- year half-life). Simulations showed that autumn is the governing season for determining turn-over potential. For the scenarios examined in this study, the expelling of salt from saline water upon ice formation and the effect of fresh water loading during spring melt events were not found to be significant factors governing turn-over potential. This presentation reviewed the DYRESM, CE-QUAL-W2, and RMA models used in this study. The conclusions reached by each model was also reviewed along with ongoing follow-up work

  15. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance. (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam


    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  16. Spatial Distribution, Chemical Fraction and Fuzzy Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Honghu Lake, China (United States)

    Xiao, Minsi; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Cai, Ying


    Spatial concentrations and chemical fractions of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) in 16 sampling sites from the Honghu Lake were investigated using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and optimized BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) three-stage extraction procedure. Compared with the corresponding probable effect levels (PELs), adverse biological effects of the studied five sediment metals decreased in the sequence of Cr > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cd. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) values for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in each sampling site were at un-contamination level, while the values for Cd varied from un-contamination level to moderate contamination level. Spatially, the enrichment degree of Cd in lower part of the South Lake, the west part of the North Lake and the outlet were higher than the other parts of Honghu Lake. For metal chemical fractions, the proportions of the acid-extractable fraction of five metal contents were in the descending order: Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr. Cd had the highest bioaccessibility. Being the above indexes focused always on heavy metals’ total content or chemical fraction in deterministic assessment system, which may confuse decision makers, the fuzzy comprehensive risk assessment method was established based on PEI (Potential ecological risk index), RAC (Risk assessment code) and fuzzy theory. Average comprehensive risks of heavy metals in sediments revealed the following orders: Cd (considerable risk) > Cu (moderate risk) > Zn (low risk) > Pb > Cr. Thus, Cd and Cu were determined as the pollutants of most concern. The central part of South Honghu Lake (S4, S5, S6, S9, S12 and S14), east part of the North Honghu Lake (S1) and outlet of outlet of the Honghu Lake (S10) were recommended as the priority control areas. Specifically, it is necessary to pay more attention to S1, S4, S5, S6, S9 and S16 when decision making for their calculated membership values (probabilities) of adjacent risk levels quite close. PMID:29373483

  17. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.


    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  19. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda (United States)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  20. Ontario Hydro's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, H.A.


    In 1981 Ontario Hydro generated over 100 billion KWh of electrical energy. Approximately one third of this was from nuclear units. There are ten CANDU units (5 250 MW) currently in operation, and another twelve (8 600 MW) are under construction. The presently committed nuclear expansion program is estimated to involve expenditures of 16 billion dollars over the next 10 years. About 10 000 people are employed in the nuclear design and construction program. All projects are generally on schedule, with the stations coming into service during the following time periods: Pickering B, 1983-85; Bruce B, 1984-87; Darlington, 1988-90. The status of each project is reviewed. Planning is underway for some retubing projects, as early as 1985 for Pickering A

  1. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming


    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  2. Palaeolimnological assessment of the reference conditions and ecological status of lakes in Estonia - implications for the European Union Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinsalu, Atko


    Full Text Available The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD requires an assessment of reference conditions for lakes, i.e. the conditions expected with only minimal human impact on water bodies. Limnological monitoring records seldom go back more than a few decades and so rarely document the onset of human impact on lakes. Methods of palaeolimnological approaches especially fitted for the purposes of the WFD are described and two case studies, on lakes Rõuge Tõugjärv and Pappjärv, are presented. The palaeolimnological study of Rõuge Tõugjärv demonstrated that a commonly held belief that man-made eutrophication of Estonian lakes is a relatively modern matter of concern and is related to post-industrial population growth and intensification of agriculture is a misconception. The lakes, particularly those in rich soil areas, have been mediated by human impact over millennial time-scales. In many European countries it has been agreed that AD 1850 approximately represents the reference conditions for lakes. Our observations in Rõuge Tõugjärv showed that during that period anthropogenic disturbance on the lake was the greatest. Lake Pappjärv is an example of recent human influence on the aquatic ecosystem that has undergone severe degradation due to infiltration into the ground of a variety of substances from the local bitumen plant, mineral fertilizer storage tanks, and road service sand and salt mixing-grounds that have been accumulating in the lake since the 1950s.

  3. Sinkhole risk assessment by ERT: The case study of Sirino Lake (Basilicata, Italy) (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Capozzoli, L.; Grimaldi, S.; Rizzo, E.


    The presence of natural or artificial lakes and reservoirs that can drain because of natural phenomena can generate catastrophic events affecting urban and agricultural areas next to the source area. Therefore, geophysical prospecting techniques have been applied in the study of Sirino Lake, which, during the last century, was affected by the sudden opening of small sinkholes, resulting in the almost total draining of the lake and in the sudden increase of water flow rates of distal springs. Two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out across the lake, using electrode arrays located on land and across the water body. Self-potential (SP) data were acquired around the lake shore and the surrounding area. The geophysical prospecting contributed significant data toward explaining the unique hydrogeological characteristics of the lake. Integration of geophysical, geological, hydrogeological, and geomorphological data allowed us to estimate the thickness of the lacustrine deposits beneath the lake, to describe the main patterns of the subsurface fluid flows in the area, and to identify possible water escape routes causing the piping phenomena.

  4. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Torgoev


    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  5. Paleolimnological assessment of nutrient enrichment on diatom assemblages in a priori defined nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited lakes downwind of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen R. Laird


    Full Text Available As the industrial footprint of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR continues to expand, concern about the potential impacts of pollutants on the surrounding terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems need to be assessed. An emerging issue is whether recent increases in lake production downwind of the development can be linked to AOSR activities, and/or whether changing climatic conditions are influencing lake nutrient status. To decipher the importance of pollutants, particularly atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (Nr, and the effects of climate change as potential sources of increasing lake production, lakes from both within and outside of the nitrogen deposition zone were analyzed for historical changes in diatom assemblages. Lake sediment cores were collected from a priori defined nitrogen (N - and phosphorus (P - limited lakes within and outside the N plume associated with the AOSR. Diatom assemblages were quantified at sub-decadal resolution since ca. 1890 to compare conditions prior to oil sands expansion and regional climate warming, to the more recent conditions in each group of lakes (Reference and Impacted, N- and P-limited lakes. Analyses of changes in assemblage similarity and species turnover indicates that changes in diatom assemblages were minimal both within and across all lake groups.  Small changes in percent composition of planktonic taxa, particularly small centric taxa (Discostella and Cyclotella species and pennate taxa, such as Asterionella formosa and Fragilaria crotonensis, occurred in some of the lakes. While these changes were consistent with potential climate effects on algal growth, water column stability and other factors; the timing and direction of biotic changes were variable among sites suggesting that any apparent response to climate was lake dependent. The absence of a consistent pattern of diatom changes associated with receipt of reactive nitrogen or intrinsic nutrient-limitation status of the lake


    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario in 2001 and 2002. This experiment examined population, organism, biochemical and cellular-level effects in lake trout, white sucke...

  7. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.


    macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings. Vitro site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Vitro site in order to revise the April 1976 assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Salt Lake City, Utah. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Vitro site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $36,400,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $91,000,000 for disposal at a distance of about 85 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Vitro tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $130/lb by conventional plant processes. Spot market price for uranium was $28.00 in November 1980. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears to be economically unattractive at present

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Phillips/United Nuclear site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah, Inc., has reevaluated the Phillips/United Nuclear site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from 2.6 million dry tons of tailings at the Phillips/United Nuclear site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $21,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $45,200,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing.The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $87/lb of U 3 O 8 by either heap leach or conventional plant process. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Reprocessing the Phillips/United Nuclear tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive under present or foreseeable market conditions

  10. Assessing Ecotourism from a Multi-stakeholder Perspective: Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve, China (United States)

    Su, Ming Ming; Wall, Geoffrey; Ma, Zhong


    Ecotourism development is closely associated with the sustainability of protected natural areas. When facilitated by appropriate management, ecotourism can contribute to conservation and development, as well as the well-being of local communities. As such, ecotourism has been proposed and practiced in different forms in many places, including China. This study assesses ecotourism development at Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province, China. Key informant interviews were conducted with representatives from the provincial Forestry Department, the Nature Reserve, and the local community. Observation was undertaken on three site visits and secondary data were collected. The potential for providing quality natural experiences is high and tourism development is occurring rapidly. However, current relationships between people, resources, and tourism have yet to provide mutual benefits necessary for successful ecotourism. The multi-stakeholder management style and the ambiguity of landownership within the nature reserve constitute structural difficulties for ecotourism management and operation. Although participation in ecotourism could provide a livelihood opportunity and interests in involvement in tourism have been identified among the local fishing community, current involvement is limited mainly due to the lack of mechanisms for participation. Therefore, it is recommended that management programs and government policies should be established to provide a platform for community participation in ecotourism. Then, a positive synergistic relationship between tourism, environment, and community could be developed. Planning and policy requirements are discussed for ecotourism development in protected areas in China.

  11. Spatially explicit exposure assessment for small streams in catchments of the orchard growing region `Lake Constance (United States)

    Golla, B.; Bach, M.; Krumpe, J.


