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Sample records for assessment index rai

  1. Preoperative serum tetranectin, CA125 and menopausal status used as single markers in screening and in a risk assessment index (RAI) in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F D; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, S K;

    2009-01-01

    of the markers to discriminate between the four groups (208 benign ovarian tumor, 153 borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), 445 OC and 1333 age matched controls) in OC screening was examined. We also constructed a risk assessment index (RAI) for discrimination between tumor groups based on these variables...

  2. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990...

  3. The Modified Rainfall Anomaly Index (mRAI)—is this an alternative to the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) in evaluating future extreme precipitation characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg

    2016-02-01

    Precipitation extremes affect various economic sectors and may result in substantial costs for societies. Future projections of such extreme occurrences are needed to successfully develop robust regional adaptation strategies. Model ensemble-based approaches provide a higher level of confidence since they compensate to some degree for the uncertainties of individual climate model projections. An ensemble of twelve regional climate projections from five regional climate models was used to evaluate the suitability of a modified version of the Rainfall Anomaly Index (mRAI) as an alternative to the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) in assessing future precipitation conditions. We compared frequency distributions and trends of the mRAI with the SPI for a test region that is climatologically representative of Central Eastern Europe. Both indices are highly correlated with each other at all tested timescales—both for stations and for regionally averaged data—with Pearson correlation coefficients >>0.9 and Spearman correlation coefficients >0.99. There are no significant differences in their frequency distributions, although the mRAI shows slightly higher frequencies in the classes of `moderately dry' to `very dry' conditions. The change signals revealed by SPI and mRAI are very similar for mean changes as well as for changes in the extremes. Considering the large bandwidth of change signals of individual regional climate projections, the mRAI provides sufficiently robust results for the evaluation of future precipitation anomaly trends. The notably more complex calculation of the SPI has no appreciable advantage for this application.

  4. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlman Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH, a clinical assessment system mandated for use in Ontario, Canada as well as many other jurisdictions internationally. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on two datasets containing RAI-MH assessments for 1,056 patients from 7 facilities and 34,788 patients from 70 facilities in Ontario, Canada. The RAI-MH was completed by clinical staff of each facility at admission and follow-up, typically at discharge. The RAI-MH includes a breadth of information on symptoms, functioning, socio-demographics, and service utilization. Potential MHQIs were derived by examining the empirical patterns of improvement and incidence in depressive symptoms and cognitive performance across facilities in both sets of data. A prevalence indicator was also constructed to compare restraint use. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk adjustment of MHQIs using patient case-mix index scores derived from the RAI-MH System for Classification of Inpatient Psychiatry. Results Subscales from the RAI-MH, the Depression Severity Index (DSI and Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, were found to have good reliability and strong convergent validity. Unadjusted rates of five MHQIs based on the DSI, CPS, and restraints showed substantial variation among facilities in both sets of data. For instance, there was a 29.3% difference between the first and third quartile facility rates of improvement in cognitive performance. The case-mix index score was significantly related to MHQIs for cognitive performance

  5. User experience of interRAI assessment tools in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanne; Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The international residential assessment instrument (interRAI) has been adopted for phased national implementation in New Zealand. It targets people over 65 years who require needs assessment for access to long term publicly funded services. There is limited research on the barriers to adoption for interRAI electronic assessment tools, and none relating to the New Zealand health sector. This research qualitatively explored clinicians' perceptions and experience of using interRAI electronic assessment tools using semi-structured interviews guided by constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model [9]. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. Three major barriers to adoption of interRAI tools emerged from the research: 1) lack of ready access to individual laptops/computers with consistent network connectivity, 2) need for ongoing training for interRAI assessors, and, 3) lack of understanding of what information is being collected and for what reasons. The growth in aging populations will see greater use of interRAI electronic assessment tools, and therefore more clinicians required to learn and use the technology. Addressing these barriers to adoption is therefore vital.

  6. Development and Psychometric Properties of an Assessment for Persons with Intellectual Disability--The InterRAI ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Smith, Trevor F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the interRAI-Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID), a comprehensive instrument that assesses all key domains of interest to service providers relative to a person with an intellectual disability (ID). The authors report on the reliability and validity of embedded scales for cognition, self-care, aggression,…

  7. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  8. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  9. Rapid Acting Insulin Use and Persistence among Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Patients Adding RAI to Oral Antidiabetes Drug Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Steve; Fan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-naïve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence. Of 3734 patients adding RAI to their OAD regimen, 2334 (62.5%) had a RAIp during follow-up. Factors associated with RAIp included using ≤2 OADs; cognitive impairment, basal insulin use during follow-up; and higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30). Patients were less likely to persist with RAI when on ≤2 OADs versus ≥3 OADs and when having higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30) and more likely to persist when they had cognitive impairment and basal insulin use during follow-up. Real-world persistence of RAI in insulin-naïve elderly patients with type 2 diabetes was very poor when RAI was added to an OAD regimen. PMID:27761472

  10. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  11. Relationship between interRAI HC and the ICF: opportunity for operationalizing the ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Gunnar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is embraced as a framework to conceptualize human functioning and disability. Health professionals choose measures to represent the domains of the framework. The ICF coding classification is an administrative system but multiple studies have linked diverse clinical assessments to ICF codes. InterRAI-HC (home care is an assessment designed to assist planning of care for patients receiving home care. Examining the relationship between the ICF and the interRAI HC is of particular interest because the interRAI assessments are widely used in clinical practice and research, are computerized, and uploaded to databases that serve multiple purposes including public reporting of quality in Canada and internationally. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the interRAI HC (home care assessment and the ICF. Specifically, the goal was to determine the proportion of interRAI HC items that can be linked to each of the major domains of the ICF (Body Function, Body Structure, Activities and Participation, and the Environmental Factors, the chapters and the specific ICF codes. Methods Three coders who were familiar with both the home care assessment and the ICF independently assigned ICF codes to inter-RAI HC items. Subsequently, a series of teleconference meetings were held to reach consensus on the primary code and much later consensus was used to finalize codes for additional items added to the interRAI HC. Results Following exclusion of administrative and diagnostic sections, 175 interRAI items were examined for potential assignment of codes. Of these 52 were assigned codes related to body function, 43 to activities and participation, 34 to environment, 1 to body structure, 17 to not coded, and 26 to not defined. Considering all 3-digit ICF codes, interRAI items addressed 43.2% of Body Function and 50.6% of Activities and Participation

  12. The RAI DBS experiment with Olympus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Enzo

    The Italian broadcasting network (RAI) has studied the development of a national DBS service in an effort to outline a proposal for a space segment configuration compatible with development of new services, including HDTV. Proposals so far considered feature the integration of RAI's channel on Olympus in a future operational system and after extensive experimental use. Contents of the experimental program are discussed, and need for a broadcasting standard which considers projected introduction of HDTV is noted. The debate between RAI and consumer electronic industries on the use of broadcasting standards is outlined. The position of RAI in the context of HDTV and DBS is defined and the issue of determining the most effective transmission standard during the experimental stage is raised. It is pointed out that, in the absence of new production facilities for HDTV, the maximum quality which MAC will yield will be that of PAL since programs must be produced in PAL and then converted into MAC. Two alternatives for strategy on the use of broadcasting standards for DBS are offered. Finally, technical experiments and a market survey are discussed.

  13. Nepotizmo raiškos organizacijoje modelis

    OpenAIRE

    Vveinhardt, Jolita; Petrauskaitė, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Šiame straipsnyje analizuojama nepotizmo raiška organizacijoje ir neigiamas reiškinio poveikis. Pristatomi straipsnio autorių atliktų empirinių tyrimų rezultatai. Remiantis straipsnio autorių atliktų tyrimų rezultatais ,suformuotas nepotizmo poveikio organizacijoje modelis. Suformuotą nepotizmo poveikio organizacijoje modelį sudaro keturi kertiniai akcentai, apimantys giminystės ryšiais susijusio asmens įdarbinimo procesus; teigiamą / neigiamą nepotizmo reiškinio vertinimą organizacijos atžvi...

  14. New assessment for the risk of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis. Prognostic factor analysis in hypercholesterolemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concise and non-invasive methods to detect the risk of cerebrovascular disease in high risk patients are considered useful. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the contribution to ischemic cerebrovascular risk of the Revised Atherosclerotic Index (RAI) which is calculated from the Atherogenic Index (AI), patient's age and number of risk factors of atherosclerotic disease. I studied retrospectively the serum lipid levels, carotid stenosis measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction diagnosed from the symptoms and CT in 56 hypercholesterolemic outpatients. I assessed the relation between the RAI and carotid stenoic findings, history of cerebral infarction, and type of cerebral infarction. I also assessed the relation between the RAI and changes in LDL-cholesterol level before and after atorvastatin administration. The RAI was significantly increased in patients with carotid lesions and cerebral infarction, but the AI was not. While the odds ratio of the AI for carotid lesions was high but not significantly so, that of the RAI increased with statistical significance. The odds ratio for cerebral infarction was high for the RAI but not for the AI. Furthermore, the RAI was significantly high in patients with aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction as compared to that in patients without any infarction. The serum lipids were well controlled under administration of atorvastatin and the mean RAI was also significantly decreased; however, more comprehensive control of risk factors might be necessary. The AI adjusted for patient's age and number of risk factors might be useful for assessing the risk of carotid lesion atherosclerosis and aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction. (author)

  15. Theoretical study on safety assessment indexes system of coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-liang(施式亮); LI Run-qiu(李润求); XIE Jian-xiang(谢建湘)

    2003-01-01

    The safety status of the coal mines is closely correlated with the operating status and its changes of the whole working system in the coal mines, and the safety system is the sub-system of the whole production system. In this paper, based on the analysis of the complicacy of the safety sub-system and its affecting factors, the theory basis of the indexes system of the safety assessment was studied, including the establishing principles of the indexes system , the structure of the indexes system, the determining methods of the assessment indexes. The complete indexes system was established for the safety assessment of the coal mines in the paper.

  16. STUDI ANALISIS SETTING RELAY PENGAMAN DI PENYULANG NGURAH RAI I DAN PENYULANG NGURAH RAI II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Komang Sutarjana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan gangguan di jaringan distribusi 20 kV seringkali menyebabkan terputusnya pasokan daya listrik kepada pelanggan. Salah satu penyebab keandalan sistem kurang baik adalah kesalahan koordinasi setting relay pada penyulang. Seperti yang terjadi pada penyulang Ngurah Rai I dan Penyulang Ngurah Rai II dimana terdapat kesalahan koordinasi setting antara relay pada pangkal penyulang yang terletak di Gardu Induk (GI dengan relay pada di ujung jaringan yang terletak di Gardu Hubung (GH. Untuk memecahkan masalah tersebut maka perlu dianalisis setting relay yang sudah ada (eksisting. Untuk membuktikan koordinasi setting relay sudah sempurna, maka akan dilakukan simulasi menggunakan bantuan program computer yaitu Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh nilai setting dimulai dari setting Over Current Relay (OCR pada pangkal penyulang (GI 360 A dan Tms 0,36 sedangkan untuk nilai setting arus OCR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional 330 A dan TMS 0,16. Kemudian untuk setting GFR pada pangkal penyulang (GI diperoleh nilai 34 A dan TMS 0,2. Sedangkan setting GFR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional diperoleh nilai 31 A dan TMS 0,1.

  17. "Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Zifirdaus

    2011-01-01

    Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

  18. Assessment of age bias in site index equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely accepted method of evaluating site productivity is site index. In spite of some important restrictions it is still a useful concept in both forest research and management. One of the most important challenges when using site index is an age trend manifested by a negative correlation between site index and stand age. Age trend may result from the inappropriateness of site index models. In this paper we develop a new approach for assessing age bias in site index models. Field data collected from 311 sample plots established in Norway spruce stands in the Polish region of the Carpathians formed the basis of this study. In the proposed approach the appropriateness of site index models is assessed by analyzing the existence of age trends in residuals of geocentric site index prediction models. Using the developed approach we demonstrated that when significant correlations exist between residuals of site index prediction models and stand age, it likely indicates the existence of an age trend and thus the inappropriateness of site index model. To remedy this situation, we demonstrated that the observed age trend can be quantified and utilized in new, non-biased, site index models.

  19. Numerical assessment of the stiffness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sally; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Elliott, Paul; Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Elevated systemic vascular stiffness is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that the time difference between the two characteristic peaks of the digital volume pulse (DVP) measured at the finger using photoplethysmography is related to the stiffness of the arterial tree, and inversely proportional to the stiffness index (SI). However, the precise physical meaning of the SI and its relation to aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) is yet to be ascertained. In this study we investigated numerically the effect of changes in arterial wall stiffness, peripheral resistances, peripheral compliances or peripheral wave reflections on the SI and aPWV. The SI was calculated from the digital area waveform simulated using a nonlinear one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in a 75-artery network, which includes the larger arteries of the hand. Our results show that aPWV is affected by changes in aortic stiffness, but the SI is primarily affected by changes in the stiffness of all conduit vessels. Thus, the SI is not a direct substitute for aPWV. Moreover, our results suggest that peripheral reflections in the upper body delay the time of arrival of the first peak in the DVP. The second peak is predominantly caused by the impedance mismatch within the 75 arterial segments, rather than by peripheral reflections.

  20. Fatores associados ao aumento no índice de incremento de pressão radial em indivíduos hipertensos Factors associated with increased radial augmentation index in hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A rigidez arterial é uma variável preditora de morbimortalidade e um possível marcador de lesão vascular. Sua avaliação não invasiva por tonometria radial e análise do índice de incremento (r-AI permite identificar os pacientes expostos a um maior risco cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do r-AI em variáveis clínico-bioquímicas e sua influência na prevalência de dano em órgão-alvo em pacientes hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Cento e quarenta pacientes hipertensos consecutivos, em seguimento clínico ambulatorial, foram submetidos à análise transversal. Os níveis de pressão arterial (PA e o r-AI foram obtidos por tonometria de aplanação da artéria radial (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. Os pacientes foram alocados em tercis r-AI (r-AI 97%. RESULTADOS: A amostra era predominantemente composta por mulheres (56,4%, com idade média de 61,7 ± 11,7 anos e índice de massa corporal de 29,6 ± 6,1 Kg/m². O maior tercil apresentou uma proporção maior de mulheres (p = 0,001, maior PA sistólica (p = 0,001 e pressão de pulso (p = 0,014, e menor peso (p = 0,044, altura (p BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a variable predictor of morbidity and mortality and a possible marker of vascular injury. Its non-invasive assessment by radial tonometry and analysis of the augmentation index (r-AI allows identifying patients exposed to higher cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of r-AI on clinical-biochemical variables and its influence on the prevalence of target-organ damage in hypertensive patients. METHODS: 140 consecutive hypertensive patients, followed-up in an outpatient clinic, were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Blood pressure (BP levels and r-AI were obtained by applanation tonometry of the radial artery (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. The patients were allocated into r-AI tertiles (r-AI 97%. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly composed of women (56.4%, mean age of 61.7 ± 11.7 years and body mass index 29.6

  1. Use of the interRAI CHESS scale to predict mortality among persons with neurological conditions in three care settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hirdes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persons with certain neurological conditions have higher mortality rates than the population without neurological conditions, but the risk factors for increased mortality within diagnostic groups are less well understood. The interRAI CHESS scale has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality in the overall population of persons receiving health care in community and institutional settings. This study examines the performance of CHESS as a predictor of mortality among persons with 11 different neurological conditions. METHODS: Survival analyses were done with interRAI assessments linked to mortality data among persons in home care (n = 359,940, complex continuing care hospitals/units (n = 88,721, and nursing homes (n = 185,309 in seven Canadian provinces/territories. RESULTS: CHESS was a significant predictor of mortality in all 3 care settings for the 11 neurological diagnostic groups considered after adjusting for age and sex. The distribution of CHESS scores varied between diagnostic groups and within diagnostic groups in different care settings. CONCLUSIONS: CHESS is a valid predictor of mortality in neurological populations in community and institutional care. It may prove useful for several clinical, administrative, policy-development, evaluation and research purposes. Because it is routinely gathered as part of normal clinical practice in jurisdictions (like Canada that have implemented interRAI assessment instruments, CHESS can be derived without additional need for data collection.

  2. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ansell Ricky; Hedman Johannes; Nordgaard Anders

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index ...

  3. [The Helkimo index for assessing treatment results after mandibular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, J; Hellmuth, M; Hellmuth, K O

    1991-01-01

    Based on the Helkimo index we assessed the success of conservative and conservative-surgical forms of treatment for mandibular fractures in a total of 166 patients. The control group consisted of 50 probands. The Helkimo dysfunction index, which is based on various criteria, showed dysfunction in 81.9% of the patients with only slight functional impairment in 57.2% of these cases. 18.1% of the patients were clinically symptom-free. A comparison with the probands revealed no major differences in dysfunction between the two groups. Significant differences were observed only in the case of 2 isolated criteria (maximum mandibular protrusion, muscle pain). Severe dysfunction, however, was more common in the fracture patients. Based on the Helkimo occlusion index disorder were noted in 91.7% of the patients, while severe occlusion disorder were observed particularly in patients with combined mandibular body and condyle fractures (40.0%). In the control group a more favorable occlusion index was found to be due mainly to the greater number of present and/or occluding teeth. The Helkimo index, particularly the dysfunctionindex, is a very useful instrument for assessing the success of treatment measures in mandibular fracture cases. It should be more commonly used to improve the possibilites of objective comparisons between patients from different hospitals.

  4. Paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresijos raiška

    OpenAIRE

    Žebrauskienė, Neringa

    2013-01-01

    Tyrimo tikslas - Nustatyti ir palyginti paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresijos raišką lyties ir amžiaus aspektu. Tyrimo objektas – Paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresijos raiška. Uždaviniai: 1. Nustatyti ir palyginti paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresijos raišką lyties aspektu. 2. Nustatyti ir palyginti paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresijos raišką amžiaus aspektu. Hipotezė – paauglių dziudo sportininkų agresija skiriasi lyties ir amžiaus aspektu. Rezultatai: Tyrimas atskleidė...

  5. An Initial Assessment of the GOES Microburst Windspeed Potential Index

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Large output values of the microburst index algorithms indicate that the ambient thermodynamic structure of the troposphere fits the prototypical environment for each respective microburst type. Accordingly, a new diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is derived from merging existing algorithms and designed to infer the presence of sufficient positive buoyancy and a well-developed convective boundary layer. This paper provides an initial assessment of the MWPI algorithm, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the MWPI product, and presents validatio...

  6. Komandinio darbo raiškos identifikavimas specialiojo ugdymo organizacijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Pušinskienė, Ernesta

    2011-01-01

    Magistro darbe išanalizuota įvairių autorių komandinio darbo teoriniai aspektai, atsižvelgiant į specialiojo ugdymo organizacijų darbo specifiką. Remiantis teorijos analize, atliktas tyrimas specialiojo ugdymo organizacijose, siekiant identifikuoti komandinio darbo raišką. Tyrimo metu analizuota specialiojo ugdymo organizacijų darbuotojų nuomonė apie komandinį darbą jų darbe, aiškintasi kokios darbuotojų žinios ir įgūdžiai, patirtis dirbant komandose, aiškintasi darbuotojų nuomonė apie komand...

  7. MODEL BIAYA PEMELIHARAAN FASILITAS PADA BANDAR UDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Dewita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Facilities in an airport requires maintenance activity in order to achieve excellent quality level and able to support activities at the airport to avoid negative impacts, which is the declining quality of the facility that can lead to lower levels of the productivity carried out in an airport. Maintenance facilities at Bali's Ngurah Rai airport need the maintenance costs planning. To get proper maintenance actions,  the maintenance costs early stages of planning phase needs to develop a model of facility maintenance costs that can provide the maintenance costs estimates quickly and accurately. To produce a maintenance costs model we should identify the maintenance activities that exist at Ngurah Rai airport. Maintenance costs data used is within the last 5 years (2007-2011. Using the Cost Significant Model methode and the linear regression equation it showed that several of the facility maintenace significantly affect the facility maintenance costs in the Ngurah Rai Airport which is the cost of passenger terminal building maintenance (X6, the cost of runway maintenance (X1, the cost of taxiway maintenance (X2, the cost of air conditioning installation maintenance (X14, the cost of road maintenance (X4, the cost of vehicle parking maintenance (X5, and the cost of navigation and communication equipment maintenance (X10. There is 3  linear regression equation model which is 1 Y = 11873745878,77 + 0,993 X1 + 0,826 X2 + 0,334 X4 + 1,181 X6, 2 Y = -698840481,94 + 1,327 X1 + 1,716 X2 + 5,516 X5+ 3,060 X14, and 3 Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14. After doing the Cost Model Factor (CMF test to the three linear regression equation, the most accurate equation is linear regression equation Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14 that has the average ratio 0.006% of the actual cost, so it is the best facility maintenance cost model at Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.