    1. Introduction Small streams differ greatly from the standardised water body used in the context of aquatic risk assessment for the regulation of plant protection products in Germany. The standard water body is static, with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 1.0 m. No dilution or water replacement takes place. Spray drift happens always in direction to the water body. There is no variability in drift deposition rate (90th percentile spray drift deposition values [2]). There is no spray drift filtering by vegetation. The application takes place directly adjacent to the water body. In order to establish a more realistic risk assessment procedure the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) aggreed to replace deterministic assumptions with data distributions and spatially explicit data and introduce probabilistic methods [3, 4, 5]. To consider the spatial and temporal variability in the exposure situations of small streams the hydraulic and morphological characteristics of catchments need to be described as well as the spatial distribution of fields treated with pesticides. As small streams are the dominant type of water body in most German orchard regions, we use the growing region Lake Constance as pilot region. 2. Materials and methods During field surveys we derive basic morphological parameters for small streams in the Lake Constance region. The mean water width/depth ratio is 13 with a mean depth of 0.12 m. The average residence time is 5.6 s/m (n=87) [1]. Orchards are mostly located in the upper parts of the catchments. Based on an authoritative dataset on rivers and streams of Germany (ATKIS DLM25) we constructed a directed network topology for the Lake Constance region. The gradient of the riverbed is calculated for river stretches of > 500 m length. The network for the pilot region consists of 2000 km rivers and streams. 500 km stream length are located within a distance of 150 m to orchards. Within

  12. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA (United States)

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  13. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.


    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  14. [Ecological risk assessment of Taihu Lake basin based on landscape pattern]. (United States)

    Xie, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Cong; Wang, Fang; Bai, Mao Wei; Xu, Wen Yang


    Taihu Lake basin was selected as the study site. Based on the landscape data of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, the Markov and CLUE-S models were used to simulate the landscape types with different scenarios in 2030, and landscape ecological risk index was constructed. The shift of gravity center and spatial statistics were used to reveal landscape ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin with temporal and spatial characteristics. The results showed that the ecological risk mainly was at medium and low levels in Taihu Lake basin, and the higher ecological risk areas were mainly distributed at the Taihu Lake area during 2000 to 2015, and the low ecological risk was transferred from the southwest and south of Taihu Lake to the developed areas in the northern part of Taihu Lake area. Spatial analysis showed that landscape ecological risk had negative correlation with natural factors, which was weakened gradually, while the correlation with socioeconomic factors trended to become stronger, with human disturbance affecting the landscape ecological risk significantly. The impact of socioeconomic factors on landscape ecological risks differed in different urbanization stages. In the developing area, with the economic development, the landscape was increasingly fragmented and the ecological risk was correspondingly increased. While in the developed area, with the further development of the economy, the aggregation index was increased, and fragmentation and separation indexes were decreased, ecological construction was restored, and the landscape ecological risk began to decline. CLUE-S model simulation showed that the ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin would be reduced in future, mainly on the low and relatively low levels. Taihu Lake area, both in history and the future, is a high ecological risk zone, and its management and protection should be strengthened.

  15. Interconnection issues in Ontario : a status check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbronner, V.


    This PowerPoint presentation discussed wind and renewable energy interconnection issues in Ontario. The province's Green Energy Act established a feed-in tariff (FIT) program and provided priority connection access to the electricity system for renewable energy generation facilities that meet regulatory requirements. As a result of the province's initiatives, Hydro One has identified 20 priority transmission expansion projects and is focusing on servicing renewable resource clusters. As of October 2010, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) has received 1469 MW of FIT contracts executed for wind projects. A further 5953 MW of wind projects are awaiting approval. A Korean consortium is now planning to develop 2500 MW of renewable energy projects in the province. The OPA has also been asked to develop an updated transmission expansion plan. Transmission/distribution availability tests (TAT/DAT) have been established to determine if there is sufficient connection availability for FIT application projects. Economic connection tests (ECTs) are conducted to assess whether grid upgrade costs to enable additional FIT capacity are justifiable. When projects pass the ECT, grid upgrades needed for the connection included in grid expansion plans. Ontario's long term energy plan was also reviewed. tabs., figs.

  16. Impact assessment and mitigation in existing lake regulation projects in the Oulujoki river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatra, K.; Marttunen, M.


    The objective of the project was to determine how regulation practices and shore zone maintenance and improvement should be developed in order to give more attention to recreational requirements and factors affecting the aquatic environment. The proposals must not, however, cause flooding damage or significant energy economy losses. The effects of four alternative regulation practices on hydrology flooding damage, recreational utilization, the aquatic, environment, fisheries and the hydropower production were compared in lakes Oulujaervi, Kiantajaervi, Vuokkijaervi, Ontojaervi and Sotkamonjaervi. An extensive sub-study was made on the maintenance and improvement of the shore zones of the regulated lakes. Ways of reducing excessive vegetation were studied in Lake Oulujaervi, and experiments testing the feasibility of various plants in protecting and landscaping the littoral zone were conducted in Lake Ontojaervi. Enquiries in to the perceptions of and the needs for mitigating harmful impacts, as experienced by the people living within the area affected by the river development projects, were also included in the analysis. The alternative regulation practices for Lake Oulujaervi were compared using the decision analysis interview method, in which the data acquired through the environmental impact analysis of effects were combined with the values of the local people and interest groups. The impact of alternative regulation practices was also weighed from the viewpoint of sustainability in various scales. Recommendations were made for regulation patterns and maintenance and improvement programmes for individual lakes

  17. Modeling potential scenarios of the Tangjiashan Lake outburst and risk assessment in the downstream valley (United States)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Chernomorets, Sergey; Krylenko, Inna; Wei, Fangqiang; Petrakov, Dmitry; Su, Pengcheng; Yang, Hongjuan; Xiong, Junnan


    This research is devoted to Tangjiashan Lake, a quake landslide-dammed lake, situated in Sichuan Province, China, which was formed by a landslide triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake on 12 May 2008. A STREAM_2D two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Russia was applied to simulate the process of two flood scenarios: 1, lake dam outbreak, and 2, dam overtopping. An artificial dam outbreak was made after the earthquake to lower the water level of the lake in 2008, which led to a great flood with a maximum water discharge of more than 6400 m3/s. The negative impact of the flood was reduced by a timely evacuation of the population. Flood hazards still remain in the event of new landslides into the lake and lake dam overtopping (Scenario 2), in which case a maximum water discharge at the dam crest would reach 5000 m3/s, placing the population of Shabacun and Shilingzi villages in the zone of flood impact.

  18. Ontario perspective on interregional markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.


    On May 1, 2002, wholesale and retail electricity markets in Ontario were opened to competition. The industry structure has been completely unbundled into separate entities for power generation, distribution and transmission. There are currently 20 generators, 90 distributors and 4 transmitters in Ontario. Trade with neighbouring jurisdictions has increased and now accounts for 10 to 15 per cent of demand on summer peak days. Import/export capability with the United States (northeast and midwest) and other Canadian provinces (Quebec and Manitoba) is 4,000 to 6,000 MW. Ontario has not had new generation or transmission capacity in several years and the heat waves of summer 2002 resulted in a heavier power demand than forecasted. The province had to rely heavily on power imports resulting in high and volatile electricity prices. In response to customer complaints, the Ontario government froze retail rates and in a recent policy directive announced a public ownership policy for transmission with further consultation on improving supply competition in Ontario. FERC order 888 and the increased role of independent power producers has improved trading opportunities between Canada and the United States. The presentation highlighted recent trade trends and outlined the specific impact of the Standard Market Design on Canadian markets. It was noted that Ontario should work on ensuring power reliability, transmission planning, inter-regional coordination, and joint investments with neighbouring jurisdictions. 9 figs

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index. (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang


    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of sources of human pathogens and fecal contamination in a Florida freshwater lake. (United States)

    Staley, Christopher; Reckhow, Kenneth H; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J


    We investigated the potential for a variety of environmental reservoirs to harbor or contribute fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), DNA markers of human fecal contamination, and human pathogens to a freshwater lake. We hypothesized that submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), sediments, and stormwater act as reservoirs and/or provide inputs of FIB and human pathogens to this inland water. Analysis included microbial source tracking (MST) markers of sewage contamination (Enterococcus faecium esp gene, human-associated Bacteroides HF183, and human polyomaviruses), pathogens (Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and enteric viruses), and FIB (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci). Bayesian analysis was used to assess relationships among microbial and physicochemical variables. FIB in the water were correlated with concentrations in SAV and sediment. Furthermore, the correlation of antecedent rainfall and major rain events with FIB concentrations and detection of human markers and pathogens points toward multiple reservoirs for microbial contaminants in this system. Although pathogens and human-source markers were detected in 55% and 21% of samples, respectively, markers rarely coincided with pathogen detection. Bayesian analysis revealed that low concentrations (<45 CFU × 100 ml(-1)) of fecal coliforms were associated with 93% probability that pathogens would not be detected; furthermore the Bayes net model showed associations between elevated temperature and rainfall with fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations, but not E. coli. These data indicate that many under-studied matrices (e.g. SAV, sediment, stormwater) are important reservoirs for FIB and potentially human pathogens and demonstrate the usefulness of Bayes net analysis for water quality assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An integrated assessment for wind energy in Lake Michigan coastal counties. (United States)

    Nordman, Erik; VanderMolen, Jon; Gajewski, Betty; Isely, Paul; Fan, Yue; Koches, John; Damm, Sara; Ferguson, Aaron; Schoolmaster, Claire


    The benefits and challenges of onshore and offshore wind energy development were assessed for a 4-county area of coastal Michigan. Economic, social, environmental, and spatial dimensions were considered. The coastal counties have suitable wind resources for energy development, which could contribute toward Michigan's 10% renewable energy standard. Wind energy is cost-effective with contract prices less than the benchmark energy price of a new coal-fired power plant. Constructing a 100 MW wind farm could have a $54.7 million economic impact. A patchwork of township-level zoning ordinances regulates wind energy siting. Voluntary collaborations among adjacent townships standardizing the ordinances could reduce regulatory complexity. A Delphi Inquiry on offshore wind energy in Lake Michigan elicited considerable agreement on its challenges, but little agreement on the benefits to coastal communities. Offshore turbines could be acceptable to the participants if they reduced pollution, benefited coastal communities, involved substantial public participation, and had minimal impact on property values and tourism. The US Coast Guard will take a risk-based approach to evaluating individual offshore developments and has no plans to issue blanket restrictions around the wind farms. Models showed that using wind energy to reach the remainder of the 10% renewable energy standard could reduce SO2 , NOx , and CO2 pollution by 4% to 7%. Turbines are highly likely to impact the area's navigational and defense radar systems but planning and technological upgrades can reduce the impact. The integrated assessment shows that responsible wind energy development can enhance the quality of life by reducing air pollution and associated health problems and enhancing economic development. Policies could reduce the negative impacts to local communities while preserving the benefits to the broader region. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Simulation of Lake Surface Heat Fluxes by the Canadian Small Lake Model: Offline Performance Assessment for Future Coupling with a Regional Climate Model (United States)

    Pernica, P.; Guerrero, J. L.; MacKay, M.; Wheater, H. S.


    Lakes strongly influence local and regional climate especially in regions where they are abundant. Development of a lake model for the purpose of integration within a regional climate model is therefore a subject of scientific interest. Of particular importance are the heat flux predictions provided by the lake model since they function as key forcings in a fully coupled atmosphere-land-lake system. The first step towards a coupled model is to validate and characterize the accuracy of the lake model over a range of conditions and to identify limitations. In this work, validation results from offline tests of the Canadian Small Lake Model; a deterministic, computationally efficient, 1D integral model, are presented. Heat fluxes (sensible and latent) and surface water temperatures simulated by the model are compared with in situ observations from two lakes; Landing Lake (NWT, Canada) and L239 (ELA, Canada) for the 2007-2009 period. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key parameters important for heat flux predictions. The results demonstrate the ability of the 1-D lake model to reproduce both diurnal and seasonal variations in heat fluxes and surface temperatures for the open water period. These results, in context of regional climate modelling are also discussed.

  3. Water-quality models to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota, 2014 (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.


    Fish habitat can degrade in many lakes due to summer blue-green algal blooms. Predictive models are needed to better manage and mitigate loss of fish habitat due to these changes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water-quality models for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota—Madison Lake and Pearl Lake, which are part of Minnesota’s sentinel lakes monitoring program—to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability of these two lakes under recent (2014) meteorological conditions. The interaction of basin processes to these two lakes, through the delivery of nutrient loads, were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2, a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model that predicts distribution of temperature and oxygen from interactions between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics.The CE-QUAL-W2 models successfully predicted water temperature and dissolved oxygen on the basis of the two metrics of mean absolute error and root mean square error. For Madison Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.53 and 0.68 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons; for Pearl Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.71 and 0.95 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were key metrics for calibration targets. These calibrated lake models also simulated algal community dynamics and water quality. The model simulations presented potential explanations for persistently large total phosphorus concentrations in Madison Lake, key differences in nutrient concentrations between these lakes, and summer blue-green algal bloom persistence.Fish habitat suitability simulations for cool-water and warm-water fish indicated that, in general, both lakes contained a large

  4. Ontario freight movement study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The freight (cargo) transportation sector accounts for a major use of fossil fuels and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to estimate and forecast emissions from transportation in Ontario, by mode, over the next 15 years, and to examine ways in which those emissions could be reduced. Published data of freight transportation industries was used to examine the fuel consumption characteristics of each mode, followed by a review of emission rates. It was determined that truck transportation accounts for most CO 2 emissions (about 70%). Rail follows with 21% and the marine and air modes contribute relatively small shares (6% and 2%). New intermodal technologies being introduced by the railways were discussed. They have been designed to make intermodal transport more accessible to a wider segment of the freight market. A recommendation was made which would require all truck shipments over 500 km, accounting for fully one half of truck tonne-km, to have their line-haul component diverted to this new more fuel-efficient mode (i.e., from truck to rail). refs., tabs., figs

  5. The Potential of Satellite Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll-a and Water Clarity Data For the Assessment of Lake Water Quality (United States)

    Shrift, M.; Weathers, K. C.; Norouzi, H.; Ewing, H. A.


    Lake water quality is declining nationwide and has become a tremendous point of interest. Remote sensing (RS) data have provided the ability to efficiently study oceans and terrestrial systems over space and time. However, fresh water systems, especially small, nutrient poor lakes have only recently been assessed using remote sensing technology. Prior research suggests that there is poor satellite sensitivity to lakes with low chlorophyll a (chl a) values. This study focuses on the potential to utilize Landsat 8 satellite imagery to predict chl a and Secchi disk transparency values from Lake Auburn, Maine, an oligo-mesotrophic lake that is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Lewiston and Auburn and has had an increasing number of algal blooms. A total of 28 Landsat scenes from 2013-2017 within 4 days of in-lake measurements were collected for band value extraction and radiometric correction. Band combinations were explored and analyzed to obtain the most reliable prediction of in-lake chl a and Secchi disk values. A nonlinear combination of bands 5 and 4 for chl a, and bands 3 and 2 for Secchi disk transparency show the most promising algorithms, with correlations coefficients of 0.57 and 0.74, respectively. The resultant algorithms show promise for utilizing RS data to estimate water quality for a large array of low-nutrient lakes in northern North America, and thereby to gain a better understanding of water quality of our vital fresh water resources.

  6. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.


    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  7. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy. (United States)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  8. Precise topography assessment of Lop Nur Lake Basin using GLAS altimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Longfei; Gong, Huaze; Shao, Yun


    Lop Nur is a dried-up salt lake lying in the eastern part of Tarim basin, which used to be the second largest lagon in China. The ''ear'' rings in Lop Nur attract many interests and are regarded as the lake shorelines during its recession. The topography of the lake basin is important in understanding the formation of the ''ear'' rings. In this paper, elevation data along three transects obtained from laser altimeter were taken as the basic material of the topography in Lop Nur. Elevation data of laser altimeter show great consistency between adjacent passes. Orthometric height (OH) derived from altimetry data and the geoid model are used to analyze the elevation characteristic along ''ear'' rings. The result shows the ''ear'' rings are basically identical in elevation, supporting the statement that ''ear'' rings are former lake shorelines. A discrepancy of approximately 1 meter in OH is observed on the same ''ear'' ring, lower in the north and higher in the south, which is found for the first time. Possible explanations could be deformation of ground surface due to earthquake or tectonic movement after the ''ear'' rings are formed, or tilt of water surface due to wind stress or lake current during the formation of the rings

  9. Temporal Variation of Chemical Persistence in a Swedish Lake Assessed by Benchmarking. (United States)

    Zou, Hongyan; Radke, Michael; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S


    Chemical benchmarking was used to investigate the temporal variation of the persistence of chemical contaminants in a Swedish lake. The chemicals studied included 12 pharmaceuticals, an artificial sweetener, and an X-ray contrast agent. Measurements were conducted in late spring, late autumn, and winter. The transformation half-life in the lake could be quantified for 7 of the chemicals. It ranged from several days to hundreds of days. For 5 of the chemicals (bezafibrate, climbazole, diclofenac, furosemide, and hydrochlorothiazide), the measured persistence was lower in late spring than in late autumn. This may have been caused by lower temperatures and/or less irradiation during late autumn. The seasonality in chemical persistence contributed to changes in chemical concentrations in the lake during the year. The impact of seasonality of persistence was compared with the impact of other important variables determining concentrations in the lake: chemical inputs and water flow/dilution. The strongest seasonal variability in chemical concentration in lake water was observed for hydrochlorothiazide (over a factor of 10), and this was attributable to the seasonality in its persistence.

  10. Potential reference mires and lakes ecosystems for biosphere assessment of Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Kirkkala, T.; Paloheimo, A.; Koivunen, S.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.