  8. An index for the assessment of degraded Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Diagnosing the degradation degree of forest ecosystems is the basis for restoration strategies. However, there is no literature documenting how to quantify the forest degradation degree by using synthetic indicators, also because there is not a widely accepted definition for "forest degradation" and "degraded forest". Although there are many definitions of forest degradation that converge on the loss of ecosystem services, still today there are no largely accepted methods that give operational guidance to help in defining it. In the present research, with the aim to assess the degree of forest degradation, an integrated index - FDI, Forest Degradation Index - was developed.Area of study: In this first application, the FDI was applied and validated at stand level in two different Mediterranean forest types in two different case studies: Madonie and Nedrodi regional Parks (Sicily, Italy. The first dominated by sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa], the second dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber L..Material and methods: FDI is a synthetic index structured starting from representative and relatively easily detectable parameters. Here, we propose a set of six indicators that should be assessed to determine the forest degradation: Structural Index (SI, Canopy Cover (CC, Natural Regeneration Density (NRD, Focal Species of Degradation (FSD, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD, and Soil Depth (SD. FDI, here proposed and discussed, has been based on a MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique, and implemented in order to contribute in finding simple indicators useful for forest restoration purposes that have an eco-functional basis.Main results: An integrated index of forest degradation has been defined. FDI values are comprised in the closed interval [0, 10], ranging from class I (Higher ecological functionality to class IV (Lower

  9. The Assessment of Mangrove Sediment Quality in Mengkabong Lagoon: An Index Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva M.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Abdullah, Mohd H.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different types of indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mengkabong lagoon and select the best index to describe the Mengkabong sediment quality. The indexes used in this study were Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Marine Sediment Pollution…

  10. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  11. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against RAI3 and its expression in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Hans

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RAI3 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR that has been associated with malignancy and may play a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Although its exact function in normal and malignant cells remains unclear and evidence supporting its role in oncogenesis is controversial, its abundant expression on the surface of cancer cells would make it an interesting target for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. To investigate the link with cancer and provide more evidence for its role, we carried out a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in a large set of human breast cancer specimens. Methods We expressed recombinant human RAI3 in bacteria and reconstituted the purified protein in liposomes to raise monoclonal antibodies using classical hybridoma techniques. The specific binding activity of the antibodies was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, western blot and immunocytochemistry. We carried out a systematic immunohistochemical analysis of RAI3 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 147 and normal breast tissues (n = 44 using a tissue microarray. In addition, a cDNA dot blot hybridisation assay was used to investigate a set of matched normal and cancerous breast tissue specimens (n = 50 as well as lymph node metastases (n = 3 for RAI3 mRNA expression. Results The anti-RAI3 monoclonal antibodies bound to recombinant human RAI3 protein with high specificity and affinity, as shown by ELISA, western blot and ICC. The cDNA dot blot and immunohistochemical experiments showed that both RAI3 mRNA and RAI3 protein were abundantly expressed in human breast carcinoma. However, there was no association between RAI3 protein expression and prognosis based on overall and recurrence-free survival. Conclusion We have generated a novel, highly-specific monoclonal antibody that detects RAI3 in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. This is the first study to report a systematic

  12. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against RAI3 and its expression in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAI3 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been associated with malignancy and may play a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Although its exact function in normal and malignant cells remains unclear and evidence supporting its role in oncogenesis is controversial, its abundant expression on the surface of cancer cells would make it an interesting target for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. To investigate the link with cancer and provide more evidence for its role, we carried out a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in a large set of human breast cancer specimens. We expressed recombinant human RAI3 in bacteria and reconstituted the purified protein in liposomes to raise monoclonal antibodies using classical hybridoma techniques. The specific binding activity of the antibodies was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and immunocytochemistry. We carried out a systematic immunohistochemical analysis of RAI3 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 147) and normal breast tissues (n = 44) using a tissue microarray. In addition, a cDNA dot blot hybridisation assay was used to investigate a set of matched normal and cancerous breast tissue specimens (n = 50) as well as lymph node metastases (n = 3) for RAI3 mRNA expression. The anti-RAI3 monoclonal antibodies bound to recombinant human RAI3 protein with high specificity and affinity, as shown by ELISA, western blot and ICC. The cDNA dot blot and immunohistochemical experiments showed that both RAI3 mRNA and RAI3 protein were abundantly expressed in human breast carcinoma. However, there was no association between RAI3 protein expression and prognosis based on overall and recurrence-free survival. We have generated a novel, highly-specific monoclonal antibody that detects RAI3 in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. This is the first study to report a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in normal and cancerous human

  13. BIRDWATCHING RACE DI TAHURA NGURAH RAI BALI SEBAGAI SARANA PENDIDIKAN LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PELAJAR DAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARYANTO SUDARYANTO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Birdwatching race was conducted on 17-19 October 2008 at Srangan Island, Lagoon BTDC Nusa Dua and Mangrove Information Centre (MIC Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. This activity was aimed to increase the awareness of youngsters to environment, especially bird in their habitat. This activity was also aimed to promote one kind of ecotourism namely birdwatching in Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. One hundred students and youngsters from Java, Lombok and Bali Island participated in this activity. The activity included discourse and birdwatching race, environmental education, and discussion on environmental issues related to development ecotourism of Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali.

  14. RAI,one candidate gene associated with differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪皎; 张睿; 刘芝华; 王秀琴; 丁芳; 郭明洲; 吴旻

    2000-01-01

    From all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human lung adenocarcinoma GLC-82 cells and control, subtractive cDNA library has been constructed using subtractive hybridization technique in our laboratory. The screening of the cDNA subtractive library resulted in identification of a clone containing cDNA fragment of one ATRA-induced gene (RAI) in GLC-82 cells. The positive clone with full-length cDNA of RAI was identified by screening fetal brain cDNA library using colony hybridization technique, and then sequenced. RT-PCR results showed that RAI was expressed in many different human fetal tissues. These results suggest that RAI may be involved in cell differentiation and play an important role in vital activities of cells.

  15. Thyroid storm following radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for pediatric graves disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrs, Henry J.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Weinstein, David A.; Amdur, Robert J.; Haller, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Diarrhea • tachycardia • tachypnea • tremor • wheezing Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: A growing number of pediatric endocrinologists treat Graves disease with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy due to the typically definitive nature of I-131 therapy. Given the published benefits and perceived low risks of RAI when compared to surgery or long-term anti-thyroid medication, the trend ...

  16. BIRDWATCHING RACE DI TAHURA NGURAH RAI BALI SEBAGAI SARANA PENDIDIKAN LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PELAJAR DAN MAHASISWA

    OpenAIRE

    SUDARYANTO SUDARYANTO; L. P. ESWARYANTI KUSUMA YUNI; YUNITA HARDINI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Birdwatching race was conducted on 17-19 October 2008 at Srangan Island, Lagoon BTDC Nusa Dua and Mangrove Information Centre (MIC) Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. This activity was aimed to increase the awareness of youngsters to environment, especially bird in their habitat. This activity was also aimed to promote one kind of ecotourism namely birdwatching in Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. One hundred students and youngsters from Java, Lombok and Bali Island participated in this activ...

  17. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3Mthird molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia.

  18. The Adaptor Protein Rai/ShcC Promotes Astrocyte-Dependent Inflammation during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Savino, Maria Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Benagiano, Marisa; Ortensi, Barbara; Pelicci, Giuliana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Ballerini, Clara; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana

    2016-07-15

    Th17 cells have been casually associated to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. We have previously demonstrated that Rai/ShcC, a member of the Shc family of adaptor proteins, negatively regulates Th17 cell differentiation and lupus autoimmunity. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic outcome of the Th17 bias associated with Rai deficiency on multiple sclerosis development, using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. We found that, unexpectedly, EAE was less severe in Rai(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts despite an enhanced generation of myelin-specific Th17 cells that infiltrated into the CNS. Nevertheless, when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient Rai(+/+) mice, these cells promoted a more severe disease compared with wild-type encephalitogenic Th17 cells. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by a dampened inflammatory response of astrocytes, which were found to express Rai, to IL-17. The results provide evidence that Rai plays opposite roles in Th17 cell differentiation and astrocyte activation, with the latter dominant over the former in EAE, highlighting this adaptor as a potential novel target for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:27288534

  19. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  20. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and environment aspects of water resources. However it is difficult to bring all these indicators on a single platform. In this study, a watershed sustainability index (WSI which integrates the hydrology, environment, life and policy (HELP has been suggested for Piperiya watershed in Chhattisgarh state of India. This watershed has an area of about 2400km2 and is part of Hasdeo river basin which is located in Koriya district of Chhattisgarh. Further, the majority of population in the area is tribal and illiterate. Providing safe and adequate water to the masses is a challenge in this area. The District has numerous hill ranges with rocky geological formation having steep slope. The district faces an acute water shortage for drinking as well as irrigation. Further, the area has number of coal mines and coal washing plants, which contaminate the surface water as well as groundwater. Thus, the availability of safe and fresh water is quite limited. It has been noticed that the WSI for this watershed is about 0.60, which is moderate level of sustainability. In order to improve the water sustainability in this watershed, a watershed management framework and its utilizationhas been elaborated.

  1. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  2. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jorge; Espinosa, Julián; Vázquez, Carmen; Mas, David

    2013-04-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for 'good optics' so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision by taking into account the local structure of the scene, instead of focusing on a particular aberration. As we show, this index highly correlates with visual acuity and allows inter-comparison of natural images around the retina. The usefulness of the index is proven through the analysis of real eyes before and after undergoing corneal surgery, which usually are hard to analyze with standard metrics.

  3. JRC Statistical Assessment of the 2015 ICT Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    SAISANA Michaela; DOMINGUEZ TORREIRO MARCOS

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been publishing its annual ICT Development Index (IDI), which benchmarks countries’ performance with regard to ICT infrastructure, use and skills. The JRC analysis, conducted at ITU’s invitation, suggests that the conceptualized three-level structure of the 2015 IDI is statistically sound in terms of coherence and balance, with the overall index as well as the three sub-indices – on ICT access, use and skills – being driven ...

  4. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Mas Candela, David

    2013-01-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for ‘good optics’ so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision ...

  5. The Risk Assessment of China’s Timber Import Based on SWI Index

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yanbin; Cheng Baodong; Yu Chang; Li Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Derived by the demand of domestic economy and forest products export, timber import shows the features of high concentration and strong dependence. Thus the risk of China's timber import significantly increases. Based on SWI Index, we construct the short-term and long-term timber risk index from resource risk, country risk, market risk, transportation risk etc. Using this index, we make a more comprehensive risk assessment and find out the trend and factors of risk. The results of index const...

  6. Research on the Weight of Index for the Assessment Standard for Green Store Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Assessment standard for green store building of national standard has been compiled. The index has been given by experts’ subjective assignment based on experience. Analytic hierarchy process has been used, making questionnaires of experts, using pairwise comparison and calculating the weight of each index. The weight of index in assessment would not only make quantitative evaluation on the whole situation of green store buildings, but also provide the foundation for compilation and revision.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    , many of which were not in the public databases. We tested an additional 44 of these for association with disease and found a new tandem repeat marker, called RAI-3' d1, located downstream of the transcribed region of RAI, which was more strongly associated with breast cancer than any other marker we...

  8. Assessing landscape changes in Laos using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar; Heinimann, Andreas; Mueller, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing rapid and vast land cover and land use transformations in Laos are only documented by punctual local case studies; information on national level is barely available. We explore ways to address this by using MODIS vegetation index times series data to detect medium to large scale transformation on the national level.

  9. Mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raiškos diagnozavimas Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose

    OpenAIRE

    Pavolas, Rytis

    2013-01-01

    Objektas: mobingas darbuotojų santykiuose. Problema: Koks mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose išplitimas Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose ir kaip sumažinti šio reiškinio pasekmes vidiniame organizacijos kontekste? Tikslas: Ištirti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raišką Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose. Uždaviniai: 1. Apžvelgti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose konceptualią esmę. 2. Nustatyti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raišką organizacijose. 3. Suformuoti vadybinių priemonių rinkin...

  10. The impacts of Modernization on the traditional Sakawa Sili festival in the Rai Kirat community of Nepal: a case study of the Rai community

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Dik Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the different aspects of the Sakawa Sili indigenous festival where the Sili dance is performed. Modernization and rituals theories are deeply observed to analyze my research questions. The main leading questions are: what is the importance of Sakawa Sili festival in Rai community? How it is celebrated? How is this festival affected by modernization and globalization? How do younger generations understand this festival? And how does...

  11. Erosion Resistance Index (ERI) to Assess Surface Stability in Desert Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new spectral index—erosion resistance index (ERI)—was developed to assess erosion risks in desert landscapes. The index was developed by applying trigonometry to the combination of the green/red band-ratio and the red/near infrared band-ratio from very high spatial resolution imagery. The resultant ERI maps showed spatially cohesive distributions of high and low index values across the study areas. High index values were observed over areas that were resistant to erosion (such as desert pavement and dense vegetation), while low index values overlapped with areas likely dominated by loose sandy soils, such as stream beds and access roads. Although further investigation is warranted, this new index, ERI, shows promise for the assessment of erosion risks in desert regions.

  12. USING A QUASI HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX TO ASSESS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    ROSTOM G.R.

    2015-01-01

    An adjusted Quasi Human Development Index is proposed to perfect the assessing of human development. The adjustments concern two dimension: long and healthy life dimension, which is measured by days of healthy life lived index; and decent standard of living dimension, which is measured. by the share of population with incomes above the subsistence minimum index. On the example of the Russian Federation it is shown that the resulting spatial distribution of the Quasi HDI more precisely reflect...

  13. EVALUASI PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA DI KAWASAN TAHURA NGURAH RAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU IKA WAHYUNI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since January 1992 MIC has initiate Tahura Ngurah Rai are as a ecotourism area, offering programs such as :Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking, Bird Watching; Finishing; Mangrove Tree Plantation or Adoption, Canoeing, andBoating programs. However, its growth has not me the management’s targets in term of the number of visitors, improvedfacilities available, and the surrounding Tahura are – especially its cleanliness-these are far from expectation standard.The evaluation of eco-tourism area of Tahura is aimed at understanding the profile of the eco-tourism area and tounderstand to what extent the ecotourism has met criteria/principles issued in the national workshop. This ecotourism willoffer recommendations designed in relation to programs that has not been working so far after identifying obstacles oftheir implementation.The method used in the evaluation of this eco-tourism area I descriptive analysis by analyzing interview data,observations, and literature studies. These descriptive data then are measured against criteria and principles of nationaleco-tourism.Since March 12, 2007 Mangrove forest area is under the management of BPHM-wil-I continuing JICA ICprogram. Facilities available in the area are as follows; Wood Trails, 5 Huts along the trail, Floating Decks, 2 ViewingTowers; MIC/BPHM Office Building, Touch Pools, Seeding area, and a Monitor Pool. These facilities right now are stillin good condition and can be used to implement the eco-tourism programs.From the 6 programs offered, the Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking Program gets the most interests fromvisitors than the other 5 programs. From 9 criteria used to evaluate the programs, the outcome is as follows: 1 Beingsensitive to and respecting socio-cultural values and religious tradition of local community (88% met; 2 Showingconcern, commitment, and responsibility to natural conservation and cultural heritage (95,24% met; 3 Provideinterpretation that facilities visitors to enjoy

  14. Hydrogen Isotopes of Glassy and Phyllosilicate Spherules in Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) Chondrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yunbin; Michael E. ZOLENSKY

    2004-01-01

    The hydroxyl in phyllosilicate minerals is the most common occurrence of water in primitive meteorites.Direct hydrogen isotopic analysis of this water component using an ion microprobe has been made in some glassy or phyllosilicate spherules from the Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) chondrites. The spherules from Al Rais show large deuterium excesses (δD = +200 - +800) relative to terrestrial standards, whereas deuterium-enrichments in the spherules from Orgueil are much smaller (δD = +40 - +130‰). The phyllosilicate spherules are products of aqueous alteration of glassy precursors. In A1 Rais the phyllosilicate spherules have relatively higher δD values than the glassy ones, indicating that water introduced during aqueous alteration was deuterium-enriched. The deuterium-enrichments in the phyllosilicate spherules from Orgueil could result from isotopic exchange under thermodynamic conditions within the solar nebula. The much larger δD excesses of the Al Rais spherules, however, cannot be attributed to the similar process;instead, an interstellar origin needs to be invoked.

  15. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha; M. L Kansal; G. Anvesh

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and en...

  16. Explanatory value of the ability index as assessed by cardiologists and patients with congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen Holst;

    2012-01-01

    The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has never been...

  17. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has...

  18. Effective index approximations of photonic crystal slabs: a 2-to-1-D assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Manfred; Ivanova, Olena V.

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab-like photonic crystals are often discussed on the basis of effective index (EI) approximations, where a 2-D effective refractive index profile replaces the actual 3-D structure. Our aim is to assess this approximation by analogous steps that reduce finite 2-D waveguide

  19. Using [Delta]Goodness-of-Fit Indexes in Assessing Mean Structure Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Sivo, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning model invariance across populations, researchers have discussed the limitations of the conventional chi-square difference test ([Delta] chi-square test). There have been some research efforts in using goodness-of-fit indexes (i.e., [Delta]goodness-of-fit indexes) for assessing multisample model invariance, and some specific…

  20. Development of a symptom assessment instrument for chronic hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Symptom Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Rotondi, Armando J; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Switzer, Galen E

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, severity, or impact of symptoms in hemodialysis patients because of the lack of a validated symptom assessment instrument. We systematically developed an index to assess physical and emotional symptom burden in this patient population. We employed four steps in the generation of this index: a review of dialysis quality-of-life instruments, three focus groups, experts' content validity assessment, and test-retest reliability measurement. Seventy-five symptoms were identified. Of these, 46 appeared in > or = 4 of the instruments/focus groups and were considered for inclusion. Twelve were grouped into other symptom constructs and experts judged four of the remaining items not to be pertinent, leaving 30 items in the new index. Overall kappa statistic was 0.48+/-0.22. These steps allowed the systematic development of a 30-item symptom assessment index for hemodialysis patients. Additional reliability and validity testing is needed prior to its widespread use.

  1. Completing Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Incorporating the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NatureServe and Heritage Program collaborators have developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to provide a rapid, scientifically defensible assessment...

  2. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  3. Is the Purchasing Managers' Index useful for assessing the economy's strength? A directional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichi Tsuchiya

    2012-01-01

    The Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) is one of the key variables to which economists pay considerable attention for assessing US economic activities, particularly, business conditions in the manufacturing sector. Although the PMI has been used to assess the US economy, there is hardly any attempt to evaluate the directional accuracy of the PMI to predict the direction of change in the index of industrial production (IP) and Gross Domestic Production (GDP). We present evidence that the PMI is ...

  4. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krishan; C.P. Kumar; Purandara, B. K.; Surjeet Singh; N.C. Ghosh; Suman Gurjar; A. G. Chachadi

    2016-01-01

    A water quality index (WQI) is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and m...

  5. Assessment of liquefaction potential index for Mumbai city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dixit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumbai city is the financial capital of India and is fifth most densely populated city in the world. Seismic soil liquefaction is evaluated for Mumbai city in terms of the factors of safety against liquefaction (FS along the depths of soil profiles for different earthquakes with 2% probability of exceedance in 50 yr using standard penetration test (SPT-based simplified empirical procedure. This liquefaction potential is evaluated at 142 representative sites in the city using the borehole records from standard penetration tests. Liquefaction potential index (LPI is evaluated at each borehole location from the obtained factors of safety (FS to predict the potential of liquefaction to cause damage at the surface level at the site of interest. Spatial distribution of soil liquefaction potential is presented in the form of contour maps of LPI values. As the majority of the sites in the city are of reclaimed land, the vulnerability of liquefaction is observed to be very high at many places.

  6. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  7. Assessment of nuclear energy sustainability index using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is increasingly perceived as an attractive mature energy generation technology that can deliver an answer to the worldwide increasing energy demand while respecting environmental concerns as well as contributing to a reduced dependence on fossil fuel. Advancing nuclear energy deployment demands an assessment of nuclear energy with respect to all sustainability dimensions. In this paper, the nuclear energy, whose sustainability will be assessed, is governed by the dynamics of three subsystems: environmental, economic, and sociopolitical. The overall sustainability is then a non-linear function of the individual sustainabilities. Each subsystem is evaluated by means of many components (pressure, status, and response). The combination of each group of indicators by means of fuzzy logic provides a measurement of sustainability for each subsystem.

  8. Designing an Index for Assessing Wind Energy Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Matthias; Shen, Zhiwei; López Cabrera, Brenda; Odening, Martin; Deckert, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for renewable energy such as wind energy, more and more new wind parks are installed worldwide. Finding a suitable location, however, requires a detailed and often costly analysis of the local wind conditions. Plain average wind speed maps cannot provide a precise forecast of wind power because of the non-linear relationship between wind speed and production. In this paper, we suggest a new approach of assessing the local wind energy potential: Meteorologi...

  9. Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anchana Prathep; Ekkalak Rattanachot; Piyalap Tuntiprapas

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf ofThailand, were investigated between July 2006 - July 2008 using SeagrassNet protocol. The SeagrassNet protocol is astandard method for monitoring seagrass worldwide, and Koh Tha Rai is among the first few places using such protocol inThailand. The standard protocol such as SeagrassNet allows comparisons of findings among various sites worldwide. Fivespecies of seagrass found at Ko...

  10. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular Tei index in congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Sivanandam; Andrew Wey; James St. Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of the Tei index has not been described to assess myocardial function before or after surgery in pediatric patients. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function using the Tei index pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with lesion that result in a volume loaded right ventricle (RV). Methods: Retrospective data on 55 patients who underwent repair of a cardiac defect were analyzed. Patients with volume overload RV (n = 15) were compared to p...