    New lakes and mires will develop in the sea area now surrounding Olkiluoto Island due to the postglacial land uplift. The properties of these objects can be forecast using data from existing lakes and mires. There are, however, no such objects on the present Olkiluoto Island. This Working Report presents a project, initiated in 2007, where lakes and mires at different successional stages, suitable as reference objects for the future ones, were searched. The task included delineation of the study area, based on e.g. geological and climatological factors, and development of the selection criteria. As background, development history and properties of present lakes and mires in the study area are described in this report. For this and forthcoming projects, several GIS data sets were acquired. With help of these data, literature and environmental databases, 33 mires and 27 lakes were selected. These were considered to be the best available analogues for the future objects around Olkiluoto Island. The characteristics of these objects are presented briefly; more detailed information is found in the literature and databases. (orig.)

  11. The Status of School Psychology in Ontario School Boards: 2016 Perspective (United States)

    Lean, Debra


    This article reports on the status of school psychology in Ontario. School psychology practice in Ontario has continued to evolve since the previous report was published in 2001. School psychologists have varied roles, and although the most prominent one remains as assessing students for entry into certain special education services, school-based…

  12. Zooplankton community response to experimental acidification in boreal shield lakes with different ecological histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derry, A.M.; Arnott, S.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology


    This study investigated the adaptive response of crustacean zooplankton to widespread regional acidification at the Killarney Provincial Park in Ontario. Mesocosm experiments were conducted in 2 circumneutral lakes with different acidification histories. A reciprocal transplant field enclosure experiment was conducted to assess whether the zooplankton community within the acid-recovering boreal shield lake showed evidence of increased acid tolerance to historical acidification following a 6 year period in which the lake's pH was 6.0. The enclosures were filled with epilimnetic water from the lake. Zooplankton from other lakes in the area were used. Zooplankton and water samples were collected from the enclosures once a week. Shannon-Wiener indices, species richness, and total abundance of the zooplankton were calculated for each sample day. Repeated measures analyses of variance (RM-ANOVAs) were used to test for the effects of the incubation lake, the zooplankton source, and the pH. Species abundance data were log{sub 10} transformed to improve homogeneity of variances and normality. Principle components analysis was conducted on species abundances to infer the influence of treatments on zooplankton community composition. Zooplankton were also transferred from 1 lake to the other in order to determine if subtle differences in local water chemistry and food conditions were limiting the recovery of species in acid-recovering lakes. The study showed that 2 key species, H. gibberum and L. minutus, contributed to community-level differences to acid tolerance of zooplankton with different acidification histories. It was concluded that zooplankton with adaptable acid tolerances may monopolize resources in acidified and acid-recovering lakes, and may contribute to the delayed recolonization of other taxa. 62 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Natural and artificial radioactivity assessment of dam lakes sediments in Coruh River, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar Kobya; Sabit Korcak; Cafer Mert Yesilkanat


    In the sediment samples collected from 3 different dam reservoirs and 10 different stations on Coruh River, U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 activity concentration levels were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of U-238, Th-232, K-40 and Cs-137 were found to be 15.8, 13.9, 551.5 and 18.1 Bq/kg in Deriner Dam Lake, 3.7, 12.5, 473.8 and 6.8 Bq/kg in Borcka Dam Lake, 14.4, 30.0, 491.7 and 18.2 Bq/kg in Muratli Dam Lake, respectively. Estimation calculations were made for the non-sampling zones by using Kriging method. Furthermore, results were compared with the similar studies done in different countries. (author)

  14. Charophytes of the lake Garda (Northern Italy: a preliminary assessment of diversity and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Bolpagni


    Full Text Available Charophytes (stoneworts and bassweeds are a typical macrophytic component of inland water ecosystems. Well-developed submerged meadows of charophytes are expression of clear water and rather low phytoplankton concentrations. Consequently, among aquatic macroscopic primary producers, charophytes are one of the most threatened groups being very sensitive to phosphorous availability, turbidity and water level perturbations. Accordingly, charophytes have been suffering a massive diversity loss worldwide over the last century, mainly because of human-induced pressures. During summer 2011, detailed field surveys were carried out with the main purpose of filling knowledge gaps concerning aquatic flora and vegetation of the lake Garda – the largest lake in Italy and one of the deepest in Europe. Along randomly selected transects, floristic data were collected following standard procedures, as imposed by the Water Framework Directive. Overall, 12 different species of charophytes were recorded, which accounts for 36% of total Italian charophytes and 19% of European species. The most diffuse species were Chara globularis and C. intermedia; whereas, the most interesting taxa were Chara polyacantha and Nitella hyalina, two species with narrow distribution in Italy. Overall in the lake Garda, dense stands of charophytes covered almost homogeneously the littoral sectors at a water depth between 3 and 12 m. The deepest species was C. globularis, which reached a maximum depth of colonisation of about 17.5 m. Charophytes represent a major element among the primary producers in the lake Garda. The high local charophyte diversity and the rather wide most colonised areas (~1000-1200 ha confirm that the lake Garda is an important reserve for many rare and threatened charophytes. For the first time, these results highlight the key role of the lake Garda for charophyte diversity at a national and European level.

  15. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer


    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10 4 cells mL -1 rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications

  16. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water, sediment and macrophyte ( Lemna minor) collected from Anchar Lake, Kashmir, India (United States)

    Showqi, Irfana; Lone, Farooq Ahmad; Naikoo, Mehrajuddin


    Water samples, sediments and free floating macrophytic plant, Lemna minor specimens were collected from five designated sites in Anchar lake (Srinagar, J&K, India) to assess its heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) load and changes on seasonal basis. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Most of the samples were found within limits of maximum permissible concentrations as recommended by WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality, pp 491-493, 2006). During all the seasons, highest concentration of all heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was recorded at highly polluted sites of the lake viz. near agricultural fields (S1), near settlements (S3) and SKIMS (S4). These sites received huge agrochemical run-off from the surrounding agricultural fields, solid and liquid wastes from the nearby catchment areas and effluents from Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) compared to control site lake centre (S5). Furthermore, most of the metals in water and sediment were found with highest concentration during autumn (Viz., Cu-1.5 ppm; Zn-0.38 ppm; Ni-1.89 ppm; Pb-0.84 ppm in water and Cu-26.9 ppm; Zn-13.6 ppm; Pb-4.33 ppm in sediment) and summer (Viz., Cr-0.68 ppm in water and Ni-4.8 ppm; Cd-2.6 ppm; Cr-8.01 ppm in sediment) seasons. Also in Lemna minor plant highest concentration was observed during summer season (Cu-29.09 ppm; Zn-19.11 ppm; Ni-5.7 ppm; Cd-1.34 ppm; Cr-9.18 ppm and Pb-9.77 ppm). From these observations, it was found that the sources of heavy metals in Anchar lake were both natural and anthropogenic ones. This study recommended that continuous monitoring of heavy metals (Viz; Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in water, sediment and other aquatic biota of Anchar lake should be directed to protection of ecological status of the lake and its surrounding area.

  17. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Eccles, R.; Hegmann, G.; Morrison, L.; Salter, R.; van Egmond, T.; Vonk, P.; Ash, G.; Crowther, R.; Dance, T.; Edwards, W.; Veldman, W.


    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  18. Assessment of the effect of anthropogenic pollution on the ecology of small shallow lakes using the palaeolimnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff


    Full Text Available Palaeolimnological techniques were utilized to determine the extent of the effect of anthropogenic pollutants or other environmental stressors on three lake ecosystems over the last 200 years. The ecology of the study sites has experienced significant changes due to various activities such as (1 extensive catchment drainage and using poisoning as a fish management measure, (2 seepage of urban waste water due to establishment and growth of a town and (3 artificial inflow of oil-shale mining waters. Sediment geochemical composition, fossil pigments and Cladocera remains from the sediment cores were analysed to demonstrate that sufficient information can be derived from sediments to permit a historical reconstruction. The integrated use of archival maps, historical records and lake monitoring data confirmed links to anthropogenic pollutants, primarily on the catchment level. The examples show how the sediment indicators provide unique insights into the causes and temporal dynamics of lake ecosystem changes relevant for environmental management decisions. This study demonstrates that palaeolimnology has great potential to assist in eutrophication assessment and management efforts in waterbodies.

  19. Accumulation and hazard assessment of mercury to waterbirds at Lake Chapala, Mexico. (United States)

    Torres, Zaria; Mora, Miguel A; Taylor, Robert J; Alvarez-Bernal, Dioselina; Buelna, Hector R; Hyodo, Ayumi


    Lake Chapala is the largest tropical lake in Mexico. The objectives of this study were to determine bioaccumulation of Hg in fish and to evaluate the potential impacts of Hg in the diet of aquatic birds, particularly the American white pelican (AWPE), in Lake Chapala. Hg concentrations in three fish species ranged from 0.021 to 0.568 μg/g wet weight. Mercury in fish was positively and significantly correlated with total fish length (R2=0.44, Pbird feathers were not significantly different between years, among locations, or among species. Hg concentrations in fish from Lake Chapala were within values reported in many parts of the world. The Hg (mean range of 2.75 to 4.54 μg/g dw) and δD (mean range of -62‰ to -11‰) values in bird feathers suggested a wide pattern of exposure for highly migratory AWPE and egrets, although birds with lower δD values in feathers appeared to have greater concentrations of Hg than those with higher δD values. Contaminant exposure in aquatic birds in Chapala during the breeding season should be monitored next to better determine the potential effects of Hg on resident aquatic birds.

  20. Assessment of fishing gear and catch rate in Oguta Lake, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Oguta Lake, Imo State, Nigeria, from January, 2012 to December, 2013 at five stations (Onu Utu, Okposha, Ogbe Hausa, Osemotor and Ede Ngwugwu) to ascertain the percentage abundance and catch rate of gear and craft. The average weight of fish caught per canoe per day ranged between ...

  1. Assessing The Impact Of Mercury Contamination To Lake Balkyldak In Kazakhstan (United States)

    Adjacent to Lake Balkyldak in Kazakhstan, there is a large wastewater holding pond from a former mercury cell chloralkali plant which contains high levels of mercury-contamination. The holding pond capacity is 74 million m3 with a water-surface area of 18 km2

  2. Assessment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) spawning efforts in the lower St. Clair River, Michigan (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Kennedy, Gregory; Crawford, Eric; Allen, Jeffrey; French, John; Black, Glen; Blouin, Marc; Hickey, James P.; Chernyak, Sergei; Haas, Robert; Thomas, Michael


    One of the most threatened remaining populations of lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes is found in the connecting channels between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Only two spawning grounds are presently known to be active in this region, and both are in the St. Clair River. The spawning reef in the St. Clair River delta has been recently colonized by round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in densities up to 25/m2, raising concerns regarding predation on the benthic-oriented eggs and larvae of the sturgeon. Investigations in 1998–1999 showed that while round goby predation does occur, a number of other factors may be equally affecting sturgeon spawning success, including few spawning adults (noted in either year. There were factors other than predation affecting larval survival in 1999. There was a higher silt load on the reef than in 1998 and large numbers of dead larvae were found. Recruitment success from this site could be improved by utilizing techniques to increase the number of eggs on the reef, such as reducing the illegal take of adult fish and by placing eggs in predator-exclusion chambers to increase hatch rate.

  3. Assessing Vulnerability of Lake Erie Landscapes to Soil Erosion: Modelled and Measured Approaches (United States)

    Joosse, P.; Laamrani, A.; Feisthauer, N.; Li, S.


    Loss of soil from agricultural landscapes to Lake Erie via water erosion is a key transport mechanism for phosphorus bound to soil particles. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Canadian side of the Lake Erie basin with approximately 75% of the 2.3 million hectares under crop or livestock production. The variable geography and diversity of agricultural production systems and management practices makes estimating risk of soil erosion from agricultural landscapes in the Canadian Lake Erie basin challenging. Risk of soil erosion depends on a combination of factors including the extent to which soil remains bare, which differs with crop type and management. Two different approaches of estimating the vulnerability of landscapes to soil erosion will be compared among Soil Landscapes of Canada in the Lake Erie basin: a modelling approach incorporating farm census and soil survey data, represented by the 2011 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agri-Environmental Indicator for Soil Erosion Risk; and, a measured approach using remotely sensed data that quantifies the magnitude of bare and covered soil across the basin. Results from both approaches will be compared by scaling the national level (1:1 million) Soil Erosion Risk Indicator and the remotely sensed data (30x30 m resolution) to the quaternary watershed level.

  4. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch Palomo, R.R.


    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  5. Environmental Assessment: Lake Yankton Fish Population Renovation Project Yankton County, South Dakota and Cedar County, Nebraska (United States)


    respiration in fish, mammals, birds, insects, reptiles , amphibians , and plants. However, at concentrations used in fisheries management, rotenone is...prey upon fish, rodents, and small game. Lake Yankton supports many species of fish, reptiles , and amphibians . The Preferred Alternative is not...3‐4  Amphibians

  6. An historical assessment of trace metal accumulation in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecray, E.L.; King, J.W.


    The Lake Champlain watershed, with its increased land use, shoreline development, and population, is being threatened by pollutants in the water column and bottom sediments. A comprehensive study is currently being conducted to characterize the bottom sediments of the lake for toxicity and to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs. Surface sediment samples were collected from 30 stations and analyzed for metal (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al, and Ag) concentrations to determine the contaminated regions of the lake. Once the contaminated regions were determined, a Nemesis corer was used to retrieve sediments cores averaging 1 meter in length from 10 sites within Lake Champlain. Grain size and metal analyses were conducted at one and two cm intervals down the cores. Grain size data, in combination with metal and radiometric stratigraphy, can serve as an indicator of changing land use in the watershed. The grain size in some cores has a fining upward trend indicating increased land use and soil erosion. Downcore variations in metal concentrations reveal two different regimes. The concentration at depth remain consistently low and are inferred to correspond with the natural background levels. In contrast, the upper section of the cores show abrupt increases in metal concentrations which are attributed to increased anthropogenic inputs. Radiometric ( 210 and 137 Cs) and pollen chronostratigraphy of these cores indicates that the increased metal concentrations and the changes in grain size recorded in the upper most sediments is related to increased human disturbance beginning in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This study demonstrates that the historical record of pollution inputs to Lake Champlain can be reconstructed from the sediment sequences

  7. Screening assessment from potential exposure to 137Cs, 60Co and 90Sr in the upper floodplain of White Oak Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiron, J.A.


    In 1943, Oak Ridge National Laboratory formed White Oak Lake, a small shallow retention basin for their treated and untreated liquid waste. The waste flowed into White Oak Lake, where it was retained for a period of time, and most of the radioactive contaminants settled out, accumulating in the lake bed. Currently, the lake is being maintained at a lower level than in the past. Consequently, sections of the old lake bed are presently exposed as an upper floodplain. A preliminary screening assessment was performed on the upper floodplain of White Oak Lake to identify the radionuclides of concern, quantify the potential risk to human health, and rank potential contaminants of concern. From the screening criteria applied in this assessment, 137 Cs in the external pathway and in the ingestion pathway was identified as a high priority contaminant. The external and ingestion pathways were identified as pathways of concern that need to be addressed in further investigations. Screening did not identify the inhalation pathway as a potential pathway of concern. It is recommended that when the health risk assessment is conducted, emphasis should be placed on investigating the potential exposures from 137 Cs in the external and ingestion pathways

  8. Transmission system planning in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, D; Macedo, F X; Mcconnach, J S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    In recent years, new and modified approaches to planning the large transmission system that serves the province of Ontario, Canada, have been necessary to accommodate the rapidly changing planning environment including slower uncertain growth, ageing of facilities, integration of demand side management and non utility generation options, increased competitiveness, increased financial stresses and affordable constraints. This paper describes some of the new and modified approaches and tools that have been adopted or are being developed by Ontario Hydro to cope with this changing environment. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Exposure of Ontario workers to radiofrequency fields from dielectric heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitran, M.E.; Nishio, J.M.; Charron, D.E.


    As part of a program to assess and reduce the exposure of Ontario workers to non-ionizing radiations, stray electric and magnetic fields from 383 dielectric heaters were measured in 71 industrial establishments from 1988 to 1990. This represents a population of over 800 workers potentially exposed to radiofrequency (RE) electromagnetic fields. Electric and magnetic field strengths at the head, waist, and thigh levels of the operators, corrected by duty cycle, are presented for the different heater types surveyed. Worker exposure data and compliance with Ontario radiofrequency exposure guidelines are discussed. (author)

  10. Assessment methodology for new cooling lakes. Volume 2. Development of empirical multivariate relationships for evaluating fish communities in new cooling lakes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieb, T.M.; Porcella, D.B.; Ginn, T.C.; Lorenzen, M.W.


    Numerical classification techniques were used to define groups of lakes with distinct fish community attributes. Simple linear and multiple regression were then used to identify the important environmental variables affecting the fish communities. Next, the multivariate statistical technique of discriminant analysis was tested and shown to predict the groups of lakes (defined in the initial step of classification) using the identified environmental variables. Classification equations derived in the discriminant analysis enable the user to predict fish community characteristics of a new lake. The equations combine the information from nine limnological parameters into a single index of classification. Based on the value of this index, the lake is classified into one of four distinct groups. The fishery characteristics of the indicated group are then used to predict fish community structure and recreational fishery use. Angler-use estimates for the group are used to project multiple use benefits

  11. Using integrated multivariate statistics to assess the hydrochemistry of surface water quality, Lake Taihu basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mu


    Full Text Available Natural factors and anthropogenic activities both contribute dissolved chemical loads to  lakes and streams.  Mineral solubility,  geomorphology of the drainage basin, source strengths and climate all contribute to concentrations and their variability. Urbanization and agriculture waste-water particularly lead to aquatic environmental degradation. Major contaminant sources and controls on water quality can be asssessed by analyzing the variability in proportions of major and minor solutes in water coupled to mutivariate statistical methods.   The demand for freshwater needed for increasing crop production puulation and industrialization occurs almost everywhere in in China and these conflicting needs have led to widespread water contamination. Because of heavy nutrient loadings from all of these sources, Lake Taihu (eastern China notably suffers periodic hyper-eutrophication and drinking water deterioration, which has led to shortages of freshwater for the City of Wuxi and other nearby cities. This lake, the third largest freshwater body in China, has historically beeen considered a cultural treasure of China, and has supported long-term fisheries. The is increasing pressure to remediate the present contamination which compromises both aquiculture and the prior economic base centered on tourism.  However, remediation cannot be effectively done without first characterizing the broad nature of the non-point source pollution. To this end, we investigated the hydrochemical setting of Lake Taihu to determine how different land use types influence the variability of surface water chemistry in different water sources to the lake. We found that waters broadly show wide variability ranging from  calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate hydrochemical facies type to mixed sodium-sulfate-chloride type. Principal components analysis produced three principal components that explained 78% of the variance in the water quality and reflect three major types of water

  12. Model project for the pollution investigation of a lake. The use of nuclear techniques for environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Borak, F.; Fowler, S.; Yilmaz Erkol, A.