  11. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  12. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  13. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for distantly metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in juvenile versus adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammori, Makoto; Fukumori, Tatsuya; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Masae; Shimizu, Kazuo; Yamada, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    In general, juvenile differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) demonstrate indolent characteristics and favorable prognosis are observed in comparison with many other carcinomas. However, recurrence is frequent, necessitating additional treatment, including radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In this report, the probability of recurrence, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcomes in both juvenile- and adult-onset DTC were analyzed and compared. At our institution, a total of 1552 DTC patients underwent thyroidectomy and/or lymph node dissection. The patients included 23 in their teens, 118 in their twenties, and 1412 in their thirties or older. The risk factors for distant metastases for DTC were male gender, follicular carcinoma, size of the PTC primary tumor, cervical lymph node metastases from PTC, and the presence of more than two distant metastatic foci. Patients with the highest risk underwent RAI ablation in line with institutional guidelines. Although the overall outcome in our juvenile patients was excellent, during follow-up, 4 (17.4%) of the 23 patients developed recurrent disease: 91.3% achieved complete remission, 4.35% partial remission, and 4.35% stable disease, with no disease-related deaths. Among the 118 patients in their twenties to thirties, 1 (0.8%) experienced progressive disease and disease-related death. A younger age at diagnosis and less radical primary surgery without subsequent RAI ablation are factors strongly predictive of distant metastases in patients with juvenile-onset DTC. To reduce the rate of relapse and improve surveillance for recurrent disease, total thyroidectomy followed by RAI appears to be the most beneficial initial treatment for patients with high- and intermediate-risk juvenile DTC.

  14. Aspects of the grammar of Thulung Rai
    an endangered Himalayan language

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaussois, Aimée

    2002-01-01

    Thulung Rai is an endangered Tibeto-Burman language of eastern Nepal, currentlyspoken by approximately one thousand people. It is a member of the Kiranti group in theHimalayish branch of Tibeto-Burman, along with languages characterized principally by theircomplex pronominalizing verbal inflectional systems.This dissertation provides an overview of the grammar of the Thulung language, alongwith selected texts and a glossary. The aspects of the grammar which are discussed are thosewhich are pa...

  15. RAIS: a real time strong-motion network in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marzorati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When compared to more seismically active regions, damaging earthquakes occur only occasionally in the central part of northern Italy. Nevertheless, the lack of a dense strong-motion network in this area was highlighted by the occurrence of the November 24, 2004, ML 5.2, Salò earthquake. In 2006, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV section of Milano-Pavia began the installation of new strong-motion stations in central-northern Italy. At present, the Strong-Motion Network of Northern Italy (RAIS; Rete Accelerometrica Italia Settentrionale includes 22 stations with an average inter-distance of about 20 km. All of the stations are equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T sensors coupled with 24-bit digital recorders. Starting from 2009, 14 strong-motion stations have been sending data to the INGV acquisition center in Milan, in real time using TCP/IP over wi-fi links. Another eight stations still work in dial-up mode and send data through GSM modems. The real-time connections allow the use of strong-motion data recorded by RAIS for the generation of shake maps for Italy, the implementation of which represents one of the main tasks of the last agreement between INGV and the Italian Civil Protection Department. The RAIS data is stored directly at the INGV section of Milano-Pavia, which was realized using the MiniSEED format: the data management and exchange are carried out by the SeisComP package with the SeedLink protocol. Metadata dissemination is achieved through the website http://rais.mi.ingv.it, where the strong-motion parameters related to each recorded and processed waveform are made available.

  16. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no daterestriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases thateach index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  17. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  18. The Risk Assessment of China’s Timber Import Based on SWI Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanbin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived by the demand of domestic economy and forest products export, timber import shows the features of high concentration and strong dependence. Thus the risk of China's timber import significantly increases. Based on SWI Index, we construct the short-term and long-term timber risk index from resource risk, country risk, market risk, transportation risk etc. Using this index, we make a more comprehensive risk assessment and find out the trend and factors of risk. The results of index construction and estimation indicate that China's timber import generally shows the trend from high risk to low risk. Besides, it also points out that the majority of new timber-importing countries are those developing countries with high country risk and high resources risk. These factors may cause considerable potential risks. Finally, the study gives policy recommendations for reducing the risk of timber import.

  19. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular Tei index in congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Sivanandam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of the Tei index has not been described to assess myocardial function before or after surgery in pediatric patients. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV function using the Tei index pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with lesion that result in a volume loaded right ventricle (RV. Methods: Retrospective data on 55 patients who underwent repair of a cardiac defect were analyzed. Patients with volume overload RV (n = 15 were compared to patients without volume overload but with other cardiac defects (n = 40. We reviewed pre- and post-operative LV myocardial performance index (Tei index. Tei index was obtained from transesophageal Doppler echocardiogram. Results: Patients with right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei index was 0.6, with a postoperative mean decrease of 0.207 (P = 0.014. Patients without right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei was 0.48 with no significant postoperative change (P = 0.82. Conclusion: Pre- and post-operative transesophageal echocardiogram assessment provides an easy and quick way of evaluating LV function intra-operatively using LV Tei index. Preoperative LV Tei index was greater in the RV volume overload defects indicating diminished LV global function. This normalized in the immediate postoperative period, implying an immediate improvement in LV function. In patients without right heart volume load, consist of other cardiac defects, demonstrated no changes in the pre- and post-operative LV Tei. This implies that LV function was similar after the surgery.

  20. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  1. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  2. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain...... the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important...... to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...

  3. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Weng; Yan, D. H.; H. Wang; Liu, J H; Yang, Z. Y.; T. L. Qin; Yin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological mode...

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including c...

  5. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary School Pupils in Northern England: Introducing the Outgroup Prejudice Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No religion". The scale demonstrated…

  6. The Sensitivity of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index to Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Teresa A.

    1997-01-01

    A 24-month study of 96 patients in a community-based oral health promotion project found the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), a self-report measure of oral health, to be sensitive to provision of dental care. Some further development of measures is needed. Potential applications of this and similar self-report measures in dental…

  7. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until

  8. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto, Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012. Daily AQI data and meteorological information were simultaneously recorded. We compared outpatient counts between the index days and comparison days, and calculated Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient between outpatient counts and AQI levels. Results The average AQI level for index days was significantly higher than that for comparison days. No significant difference was observed in temperature or relative humidity between index days and comparison days. The outpatient counts for pediatrics were significantly higher on index days than on comparison days, and no significant difference was noted in other clinical departments. The outpatient counts for pediatrics positively correlated with the AQI level, and no correlation was noted in other clinical departments. Conclusion The present study assessed the association between daily outpatient visits and air pollution using AQI. The results obtained suggest that air pollution could increase the outpatient count for pediatrics. PMID:25901100

  9. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  10. Development of Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI for Welding Workplace's Safety and Health Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azian Hariri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an index that can rank welding workplace that associate well with possible health risk of welders.Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI were developed based on data from case studies conducted in Plant 1 and Plant 2. Personal sampling of welding fumes to assess the concentration of metal constituents along with series of lung function tests was conducted. Fifteen metal constituents were investigated in each case study. Index values were derived from aggregation analysis of metal constituent concentration while significant lung functions were recognized through statistical analysis in each plant.The results showed none of the metal constituent concentration was exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL for all plants. However, statistical analysis showed significant mean differences of lung functions between welders and non-welders. The index was then applied to one of the welding industry (Plant 3 for verification purpose. The developed index showed its promising ability to rank welding workplace, according to the multiple constituent concentrations of welding fumes that associates well with lung functions of the investigated welders.There was possibility that some of the metal constituents were below the detection limit leading to '0' value of sub index, thus the multiplicative form of aggregation model was not suitable for analysis. On the other hand, maximum or minimum operator forms suffer from compensation issues and were not considered in this study.

  11. Using the H Index to Assess Impact of DOE National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The most readily accessible elements of the Emerald Matrix by quantitative measures are the knowledge and economy related measures. In this paper, the H Index for an institution will be used to assess STE impact, which is in the knowledge generation element. The H Index was developed by Hirsch (2005) as a measure of an individual’s scientific impact. The H Index is defined as the number of publications that have been cited h or more times for a given author. It has been generalized to organizations. Doing so leads to a complication in that H index scales with the number of publications. Although this may not be problematic when comparing individual researchers, it systematically favors larger institutions. Molinari and Molinari (2008) proposed an alternative index (hm) designed to assess organizational impact. It transforms the H Index for an organization into an impact index by removing a factor dependent on the number of publications. The hm provides another approach to compare institutions provided that differences in the citation patterns associated with fields of study are addressed. Kinney (2007) used the Molinari and Molinari (2008) approach to compare various scientific institutions in nonbiomedical research areas. Kinney (2007) used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) as the source and used publications in nonbiomedical research areas, which is very important because the research areas of universities are much broader than say a DOE national laboratory. Also there are differences in citation rates for the various research fields that make comparisons between individuals or organizations difficult. The results from Kinney (2007) are given in Table 1 and indicate that the DOE national laboratories compare favorably with the selected universities in terms of impact (hm) in the research areas used in Kinney’s analysis. This report will compare hm for DOE national laboratories using an approach similar to Kinney (2007) providing a measure of impact of

  12. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  13. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  14. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  15. Use of height3:waist circumference3 as an index for metabolic risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Danielzik, Sandra; Geisler, Corinna; Onur, Simone; Korth, Oliver; Selberg, Oliver; Pfeuffer, Maria; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Müller, Manfred J

    2006-06-01

    Current anthropometric indices for health risk assessment are indirect measures of total or visceral body fat mass that do not consider the inverse relationship of lean body mass to metabolic risk as well as the non-linear relationship between central obesity and insulin resistance. We examined a new anthropometric index that reflects the relationship of waist circumference (WC) as a risk factor to fat-free mass (FFM) as a protective parameter of body composition. In a population of 335 adults (191 females and 144 males; mean age 53 (SD 13.9) years) with a high prevalence of obesity (27%) and metabolic syndrome (30%) we derived FFM:WC(3) from the best fit of the relationship with metabolic risk factors (plasma triacylglycerol levels and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment index). Because FFM is known to be proportional to the cube of height, FFM was subsequently replaced by height(3) yielding height(3):WC(3) as an easily applicable anthropometric index. Significant inverse relationships of height(3):WC(3) to metabolic risk factors were observed for both sexes. They slightly exceeded those of conventional anthropometric indices such as BMI, WC or WC:hip ratio in women but not in men. The exponential character of the denominator WC(3) implies that at a given FFM with gradually increasing WC the increase in metabolic risk is lower than proportional. Further studies are needed to evaluate height(3):WC(3) as an anthropometric index for health risk assessment. PMID:16768846

  16. The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI): a practical tool for assessing psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Chalmers, Robert J G

    2013-08-01

    The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI) is a summary measure of psoriasis with separate components for current severity (SPI-s), psychosocial impact (SPI-p), and past history and interventions (SPI-i). It derives from the Salford Psoriasis Index but replaces Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) with a composite weighted severity score designed to reflect the impact of psoriasis affecting functionally or psychosocially important body sites. Two complementary versions are available, differing only in that current severity (SPI-s) is either professionally (proSPI-s) or patient self-assessed (saSPI-s). This study examined the criterion and construct validity and response distribution of proSPI-s, saSPI-s, and SPI-p in 100 patients with plaque psoriasis. A further 50 patients were assessed for test-retest reliability of these three components. Interrater reliability of proSPI-s was assessed in 12 patients, each assessed by 12 assessors (144 assessments). There was close correlation between PASI and proSPI-s (r=0.91); SPI-p was closely correlated with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (r=0.89). Strong intrarater (proSPI-s, saSPI-s, SPI-p, and SPI-i) and interrater (proSPI-s) reliability was demonstrated (all intraclass correlation coefficients >0.75). There were wide response distributions for all three components. We believe that both professional (proSPI) and self-assessed (saSPI) versions can readily be introduced into routine clinical practice.

  17. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  18. Assessment of the digital competence in Russian adolescents and parents: Digital Competence Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova G.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption. The Digital Competence Index (DCI is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents, acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

  19. Muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai interpretacinės raiškos galimybių kontekste

    OpenAIRE

    Baltutis, Donatas

    2011-01-01

    Bakalauro darbas „Muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai interpretacinės raiškos galimybių kontekste“ parengtas 2011 metais. Tyrimo objektas – muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai. Tyrimo tikslas – išanalizuoti muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumus muzikos mokyklose. Tyrimo uždaviniai: atskleisti saksofono ypatumus, apibūdinti žymiausius saksofono muzikos atlikėjus, išsiaiškinti saksofonu atliekamas muzikos rūšis, išanalizuoti metodines rekomendacijas ir interpretacijos ypatumus, aprašyti meninį projektą. Mokan...

  20. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansell Ricky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI (Hedman et al. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles, Biotechniques 47 (2009 951-958. FI uses electropherogram data to combine the intensities of the allelic peaks with the balances within and between loci, using Principal Components Analysis. Here we present the construction of FI. We explain the mathematical and statistical methodologies used and present details about the applied data reduction method. Thereby we show how to adapt the ranking index for any Short Tandem Repeat-based forensic DNA typing system through validation against a manual grading scale and calibration against a specific set of DNA profiles. Conclusions The developed tool provides unbiased quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles. It can be applied for any DNA profiling system based on Short Tandem Repeat markers. Apart from crime related DNA analysis, FI can therefore be used as a quality tool in paternal or familial testing as well as in disaster victim identification.

  1. Validation of no-reference image quality index for the assessment of digital mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Barufaldi, Bruno; Borges, Lucas R.; Gabarda, Salvador; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2016-03-01

    To ensure optimal clinical performance of digital mammography, it is necessary to obtain images with high spatial resolution and low noise, keeping radiation exposure as low as possible. These requirements directly affect the interpretation of radiologists. The quality of a digital image should be assessed using objective measurements. In general, these methods measure the similarity between a degraded image and an ideal image without degradation (ground-truth), used as a reference. These methods are called Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA). However, for digital mammography, an image without degradation is not available in clinical practice; thus, an objective method to assess the quality of mammograms must be performed without reference. The purpose of this study is to present a Normalized Anisotropic Quality Index (NAQI), based on the Rényi entropy in the pseudo-Wigner domain, to assess mammography images in terms of spatial resolution and noise without any reference. The method was validated using synthetic images acquired through an anthropomorphic breast software phantom, and the clinical exposures on anthropomorphic breast physical phantoms and patient's mammograms. The results reported by this noreference index follow the same behavior as other well-established full-reference metrics, e.g., the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM). Reductions of 50% on the radiation dose in phantom images were translated as a decrease of 4dB on the PSNR, 25% on the SSIM and 33% on the NAQI, evidencing that the proposed metric is sensitive to the noise resulted from dose reduction. The clinical results showed that images reduced to 53% and 30% of the standard radiation dose reported reductions of 15% and 25% on the NAQI, respectively. Thus, this index may be used in clinical practice as an image quality indicator to improve the quality assurance programs in mammography; hence, the proposed method reduces the subjectivity

  2. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    mapping. The study groups included 434 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and an identical number of individually matched controls. Methods and Results: Studying one marker at a time, we found a region spanning the gene RAI ( alias PPP1R13L or iASPP) and the 5' portion of XPD to be associated with this...... with cancers were located in the gene RAI and just 3' to the gene. Coinciding peaks were seen in the region of RAI in groups of women of different age. In a follow-up to these results we sequenced 10 cases and 10 controls in a 44 kb region spanning the peaks of association. This revealed 106...

  3. Environmental status assessment using DNA metabarcoding: towards a genetics based Marine Biotic Index (gAMBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylagas, Eva; Borja, Angel; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem protection and conservation initiatives rely on the assessment of ecological integrity and health status of marine environments. The AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI), which consists on using macroinvertebrate diversity as indicator of ecosystem health, is used worldwide for this purpose. Yet, this index requires taxonomic assignment of specimens, which typically involves a time and resource consuming visual identification of each sample. DNA barcoding or metabarcoding are potential harmonized, faster and cheaper alternatives for species identification, although the suitability of these methods for easing the implementation of the AMBI is yet to be evaluated. Here, we analyze the requirements for the implementation of a genetics based AMBI (gAMBI), and show, using available sequence data, that information about presence/absence of the most frequently occurring species provides accurate AMBI values. Our results set the basics for the implementation of the gAMBI, which has direct implications for a faster and cheaper marine monitoring and health status assessment.

  4. The clinical significance of biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in the newborns. Methods: Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in neonates were measured with RIA, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and prealbumin (PA) were measured with enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The tested groups consisted of 65 SGAs and AGAs (according to birth weight) with nutritionally normals and abnormals approximately equally numbered. Results: The serum levels of IGF-1, RBP and PA in the 32 malnutritional SGAs were significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal SGAs. The serum levels of the above-mentioned three in the 33 malnutritional AGAs were also significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal AGAs. Conclusion: IGF-1, RBP and PA could be used as biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment and would not be affected by the gestational age and birth weight. Biochemical measurements cannot be substituted by anthropometric measurements for the diagnosis of neonatal malnutrition

  5. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  6. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  7. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  8. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif SedighNejad; Tariq Iqbal; John Quaicoe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI), measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated communit...

  9. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Nataliia Stukalo

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some count...

  10. Mortality attributable to excess body mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the comparative risk assessment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Djalalinia; Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam; Niloofar Peykari; Amir Kasaeian; Ali Sheidaei; Anita Mansouri; Younes Mohammadi; Mahboubeh Parsaeian; Parinaz Mehdipour; Bagher Larijani; Farshad Farzadfar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25-65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; is...

  11. KUALITAS AIR MANGROVE DITINJAU DARI SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DI HUTAN MANGROVE PATUNG NGURAH RAI TUBAN DENPASAR SELATAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Suriani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to find out of mangrove water quality at Patung Ngurah Rai Tuban Denpasar Selatan Baliregarding to physical-chemical . Values of some variables such as total disolved solid, Cromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd, , Nitrit, and oilwas higher than that of standard quality.This is caused by organic and anorganic waste such as garment factory come from BadungRiver, domestic waste, Ngurah Rai iar Port waste, and car workshop. The inpact of this problem is that the species of mangrove forestis not good condition.

  12. KUALITAS AIR MANGROVE DITINJAU DARI SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DI HUTAN MANGROVE PATUNG NGURAH RAI TUBAN DENPASAR SELATAN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Suriani

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to find out of mangrove water quality at Patung Ngurah Rai Tuban Denpasar Selatan Baliregarding to physical-chemical . Values of some variables such as total disolved solid, Cromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), , Nitrit, and oilwas higher than that of standard quality.This is caused by organic and anorganic waste such as garment factory come from BadungRiver, domestic waste, Ngurah Rai iar Port waste, and car workshop. The inpact of this problem is that the species ...

  13. Assessment of capability index of processes revealing significant asymmetry with respect to tolerance limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bukowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of basic capability indices for production processes, Cp and Cpk, as well as the Cpm index for processes asymmetric with respect to tolerance limits. A method is presented for the estimation of process admissible asymmetry, when anappropriate PPM level of defective products is to be maintained. It is proved that an unbiased capability assessment for asymmetricprocesses is only feasible if the pair of indices Cp and Cpk is included in the assessment. An example is given of an analysis of data on the production of automotive bearings. The computations were performed with use of the KWSPP program.

  14. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  15. Development and validation of an index to assess hospital quality management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C. A.; Klazinga, N. S.; Dersarkissian, M.; Arah, O. A.; Suñol, R.; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate an index to assess the implementation of quality management systems (QMSs) in European countries. Design Questionnaire development was facilitated through expert opinion, literature review and earlier empirical research. A cross-sectional online survey utilizing the questionnaire was undertaken between May 2011 and February 2012. We used psychometric methods to explore the factor structure, reliability and validity of the instrument. Setting and participants As part of the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) project, we invited a random sample of 188 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Main Outcome Measure The extent of implementation of QMSs. Results Factor analysis yielded nine scales, which were combined to build the Quality Management Systems Index. Cronbach's reliability coefficients were satisfactory (ranging from 0.72 to 0.82) for eight scales and low for one scale (0.48). Corrected item-total correlations provided adequate evidence of factor homogeneity. Inter-scale correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the index. Construct validity testing showed that the index was related to recent measures of quality. Participating hospitals attained a mean value of 19.7 (standard deviation of 4.7) on the index that theoretically ranged from 0 to 27. Conclusion Assessing QMSs across Europe has the potential to help policy-makers and other stakeholders to compare hospitals and focus on the most important areas for improvement. PMID:24618212

  16. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. ► Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. ► Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. ► Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  17. The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovac Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

  18. The use of a vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K. P.; Mcnab, A. L.; Karl, T. R.; Brown, J. F.; Hood, J. J.; Tarpley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    A vegetation index and radiative surface temperature were derived from NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for the Seattle, WA region from 28 June through 4 July 1991. The vegetation index and surface temperature values were computed for locations of weather observation stations within the region and compared to observed minimum air temperatures. These comparisons were used to evaluate the use of AVHRR data to assess the influence of the urban environment on observed minimum air temperatures (the urban heat island effect). AVHRR derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and radiant surface temperature data from a one week composite product were both related significantly to observed minimum temperatures, however, the vegetation index accounted for a greater amount of the spatial variation observed in mean minimum temperatures. The difference in the NDVI between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (i.e., evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for differences in urban and rural minimum temperatures.