    Environmental pollution monitoring and the protection of water resources are vital in terms of public health and economical consequences for many of the countries. The use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for pollution investigation of water resources on the other hand has been gaining more importance during the recent years. In recognition of the serious pollution problems of the surface water resources; a large scope multidisciplinary environmental management project with short title 'Lake Project' which is designed and developed by the group of scientists at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority is presented. This multidisciplinary project has various important aspects; scientific, social, economic, educational, cultural and political. Specific problem a dressed was the serious pollution of Kucukcekmece Lake due to high population and industrial growth in the region as well as creation of public awareness on the peaceful activities of the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center. The main objective was to promote the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques in the assessment of local, national and regional environmental pollution control and management. The project implementation was carried out in two phases and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Water, biota and sediment samples were collected from several sampling stations seasonally. Some of the results are presented in tables for natural radioactivity, chemical and physical parameters. The first phases of the project has provided tools and methods for identifying types and magnitudes of contaminants in the Kucukcekmece Lake. Results obtained from the model project show that the radioactivity pollution levels have no significance in terms of human health and ecosystem. However, major problem regarding lake and marine environmental management is identified as eutrophication. This is a process of water quality degradation caused by mainly by domestic

  13. Social Media for Enhancing Stakeholders' Innovation Networks in Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, Pawandeep; Chowdhuy, Ataharul; Hambly Odame, Helen; Passen, van Annemarie


    This case study assessed local food stakeholders' use of Facebook and Twitter to support interaction and build their networks of innovation in Ontario. Data were collected using Netlytic − an online data mining tool from the social media platforms − and key informant interviews. Findings revealed

  14. Ontario Hydro annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Ontario Hydro`s annual report of the financial position and activities for the year 1986 consists of their financial highlights; corporate profile; customer service and satisfaction; message from Chairman; message from President; 1986 in review; financial section; management report; five-year summary of financial statistics; and comparative statistics.

  15. Ontario Hydro annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Ontario Hydro's annual report of the financial position and activities for the year 1986 consists of their financial highlights; corporate profile; customer service and satisfaction; message from Chairman; message from President; 1986 in review; financial section; management report; five-year summary of financial statistics; and comparative statistics

  16. Assessing and addressing the re-eutrophication of Lake Erie: central basin hypoxia (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Allan, J. David; Arend, Kristin K.; Bartell, Steven; Beletsky, Dmitry; Bosch, Nate S.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Briland, Ruth D.; Daloğlu, Irem; DePinto, Joseph V.; Dolan, David M.; Evans, Mary Anne; Farmer, Troy M.; Goto, Daisuke; Han, Haejin; Höök, Tomas O.; Knight, Roger; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Mason, Doran; Michalak, Anna M.; Richards, R. Peter; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Rutherford, Edward; Schwab, David J.; Sesterhenn, Timothy M.; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhou, Yuntao


    Relieving phosphorus loading is a key management tool for controlling Lake Erie eutrophication. During the 1960s and 1970s, increased phosphorus inputs degraded water quality and reduced central basin hypolimnetic oxygen levels which, in turn, eliminated thermal habitat vital to cold-water organisms and contributed to the extirpation of important benthic macroinvertebrate prey species for fishes. In response to load reductions initiated in 1972, Lake Erie responded quickly with reduced water-column phosphorus concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, and bottom-water hypoxia (dissolved oxygen 2) requires cutting total phosphorus loads by 46% from the 2003–2011 average or reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus loads by 78% from the 2005–2011 average. Reductions to these levels are also protective of fish habitat. We provide potential approaches for achieving those new loading targets, and suggest that recent load reduction recommendations focused on western basin cyanobacteria blooms may not be sufficient to reduce central basin hypoxia to 2000 km2.

  17. Water resources management in the urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan: An ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Chen, Yuqing; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Niu, Jia; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Qian, Xuepeng; Jia, Baoju; Nakajima, Jun; Han, Ji; Li, Jianhua


    An innovative ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment was conducted in the important urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan, covering the time period from 1950 to 2014. A 22-indicator system was established that was based on the major ecosystem services of Lake Biwa and its water courses, i.e., provisioning services regarding aquatic products and water; regulating services regarding floods and water quality; cultural services regarding recreation and tourism, scientific research, and environmental education; and supporting services regarding biodiversity. First, changes in the eight ecosystem services were discussed together with the considerable experience and difficult lessons that can be drawn from the development trajectory. Next, with the indicators rearranged according to sustainability principles, the regional sustainability over the past six-plus decades was assessed. In general, this urban agglomeration has been progressing in terms of its sustainability, although economic and social development was achieved at the cost of environmental degradation in the past, and the current economic downturn is hurting the balanced development and integrated benefits. The results lead directly to recommendations for regional development, especially in terms of economic rejuvenation, from the perspective of improving management of Lake Biwa's water resources. Moreover, the relevant knowledge is educational and inspirational for other places in the world that are facing similar development issues. For example, the effective and even pioneering countermeasures that have been taken against environmental degradation, as well as the participation and collaboration of multiple stakeholders, could be useful as a model. Moreover, the study invites increased understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to anthropogenic devastation and emphasizes the priority of precautionary measures over countermeasures in the context of holistic urban planning and sustainable

  18. [Ontario Hydro]. Corporate performance report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Summarizes Ontario Hydro's corporate performance for the year, with actual results being compared against planned values. Also includes additional indicators that illustrate noteworthy trends in corporate performance. Corporate results are reported under the new organizational structure implemented in 1993, beginning with overall results in such areas as customer service, environmental stewardship, human resources, and finance. This is followed by reports from the Generation Business Group, Customer Services Group, Corporate Business Group, General Counsel and Secretary, Ontario Hydro Audit, Strategic Planning, Environment and Communication Group, and Ontario Hydro enterprises (Ontario Hydro Technologies, Ontario Hydro International). The appendix includes summary financial statements

  19. Ontario Energy Corporation annual report 1981. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Ontario Energy Corporation's mission of providing leadership and investment capital for selected energy ventures brought its total participation in projects from $16.4 million to $669 million, and its total assets increased from $44.4 million to $693 million during the year. The annual report review major operations with Ontario Energy Resources Ltd., Onexco Ltd., Ontario Alternate Energy Ltd., Ontario Power Share Ltd., and Ontario Energy in Transportation Ltd. The financial report includes a balance sheet, income and retained earnings statement, and a summary of financial changes during the reporting period. 1 figure, 4 tables. (DCK)

  20. Assessment of water-quality data from Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota--2008 through 2012 (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.


    ong Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central North Dakota, is an important habitat for numerous migratory birds and waterfowl, including several threatened or endangered species. The refuge is distinguished by Long Lake, which is approximately 65 square kilometers and consists of four primary water management units. Water levels in the Long Lake units are maintained by low-level dikes and water-control structures, which after construction during the 1930s increased the water-storage capacity of Long Lake and reduced the frequency and volume of flushing flows downstream. The altered water regime, along with the negative precipitation:evaporation ratio of the region, may be contributing to the accumulation of water-borne chemical constituents such as salts, trace metals, and other constituents, which at certain threshold concentrations may impair aquatic plant, invertebrate, and bird communities of the refuge. The refuge’s comprehensive conservation planning process identified the need for water-quality monitoring to assess current (2013) conditions, establish comparative baselines, evaluate changes over time (trends), and support adaptive management of the wetland units. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Department of Health began a water-quality monitoring program at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge to address these needs. Biweekly water-quality samples were collected for ions, trace metals, and nutrients; and in situ sensors and data loggers were installed for the continuous measurement of specific conductance and water depth. Long Lake was characterized primarily by sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions. Overall results for total alkalinity and hardness were 580 and 329 milligrams per liter, respectively; thus, Long Lake is considered alkaline and classified as very hard. The mean pH and sodium adsorption ratio for Long Lake were 8.8 and 10, respectively. Total dissolved solids concentrations

  1. Environmental Assessment: Zebra Mussel Eradication from the Base Lake at Offutt Air Force Base (United States)


    lake perimeter roadway and landward. Access to the F AMCAMP, pavi lion , and boathouse would be allowed during the application. Warning sit,Yfls...2.5 microns or smaller ppm parts per million SGNIS Sea Grant Non-indigenous Species Site T&E Threatened and Endangered TEC The Environmental...chemical tool in freshwater farm ponds and aquaculture operations, including open water systems. It is both an effective algaecide and a parasite

  2. A Survey and Assessment of the Cultural Resources-Oologah Lake Project. (United States)


    Lake is the goal of this study. Since these resources are nonrenewable it is essential that they are identified and preserved ; or, if preservation is...established an important trading post at Saline, Oklahoma. He sought to preserve his already well established fur trading monopoly among the Osage...beans, pumpkin , squash and tobacco. Hunting acitvities took men away from home periodically to hunt beaver, bear, fish and fowl (Weslager 1972:56

  3. Assessing LULC changes over Chilika Lake watershed in Eastern India using Driving Force Analysis (United States)

    Jadav, S.; Syed, T. H.


    Rapid population growth and industrial development has brought about significant changes in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) of many developing countries in the world. This study investigates LULC changes in the Chilika Lake watershed of Eastern India for the period of 1988 to 2016. The methodology involves pre-processing and classification of Landsat satellite images using support vector machine (SVM) supervised classification algorithm. Results reveal that `Cropland', `Emergent Vegetation' and `Settlement' has expanded over the study period by 284.61 km², 106.83 km² and 98.83 km² respectively. Contemporaneously, `Lake Area', `Vegetation' and `Scrub Land' have decreased by 121.62 km², 96.05 km² and 80.29 km² respectively. This study also analyzes five major driving force variables of socio-economic and climatological factors triggering LULC changes through a bivariate logistic regression model. The outcome gives credible relative operating characteristics (ROC) value of 0.76 that indicate goodness fit of logistic regression model. In addition, independent variables like distance to drainage network and average annual rainfall have negative regression coefficient values that represent decreased rate of dependent variable (changed LULC) whereas independent variables (population density, distance to road and distance to railway) have positive regression coefficient indicates increased rate of changed LULC . Results from this study will be crucial for planning and restoration of this vital lake water body that has major implications over the society and environment at large.

  4. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands. (United States)

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C


    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health risk in relation to recreational activities. To quantify health risks for carcinogenic (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as noncarcinogenic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), an exposure assessment model was used. First, we used a standard model that solely uses data on sediment pollution as the input parameter, which is the standard procedure in sediment quality assessments in The Netherlands. The highest intake appeared to be associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and resulted in a health risk for Pb and Zn (hazard index exceeded 1). For the other heavy metals and for benzo(a)pyrene, the total averaged exposure levels were below levels of concern. Secondly, input data for a more location-specific calculation procedure were provided via analyses of samples from sediment, surface water, and suspended matter. When these data (concentrations in surface water) were taken into account, the risk due to consumption of contaminated fish decreased by more than two orders of magnitude and appeared to be negligible. In both exposure assessments, many assumptions were made that contribute to a major degree to the uncertainty of this risk assessment. However, this health risk evaluation is useful as a screening methodology for assessing the urgency of sediment remediation actions.

  5. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences


    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  6. Heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and health risk evaluation in Aibi Lake of northwest China. (United States)

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Xiaodong, Yang; Shengtian, Yang


    This study sought to analyze heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe) pollution status in the waters of Aibi Lake in northwest China through the use of an applied comprehensive pollution index, health risk model, and multivariate statistical analyses in combination with the lake's land use types. Results showed that (1) the maximum (average) values of the heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe were 0.0644 (0.0123), 0.0006 (0.0002), 0.0009 (0.0032), 0.1235 (0.0242), 0.0061 (0.0025), and 0.0222 (0.0080) μg/L, respectively. Among these, in all the samples, Pb and Ni exceeded the standard and acceptable values put forth by the World Health Organization by 21.13 and 25.67%, respectively. Ni also exceeded (30.16%) the third grade of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water of China. The levels of the six heavy metals were all within the fishery and irrigation water quality standard ranges in China. (2) The average values for single pollution index of heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe were 1.000, 0.0006, 0.0009, 3.000, 0.060, and 0.070, respectively, among which Ni levels indicated moderate to significant pollution, while others indicated healthy levels. (3) Health risk evaluation showed that the R n values for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were 1.8 × 10 -4 , 5.33 × 10 -9 , 4.80 × 10 -7 , 1.08 × 10 -6 , and 2.51 × 10 -7  a -1 , respectively, of which, in all samples, Pb and Ni contents all exceeded the maximum acceptable risk levels according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the U.S. Environment Protection Agency. (4) Combining with multivariate statistical analyses along with the land use distribution within the lake basin, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Mn were mainly influenced by the agriculture production and emission from urban lives and traffics, and Fe mainly originated from the natural environment. The results of this research can provide reference values for heavy metal pollution

  7. Neotectonic investigations in southern Ontario: Prince Edward County. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFall, G.H.; Allam, A.


    This report summarizes the preliminary results of geological and geophysical investigations of possible neotectonic features in Prince Edward County, southern Ontario, made by the Ontario Geological Survey during 1988. Low magnitude seismic events indicative of contemporary stress relief occurred during 1987-88 near Salmon Point and Consecon (M 2.2). These events were located proximal to a major regional fault system crossing Lake Ontario and consisting of the Clarendon-Linden Fault System in New York State and the Salmon River-Picton fault systems in Ontario. Detailed observations were made of regional jointing orientations (predominantly 60 degrees and 125 degrees), erosion of surficial deposits adjacent to open fractures, a local fault displacement (post-glacially), dome structures located at Point Petre, and dissolution/karst terrains in the eastern part of the study area. Excavations of four pop-up structures indicate that three are classical pop-ups and one is atypical in structure. Level transects were conducted across complex structures in the eastern part of the study area. Detailed refraction seismic and resistivity surveys were conducted on pop-up and fault features. Preliminary results indicate that the Picton Fault is a complex zone of fractures with differing bedrock on each side. The central zone of the East Duck Pond pop-up is fractured and may contain variable amounts of water. Overturned and upright folds in the Consecon Quarry located outside of the primary research area were documented and found to be trending in a west-northwest to northwest direction. This fold orientation is compatible both with a glacial shove origin and with the present stress field orientations. Although glacial shove can produce overturned folds, it cannot form upright folds. A regional, tectonic deformation oriented northeasterly is therefore suggested as the causative mechanism

  8. Ontario electricity rates and industrial competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose significantly after the opening of the competitive Ontario electricity market in 2002, thereby widening the gap between industrial electricity prices in Ontario and those in other Canadian provinces. Navigant Consulting Ltd. conducted this study at the request of the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) to research and compare current and historical electricity prices in Ontario and other jurisdictions in North America. The study provided an independent analysis of how industrial electricity prices in Ontario compare to those in other jurisdiction in which AMPCO members operate. It also formed the basis for comparing the impacts of electricity policy on the economic competitiveness of major power consumers in Ontario. The relative electricity intensity in the United States, Ontario and other Canadian provinces was reviewed for specific industries, including forest products, steel manufacturing, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing and cement manufacturing. Publicly available aggregate data from Statistics Canada and the United States Bureau of the Census was then used to compare average electricity prices for industrial customers in Ontario. The data confirmed that Ontario has experienced a decline in its competitive price advantage in industrial electricity. Delivered industrial electricity prices in Ontario have increased by more than 60 per cent since 2001. Industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia and New Brunswick. In addition, industrial electricity prices in Ontario rose above those in competing states such as Ohio and Illinois, in part due to the increase in the value of the Canadian dollar. It was concluded that the price increase may lead to a greater decline in economic output in Ontario compared to competing jurisdictions. 2 tabs., 14 figs., 1 appendix

  9. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Dunlob, Erin S.


    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  10. Volume reduction/solidification of liquid radioactive waste using bitumen at Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.E.; Baker, R.L.


    Ontario Hydro at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A' has undertaken a program to render the station's liquid radioactive waste suitable for discharge to Lake Huron by removing sufficient radiological and chemical contaminants to satisfy regulatory requirements for emissions. The system will remove radionuclide and chemical contaminants from five different plant waste streams. The contaminants will be immobilized and stored at on-site radioactive waste storage facilities and the purified streams will be discharged. The discharge targets established by Ontario Hydro are set well below the limits established by the Ontario Ministry of Environment (MOE) and are based on the Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Approach (B.A.T.E.A.). ADTECHS Corporation has been selected by Ontario Hydro to provide volume reduction/solidification technology for one of the five waste streams. The system will dry and immobilize the contaminants from a liquid waste stream in emulsified asphalt using thin film evaporation technology

  11. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.