  19. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  20. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  1. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  2. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, relationships, participation, and newly proposed environmental aspects. The corresponding subthemes and criteria are classified accordingly (e.g., nutrition, child mortality, immunization, etc., are assigned to the theme health. However, gaps in current studies, such as the heterogeneous classification of relevant aspects, regional and societal bias in addressing certain aspects, the limited number of subthemes, and criteria and the missing inclusion of environmental aspects impede the assessment of sustainable child development. To address the existing gaps, a comprehensive framework, the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI, is proposed. The SCDI is based on sustainable development as the core value, considers relevant aspects of CD with regard to newly-proposed environmental aspects and includes 26 aspects on an outcome and 37 indicators on a context level to tackle the heterogeneous classifications and interdependencies of relevant aspects. The proposed index intends to strengthen the stakeholder perspective of children in sustainability assessment.

  3. Assessing the physical vulnerability of check dams through an empirical damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dell'Agnese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of flood risk in mountain streams has to include an assessment of the vulnerability of the protection systems, in addition to an assessment of the vulnerability of the constructed environment on alluvial fans and floodplains. Structures forming the protection systems are of a dual nature, i.e. they are designed to mitigate natural process-related hazards and, on the other hand, are prone to be damaged during their lifecycle by the same processes they should mitigate. Therefore, their effectiveness declines over time. Hence, the knowledge of how effectively control structures perform is essential for risk management. A procedure was developed to assess the physical vulnerability of check dams based on empirical evidence collected in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. A damage index defined on pre- and postevent comparisons of check dam conditions was evaluated for 362 structures in 18 mountain streams along with the relevant processes and the structural characteristics affecting it. Although the available dataset did not allow conclusive functional relationships between damage index and impact variables to be established, it was possible to assess the average expected residual functionality of check dams according to structure characteristics, and event type and intensity. These results may help plan appropriate check dam maintenance.

  4. Safeguards Indexing Method for the Regulatory Assessment of Safeguards Culture at Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) has just introduced a safeguards indexing method for evaluation the safeguards culture at Hungarian nuclear facilities. The main goal of this indexing method is to provide a useful tool for the regulatory body to evaluate the safeguards culture at nuclear facilities. The evaluated parameters are e.g. educational requirement for safeguards staff, quality of safeguards reporting for IAEA and EC, results of safeguards inspections etc. Input of the method is for the one hand the outcome of the comprehensive domestic safeguards verification system consisting of regular comprehensive SSAC verifications of the facilities. The main goals of the comprehensive verification system are: (1) to assess the facilities safeguards system compliance with the relevant national legislation and recommendations, (2) to assess the activities of the facility aimed at maintaining and further developing its safeguards system and (3) to revise validity of data and information previously provided by the facility subject to safeguards licensing procedures. On the other hand the annual report of the nuclear facilities also supports the safeguards indexing method, which is a good indicator of the present and future effectiveness of the facility level safeguards system and the level of safeguards culture.

  5. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk – comparative assessment regarding the particularities of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seceleanu Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of autoimmune cause hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia involvement in the apparition of major vascular complications. Methods: A total of 152 patients were investigated appreciating in comparison to a healthy control lot the hormone serum level, the presence of antimicrosomal thyroid antibodies and the serum levels of lipids. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk were calculated and correlated with the incidence of coronarian and cerebral vascular accidents. Results: Among the patients with goiter it was noted a high incidence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (31,58%. Thyroid autoimmunity was involved in 94,4% of the patients with clinical hypothyroidism, in 93,7 % with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100% in the patients with thyrotoxicosis. Low serum level of HDL-cholesterol was identified in 66,6% of patients with clinical hypothyroidism and 64,5% patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The assessment of atherogenic index and coronarian risk was significantly higher (p<0,01 in patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy control subjects. The incidence of vascular accidents was significantly higher (p<0,01 among the hypothyroid patients ( 19,7%/ 10,8%, of masculine gender (12,7% where the main cause of hypothyroidism was autoimmunity. Conclusions: The atherogenic index and coronarian risk were higher in patients with hypothyroidism associated to thyroid autoimmunity resulting in an increased probability in producing vascular accidents

  6. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  7. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  8. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  9. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  10. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  11. Assessing pricing assumptions for weather index insurance in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Daron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather index insurance is being offered to low-income farmers in developing countries as an alternative to traditional multi-peril crop insurance. There is widespread support for index insurance as a means of climate change adaptation but whether or not these products are themselves resilient to climate change has not been well studied. Given climate variability and climate change, an over-reliance on historical climate observations to guide the design of such products can result in premiums which mislead policyholders and insurers alike, about the magnitude of underlying risks. Here, a method to incorporate different sources of climate data into the product design phase is presented. Bayesian Networks are constructed to demonstrate how insurers can assess the product viability from a climate perspective, using past observations and simulations of future climate. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the dependence of pricing decisions on both the choice of information, and the method for incorporating such data. The methods and their sensitivities are illustrated using a case study analysing the provision of index-based crop insurance in Kolhapur, India. We expose the benefits and limitations of the Bayesian Network approach, weather index insurance as an adaptation measure and climate simulations as a source of quantitative predictive information. Current climate model output is shown to be of limited value and difficult to use by index insurance practitioners. The method presented, however, is shown to be an effective tool for testing pricing assumptions and could feasibly be employed in the future to incorporate multiple sources of climate data.

  12. A Grammar of Bantawa : grammar, paradigm tables, glossary and texts of a Rai language of Eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornenbal, Marius Albert

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive overview of the grammar of Bantawa, a Kiranti (Rai) language spoken in Eastern Nepal. Bantawa is an SOV language featuring rich verbal morphology. In Bantawa we find both ergative and accusative alignment patterns in verbal affix agreement, and an ergative

  13. El Ra'i y su transmisión: la Seija Remiti Rizilaniya (1923-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Muñoz Zajara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo está centrado en el género musical conocido como el rai, considerado entre los más representativos de la música popular argelina y cuya transmisión fue posible gracias a la labor de divulgación realizada por los seij/seijas1 y el mensaje de compromiso con los cambios sociales, religiosos y culturales inmersos en los textos de las composiciones. No obstante, el carácter marginal que sufrió el rai durante décadas, unido a su difusión en Europa mediante los procesos migratorios y la posterior globalización, han contribuido a la incursión del género dentro de las músicas urbanas y a ser conocido, a nivel internacional, bajo la etiqueta de World Music. La popularidad de la que goza actualmente el rai al sintetizar y aunar diferentes tradiciones, lenguas, géneros poéticos e instrumentos tradicionales y occidentales, en general electrónicos, así como su divulgación en los medios de comunicación y la comercialización en la industria discográfica, no impide, sin embargo, que la esencia del rai siga vigente, así como su reivindicación y compromiso social con los más desfavorecidos.

  14. Increased mRNA expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases develop through the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. If an increase in DNA repair expression is detected in both early adenomas and carcinomas it may indicate that low repair capacity in the normal mucosa is a risk factor for adenoma formation. We have examined mRNA expression of two DNA repair genes, ERCC1 and OGG1 as well as the putative apoptosis controlling gene RAI, in normal tissues and lesions from 36 cases with adenomas (mild/moderat n = 21 and severe n = 15, dysplasia) and 9 with carcinomas. Comparing expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI between normal tissue and all lesions combined yielded higher expression levels in lesions, 3.3-fold higher (P = 0.005), 5.6-fold higher(P < 3·10-5) and 7.7-fold higher (P = 0.0005), respectively. The levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI expressions when comparing lesions, did not differ between adenomas and CRC cases, P = 0.836, P = 0.341 and P = 0.909, respectively. When comparing expression levels in normal tissue, the levels for OGG1 and RAI from CRC cases were significantly lower compared to the cases with adenomas, P = 0.012 and P = 0.011, respectively. Our results suggest that increased expression of defense genes is an early event in the progression of colorectal adenomas to carcinomas

  15. Conventional digital cameras as a tool for assessing leaf area index and biomass for cereal breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaume Casadesús; Dolors Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and easy-to-use methods for assessing biomass and leaf area index (LAI) would be of interest in most breeding programs. Here, we describe the evaluation of a protocol for photographic sampling and image analysis aimed at providing low-labor yet robust indicators of biomass and LAI. In this trial, two genotypes of triticale, two of bread wheat, and four of tritordeum were studied. At six dates during the growing cycle, biomass and LAI were measured destructively, and digital photography was taken on the same dates. Several vegetation indices were calculated from each image. The results showed that repeatable and consistent values of the indices were obtained in consecutive photographic samplings on the same plots. The photographic indices were highly correlated with the destructive measure-ments, though the magnitude of the correlation was lower after anthesis. This work shows that photographic assess-ment of biomass and LAI can be fast, affordable, have good repeatability, and can be used under bright and overcast skies. A practical vegetation index derived from pictures is the fraction of green pixels over the total pixels of the image, and as it shows good correlations with all biomass variables, is the most robust to lighting conditions and has easy interpretation.

  16. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  17. The Improvement and Completion of Outcome index: A new assessment system for quality of orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system―the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index―to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or −1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Results Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Conclusions Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process. PMID:27478797

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini Lucio; Steinwurz Flávio; Klug Wilmar; Rolim Ernani; Fang Chia; Vieira Andrea; Candelária Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS...

  19. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  20. Delayed diagnosis in a house of correction: Smith-Magenis syndrome due to a de novo nonsense RAI1 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeetong, Patra; Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Boulier, Kristin; Schnur, Rhonda E; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan; Laje, Gonzalo; Smith, Ann C M

    2016-09-01

    We report a 25-year-old female confirmed to have Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) due to a de novo RAI1 variant. Her past history is significant for developmental and intellectual delay, early and escalating maladaptive behaviors, and features consistent with significant sleep disturbance, the etiology of which was not confirmed for over two decades. The diagnosis of SMS was initially suspected in 1998 (at age 12 years), but that was 5 years before the initial report of RAI1 variants as causative of the SMS phenotype; cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization studies failed to confirm an interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. Re-evaluation for suspected SMS was pursued with RAI1 sequencing analysis in response to urgent parental concerns of escalating behaviors and aggression with subsequent incarceration of the subject for assault of a health professional. Genetic analysis revealed a de novo RAI1 (NM_030665.3) nonsense variant, c.5536C>T; p.Q1846X. This case illustrates the importance of confirming the SMS diagnosis, which is associated with cognitive and functional impairment, as well as significant psychiatric co-morbidities and behavioral problems. The diagnosis was particularly relevant to the legal discussion and determination of her competence to stand trial. As other similar cases may exist, this report will help to increase awareness of the possibility of a very late diagnosis of SMS, with the need for re-evaluation of individuals suspected to have SMS who were initially evaluated prior to the identification of the RAI1 gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311559

  1. Assessing DMFT index in 12 years old students attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Extensive studies on the epidemiology of teeth and oral diseases are an important part of health care programs specially for hearing impaired groups. For adequate programming in this field, proper situation analysis is mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the DMFT (decayed missed filled teeth of 12 years old students attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran and exploring the relation between sex, hygiene and hearing threshold with the index. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was based on examining 12 years old (± 6 month students (117 cases attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran. A questionnaire was filled for each case. T, Chi-square and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean DMFT in these students was 3.07. Mean DMFT in students with very severe hearing loss was 2.99. Mean ranked DMFT in girls and boys was similar (56.09 in boys and 61.96 in girls. Mean ranked DMFT in students who didn’t use floss (66.40 was higher than those who used floss (46.71. Mean ranked DMFT in students who seldom brushed, was the highest (72.82 and in students who brushed once a day was the lowest (51.26. Conclusion: The DMFT index in hearing disabled children was 3.07. Regular brushing and flossing reduced the index.

  2. Possible Involvement of K+/Na+ in Assessing the Seed Vigor Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan CHENG; Guang-Hua ZHENG; Xiao-Feng WANG; Yan LIU; Yi-Tang YAN; Jian LIN

    2005-01-01

    More substances leaked from a higher-vigor seed sample than from a lower-vigor sample. This indicates that, in some cases, electric conductivity does not represent seed vigor level very well, especially for high-vigor seeds. Results from germination, germination index, leachate conductivity, and the ratio of K+/Na+ from three-seed lots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Louv.) Rupr) showed that K+/Na+correlated well with germination and germination index. The ability of K+/Na+ to indicate well changes in vigor was further supported by investigation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds and another cultivar of Chinese cabbage seeds. Thus, seed leakage of K+/Na+ can accurately indicate seed vigor, whereas the conductivity test failed to do so. Furthermore, K+/Na+ showed up bigger quantitative differences in vigor level than did the conductivity test. This findings provide a more sensitive and accurate index for the assessment of seed vigor. The mechanisms of Na+ and K+ ion transport are also discussed.

  3. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  4. Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Gocentaitė, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Tema: Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai. Temos aktualumas. Homoseksualūs žmonės kenčia įvairią nelygybę, kurios pasekmė homoseksualus paverčia nematomais, dauguma jaunų gėjų ir lesbiečių gyvena lyg ir dvigubus gyvenimus. Jie pasirenka šią strategiją racionaliai, siekdami išvengti nuoskaudų ir didesnių problemų asmeninėje erdvėje, profesinėje-darbinėje aplinkoje ir viešojoje erdvėje. Homoseksualių žmonių yra visur, įvairaus amžiaus, skirtingų socialinių sluoksnių ir profesijų, ...

  5. Mokyklinė uniforma kaip bendruomeniškumo raiškos veiksnys

    OpenAIRE

    Bacevič, Veslava

    2011-01-01

    Remiantis ugdymo filosofinės, socialinės, pedagoginės bei istorinės literatūros analize, darbe keliamas tikslas ištirti mokyklinę uniformą bendruomeniškumo aspektu. Tikslui pasiekti teorinėje darbo dalyje buvo suformuluoti pagrindiniai uždaviniai: išsiaiškinti bendruomeniškumo raiškos visuomenėje ir bendruomeniškumo ugdymo mokykloje ypatumus; atskleisti mokyklinės uniformos istorinius metmenis ir jos stilistinius ypatumus sąlygojančius sociokultūrinius veiksnius bei įvertinti mokyklinės uni...

  6. Pasitenkinimo veiksnio raiška, formuojant paslaugų vartotojų lojalumą

    OpenAIRE

    Gumauskienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    SANTRAUKA Gumauskienė Lina. Pasitenkinimo veiksnio raiška, formuojant paslaugų vartotojų lojalumą. Magistro darbas. Darbo vadovas doc. dr. Rita Kuvykaitė, - Kaunas, 2008, 97 psl. Šiomis konkurencinės rinkos sąlygomis labai svarbu yra pritraukti ir išlaikyti vartotoją. Siekiant lojalių ir ištikimų klientų, reikia išsiaiškinti jų lūkesčius ir paslaugas teikti taip, kad klientai patirtų kokybiškas paslaugas ir suvoktų jų vertę. Tam organizacijos turi atlikti klientų lūkesčių tyrimus ir paslaugas...

  7. Komandinio darbo raiška organizacijų kaitos kontekste

    OpenAIRE

    Bublytė, Vitalija

    2014-01-01

    Magistro baigiamojo darbo tema labai aktuali šiandieninėje organizacijoje. Komandinis darbas vykstant pokyčiams svarbus veiksnys. Atlikus mokslinės literatūros analizę darbe pateikiama organizacijų kaitos apibrėžimas, taip pat nustatyta pokyčius sąlygojantys veiksniai, komandinio darbo efektyvumą įtakojantys veiksniai. Kadangi Lietuvoje nėra atlikta panašaus tipo tyrimų, todėl atliekant komandinio darbo raiškos pokyčių metu analizę Lietuvos įmonėse nustatyta, kad pokyčių sėkmę lemia komandini...

  8. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Agrafioti

    Full Text Available We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L., the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high. Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement. Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  9. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15–60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery. PMID:26560316

  10. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafioti, Paraskevi; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vassilakos, Thomas N; Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  12. Translation and validation of Hindi version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Pillai, Rajath;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to translate and validate the oral health-related quality of life assessment tool named Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) into Hindi language for use in the Indian population. METHODOLOGY: The 12-item GOHAI questionnaire was translated into Hindi...... edentulous participants. Age group was also found to be a significant factor for GOHAI scores. CONCLUSION: The Hindi version of GOHAI exhibits acceptable validity and reliability and can be used in the elderly Indian population as a measure of oral health-related quality of life......., back-translated and compared with the original English version. After pilot testing and appropriate changes, the Hindi version was administered to a group of 500 patients visiting the geriatric medicine clinic in All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The questionnaire was re...

  13. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  14. Assessment of Overall SCP State of the Company: New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The encouragement of sustainable consumption and production (SCP in order to continuously improve the well-being of present and future generations is the most important goal stated in the European Union (EU Sustainable Development Strategy, which was renewed in 2006. The challenge for every company on the way to SCP is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but, first of all, to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to apply an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. However, despite various approaches to create frameworks and methodologies for the development of integrated sustainability indicators that measure, monitor and assess the progress of an enterprise towards sustainability, there is still no comprehensive framework for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state on the basis of manufacturing processes, products/services as well as relationship with various stakeholders. An algorithm is here presented in respect of this demand. This algorithm offers methodical suggestions to assess the customers’ opinion about the presence of company’s environmental and social sustainability activities and initiatives, to identify and select most appropriate sustainability indicators, to determine their significance according to analytic hierarchy process (AHP, and to solve the most important sustainability problems in 3 aforementioned levels by adapting most suitable tools. The final suggestions are based on the values of 3 sub-indices of a new integrated index for the overall assessment of the SCP state in the company, ISCP.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.11482

  15. Ecological assessment of integrated bioenergy systems using the Sustainable Process Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass utilisation for energy production presently faces an uphill battle against fossil fuels. The use of biomass must offer additional benefits to compensate for higher prices: on the basis of a life cycle assessment (using BEAM to evaluate a variety of integrated bioenergy systems in connection with the Sustainable Process Index as a highly aggregated environmental pressure index) it is shown that integrated bioenergy systems are superior to fossil fuel systems in terms of environmental compatibility. The implementation of sustainability measures provides additional valuable information that might help in constructing and optimising integrated bioenergy systems. For a set of reference processes, among them fast pyrolysis, atmospheric gasification, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion and steam cycle (CS) and conventional hydrolysis, a detailed impact assessment is shown. Sensitivity analyses of the most important ecological parameters are calculated, giving an overview of the impacts of various stages in the total life cycle and showing 'what really matters'. Much of the ecological impact of integrated bioenergy systems is induced by feedstock production. It is mainly the use of fossil fuels in cultivation, harvesting and transportation as well as the use of fertilisers in short-rotation coppice production that impose considerable ecological pressure. Concerning electricity generation the most problematic pressures are due to gaseous emissions, most notably the release of NOx. Moreover, a rather complicated process (high amount of grey energy) and the use of fossil pilot fuel (co-combustion) leads to a rather weak ecological performance in contrast to other 100% biomass-based systems. (author)

  16. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  17. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  18. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  19. Remuneração de professores no Brasil: um olhar a partir da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS Teachers' pay in Brazil: an outlook from the Annual List of Social Information (RAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilnéia Espíndola Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    levels of secondary education teachers working in Brazilian state capitals and, at the same time, to reflect about the potential of this database for the analysis. The choice for an analytical approach related to secondary school teachers is due to the observation that, for the period between 1996 and 2008, the data about these jobs were better informed in the RAIS, despite the fact that its information about the public sector is somewhat irregular. The historical period selected is related to the hypothesis that the funding policy active between 1998 and 2006, which gave priority to fundamental education, could have had a negative effect upon the paying levels of secondary education teachers. In order to analyze the average paying levels, the minimum salary and the Index of Prices to the Consumer (IPC were used as indexes for comparing purchasing powers during the period. This exploratory study seems to confirm a negative relation, which was expected, between the priority given to fundamental education via funding policies and the paying levels of secondary education teachers. Additionally, it reveals the gap between the valuation of the national minimum salary and the valuation policy of the teaching profession; and, finally, it exposes weak points of the RAIS as a tool to work with data about paying levels of the public sector in a separate way. Nevertheless, the convergence between the results of the present work and studies that looked into other databases indicates the pertinence of continuing these analyses.

  20. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yang

    Full Text Available The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals. We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales.

  1. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  2. Assessment of validity and reliability of Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI into the Hindi language and assess its validity and reliability for use among people in India. Materials and Methods: GOHAI was translated into the Hindi language and self-administered to 420 subjects aged 55 years or above. The measures for reliability, and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity were assessed. The questionnaire sought information about sociodemographic details, habits related to tobacco, dental visits, tooth brushing, and self-reported perceptions of general and oral health. Results: Cronbach′s alpha (0.774 showed high internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Low GOHAI scores were associated with the perceptions of poor oral and general health, low satisfaction with oral health, and a perceived need for dental care. Respondents with high socioeconomic status were likely to have high GOHAI scores. Conclusion: The Hindi version of the GOHAI demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, and will be an important instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL for people in this region.

  3. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  4. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed. PMID:24640896

  5. Nectarine Fruit Ripening and Quality Assessed Using the Index of Absorbance Difference (IAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bonora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistency of fruit quality is extremely important in horticulture. Fruit growth and quality in nectarine are affected by fruit position in the canopy, related to the tree shape. The “open shaped” training systems, such as Tatura Trellis, improve fruit growth and quality. The Index of Absorbance Difference (IAD is a new marker that characterizes climacteric fruit during ripening. A study on fruit ripening was performed by using the IAD on nectarine to monitor fruit maturity stages of two cultivars trained as Tatura Trellis in Victoria, Australia. Fruit of cv “Summer Flare 34” (“SF34” grown in different positions on the tree showed high ripening homogeneity. Fruit harvested at a similar ripening stage showed fruit firmness and soluble solid content homogeneity. Fruits from hand-thinned variety “Summer Flare 26” (“SF26” were larger in size, had advanced ripening, and showed greater homogeneity. For “SF26”, a weak correlation between IAD and SSC was observed. The experiment showed that the Tatura Trellis training system is characterized by high homogeneity of nectarine fruit when coupled with a proper management of fruit density. It also confirmed that the IAD could be used as new nondestructive maturity index for nectarine fruit quality assessment in the field.

  6. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  7. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  8. A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, E; Marsili-Libelli, S; Mattioli, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study for the restoration of agricultural land with a tendency to become waterlogged into a natural wetland, conceived to mitigate floods and to remove nutrients from the water drained from the cultivated plots. The wetland model, developed in aquatox, includes the nutrient dynamics both in the water and in the sediment, and the vegetation that is expected to develop as a consequence of flooding. The model inputs were synthesized from historical time series of rainfall and chemical data collected over the last decade. The model outputs are used to compute a synthetic fuzzy quality index (FQI) to assess the removal efficiency of the wetland. This FQI is based on three main variables describing the ecosystem quality: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids. This index has the merit of being simple enough to be immediately grasped by non-technical people, like managers and stakeholders, to whom the restoration project is proposed. The simulations, performed under five differing loading scenarios demonstrate the feasibility of this solution, which is robust enough to accommodate a 50% increase in either nitrogen, phosphorous or organic matter.

  9. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  10. Consequences of neurologic lesions assessed by Barthel Index after Botox® injection may be underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Y Dionyssiotis,1,2 D Kiourtidis,3 A Karvouni,3 A Kaliontzoglou,3 I Kliafas31Medical Department, Rehabilitation Center Amyntaio, General Hospital of Florina, Amyntaio, Florina, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, 3Neurologic Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consequences of neurologic lesions are underestimated when the Barthel Index (BI is used to assess the clinical outcome of botulinum toxin injection.Patients and methods: The records for all in- and outpatients with various neurologic lesions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and so forth who had been referred to the authors’ departments and who had received botulinum toxin type A (Botox® for spasticity within a 4-year period (2008–2011 were examined retrospectively. BI data were collected and analyzed.Results: The BI score was found to have increased in follow-up assessments (P = 0.048. No correlation was found between the degree of spasticity and the BI score.Conclusion: The specific injection of Botox in patients with neurologic lesions was not strongly correlated with a significant functional outcome according to the BI. The results of this study suggest that clinicians need to look at other measurement scales for the assessment of significant outcomes of Botox in the rehabilitation process after neurologic lesions.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, spasticity, stroke, multiple sclerosis

  11. Assessment of urban stream morphology: an integrated index and modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhu, Wei; Xin, Pei; Li, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Physical morphology is an important attribute of a stream system. The morphological state of a natural pristine stream often reflects its biological condition because of their close links. In contrast, the morphology of an urban stream may exhibit different behaviours due to serious human disturbances. For an urban stream system, the morphological condition not only determines the in-stream habitat quality but also provides the physical basis for the stream's municipal functionalities. By comparing the morphological characters of urban and natural streams, this paper develops an integrated index system and model for the assessment of urban stream morphology. The model is applied to the Ancient Canal (Zhenjiang, China) with the aim of comparing the morphological conditions of reaches with and without ongoing restoration programs and further of assessing the effectiveness of the restoration methods and techniques. The results indicate that the water security and the landscape functionality of the canal have been upgraded. However, the quality of the in-stream habitat has been degraded as a result of the restoration. Based on the modelled results, recommendations are given for improving the effects of the next-phase restoration. The assessment system and findings from the application presented here are expected to have important implications for the restoration of disturbed urban streams in many other cities in China and elsewhere in the world. PMID:19609699

  12. Rank-based biomarker index to assess cadmium ecotoxicity on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarino, O; Hyršl, P; Dobeš, P; Vojtek, L; Vernile, P; Bari, G; Terzano, R; Spagnuolo, M; de Lillo, E

    2016-02-01

    A proper soil risk assessment needs to estimate the processes that affect the fate and the behaviour of a contaminant, which are influenced by soil biotic and abiotic components. For this reason, the measurement of biomarkers in soil bioindicator organisms, such as earthworms, has recently received increasing attention. In this study, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was used to assess the pollutant-induced stress syndrome after exposure to sublethal concentrations of Cd (10 or 100 μg g(-1)) in OECD soil, after 14 d of exposure. Cadmium bioaccumulation and potential biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), phenoloxidase (PO), metallothioneins (MTs) and genotoxic damage were determined. Results suggested that the exposure to 10 and 100 μg g(-1) Cd significantly increased Cd bioaccumulation, MTs and MDA; 100 μg g(-1) Cd contamination evidenced significantly higher values of H2O2 content and PO activity; CAT activity was inhibited at the higher concentration while GST and Comet assay did not show any significant differences from the control. Rank-based biomarker index showed that both different contaminated soils had an effect on the earthworms and allowed to validate the ecotoxicological relevance of this battery of biomarkers for a promising integrated multi-marker approach in soil monitoring and assessment. PMID:26694799

  13. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rotor angles for all generators can be simplified by only assessing the index of areas in a power system. The effectiveness of the proposed index in assessing the stability of power systems and its ability in pinpointing the weakest area in the power system is analyzed. Furthermore, this paper developed an emergency control scheme known as the combined UFLS and generator tripping in order to stabilize the system when unstable faults occurred in a power system. The proposed index is used to identify the generator to be tripped when the developed emergency control scheme operates. The performance of the proposed index and the combined UFLS and generator tripping scheme are evaluated on the IEEE 39-bus test system.

  14. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

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    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  16. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn. The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.

  17. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

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    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  18. Effectiveness of Fixed Dose Radioactive Iodine (RAI) for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: Experience of a Teaching Hospital in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Karounwi Omotayo Ogunjobi; John Enyi Ejeh; Kayode Solomon Adedapo; Eniojukan, Joshua F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Using radioactive iodine (RAI) as the first line therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism and as the treatment of choice for relapsed Graves’ disease is increasing in recent times. However, there has been little consensus on the most appropriate dose to use. So this study is to determine the response of hyperthyroidism to fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq RAI therapies and determine the incidence of hypothyroidism at 6 months post therapy. Methods: Hyperthyroid patients’ case records t...

  19. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  20. Assessing Fire Weather Index using statistical downscaling and spatial interpolation techniques in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Anna; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Frias, Maria Dolores; Hatzaki, Maria; Roussos, Anargyros; Casanueva, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires have always been present in the Mediterranean ecosystems, thus they constitute a major ecological and socio-economic issue. The last few decades though, the number of forest fires has significantly increased, as well as their severity and impact on the environment. Local fire danger projections are often required when dealing with wild fire research. In the present study the application of statistical downscaling and spatial interpolation methods was performed to the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), in order to assess forest fire risk in Greece. The FWI is used worldwide (including the Mediterranean basin) to estimate the fire danger in a generalized fuel type, based solely on weather observations. The meteorological inputs to the FWI System are noon values of dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, 10m wind speed and precipitation during the previous 24 hours. The statistical downscaling methods are based on a statistical model that takes into account empirical relationships between large scale variables (used as predictors) and local scale variables. In the framework of the current study the statistical downscaling portal developed by the Santander Meteorology Group (https://www.meteo.unican.es/downscaling) in the framework of the EU project CLIMRUN (www.climrun.eu) was used to downscale non standard parameters related to forest fire risk. In this study, two different approaches were adopted. Firstly, the analogue downscaling technique was directly performed to the FWI index values and secondly the same downscaling technique was performed indirectly through the meteorological inputs of the index. In both cases, the statistical downscaling portal was used considering the ERA-Interim reanalysis as predictands due to the lack of observations at noon. Additionally, a three-dimensional (3D) interpolation method of position and elevation, based on Thin Plate Splines (TPS) was used, to interpolate the ERA-Interim data used to calculate the index

  1. Assessment of the periodontal health and community periodontal index in the army of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Promotion of oral health in military population is not only a significant component of general health, but also of the military readiness and represents the strategic orientation of each country. The basic task of military dentistry is to provide oral health of military personnel and to enable their operational readiness at the optimal level. The aim of the study was to assess the periodontal condition in Serbian military population using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, and the influence of general life habits and local risk factors on periodontal health. Methods. This prospective cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on 101 examinees at the mean age of 38.94 ± 11.63 years who had dental check-ups at the Dental Clinic of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade. All the categories of military personnel aged 20-64 years were divided into five groups. The frequency distribution of general and local factors on periodontal health, oral hygiene index, and the assessment of the mean number of sextants by CPITN compared to age were examined. Results. The examinees at the age of 51-60 years had the best oral hygiene index (0.95 ± 0.65, whereas the oldest population had the worst (1.63 ± 0.42. Only one person (5.6% at the age group of 51-60 years had a completely healthy periodontium. Observed in relation to the age groups, the mean values of sextants increased linearly, but in general population, the most frequent CPITN categories were in sextant with the periodontal pockets 4-5 mm (score 3. Conclusions. Compared to the results from other countries shown by the World Health Organization, the periodontal condition in our examinees is below the average. The appropriate preventive program preparation and its implementation are needed, including primarily the appropriate training on oral hygiene, as well as education based on periodontal disease prevention and treatment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  2. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  3. TINGKAT KEBISINGAN DAN TAJAM DENGAR PETUGAS GROUND HANDLING DI BANDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

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    I W Putra Yadnya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ngurah Rai Airport is an International Airport in Bali, this will increase the air traffic frequency and increase the number of aircraft types. This condition increases the noise risk factor which contributes to probable cause of health problem for airport workers. The objective of this study is to analyze the noise effect against hearing acurity of the ground handling staff in Ngurah Rai Airport.This cross sectional study design with 44 number of sample. The sample was taking by proportional random sampling method.The study results showed that noise level in the Administration Division was between 49.6 – 52 dBA. However, in the Technical Division at 08.00 – 16.00 was averagely between 88,3 – 90.9 dBA, at 16.00 – 24.00 was between 89.3 – 93.5 dBA and at 24.00 – 08.00 was between 69.9 – 73.2 dBA. Hearing acurity of ground handling staff in the administration division was 1 personnel (16.7 % experienced hearing acurity depreciation. However, in the technical division, 23 personnel (60.5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. The staff with ? 20 years working period numbering 6 personnel (37,5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and staff with > 20 years working period numbering 17 personnel (77.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. On the other hand, personnel that always wear hearing protective equipment numbering 7 personnel (33.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and personnel who where not wear hearing protective equipment numbering 16 personnel (94.1% experienced hearing acurity depreciation.The study concluded that noise level in the administration division was under threshold limit value, in technical division between 08.00 – 16.00 and 16.00 – 24.00 was upper threshold limit value but between 24.00 – 08.00 was under threshold limit value. There was a different hearing acurity between administration division staff and the technical division staff. The study also enlighten there was association

  4. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

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    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  5. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  6. Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf of Thailand

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    Anchana Prathep

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf ofThailand, were investigated between July 2006 - July 2008 using SeagrassNet protocol. The SeagrassNet protocol is astandard method for monitoring seagrass worldwide, and Koh Tha Rai is among the first few places using such protocol inThailand. The standard protocol such as SeagrassNet allows comparisons of findings among various sites worldwide. Fivespecies of seagrass found at Koh Tha Rai : Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle, Cymodocea rotundata Asch. & Schweinf.,Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.Asch., Halophila ovalis (R.Br. Hook.f. and Halodule uninervis (Forssk. Asch. E. acoroidescovered the largest area, while C. rotundata covered only a small area. Most seagrass showed seasonal variations both inpercentage cover and biomass. There were also variations in above and below ground biomass as well as in the sediment.There was a decline of seagrass with increasing of sedimentation in a sheltered site. This study provides a systematic monitoringof seagrass in Thailand, which is still limited.

  7. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Pronio; Annalisa Di-Filippo; Paola Mariani; Annarita Vestri; Chiara Montesani; Monica Boirivant

    2016-01-01

    Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC). To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI). However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use o...

  8. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km(2) residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  9. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  10. Assessing Sparse Coding Methods for Contextual Shape Indexing of Maya Hieroglyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Roman-Rangel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-visual-words or bag-of-visterms (bov is a common technique used to index Multimedia information with the purposes of retrieval and classification. In this work we address the problem of constructing efficient bov representations of complex shapes as are the Maya syllabic hieroglyphs. Based on retrieval experiments, we assess and evaluate the performance of several variants of the recent sparse coding method KSVD, and compare it with the traditional k-means clustering algorithm. We investigate the effects of a thresholding procedure used to facilitate the sparse decomposition of signals that are potentially sparse, and we also assess the performance of different pooling techniques to construct bov representations. Although the bov's computed via Sparse Coding do not outperform the retrieval precision of those computed by k-means, they achieve competitive results after an adequate enforcement of the sparsity, which leads to more discriminative bag representations with respect to using the original non-sparse descriptors. Also, we propose a simplified formulation of the HOOSC descriptor that improves the retrieval performance.

  11. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index: assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alberici Pastore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal study, including patients from a chemotherapy service in Brazil, between July 2008 and May 2010. INI (Albumin/CRP and nutritional status (by Subjective Global Assessment - SGA were evaluated. Risk INI was defined as lower than 0.35. The mean follow-up of survival was 1.6 year. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.1™. Results: 74 patients participated in the study, mean age 63.4, most of them male (58% and presenting gastrointestinal cancer (71%. Malnutrition was identified in 87% of the patients (22% severely malnourished. The mean INI was 2.67 and 54% of the patients had INI levels considered as risk. During the follow-up there were 49 deaths (66%. The median survival time for INI risk patients was significantly shorter than for normal INI ones (p = 0,002. It took 0.78 year for the INI risk subsample to decline 50%, while it took 2.78 year for the normal INI subsample. INI risk and severe malnutrition were independent predictors for poor survival. Conclusion: The INI showed prognostic capacity in this sample and may be a useful tool, based on routinely available blood tests, to assess cancer patients.

  12. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  13. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab; Azah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rot...

  14. Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Vereecken, C.; Bacquer, De D.; Vandevijvere, S.; Oyen, van H.; Maes, L.; Vanhauwaert, E.; Temme, E.H.M.; Backer, De G.; Henauw, de S.

    2010-01-01

    The diet quality index (DQI) for preschool children is a new index developed to reflect compliance with four main food-based dietary guidelines for preschool children in Flanders. The present study investigates: (1) the validity of this index by comparing DQI scores for preschool children with nutri

  15. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought

  16. Vulnerability Index to Climate Change and its Application for Community-level Risk Assessment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the vulnerability-led approach, the Prevalent Community-level Vulnerability Index (PCVI was developed as a simple composite index used to represent community-level vulnerability to climate change in the socioeconomic and hazard contexts. The PCVI consists of three major components which are Exposure & hazard, Socioeconomic-ecological fragility and Coping capacity. All of these components are further comprised of different indicators, representing different aspects of biophysical and social vulnerability of grass-root communities. Based on the results analyzed in the provincial pilot sites, the PCVI could represent both spatial patterns and magnitudes of vulnerability of each community in consistence with the local economic-social-environmental contexts. It generally reflects the differences in the local contexts and factors that determine overall vulnerability of each community. For the ease in calculating the PCVI especially for the provincial operating staffs and general public, the PREvalent Community Climate Change Vulnerability Tool (RECCC was further developed as a user-friendly, Excel-based program. In conclusions, the outputs of this study that include the PCVI and its database as well as the RECCC program are useful not only for analyzing vulnerability and assessing risks of community to climate change, but also for supporting decision-making process in developing and implementing adaptation activities at provincial level. These outputs were also designed for further integrating as a supplementary part of Provincial�s Decision Supporting System (DSS, with the purpose of promoting the participation of local organizations and stakeholders in coping with the adverse impacts of climate change. However, additional development of ERCCC program, together with dissemination of the vulnerability framework as well as the use of ERCCC program to local organizations needs to be continued.

  17. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  18. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN PAS BANDARA INTERNASIONAL NGURAH RAI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suska V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Permit to a person to enter the restricted area at Ngurah Rai Airport which is called Airport Pas can be given in accordance with the duties and activities of a person at the airport. On permit service, there are disappointments and complaints of the Pas applicant that can still be found in the Pas service like duration of Pas completion and officer service at the time of application. The different perception and expectation of Pas applicant must remain in the regulation corridors and prioritize security at airports. The purpose of this research is assesing the quality of Pas service in the Airport Authority Region IV by using a SERVQUAL (Service Quality model. The model is comparing the two main factors, namely real customer perception of the service that they received (Perceived Service with the actual services expected/desirable (Expected Service which consists of 5 (five dimensions, those are Tangibles (physical, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy (attention. By using these models, it is known that the quality of Pas service in the Airport Authority Region IV is still less than the expectations of the applicant and the most important dimension to enhance is Responsiveness. Gaps between perception and expectation as follows: Responsiveness (-0,2240, Assurance (-0,2171, Reliability (-0,2099, Tangibles (-0,1994, dan Empathy (-0,1373.

  19. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB.

  20. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products.

  1. STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; LI Jing-yi; ZHAO Jing-bo

    2003-01-01

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environ-mental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terriibly weak. This paper intends to understand the per-sonality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the founda-tions of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differ-ences of public perception of disaster appear as follows: female disaster perception is stronger than male; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60,60 year old or over in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational char-acteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in tums; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

  2. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  3. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  4. Assessment of Iranian Agroclimatological Zone Classification by Using TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Kouzehgaran, Saeedeh; Haghighat, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural zoning is an important tool for authorities to plan and decide about development of the agricultural sector, environmental sustainability issues and plan and provide irrigation and rural infrastructures. Previous different methods have suggested the definition of agroclimatological zones in big areas in Iran, but most of them are not easy to be validated or there are not clear criteria to evaluate whether the zones are correctly defined or not. The current {it Iranian Meteorological Organisation} classification is composed of six significant agroclimatological zones defined using the fundamental climate elements of temperature and precipitation obtained from 30 years data from 180 synoptic stations interpolated using regression kriging methods. Elevation was derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) digital elevation model of 90 m resolution. In this paper we assess the homogeneity of each of these conventionally defined agroclimatological zones using {bf TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)} values obtained from MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI operational products of the last three years between 2013 and 2015.

  5. High atherogenic index of plasma in subclinical hypothyroidism: Implications in assessment of cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen R.; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: A controversy exists regarding the association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and dyslipidemia. Moreover, studies on lipid ratios and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in SH are rare, particularly in the Indian scenario. Aim: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP in SH and attempted to correlate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AIP in SH. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective analysis of patient records of SH subjects and euthyroid subjects, age, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipid ratios, and AIP were compared between the two groups. The correlation of TSH and AIP in SH was studied. Spearman's correlation, Mann–Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: Triglyceride, triglyceride/HDL-C, and AIP were significantly higher in SH as compared to euthyroid group, but there was no correlation between TSH and AIP in SH. AIP emerged as the significant single factor associated with SH in multiple logistic regressions. Conclusion: The positive association of dyslipidemia and SH indicates a need for regular screening of these patients to enable early diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia. Even in patients who have a normal conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP have to be calculated for better assessment of atherogenic risk. PMID:27730076

  6. A service-oriented approach to assessing the infrastructure value index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, R; Alegre, H; Matos, J S

    2016-01-01

    Many national and regional administrations are currently facing challenges to ensure long-term sustainability of urban water services, as infrastructures continue to accumulate alarming levels of deferred maintenance and rehabilitation. The infrastructure value index (IVI) has proven to be an effective tool to support long-term planning, in particular by facilitating the ability to communicate and to create awareness. It is given by the ratio between current value of an infrastructure and its replacement cost. Current value is commonly estimated according to an asset-oriented approach, which is based on the concept of useful life of individual components. The standard values assumed for the useful lives can vary significantly, which leads to valuations that are just as different. Furthermore, with water companies increasingly focused on the customer, effective service-centric asset management is essential now more than ever. This paper shows results of on-going research work, which aims to explore a service-oriented approach for assessing the IVI. The paper presents the fundamentals underlying this approach, discusses and compares results obtained from both perspectives and points to challenges that still need to be addressed. PMID:27438261

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period. PMID:26163496

  8. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  9. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  10. Values of functional indexes in assessment of efficacy of osteoarthritis treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Y Maiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study change of knee joints functional disability in pts with predominantly I-II stage of knee osteoarthritis (OA with clinical tests and WOMAC index for assessment of efficacy of treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic. Material and methods. 70 pts with I and II stage of OA according to Kellgren-Lawrence aged from 40 to 67 years were included. They were divided in 2 groups (30 pts in group I and40 pts in group II. Group I pts were treated with Chondrolon and group II pts – with Zel T. Treatment efficacy was assessed with WOMAC index, functional Lequesne index, pain on VAS at rest and at movement, knee mobility, time of walking for 30 m and walking stairs. Results. Positive changes of all parameters were revealed in both groups: significant improvement of pain on VAS, functional tests, Lequesne index, WOMAC scales was achieved. During treatment with Zel T improvement of the efficacy measures increased slower, mainly after 12 weeks of treatment (during treatment with Chondrolon – after8 weeks. Both drugs provided functional improvement assessed by WOMAC index butChondrolon was more effective. Conclusion. Chondrolon and Zel T can be used for treatment of OA at I or II stage with moderate knee joints functional disability. Course of treatment with Zel T should be continued not less than 3 months and with Chondrolon – 2 months.