    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  12. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan. (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus


    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Mariana DAN


    Full Text Available One of the three strategic objectives of the Europe 2020 Agenda is to ensure the sustainable management of the natural resources and to fight against climate changes. Considering water to be not only a valuable natural resource for any type of landscape, but also the vital environmental component that ensured a minimum of productivity for the people working the unproductive salinization and gleyzation affected soils in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using embankment dams to breake the link between the Danube and the flood organism it created over a timespan of millenia has proven in the last 50 years to be an economic and ecological failure. Since the December 1989 events in Romania, after most of the socialist institutions have proven to be too resource consuming, thus unprofitable or maladaptive, the Jiu-Corabia locals have individually experimented with various land cultivation patterns, all of them based on draught-resistant crops, such as peanuts. In spite of it being the original natural landuse, lake usage has only been scarcely mentioned as a project after the 2006 flood, but after being institutionally rejected, its benefits in terms of ecological restoration, financial productivity have not been further looked into. The current article aims to identify different height level scenarios of lake usage in the Jiu-Corabia enclosure, using GIS technique. Lake volumes are calculated for each scenario with the aim of assessing the volume of water this enclose can absorb during flooding periods, as well as of estimating fish production for when the waters are low and it is not needed as a controlled flood chamber. Other benefits, such as providing a source of humidity for precipitations which will aid the crops nearby, have not been monetized, but contribute to the regional development efforts.

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China. (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhou, Yihui; Qiu, Yanling; Chen, Da; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Bergman, Ǻke


    The present study measured concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in surface sediments and two benthic invertebrate species (Anodonta woodiana and Bellamya aeruginosa) collected from Dianshan Lake, located in the Yangtze River Delta. The Dianshan Lake acts as one of the most important drinking water sources to Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Concentrations of trace metals and metalloids ranged from 0.04 mg/kg for Cd to 288.0 mg/kg for Zn. Substantial bioaccumulation in invertebrates was observed for Zn and Cu based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) measurements. The results revealed that concentrations of metals and metalloids in sediments from Dianshan Lake were at the lower end of the range of levels found in other regions of China. The assessment of three significantly inter-related evaluation indices, including the geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), potential ecological risk factor (Er i ), and mean probable effect concentration quotients (Q m-PEC ), suggested that sediment-associated trace elements exhibited no considerable ecological risks in the studied watershed. However, the target hazard quotient and hazard index analysis suggested that selected elements (particularly As) accumulation in edible tissues of benthic invertebrates could pose potential health risks to local populations, especially fishermen. Given that wild aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and bivalves) constitute the diet of local populations as popular food/protein choices, further investigations are needed to better elucidate human health risks from metal and metalloid exposure via edible freshwater organisms.

  15. A model assessment of the ability of lake water in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, to induce the photochemical degradation of emerging contaminants. (United States)

    Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide


    The shallow lakes located in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, are free from ice for only up to a couple of months (mid December to early/mid February) during the austral summer. In the rest of the year, the ice cover shields the light and inhibits the photochemical processes in the water columns. Previous work has shown that chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in these lakes is very reactive photochemically. A model assessment is here provided of lake-water photoreactivity in field conditions, based on experimental data of lake water absorption spectra, chemistry and photochemistry obtained previously, taking into account the water depth and the irradiation conditions of the Antarctic summer. The chosen sample contaminants were the solar filter benzophenone-3 and the antimicrobial agent triclosan, which have very well known photoreactivity and have been found in a variety of environmental matrices in the Antarctic continent. The two compounds would have a half-life time of just a few days or less in the lake water during the Antarctic summertime, largely due to reaction with CDOM triplet states ((3)CDOM*). In general, pollutants that occur in the ice and could be released to lake water upon ice melting (around or soon after the December solstice) would be quickly photodegraded if they undergo fast reaction with (3)CDOM*. With some compounds, the important (3)CDOM* reactions might favour the production of harmful secondary pollutants, such as 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin from the basic (anionic) form of triclosan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Summary of Ontario Hydro's 1990-91 zebra mussel research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.; Wiancko, P.M.


    Ontario Hydro is the principal supplier of electricity to the Province of Ontario. It serves 3.6 million customers, with an inservice capacity of 28,200 MW. Ontario Hydro has seven fossil, five nuclear, and four hydraulic stations in the Great Lakes Basin and surrounding watershed. In addition, there are another 60 inland hydraulic stations and numerous dams. As the largest single user of raw water from the Great Lakes Basin, Ontario Hydro recognized the need to control zebra mussels early in 1989. At that time, very little was known in North America about the zebra mussel life cycle and potential impact. European utilities were consulted, but as we now know, zebra mussels are not perceived to be a problem in Europe at this time. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the fouling of systems which draw water from the aquatic environment. Due to the current regulatory environment, this solution is considered short term and Ontario Hydro was compelled to initiate a comprehensive research effort aimed at providing alternative methods of control. Most of the research effort during 1990, was methods of control. Most of the research effort during 1990, was directed towards this goal. Many alternative control measures, both chemical and nonchemical were considered. Also considered were the potential effects of the control measures and zebra mussels on station operations. A multidisciplinary team involving aquatic biologists, chemists, corrosion specialists, and civil and mechanical engineers from the various departments of Ontario Hydro was asked to address the problem. Some of the research also involved collaborative studies with universities, US utilities, American Water Works Association, and Canadian industries. Following is a summary of the research effort in 1990, and a preview of the research underway in 1991

  17. A new multi-criteria method for the ecological assessment of lakes: A case study from the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve ‘West Polesie’ (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender


    Full Text Available A new multi-criteria method of evaluation and assessment of the ecological status of lakes is proposed. It is based on macrophytes analysis integrated with geomorphological, landscape and catchment sources of threats. A total of 22 lakes in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve ‘West Polesie’ (Poland were investigated along trophic (available nutrients and human pressure gradients, testing the proposed method with ESMI and TRS indices. Therefore, the present indexation included 22 criteria (i.e., catchment land use, phytolittoral area, number of plant species concerning three different assessing zones (lakeshore, littoral and surrounding area, and provided a five-class ecological classification. The proposed index, in addition to the general ecological conditions assessment of lakes, allows to point out a zonal evaluation, identifying the most critic zones in terms of ecological status. The proposed method can be universally adapted for any type of lakes, regardless of their geographical characteristics. It can be applied to system monitoring, and to support lakes biodiversity, functionality, conservation, restoration, water protection and uses, as well as water, territory and landscape management actions.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site

  20. Assessment of pollutants in manzala lake using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.; El-Abbady, W.H.; Hassan, A.M.


    Multielemental analysis of water samples taken from the area of manzala lake in the east-north of river Nile delta of egypt, has been performed. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique is applied to determine the elemental concentrations. The samples have been irradiated by means of (PGNAA) facility using a Cf 252 isotopic neutron source with a total flux of 1.5 x 10 5 n cm 2 s -1 for 300 min irradiation time. The evaluation of Cd, Gd, Sm, Pb, Zn, Co and Hg as trace elements in these samples is reported. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Risk assessment for sustainable food security in China according to integrated food security--taking Dongting Lake area for example. (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoxing; Liu, Liming; Liu, Yabin; Yao, Lan


    Integrated food security covers three aspects: food quantity security, food quality security, and sustainable food security. Because sustainable food security requires that food security must be compatible with sustainable development, the risk assessment of sustainable food security is becoming one of the most important issues. This paper mainly focuses on the characteristics of sustainable food security problems in the major grain-producing areas in China. We establish an index system based on land resources and eco-environmental conditions and apply a dynamic assessment method based on status assessments and trend analysis models to overcome the shortcomings of the static evaluation method. Using fuzzy mathematics, the risks are categorized into four grades: negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk. A case study was conducted in one of China's major grain-producing areas: Dongting Lake area. The results predict that the status of the sustainable food security in the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The number of districts at the medium-risk range will increase from six to ten by 2015 due to increasing population pressure, a decrease in the cultivated area, and a decrease in the effective irrigation area. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put forward to improve it. The results could also provide direct support for an early warning system-which could be used to monitor food security trends or nutritional status so to inform policy makers of impending food shortages-to prevent sustainable food security risk based on some classical systematic methods. This is the first research of sustainable food security in terms of risk assessment, from the perspective of resources and the environment, at the regional scale.

  2. Assessing the natural recovery of a lake contaminated with Hg using estimated recovery rates determined by sediment chronologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Matthew J.; Long, David T.; Yohn, Sharon S.


    Research highlights: → Identifying the cause of Hg contamination via correlations to iron ore production. → Using Hg:Al ratio to show changes in pathway from a point to non-point source. → Overcoming challenges to age determination using event-based dating. → Using sediment cores to estimate recovery rates and identify arrested recovery. - Abstract: Deer Lake is an impoundment located near Ishpeming, Michigan, USA. Iron mining assay laboratories located in Ishpeming disposed of Hg salts to the city sewer whose outfall was located along an inlet to Deer Lake. An effort to remediate the system in the mid 1980s which consisted of drawing down water in the impoundment in order to volatize Hg from the sediments did not result in recovery of the system. Since the mid 1990s, the remediation strategy has been to allow the continual burial of the contaminated sediments, i.e., natural recovery. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this strategy. This was accomplished by investigating State of the system in terms of its recovery and estimating the time frame for recovery. Sediment cores were collected in 2000 to determine historical trends in accumulation rates and concentrations of Hg and other metals. Sedimentation rate