  11. A new clinically applicable age-specific comorbidity index for preoperative risk assessment of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a new feasible comorbidity index based on self-reported information suited for preoperative risk assessment of ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: The study was based on patient self-reported data from ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological....... CONCLUSION: This new age-specific comorbidity index based on self-reported information is a significant predictor of overall and cancer-specific survival in ovarian cancer. It can be used to quickly identify those ovarian cancer patients requiring special attention in terms of preoperative optimization...... survival in the development cohort, and regression coefficients were used to construct a new weighted comorbidity index. The index was applied to the validation cohort, and its predictive ability in regard to overall and cancer-specific five-year-survival was investigated. Finally, the performance...

  12. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic assessment of differences between Wild-Type mice and Crouzon mice based on high-resolution 3D Micro CT data. One factor used for the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome in humans is the cephalic index, which is the skull width/length ratio. This index has traditionally...... been computed by time-consuming manual measurements that prevent large-scale populational studies. In this study, an automatic method to estimate cephalic index for this mouse model of Crouzon syndrome is presented. The method is based on constructing a craniofacial atlas of Wild-type mice...... and then registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy...

  13. Weight-for-height indices to assess nutritional status--a new index on a slide-rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Donnet, M L; Stanfield, J P

    1981-09-01

    The protein-energy malnutrition classification schemes of Waterlow and McLaren, although similar in other respects, assess the weight-for-height of children in quite different ways. The drawbacks of their two methods are described, and an alternative method is presented which overcomes them. The new index is called weight/height2-for-age, and consists of the ratio weight/height2 expressed as a percentage of the same ratio for a reference child of the same age. Although the index is not age independent, it is insensitive to all but the grossest errors in age for children over 12 months old. The index is equally appropriate for the assessment of obesity. A slide-rule based on the Tanner standard is available to do the calculation. PMID:6792899

  14. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  15. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha−1, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ−1, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha−1 in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha−1. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha−1 and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO2, N2O and CH4 in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha-1, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO2eq ha-1 in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel are necessary for better management of energy flow, global warming potential and environmental crises

  16. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  17. New assessment tools that measure sleep vital signs: the SleepMed Insomnia Index and the Sleep Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Bogan, Richard K; Turner, Jo Anne

    2007-01-01

    Insomnia is the leading sleep disorder in the US; however, diagnosis is often problematic. This pilot study assessed the clinical value of a novel diagnostic insomnia questionnaire. The SleepMed Insomnia Index (SMI) was administered to 543 consecutive patients and 50 normal control subjects during a pilot study. Mean SMI scores were assessed based on subsequent sleep-related diagnoses. The SMI scores for patients with sleep-related disorders were significantly higher than those for the contro...

  18. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: A Scale for Assessing the Burden of Caregivers to Adults with Unipolar or Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, Lynn M.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients’ mood symptoms, caregivers’ worry about the future, and caregivers’ interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients’ pharmacotherapy or...

  19. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  20. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  1. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhushan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the heterogeneity in land use distribution pattern on the traffic congestion in rapidly urbanizing Ranchi city, capital of Jharkhand state, India. Traditionally, researchers have used the landscape metrics to determine the heterogeneity in the land use and land cover distribution pattern in both urban and non-urban areas. In the present study, we have introduced a new index: Heterogeneity Index to quantify the distribution pattern of the land use categories present along the various road segments whereas traffic congestion was determined through the Congestion Index Value. Based on the dominant land use categories existing in the study area, four heterogeneity indices were developed such as Residential Heterogeneity Index, Commercial Heterogeneity Index, Industrial Heterogeneity Index and Urban Services Heterogeneity Index, respectively. Finally, a Cumulative Heterogeneity Index was developed to determine the aggregate effect of the heterogeneity of the various land use categories present in the individual roads. Analytical Hierarchical Processing and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. The results of the investigation showed positive relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and traffic congestion.

  3. Copula-based drought risk assessment combined with an integrated index in the Wei River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Li, Yunyun; Wang, Yimin; Yuan, Meng

    2016-09-01

    It is critical to assess drought risk based on a reliably integrated drought index incorporating comprehensive information of meteorology, hydrology and agriculture drought indices, which is of great value for further understanding the future drought tendency, prevention and mitigation. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to focus on constructing a multivariate integrated drought index (MIDI) by coupling four drought indices (i.e., Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (PAP), Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP), Standardized Precipitation Index with 6-month aggregation time step (SPI6) and Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI)) to objectively and comprehensively investigate drought risk. The variable fuzzy set theory and entropy weight method are used during the MIDI construction process. Based on the MIDI, a drought event including drought duration and severity is redefined using run theory. Then copula-based drought risk is fully assessed through the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. Results indicate the following: (1) the constructed MIDI is consistent with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP) series, and it is more sensitive and effective to capture historical drought events; (2) the drought characteristics present noticeable spatial variability among five subzones, and the entire basin has 49 droughts with the longest drought duration spanning 8.55 months; and (3) the mainstream, especially the middle and lower reaches, has higher occurrences of severe droughts for approximately every 10 years.

  4. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  5. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP(i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  6. [Assessment of chlorophyll content using a new vegetation index based on multi-angular hyperspectral image data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qin-hong; Zhang, Dong-yan; Wang, Ji-hua; Yang, Gui-jun; Yang, Hao; Coburn, Craig; Wong, Zhijie; Wang, Da-cheng

    2014-06-01

    The fast estimation of chlorophyll content is significant for understanding the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study gets the hyperspectral imagery data by using a self-developed multi-angular acquisition system during the different maize growth period, the reflectance of maize canopy was extracted accurately from the hyperspectral images under different view angles in the principal plane. The hot-dark-spot index (HDS) of red waveband was calculated through the analysis of simulated values by ACRM model and measured values, then this index was used to modify the vegetation index (TCARI), thus a new vegetation index (HD-TCARI) based on the multi-angular observation was proposed. Finally, the multi-angular hyperspectral imagery data was used to validate the vegetation indexes. The result showed that HD-TCARI could effectively reduce the LAI effects on the assessment of chlorophyll content. When the chlorophyll content was greater than 30 μg x cm(-2), the correlation (R2) between HD-TCARI and LAI was only 26.88%-28.72%. In addition, the HD-TCARI could resist the saturation of vegetation index during the assessment of high chlorophyll content. When the LAI varled from 1 to 6, the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content could be improved by 9% compared with TCARI. The ground validation of HD-TCARI by multi-angular hyperspectral image showed that the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content (R2 = 66.74%) was better than the TCARI (R2 = 39.92%), which indicated that HD-TCARI has good potentials for estimating the chlorophyll content.

  7. The development of a preliminary rock reef fish multimetric index for assessing thermal and urban impacts in a tropical bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Neves, Tatiana Pires; Neves, Leonardo Mitrano; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2016-08-15

    We developed a multimetric index for assessing ecological conditions in rocky reefs areas to evaluate thermal and urban influences on fish community. Eight metrics were selected to assess thermal influence: (1) total number of species; (2) number of water column species; (3) number of transient species; (4) density of individuals with low resilience; (5) density of omnivores; (6) density of carnivores; (7) number of cryptic species; (8) density of herbivores. For urban influence, six metrics were selected: (1) total density; (2) ratio between the number of rare species and the total number of species; (3) density of individuals with heavy fishing pressure; (4) number of resident species; (5) number of cryptic species; (6) density of herbivores. This preliminary index succeed in discriminating control/impacted sites and proved to be an important tool to assess impacts that alter fish community and have potential to be used in tropical rock reef coastal areas. PMID:27293073

  8. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of the dietary glycemic index on weight-loss, satiety, glucose and insulin metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation and other emergent metabolic risk markers. Eligible subjects were community-dwelling men and women aged between 30 and 60 years, with a body mass index between 27 and 35 kg/m². Subjects were randomly assigned to three different dietary intervention groups (low glycemic index diet, high glycemic index diet or low-fat diet, that were isocaloric, and did not differ in the amount of dietary fibre. Monthly, study subjects were scheduled for control visits where anthropometry, blood pressure, dietary habits, satiety and physical activity were assessed. Blood, urine and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study to further molecular and biochemical measurements. Discussion: The GLYNDIET study was designed to determine if there is a greater effectiveness of a carbohydrate restricted diet with low glycemic index compared to an isocaloric diet with carbohydrates of high glycemic index or low-fat diet on weight loss in middle long-term.

  9. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pourmahabadian; Saraji, J. N.; M. Aghabeighi H. Saddeghi-Naeeni

    2005-01-01

    The strain index (SI) is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE) disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The ai...

  10. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.;

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  11. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hydrogen Index (HI), Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogen index (HI) is a parameter obtained from Rock-Eval data which reflects general hydrocarbon generation and maturation trends in petroleum systems. In the...

  12. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) Assessment for the National Park of American Samoa (npsa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within The National Park of American Samoa ....

  13. Coastal Change Potential Index (CPI) Assessment for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (glba_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CPI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  14. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  15. The use of a satellite derived vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, J. D.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Karl, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite derived normalized difference (ND) vegetation index data, based on urban and rural region composed of a variety of land surface environments, are evaluated. These data are linearly related to the difference in observed urban and rural minimum temperatures. It is concluded that the difference in the ND index between urban and rural regions reflects the difference in the surface properties (evaporation and heat storage capacity) of these two environments and urban and rural minimum temperatures (the urban heat island effect).

  16. Assessing Gender Inequality among Italian Regions: The Italian Gender Gap Index

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and evaluating the geographic distribution of gender inequality across Italian regions. The aim of the analysis is two-fold. First we build a composite indicator of gender inequality at the regional level for Italy by applying the methodology developed by the World Economic Forum for the Global Gender Gap Index. Second, we compute the Italian Gender Gap Index for each region in order to measure the within-country heterogeneity that characterizes Italy. We complete...

  17. A macrophage activation switch (MAcS)-index for assessment of monocyte/macrophage activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Lauridsen, Mette; Knudsen, Troels Bygum;

    2008-01-01

    of inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) was determined by RT-qPCR. Normalized values of sCD163 and mCD163 were calculated by dividing each value by the median value of the healthy population. The MAcS-index was then calculated as the ratio between normalized sCD163 and normalized mCD163....... A MAcS-index > 1 indicates relative increase in sCD163 as compared to mCD163, suggested to reflect a predominant M1 activation.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The MAcS-index of healthy individuals clustered around 1 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.28-3.11), whereas the MAcS-index of the patients varied from 0.......06 to 5139, with 4% below the 2.5 % limit of healthy individuals, and 60% above the 97.5 upper limit of healthy individuals.  The MAcS-index in infected patients (with assumed M1 activation) was clearly elevated. The index was significantly higher in patients with clinical signs of infection (median: 9...

  18. Correlation of the American Urological Association symptom index with self-administered versions of the Madsen-Iversen, Boyarsky and Maine Medical Assessment Program symptom indexes. Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1992-11-01

    We correlated the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index with other indexes that have been used to measure symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compared their psychometric properties. A self-administered questionnaire that allowed derivation of AUA, Maine Medical Assessment Program, Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky symptom scores was completed by 76 men with clinically defined BPH, 59 younger control subjects, and 27 men before and after prostatectomy. The scores from the 4 indexes were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 0.93). All 4 indexes had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. All indexes were predictive of patient global ratings of the degree of bother from the urinary condition. The AUA index discriminated BPH patients from controls significantly better than the Maine Medical Assessment Program index, and equivalently to the Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky indexes (despite having fewer items). All 4 indexes were responsive when BPH patients underwent prostatectomy, although the AUA and Madsen-Iversen indexes were significantly more sensitive.

  19. Assessment of optimum thermal humidity index for crossbred dairy cows in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Uttarakhand is a relatively new state and many cross bred cattle were introduced to boost the milk yield of the state. Despite all efforts the milk yield of dairy in Uttarakhand is comparatively low. In our study, we assessed the effect of heat stress on milk production, using thermal humidity index (THI in high (cross bred cattle and low milk producing (LMP cows (native cows in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Effect of heat stress was measured on high and LMP cross bred cows using THI maintained on standard feeding and nutritional value. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the THI. Daily milk production was noted to verify the effect of heat stress. Furthermore, profile the thyroid hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Low yielding cows did not show any significant change when the THI was above 72 from month June to October during stress condition. But high yielding cows shows a significant decrease (p<0.05 in milk yield when THI was above 80 (severe stress zone in the month of June to October and milk production decrease from an average of 18±1.4 to 10.9±0.92 L whereas in November-December when THI declines in the zone of comfort the milk yield did not show significant rise. The thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 level were found lower in summer heat stress condition for a high yielding cattle. Conclusion: Summer heat stress significantly decreased milk yield in high milk producing (HMP crossbred cows. As THI rises from comfort zone to stress zone milk yield decreased by 30-40% and this loss in milk production is irreversible. Management strategies should be needed as environmental control housing is suggested for the HMP crossbred cattle to minimize the heat stress. If all the dairies with cross bred cattle implement these small modifications in housing of cattle, there would be a huge increase in milk production.

  20. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  1. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65

  2. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  3. Comparison of two assessment tools that measure insomnia: The insomnia severity index and polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder, characterized by difficulties in sleep initiation, sleep maintenance or early morning awakening. Although polysomnography (PSG is a standard method in the evaluation of sleep disorders, it is not recommended for routine use in the clinical assessment of insomnia. Instead, standard questionnaires could be used in the primary evaluation of insomnia. Objective: The main object of this study was to compare the type and severity of patients′ subjective complaints of insomnia gathered from insomnia severity index (ISI questionnaire with the result of their polysomnographic evaluation. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted during 2010-2011 in Iran, all patients in one clinic with sleep disorders were evaluated. The study consisted of self-administered questionnaires completed by participants to provide information on demographic characteristics and ISI questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire, all the participants underwent standard overnight PSG. Results: Subjects were 151 patients (47.2 ± 10.8 years old. The average ISS was 6.1 ± 4. There was a significant relationship between the subjective complaint of difficulty in sleep initiation and sleep onset latency in PSG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the subjective complaint of difficulty in sleep maintenance and number of awakening in PSG (r = 0.19, P = 0.01. A low patients′ satisfaction from their sleep was associated with lower total sleep time (r = -0.2, P = 0.02 and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement (REM sleep in their PSG study (r = -0.25, P = 0.002. No relation was found between patients′ satisfaction and sleep efficiency measured with PSG (r = -0.04, P = 0.6. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that objective insomnia, measured with ISI, is related with PSG variables and ISI could be a useful tool to quantify perceived insomnia severity. Further studies are needed to

  4. The relative teratogenic index and teratogenic potency: proposed components of developmental toxicity risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, S; Shull, G; Brown, N A

    1982-01-01

    Teratogenicity tests should provide answers to three questions: (1) Can the agent induce developmental defects? ("teratogenic potential"); (2) What are the effective doses? ("teratogenic potency"); and (3) Are effective doses below adult toxic doses? ("teratogenic hazard"). The answers to (2) and (3) should be quantitative in nature, but there are no accepted parameters to express these properties. In this paper we propose parameters for the description of teratogenic potency and hazard in quantitative terms. Derivation and calculation of the parameters are illustrated by the analysis of adult lethality and teratogenicity data of eight structurally related anhydrides and imides, following testing in the CD-1 mouse. Teratogenicity was evaluated following treatment on Days 8-10 of gestation, using an average of four dose groups per compound and at least 10 dams per group. Adult lethality was estimated following a similar 3-day dosage schedule with an average of 6 dose groups per compound and at least 8 animals per group. Dose-response relationships of teratogenicity were fitted to a probit model from which tD50 (median effective dose), and other effective doses were computed. It is proposed that tD05, as a minimum teratogenic dose, best represents teratogenic potency. In this study, potency ranged from 0.17 mmol/kg/day for phenytoin to 5.2 mmol/kg/day for ethosuximide. In order to measure teratogenic hazard a ratio between adult toxic (lethality was chosen as the most appropriate measure) and teratogenic responses was made. Since the dose-response slopes of lethality and teratogenicity were different, a simple ratio between median effective doses could not be used. It is shown that a ratio of LD01 to tD05 provides a "Relative Teratogenic Index" (RTI) which reflects the teratogenic hazard of a test agent. The following RTI values (LD01/tD05) were computed in this study: phthalic anhydride, 0.9; phensuximide, 1.0; succinic anhydride, 1.0; ethosuximide, 1.2; phenytoin

  5. Business risk assessment of the companies on the Mexican Stock Exchange’s sustainable index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Morales Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/10/27 - Accepted: 2014/12/15This work evaluated the business risk change of 20 companies included on the sustainable index of the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV. The unlevered beta coefficient was used for this analysis. Two periods were compared: the one before, and the one after including the companies on the index. For each of the 20 companies it was used financial information, stocks closing prices and the stock market index value, over a period of 234 weeks. Then, considering the two periods, the statistical difference between the unlevered beta coefficient averages was calculated. Finally, a hypothesis proof was made to evaluate the business risk change. It was found that for 12 out of the 20 companies, the unlevered beta coefficient suffered a reduction. The findings suggest that it is not enough for the companies to certify as sustainable in order to reduce its business risk.

  6. Assessment of Overall Prevalence of Undernutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) Among Preschool Children of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Chandra Mandal; Kaushik Bose

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Under-nutrition continues to be a primary cause of ill-health and premature mortality among children in developing countries. Present study attempted to assess the overall prevalence of undernutrition using composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among rural preschool children of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India. Methods:A total of 1012 rural children (498 boys; 514 girls) aged 2-6 years were measured. Three commonly used undernutrition indicators, ie, stunting...

  7. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Francesc Alonso; Jordi Riba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electroencephalographic analysis techniques have become a very useful tool to assess brain activity and interactions between cerebral regions, that is, the so-called cerebral connectivity analysis. The effects of some drugs have, so far, been studied using spectral analysis and, to a lesser extent, some linear and nonlinear connectivity techniques. New indexes have recently been designed based on assumptions that make them more robust against volume conduction effects that co...

  8. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, J.; A Esmaili Sari; Abdoli, A; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem qua...

  9. Melanin index in assessing the treatment efficacy of 1064 nm Q switched Nd-Yag laser in nevus of Ota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathy Sethuraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium-garnet (Q switched Nd-Yag laser has been used in the treatment of nevus of Ota in all skin types with variable success rate. Data with an objective assessment parameter to this laser treatment is lacking. Objective: To evaluate the utility of melanin index in assessing the treatment response and also determine the efficacy and safety of the Q-switched Nd-Yag laser (1064-nm in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients treated with Nd-Yag laser were studied. The objective improvement (pigment clearance was determined by melanin index from two fixed points: A1, 2 cm below the pupil at the mid pupillary line (when the gaze is fixed; A2, the most prominent part of zygoma. The melanin index in these two areas was recorded as M1 and M2, respectively. The subjective clinical improvement was determined by the physician and the patient global assessment score. Results: The mean baseline melanin indices M1 and M2 were 59.54 ± 9.72 and 59.02 ± 9.16, respectively. At the last visit the mean M1 and M2 decreased to 53.8 ± 8.55 (P 50% pigment clearance. Conclusion: The melanin index, a simple non-invasive parameter is useful in assessing the treatment response more objectively. The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd-Yag laser offers good improvement in patients with nevus of Ota in darker skin types IV/V.

  10. Melanin Index in Assessing the Treatment Efficacy of 1064 nm Q Switched Nd-Yag Laser in Nevus of Ota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Sharma, Vinod K; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium-garnet (Q switched Nd-Yag) laser has been used in the treatment of nevus of Ota in all skin types with variable success rate. Data with an objective assessment parameter to this laser treatment is lacking. Objective: To evaluate the utility of melanin index in assessing the treatment response and also determine the efficacy and safety of the Q-switched Nd-Yag laser (1064-nm) in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients treated with Nd-Yag laser were studied. The objective improvement (pigment clearance) was determined by melanin index from two fixed points: A1, 2 cm below the pupil at the mid pupillary line (when the gaze is fixed); A2, the most prominent part of zygoma. The melanin index in these two areas was recorded as M1 and M2, respectively. The subjective clinical improvement was determined by the physician and the patient global assessment score. Results: The mean baseline melanin indices M1 and M2 were 59.54 ± 9.72 and 59.02 ± 9.16, respectively. At the last visit the mean M1 and M2 decreased to 53.8 ± 8.55 (P 50% pigment clearance. Conclusion: The melanin index, a simple non-invasive parameter is useful in assessing the treatment response more objectively. The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd-Yag laser offers good improvement in patients with nevus of Ota in darker skin types IV/V. PMID:24470713

  11. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index) method

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Dragana; Milanović Ana; Brankov Jovana; Radovanović M.

    2011-01-01

    The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area) is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index) over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values o...

  12. "Stratifiability index" - A quantitative assessment of acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Ebner, Ellen; Börger, Alexander; Gose, Sven; Wenzl, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A methodology is presented to quantify acid stratification in flooded lead acid batteries and compare different types of batteries regardless of their design features and size by means of the proposed "stratifiability index". This index describes to what degree acid stratification develops in flooded lead acid batteries. Different test procedures are proposed which induce severe acid stratification within 48 h and lead to significantly different degrees of acid stratification. The test procedures are intended to assist in the development and selection of batteries which are less prone to develop severe acid stratification.

  13. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  14. Applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) in occupational heat stress assessment: a case study in brick industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatani, Javad; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Yousefi, Azam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as an innovative and science-based index in public health researches, in occupational heat stress assessment. All indoor and outdoor workers (200 people) of Brick industries of Shahroud, Iran participated in the research. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured; then UTCI and WBGT (wet-bulb globe temperature) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oral temperature, skin temperature, tympanic temperature and heart rate of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT indices were 34.2 ± 2°C, 21.8 ± 1.8°C in the outdoor environments and 38.1 ± 4.4°C, 24.7 ± 3.3°C at the indoor environments, respectively. There were the weak inverse relationships between UTCI and WBGT indices at the outdoor environments and physiological responses such as systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. However, there were no similar results for indoor environments. The significant relationships were found between UTCI and WBGT at both indoor and outdoor environments. Both UTCI and WBGT indices are suitable for assessing the occupational heat stress. Although, UTCI index seems more appropriate for heat stress assessment in the environments with low humidity and air velocity. PMID:26320731

  15. Validation of the patient benefit index for the assessment of patient-relevant benefit in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Julia; Blome, Christine; Radtke, Marc; Augustin, Matthias

    2012-08-01

    Empirical evidence of the efficacy of drugs and therapeutic procedures becomes more important in industrial countries. The assessment of patient benefit from the patient's perspective is of particular relevance. The Patient Benefit Index (PBI) for skin diseases is a validated instrument to assess patient-relevant benefit in patients with skin diseases. So far, no instrument for the assessment of patient-relevant needs and benefits in patients with psoriasis has been published. Objective of the study was the validation of an instrument to assess patient benefit in psoriasis treatment. Patient-relevant treatment needs and benefits in psoriasis patients were recorded with the PBI questionnaire in two studies conducted in 2007. Treatment goals and benefits were used to calculate an importance-weighted PBI. Data of n = 2,009 patients in the cross-sectional study and n = 93 patients in the longitudinal study were used to test validity, feasibility and reliability of the PBI. The PBI was feasible with a rate of missing values ≤1.5 % in PNQ and ≤2.0 % in PBQ. The subscales of the PBI were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68-0.87). The PBI showed convergent validity regarding the quality of life, psoriasis area and severity index, and two single questions on treatment benefit used in the longitudinal study. The PBI is a suitable instrument for the assessment of patient-reported benefit in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:22722916

  16. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

  17. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  18. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S.G.; Amy, G.L.; Schippers, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) cons

  19. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drough...

  20. The Hierarchy Consistency Index: Evaluating Person Fit for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a person-fit statistic called the hierarchy consistency index (HCI) to help detect misfitting item response vectors for tests developed and analyzed based on a cognitive model. The HCI ranges from -1.0 to 1.0, with values close to -1.0 indicating that students respond unexpectedly or differently from the responses…

  1. Inter-rater reliability of the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 in the assessment of the paediatric foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Jill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability is an integral component of clinical assessment and necessary for establishing baseline data, monitoring treatment outcomes and providing robust research findings. In the podiatric literature traditional measures of foot assessment have been shown to be largely unreliable. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 is a clinical tool used in the assessment of foot and to date, there is limited research published which evaluates the reliability of this tool in children and adolescents. Method Thirty participants aged 5 - 16 years were recruited for the research. Two raters independently recorded the FPI-6 score for each participant. Results Almost perfect agreement between the two raters was identified following weighted kappa analysis (Kw = 0.86. Conclusion The FPI-6 is a quick, simple and reliable clinical tool which has demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability when used in the assessment of the paediatric foot.

  2. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  3. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  4. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of inferior vena cava/abdominal aorta diameter index: a new approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Ahmad, Rashidi; Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Mohammed, Mohammad Iqhbal

    2016-01-01

    Background We designed this study to expand the usage of ultrasound to detect early occurrence of hypovolemia. We explore the potential use of inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) diameter index (IVC:AA) measured ultrasonographically to detect class 1 hypovolemic shock with blood loss less than 15%.ᅟ Methods The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the diameter of inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta in blood donors by using ultrasound, pre and post blood donation....

  6. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  7. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  8. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  9. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, P; Darmoni, S J; Grabar, N; Douyère, M; Benichou, J

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF.

  10. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  11. Work index and grinding energy assessment of Dilband iron ore Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance of comminution in mineral processing sector is highly acknowledged from energy perspective. In present study an attempt was made to understand the commuting behavior of Dilband iron ore and to compute the grinding energy requirement for production of ultra fine particles up to mesh of liberation. In this regard standard grind ability tests developed by the Chair of Mineral Processing Leoben Austria was used for calculating work index of Dilband iron ore. The grinding tests were conducted in rod and ball mills. The work index value of two feed size fractions with 80% passing at 3800 macro m and 5200 macro m was noted to be 11.85 kwh/t and 9.3 kwh/ton respectively. Ball mill grinding test indicates that dry grinding in open circuit is not efficient and consumes more energy of 88.48kwh/t of ore for grinding 1000/40 macro to 80% <40 macro m size. (author)

  12. A new irrigation priority index based on remote sensing data for assessing the networks irrigation scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Belaqziz, S.; Khabba, S.; Er-Raki, S.; Jarlan, Lionel; Le Page, M.; Kharrou, M.H.; El Adnani, M.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling has become an important tool that significantly influences growth, development and production of crops, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the South Mediterranean. In these regions, most of the irrigation scheduling of the gravity irrigation networks are not optimized in terms of timing and water quantity. In this paper, we present a way of characterizing the irrigation distribution by the extensively used irrigation systems through a new irrigation index: the "...

  13. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of peri-urban mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Augusto de Oliveira Brunow; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. The present study empirically evaluated the vulnerability of forest stands that make up the subtropical Perequê River mangrove (Paranaguá Bay, S Brazil) as the basis for a more appropriate management of its resources. This mangrove is located in the coastal municipality of Pontal do Paraná (Paraná, Brazil) and is part of the Perequê River Mangrove Natural Park, which is still not under a management plan. This study aimed to contribute to the future management plan of this conservation unit through an environmental diagnosis and an empirical evaluation of its vulnerability. The primary data, collected from 51 plots of 100 m(2) each, involved the evaluation of: 1) the exposure to solid waste, deforestation, trails, landfills, and constructions; 2) the degree of sensitivity according to the environmental conditions of each plot; and 3) the adaptive capacity according to the recovery and reproductive potential and structural complexity of the forests. These data were integrated to compose the empirical index of environmental vulnerability (VI) expressed as VI = (SI + EI) - ACI where SI is the sensitivity sub-index, EI is the exposure sub-index, and ACI is the adaptive capacity sub-index. Empirical indices calculated for local forests varied significantly due to differences in values of SI, EI and ACI. This variability defines the local mangrove as a mosaic of vulnerability conditions and suggests that the planning and implementation of local management actions consider such environmental heterogeneity. Applying or extending these actions should be based on local forest conditions at short spatial scales and should not be applied to the mangrove as a whole.

  14. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of peri-urban mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Augusto de Oliveira Brunow; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. The present study empirically evaluated the vulnerability of forest stands that make up the subtropical Perequê River mangrove (Paranaguá Bay, S Brazil) as the basis for a more appropriate management of its resources. This mangrove is located in the coastal municipality of Pontal do Paraná (Paraná, Brazil) and is part of the Perequê River Mangrove Natural Park, which is still not under a management plan. This study aimed to contribute to the future management plan of this conservation unit through an environmental diagnosis and an empirical evaluation of its vulnerability. The primary data, collected from 51 plots of 100 m(2) each, involved the evaluation of: 1) the exposure to solid waste, deforestation, trails, landfills, and constructions; 2) the degree of sensitivity according to the environmental conditions of each plot; and 3) the adaptive capacity according to the recovery and reproductive potential and structural complexity of the forests. These data were integrated to compose the empirical index of environmental vulnerability (VI) expressed as VI = (SI + EI) - ACI where SI is the sensitivity sub-index, EI is the exposure sub-index, and ACI is the adaptive capacity sub-index. Empirical indices calculated for local forests varied significantly due to differences in values of SI, EI and ACI. This variability defines the local mangrove as a mosaic of vulnerability conditions and suggests that the planning and implementation of local management actions consider such environmental heterogeneity. Applying or extending these actions should be based on local forest conditions at short spatial scales and should not be applied to the mangrove as a whole. PMID:25093304

  15. [Google Scholar and the h-index in biomedicine: the popularization of bibliometric assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Clavijo, A; Delgado-López-Cózar, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the features, benefits and limitations of the new scientific evaluation products derived from Google Scholar, such as Google Scholar Metrics and Google Scholar Citations, as well as the h-index, which is the standard bibliometric indicator adopted by these services. The study also outlines the potential of this new database as a source for studies in Biomedicine, and compares the h-index obtained by the most relevant journals and researchers in the field of intensive care medicine, based on data extracted from the Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Results show that although the average h-index values in Google Scholar are almost 30% higher than those obtained in Web of Science, and about 15% higher than those collected by Scopus, there are no substantial changes in the rankings generated from one data source or the other. Despite some technical problems, it is concluded that Google Scholar is a valid tool for researchers in Health Sciences, both for purposes of information retrieval and for the computation of bibliometric indicators.

  16. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  18. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  20. Assessing sexual problems in women at midlife using the short version of the female sexual function index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of sexual function is a complex process, especially in women, which requires in any individual case: time, appropriate training and experience. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is quite variable depending on the studied population, assessment methods, comorbid conditions and treatments, and age. A large number of screening methods have been developed over the last decades which range from tedious, exhaustive and boring tools to very simple standardized questionnaires. The 19-item female sexual function index (FSFI-19) is among the most used and useful- instrument designed to assess female sexual function in all types of circumstances, sexual orientation and perform the comparison of transcultural factors. A short 6-item- version of the FSFI-19 has been developed to provide a quick general approach to the six original domains (one item per domain). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations as it has been extensively demonstrated with the original tool. PMID:26323235

  1. A "continuity-index" for assessing ice-sheet dynamics from radar-sounded internal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Bingham, Robert G.;

    2012-01-01

    Radio-echo sounding (RES) of polar icesheets reveals extensive internal layering. The degree of continuity of internal layering holds critical information about the ice-flow field, but previous analyses of this parameter have been limited to qualitative classifications. Here we present a new...... quantitative method for analyzing internallayercontinuity—named the continuity-index. When applied to data from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, the new method clearly identifies a continuum of discontinuity of internallayers that corresponds with the current ice-velocity field. The analysis provides...

  2. Site assessment, turbine selection, and local feed-in tariffs through the wind energy index

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Matthias; Deckert, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Since wind energy is rapidly growing, new wind farms are installed worldwide and a discussion is going on concerning the optimal political framework to promote this development. In this paper, we present a wind energy index, which is supportive for wind park planners, operators, and policy-makers. Based on long-term and low-scale reanalysis wind speed data from MERRA and true production data, it can predict the expected wind energy production for every location and turbine type. After an in-s...

  3. Usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index in Daily Clinical Practice for Assessing Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lozano-Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outcome evaluation is an important aspect of the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. We evaluated the usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI in assessing people affected by degenerative lumbar disease in daily clinical practice. Methods. We evaluated 221 patients who had completed preoperatively and 2 years after surgery VAS pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and COMI. We calculated the change of scores and its sensitivity to change. The internal consistency of the COMI items and the correlation between the COMI scores and the scores of the other measurements were assessed. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean scores of the preoperative and 2 years questionnaires for nearly all measurements. COMI showed a good internal consistency, except for the preoperative pain subscale. The sensitivity to change was high for the total COMI and its pain and well-being subscales and moderate for the rest. The COMI demonstrated strong correlation with the other measurements. Conclusions. The COMI is a useful tool for assessing the patient-based outcome in the studied population. Given its simplicity, good correlation with the SF-36 and ODI and its good sensitivity to change, it could replace more cumbersome instruments in daily clinical practice.

  4. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourmahabadian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain index (SI is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The aim of this study was to assess and analyze risk of developing DUE disorders in different jobs as well as hazard classification in an assembling electronic industry through SI method. Also, DUE disorders prevalence, work-related absenteeism and turnover extracted from SI results were compared and assessed by those obtained by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ. The findings of this study showed that more than 50% of investigated jobs are categorized as "hazardous" and there is a significant difference between SI mean in hazardous and safe jobs (P < 0.0001. In addition, significant difference was found between prevalence of DUE disorders in "safe" and "hazardous" jobs (P < 0.049. But, no significant difference (P = 0.3 was obtained between mean absenteeism in "safe" and hazardous jobs. Also, no significant difference statistically was found between turnover in "safe" and hazardous jobs (X2 = 0.133, P = 1 and high prevalence of DUE disorders is due to low turnover rate of workers.

  5. The Stability of Revegetated Ecosystems in Sandy Areas: An Assessment and Prediction Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The stability and sustainability of revegetated ecosystems is a central topic in ecological research. In this study, long-term monitoring and focused research on vegetation, soil and soil moisture from 2006 to 2012 were used to develop a model for evaluating indices of ecosystem stability using the analytical hierarchy process method. The results demonstrated that rainfall (R, vegetation coverage (C, and surface soil moisture (S were the three most influential factors among the 14 indicators considered in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China. A stability index (SI was defined as SI = VAR (R × VAR (C/VAR (S, and a comparative study was conducted to examine the stability index of the natural vegetation community. The SI was divided into three regimes: SI < 0.006 was stable, 0.006 ≤ SI < 0.015 was semi-stable, and 0.015 ≤ SI was unstable. The stable, semi-stable and unstable periods of revegetated ecosystems in our simulations were 191, 17 and 11 years, respectively, within the total modeling period of 219 years. These results indicated that the revegetated desert ecosystem would be stable in most years during the vegetation succession, and this study presents new ideas for future artificial vegetation management in arid desert regions.

  6. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  7. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.

  8. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  9. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  10. ASSESSING GOING-CONCERN ASSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM BORSA ISTANBUL (BIST INDUSTRIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan TERZİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable model for the Industrial Index of Borsa Istanbul (BIST to evaluate of going-concern. Variables consisting of financial statements and activity reports between the years 2009-2014 of firms that are publicly exchanged in BIST Industrial Index were used in the research. Among the variables selected a correlation analysis was conducted to test whether multi- collinearity existed or not. Based on the results of correlation analysis the paper formed four models by using logistic regression method. The results of logistic regression analysis put forward a statistically significant relationships among several variables namely; going-concern of the firm and the period between the balance sheet date and the date of audit report, firm’s size of assets, revenue of the firm, the risk of failure with respect to financial factors, financial leverage ratio, ratio of working capital to total assets and ratio of cash from operating activities to total assets. Moreover, 80% success rate for four models that were formed in the paper was obtained.

  11. Jaunimo tapatumo raiška: „kūno vaizdo“ sutrikimo atvejis (sociologinė analizė)

    OpenAIRE

    Paskačienė, Ineta

    2013-01-01

    Darbo tikslas – ištirti jaunimo vertinimą apie tapatumo ir „kūno vaizdo“ nuokrypį valgymo sutrikimų kontekste. Darbo uždaviniai: ištirti sociologinę tapatumo sampratą, jauno žmogaus tapatumo raidos ir raiškos bruožus; išnagrinėti vartotojiškos visuomenės iššūkius jauno žmogaus tapatumui ir vertybėms, įtaką „kūno vaizdo“ formavimui(si); išanalizuoti jauno žmogaus valgymo sutrikimų ypatumus bei atsiradimo priežastis ir pasekmes modernioje visuomenėje; atlikti sociologinį tyrimą, leidžiantį ...

  12. Prevalence of helminthic infections and risk factors in villagers of Nanglae Sub-District, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruankham, Watcharapong; Bunchu, Nophawan; Koychusakun, Patchara

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to survey the prevalence of helminthic infections in people living in Nanglae Sub-District of Chiang Rai Province, Thailand from January to March 2013, and to determine factors that correlated with these infections. Two hundred and sixty-three fecal samples were examined for helminth eggs by the use of Kato's thick smear technique. All data were analyzed by descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and correlations (Odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]). The percentage of overall helminthic infections was 11.8%, comprising 6.1% Taenia spp., 4.5%, Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.4% flukes producing opisthorchiid-like eggs. In addition, the prevalence of helminthic infection correlated significantly with the consumption of raw meat (OR = 2.270, 95% CI = 1.047-4.923) and raising dogs in the house (OR = 2.444, 95% CI = 1.080-5.534). PMID:24851562

  13. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ju Chang; Laura Schneider; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2015-01-01

    Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD) in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, re...

  14. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Francesc Alonso

    2015-04-01

    The fact that the considered indexes were not able to find significant differences in the beta band might indicate that phase-coupling changes induced by the drug are weak or too subtle to be detected, given that all measures are corrected by a baseline recording. This might discourage their use in psychopharmacological studies when assessing low doses, mild effects, or when working with a reduced number of participants. However, correlations with plasma concentrations remained high, indicating that PLI, WPLI and IC should not be totally discarded as means of evaluating pharmacological effects on the brain via EEG recordings.

  15. Assessing the Snow Advance Index as potential predictor of winter streamflow of the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, José Manuel; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the ability of the Eurasian snow cover increase during the previous October as potential predictor of winter streamflow in the Iberian Peninsula Rivers. The streamflow data base used has been provided by the Center for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, CEDEX. Series from gauging stations and reservoirs with less than 10% of missing data (filled by regression with well correlated neighboring stations) have been considered. The homogeneity of these series has been evaluated through the Pettit test and degree of human alteration by the Common Area Index. The application of these criteria led to the selection of 382 streamflow time series homogeneously distributed over the Iberian Peninsula, covering the period 1975-2008. For this streamflow data, winter seasonal values were obtained by averaging the monthly values from January to March. The recently proposed Snow Advance Index (SAI) was employed to monitor the snow cover increase during previous October. The stability of the correlations was the criterion followed to establish if SAI could be considered as potential predictor of winter streamflow at each gauging station. Winter streamflow is predicted using a linear regression model. A leave-one-out cross validation approach was adopted to create calibration and validations subsets. The correlation coefficient (RHO), Root Mean Square Error Skill Score (RMSESS) and the Gerrity Skill Score (GSS) were used to evaluate the forecasting skill. From the 382 stations evaluated, significant and stable correlations with SAI were found in 238 stations, covering most of the IP (except for the Cantabrian and Mediterranean slopes). Some forecasting skill was found in 223 of them, being this skill moderate (RHO>0.44, RMSESS>10%, GSS>0.2) in 141 of them, and particularly good (RHO>0.5, RMSESS>20%, GSS>0.4) in 23. This study shows that the SAI of previous October is a reliable predictor of following winter streamflow for the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

  16. The Competitiveness of Agricultural Foreign Trade Commodities of the CR Assessed by Way of the Lafay Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Burianová, A. Belova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with agricultural foreign trade of the Czech Republic in the period of 2008 – 2011. For the whole sector structure of agricultural production – 24 aggregations of commodities structured according to chapters of food goods - it attempts to ascertain how the individual commodities are faring on the foreign market. It presents several tools for the assessment of competitiveness. Primarily, this includes the Balassa auxiliary RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index, and the Lafay index. The last, most comprehensive criterion was utilized – the Lafay index. For the years in question, attention is first given to the overall development of agricultural foreign trade (AFT, the value of export and import is summarized, and the balance and turnover is calculated. The territorial structure is shown, total export is studied, as well as export into the EU 27 countries, into the three countries that are the biggest trading partners (Germany, Slovakia, Poland and into third countries. For the last year, 2011, the results for the aggregations of commodities that show up on the given market are processed into clear tables, with the order of the first five aggregations of commodities being shown. The results for the year 2008 are set out briefly, and changes in the structure that occurred within the past four years are discussed.The article was prepared as part of the Research Project MSM 6046070906 “Economics of Resources of Czech Agriculture and Their Effective Utilization within Multifunctional Agricultural-Food Systems”.

  17. Can gender differences during exercise-heat stress be assessed by the physiological strain index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S; Shapiro, Y; Laor, A; Izraeli, S; Pandolf, K B

    1999-06-01

    A physiological strain index (PSI) based on rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate (HR) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PSI for gender differences under various combinations of exercise intensity and climate. Two groups of eight men each were formed according to maximal rate of O2 consumption (VO2 max). The first group of men (M) was matched to a group of nine women (W) with similar (P > 0.001) VO2 max (46.1 +/- 2.0 and 43.6 +/- 2.9 ml. kg-1. min-1, respectively). The second group of men (MF) was significantly (P 0.05) were found between matched genders (M and W) at the same exposure for sweat rate, relative VO2 max (%VO2 max), and PSI. However, MF had significantly (P acceptance and application.

  18. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  19. How Universal Is the Relationship between Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices and Crop Leaf Area Index? A Global Assessment

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    Yanghui Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key variable that bridges remote sensing observations to the quantification of agroecosystem processes. In this study, we assessed the universality of the relationships between crop LAI and remotely sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs. We first compiled a global dataset of 1459 in situ quality-controlled crop LAI measurements and collected Landsat satellite images to derive five different VIs including Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, two versions of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and EVI2, and Green Chlorophyll Index (CIGreen. Based on this dataset, we developed global LAI-VI relationships for each crop type and VI using symbolic regression and Theil-Sen (TS robust estimator. Results suggest that the global LAI-VI relationships are statistically significant, crop-specific, and mostly non-linear. These relationships explain more than half of the total variance in ground LAI observations (R2 > 0.5, and provide LAI estimates with RMSE below 1.2 m2/m2. Among the five VIs, EVI/EVI2 are the most effective, and the crop-specific LAI-EVI and LAI-EVI2 relationships constructed by TS, are robust when tested by three independent validation datasets of varied spatial scales. While the heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes leads to a diverse set of local LAI-VI relationships, the relationships provided here represent global universality on an average basis, allowing the generation of large-scale spatial-explicit LAI maps. This study contributes to the operationalization of large-area crop modeling and, by extension, has relevance to both fundamental and applied agroecosystem research.

  20. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  1. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported. PMID:26942843

  2. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: A Scale for Assessing the Burden of Caregivers to Adults with Unipolar or Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients’ mood symptoms, caregivers’ worry about the future, and caregivers’ interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients’ pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The MDBI was administered to caregivers of older individuals (i.e., 58 years and older) with MDD (n = 123) or BD (n = 38 who were receiving treatment through a research study. Analyses indicated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure well as internal consistency within both caregiver groups. It will be important for future research to administer the MDBI to caregivers of middle-aged and older patients as well as those receiving treatment through inpatient settings or community outpatient clinics. PMID:19427705

  3. Using a lethality index to assess susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the knockdown effect caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults. Furthermore, for the same species and insecticides, we developed a “lethality index”, to assess knockdown p...

  4. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  5. Hyperglycaemic index as a tool to assess glucose control : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, M; van der Horst, ICC; Nijsten, MWN

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients may benefit from strict glucose control. An objective measure of hyperglycaemia for assessing glucose control in acutely ill patients should reflect the magnitude and duration of hyperglycaemia, should be independent of the number of measurements, and should not

  6. Model-based assessment of estuary ecosystem health using the latent health factor index, with application to the richibucto estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S Chiu

    Full Text Available The ability to quantitatively assess ecological health is of great interest to those tasked with monitoring and conserving ecosystems. For decades, biomonitoring research and policies have relied on multimetric health indices of various forms. Although indices are numbers, many are constructed based on qualitative procedures, thus limiting the quantitative rigor of the practical interpretations of such indices. The statistical modeling approach to construct the latent health factor index (LHFI was recently developed. With ecological data that otherwise are used to construct conventional multimetric indices, the LHFI framework expresses such data in a rigorous quantitative model, integrating qualitative features of ecosystem health and preconceived ecological relationships among such features. This hierarchical modeling approach allows unified statistical inference of health for observed sites (along with prediction of health for partially observed sites, if desired and of the relevance of ecological drivers, all accompanied by formal uncertainty statements from a single, integrated analysis. Thus far, the LHFI approach has been demonstrated and validated in a freshwater context. We adapt this approach to modeling estuarine health, and illustrate it on the previously unassessed system in Richibucto in New Brunswick, Canada, where active oyster farming is a potential stressor through its effects on sediment properties. Field data correspond to health metrics that constitute the popular AZTI marine biotic index and the infaunal trophic index, as well as abiotic predictors preconceived to influence biota. Our paper is the first to construct a scientifically sensible model that rigorously identifies the collective explanatory capacity of salinity, distance downstream, channel depth, and silt-clay content-all regarded a priori as qualitatively important abiotic drivers-towards site health in the Richibucto ecosystem. This suggests the potential

  7. Assessment Framework of Building Facade in Optimizing Indoor Thermal Comfort of Green Building Index (GBI Certified Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tharim Asniza Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the construction industry has seen a new trend in the development of “green” or “sustainable” construction concept around the world with vast support from prominent organization, together with the introduction of sustainable building codes. The establishment of green building certification systems worldwide is seen as one of the most efforts in the emerging green building movement. In order to support the development of the “green” and “sustainable” concept in Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI was launched by the government on 21 May 2009 that created to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness of environmental issues. However, the construction industry seems to have focused only on findings the “right mechanism” for an environmentally sustainable “final result” in order for the building to be certified as green with the lacking of continuous assessment on the building performance after the certifications. This study is purposely conducted to investigate the performance of various rated Green Building Index (GBI Non-Residential New Construction office buildings and the influence on Indoor Thermal Comfort (ITC of the selected buildings. The aim is to develop an assessment framework for optimum green building architectural façade to be used for office buildings in Malaysia as well as to analyse the occupants’ perception, satisfaction and performance in the selected Green Building Index (GBI rated office indoor environment. This research is still in its infancy; therefore the paper is focused on research aims, research scope and methodology, and expected deliverables for the proposed research.

  8. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Higginbottom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The development of multi-temporal analysis as a desertification assessment technique is reviewed, with a focus on how current practice has been shaped by controversy and dispute within the literature. The statistical techniques commonly employed are examined from both a statistical as well as ecological point of view, and recommendations are made for future research directions. The scientific requirements for degradation and desertification monitoring systems identified here are: (I the validation of methodologies in a robust and comparable manner; and (II the detection of degradation at minor intensities and magnitudes. It is also established that the multi-temporal analysis of vegetation index data can provide a sophisticated measure of ecosystem health and variation, and that, over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in the respective research.

  9. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  10. Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Tajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd (2.15±1.17 followed by Zn (1.12±0.09, Pb (0.44±0.32, and lastly, Co (0.36±0.04. Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

  11. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

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    Neil A Brummitt

    Full Text Available Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  12. Objective assessment of motor fatigue in multiple sclerosis: the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehle, Aida; Vieten, Manfred; Sailer, Simon; Mündermann, Annegret; Dettmers, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue is a common and frequently disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to develop the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS) for detecting motor fatigue in patients with MS using kinematic gait analysis. The FKS relies on the chaos theoretical term "attractor", which, if unchanged, is a necessary and sufficient indicator of a stable dynamical system. We measured the acceleration of the feet at the beginning of and shortly before stopping a treadmill walking task in 20 healthy subjects and 40 patients with multiple sclerosis. The attractor and movement variability were calculated. In the absence of muscular exhaustion a significant difference in the attractor and movement variability between the two time points demonstrates altered motor control indicating fatigue. Subjects were classified using the FKS. All healthy subjects had normal FKS and thus no fatigue. 29 patients with MS were classified into a fatigue group and 11 patients into a non-fatigue group. This classification agreed with the physician's observation and video analyses in up to 97 % of cases. The FKS did not correlate significantly with the overall and motor dimensions of the fatigue questionnaire scores in patients with MS and motor fatigue. The common concept of fatigue as overall subjective sensation of exhaustion can be affected by conditions including depression, sleep disorder and others. FKS constitutes a robust and objective measure of changes in motor performance. Therefore, the FKS allows correct identification of motor fatigue even in cases where common comorbidities mask motor fatigue. PMID:24952620

  13. Methodology for Calculating a Complex Index for Assessing the Pressure of Regional Indicators on Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the correlations between regional employment in public administration and several major phenomena, starting from the case of Romania’s regions trying to find a territorial statistical solution for measuring the process itself. In this article, especially in its own methodology and methods, the territorial index is estimated as a result of the pressure of other major regional factors, synthesized by specific indicators and indices. The first section describes some conceptual and legal aspects of the regional employment level in public administration and contemporary statistical delimitation of regions in Romania. The second section underlines the originality of the methods and methodology, and the third section defines the three characteristics of the new solutions: the relative temporal, spatial and structural proportionality, the relative trends of an adequate econometric model, and the limits of regional concentration and diversification using the Gini-Struck coefficient in an ABC curve. The analysis of the complexity and impact of the new statistical instruments on regional employment in public administration, its characteristic Romanian limits and the final conclusion show that only an original methodology, some innovative methods and new statistical instruments lead to a better and adequate solution for an optimum level of employment.

  14. Assessment of network traffic congestion through Traffic Congestability Value (TCV: a new index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Nilanchal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major and growing problem in urban areas across the globe. It reduces the effective spatial interaction between different locations. To mitigate traffic congestion, not only the actual status of different routes needs to be known but also it is imperative to determine network congestion in different spatial zones associated with distinct land use classes. In the present paper, a new formula is proposed to quantify traffic congestion in the different spatial zones of a study area characterized by distinct land use classes. The proposed formula is termed the Traffic Congestability Value (TCV. The formula considers three major influencing factors: congestion index value, pedestrian movement and road surface conditions; since these parameters are significantly related to land use in a region. The different traffic congestion parameters, i.e. travel time, average speed and the proportion of time stopped, were collected in real time. Lower values of TCV correspond to a higher degree of congestion in the respective spatial zones and vice-versa and the results were validated in the field. TCV differs from the previous approaches to quantifying traffic congestion since it focuses on the causes of network congestion while in previous works the focus was generally on link flow congestion.

  15. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  16. Augmentation index assessed by applanation tonometry is elevated in Marfan Syndrome

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    Maxwell Simon R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether augmentation index (AIx is increased in Marfan syndrome (MFS and associated with increased aortic root size, and whether a peripheral-to-central generalised transfer function (GTF can be applied usefully in MFS. Methods 10 MFS patients and 10 healthy controls (matched for sex, age and height were studied before and after 400 μg sub-lingual GTN. Arterial waveforms were recorded using applanation tonometry. AIx and pulse pressure (PP were determined for the radial and carotid arteries. Pulse wave velocity (PWV was measured between carotid and femoral arteries. GTFs were generated to examine the relationship between radial and carotid waveforms. Results AIx was greater in MFS compared to controls at radial (mean -31.4 (SD 14.3% v -50.2(15.6%, p = 0.003 and carotid (-7.6(11.2% v -23.7(12.7%, p = 0.004 sites. Baseline PP at all measurement sites, and PWV, did not differ between subject groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PWV and carotid AIx were positively correlated with aortic root size (p Conclusion AIx is sensitive to the vascular abnormalities present in MFS, and may have a role as an adjunct to measurement of central PP and PWV. Differences between MFS and controls in the nature of the peripheral-to-central GTF are present, although have little effect on the pulse contour.

  17. Assessment of sexual function in patients undergoing vasectomy using the international index of erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bertero

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aims to prospectively compare the sexual function in males before and after vasectomy surgery using the international index of erectile function (IIEF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October to December 2002, sixty-four patients who were candidates for male sterilization in the vasectomy program of the Urology Section at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo were included. The same investigator applied the IIEF before and 90 days after the surgery. The mean scores obtained on pre and postoperative visits for all domains of sexual function were analyzed and compared with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 35 years (range from 25 to 48 years and the mean number of children per man was 3. The total mean score of the IIEF was 64.06 before surgery and 65.64 after the procedure, with this difference considered statistically significant (p < 0.001. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients improved their scores, versus 17% and 16% who showed worsening or no change at all in IIEF scores following surgery, respectively. Of the 5 sexual function domains, desire and sexual satisfaction presented statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION: This study showed that vasectomy caused a positive impact on sexual function, especially on desire and sexual satisfaction, in the majority of men undergoing surgery. There was no case of surgery-related erectile dysfunction.

  18. Geostatistics for Mapping Leaf Area Index over a Cropland Landscape: Efficiency Sampling Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Haro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of spatial methods to estimate leaf area index (LAI fields from ground-based measurements at high-spatial resolution over a cropland landscape. Three geostatistical model variants of the kriging technique, the ordinary kriging (OK, the collocated cokriging (CKC and kriging with an external drift (KED are used. The study focused on the influence of the spatial sampling protocol, auxiliary information, and spatial resolution in the estimates. The main advantage of these models lies in the possibility of considering the spatial dependence of the data and, in the case of the KED and CKC, the auxiliary information for each location used for prediction purposes. A high-resolution NDVI image computed from SPOT TOA reflectance data is used as an auxiliary variable in LAI predictions. The CKC and KED predictions have proven the relevance of the auxiliary information to reproduce the spatial pattern at local scales, proving the KED model to be the best estimator when a non-stationary trend is observed. Advantages and limitations of the methods in LAI field predictions for two systematic and two stratified spatial samplings are discussed for high (20 m, medium (300 m and coarse (1 km spatial scales. The KED has exhibited the best observed local accuracy for all the spatial samplings. Meanwhile, the OK model provides comparable results when a well stratified sampling scheme is considered by land cover.

  19. Accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing legal adulthood on Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelic, Ksenija; Galic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Milosevic, Olga; Djuric, Marija; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    At the moment, a large number of asylum seekers from the Middle East are passing through Serbia. Most of them do not have identification documents. Also, the past wars in the Balkan region have left many unidentified victims and missing persons. From a legal point of view, it is crucial to determine whether a person is a minor or an adult (≥18 years of age). In recent years, methods based on the third molar development have been used for this purpose. The present article aims to verify the third molar maturity index (I3M) based on the correlation between the chronological age and normalized measures of the open apices and height of the third mandibular molar. The sample consisted of 598 panoramic radiographs (290 males and 299 females) from 13 to 24 years of age. The cut-off value of I3M=0.08 was used to discriminate adults and minors. The results demonstrated high sensitivity (0.96, 0.86) and specificity (0.94, 0.98) in males and females, respectively. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.95 in males and 0.91 in females. In conclusion, the suggested value of I3M=0.08 can be used on Serbian population with high accuracy.

  20. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared H. Bowden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drought timescales that have implications for agriculture and water resources planning. The regional climate generated by WRF has the largest improvement over reanalysis for SPI correlation with observations as the drought timescale increases. This suggests that dynamically downscaled fields may be more reliable than larger-scale fields for water resource applications (e.g., water storage within reservoirs. WRF improves the timing and intensity of moderate to extreme wet and dry periods, even in regions with homogenous terrain. This study also examines changes in SPI from the extreme drought of 1988 and three “drought busting” tropical storms. Each of those events illustrates the importance of using downscaling to resolve the spatial extent of droughts. The analysis of the “drought busting” tropical storms demonstrates that while the impact of these storms on ending prolonged droughts is improved by the RCM relative to the reanalysis, it remains underestimated. These results illustrate the importance and some limitations of using RCMs to project drought.

  1. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  2. Feeding diversity index as complementary information in the assessment of ecological quality status

    OpenAIRE

    Gamito, Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João M.; Teixeira, Heliana; Marques, João Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The feeding diversity of macroinvertebrates from the estuary of Mondego was estimated with Shannon–Wiener complementary evenness following the methodology presented in Gamito and Furtado (2009. Ecological Indicators, 9: 1009-1019). Results were compared with those from BAT (Benthic Assessment Tool; Teixeira et al., 2009. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58: 1477-1786) applied to the same data set, obtained from sampling carried out in 14 estuarine subtidal stations in Spring of 1990, 1992, 1998,...

  3. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka; Vilendečić Rade

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of...

  4. Analyses and Standard-Index Assessment of Writing Motion Using Haptic Pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuhito; Katsura, Seiichiro

    In recent times, the decrease in the number of experienced engineers has become a serious problem. One of the solutions for this problem is to develop a training system which robots assist people to acquire the necessary skills. For developing training system, the extraction and quantitative assessment of information on an engineer's motion is required. In particular, force information is important, especially for a contact motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of the force information is necessary. In this study, a “haptic pen” is used to obtain the exerted writing pressures as force information. Next, the most universal motion from among a number of motions of the engineer is selected and the degree of coincidence of the motion with the most universal motion is determined. The concept of “eigen-universality” is introduced to assess motion, which is of the same type and performed by the same person. To quantitatively evaluate the eigen-universality, graph theory and the coefficient of correlation are used. Moreover, using the coefficient of correlation to obtain “universality” helps us to analyze the degree of coincidence between the most general motion and another motion. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments.

  5. THE EFFECT OF SERVICE QUALITY IN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT I GUSTI NGURAH RAI ON SATISFACTION, IMAGE, AND TOURISTS LOYALTY WHO VISITED BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroha Manulang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Airport are the first and the last contact point for tourists when they arrive at their holiday destination. Therefore, the airport facilities are a source of first impression that effect the quality expectations of the tourists on holiday activities. Bali as a world class tourism destination to develop and renovate the Ngurah Rai International Airport in order to improve quality of service in order to give higher satisfaction for tourists visiting Bali. Based on this study aims to determine (1 the effect of quality of service to tourists' satisfaction and the image of Bali tourism; (2 the effect of the image of tourism and the quality of service to the loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (3 the effect of the satisfaction of tourists to the tourism image and loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (4 the effect of indirect tourism image of the traveler loyalty through satisfaction of tourists; (5 service quality indirectly traveler loyalty through tourism image; and (6 to determine the rating opinion on the quality of service Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport. Population of this research was all foreign tourists visiting Bali through Ngurah Rai Airport at the time of the research. The research samples included 348 respondents were chosen with nonprobability sampling. accidental sampling technique. Data collected through questionnaires, interviews and observations. The collected data were analyzed with SERVQUAL, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM for hypothesis testing. The results showed (1 the quality of service Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport is a positive effect on tourist satisfaction and the image of Bali tourism; (2 the image of tourism and service quality Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport is a positive effect on loyalty rating; (3 The traveler satisfaction positive effect on tourism image and loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (4 Tourism image positive effect on loyalty through

  6. Benefit evaluation of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration by an assessment index model based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-hui; GAN Lian-jun

    2007-01-01

    An assessment index model was established to evaulate the benefit of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration through the analytical hierarchy process. Totally 43 indicators were selected to assess the impact of migration on the economic, social and ecological environmental aspects of the migration communities, with the data of the indicators of the years 1992, 1998, 2002 which represented the period of premigration, the end of the first phase migration and the end of the second phase migration, respectively. The evaluation matrix is sufficiently consistent, with a consistency ratio CR equal to 0.086 3. The assessment turned out a benefit value for the economic subsystem in the year 2004 larger than triple the value in the year 1992, indicating a remarkable economic growth in the Reservoir area. The constantly increasing value for the social subsystem reflects the stable social situations. There is a slight decline in the assessment outcome of the ecological subsystem for the year 1998, which implies enviromental conservation was given insufficient importance during that period. On the whole, the implementation of the migration project is favorable to the Reservoir region, as confirmed by the stably increasing overall evaluation value from 42.22% in 1992 to 68.81% in 2002. However, there is still much room to improve from the status quo to the target criteria.

  7. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  8. Early-season agricultural drought: detection, assessment and monitoring using Shortwave Angle and Slope Index (SASI) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prabir Kumar; Murthy, Srirama C; Seshasai, M V R

    2013-12-01

    Early season or crop-planting-period (ES/CPP) drought conditions have become a recurrent phenomenon in tropical countries like India, due to fluctuations in the time of onset and progression of monsoon rains. ES/CPP agricultural drought assessment is a major challenge because of the difficulties in the generation of operational products on soil moisture at larger scales. The present study analyzed the Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI) derived from Near Infrared and Shortwave Infrared data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, for tracking surface moisture changes and assessing the agricultural drought conditions during ES/CPP, over Andhra Pradesh state, India. It was found that in-season progression of SASI was well correlated with rainfall and crop planting patterns in different districts of the study area state in both drought and normal years. Rainfall occurrence, increase in crop planted area, and decrease in SASI were in chronological synchronization in the season. Change in SASI from positive to negative values is a unique indication of dryness to wetness shift in the season. Duration of positive SASI values indicated the persistence of agricultural drought in the crop planting period. Mean SASI values were able to discriminate an area which was planted in normal year and unplanted in drought year. SASI thresholds provide an approximate and rapid estimate of the crop planting favorable area in a region which is useful to assess the impact of drought. Thus, SASI is a potential index to strengthen the existing operational drought monitoring systems. Further work needs to be on the integration of multiple parameters-SASI, soil texture, soil depth, rainfall and cropping pattern, to evolve a geospatial product on crop planting favorable areas. Such products pave the way for quantification of drought impact on agriculture in the early part of the season, which is a major inadequacy in the current drought monitoring system. PMID:23793539

  9. Assessment of Life Quality Index Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Suburban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; Rajaprabha, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of...

  10. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI) in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Randler; Julia Haun; Steffen Schaal

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep). The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake ...

  11. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR as outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED trial. SUBJECTS: 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. RESULTS: Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049 for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038 for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80 for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80 for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  12. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui; LI; Atsushi; TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru; TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security.Because the relationships among short-term rainfall,soil moisture,and crop growth are complex,accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult.In this study,using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction,we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region,Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region,China.To quantify drought,we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI),the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index(CMI),as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI).Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season(May–September)and final yield,according to data collection from 2000 to 2010.The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July,but no correlation with SPI.Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad,particularly in July.To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale,a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years.The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area.Therefore,the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  13. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  14. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Pronio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC. To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI. However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use of modified-PDAI (mPDAI with exclusion of histologic subscore has been proposed. We tested the ability of calprotectin measurement in the pouch endoluminal content to mimic the histologic score as defined in the PDAI, the index that we adopted as gold standard for pouchitis diagnosis. Calprotectin was measured by ELISA in the pouch endoluminal content collected during endoscopy in 40 consecutive patients with J-pouch. In each patient PDAI and mPDAI were calculated and 15% of patients were erroneously classified by mPDAI. ROC analysis of calprotectin values vs. acute histological subscore ≥ 3 identified different calprotectin cut-off values with corresponding sensitivity and specificity allowing the definition and scoring of different range of calprotectin subscores. We incorporated the calprotectin score in the mPDAI obtaining a new score that shows the same specificity as PDAI for diagnosis of pouchitis and higher sensitivity when compared with mPDAI. The use of the proposed new score, once validated in a larger series of patients, might be useful in the early management of patients with symptoms of pouchitis.

  15. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security. Because the rela-tionships among short-term rainfall, soil moisture, and crop growth are complex, accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult. In this study, using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction, we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region, Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. To quantify drought, we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipita-tion Index (SPI), the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index (CMI), as well as the Normalized Difference Vegeta-tion Index (NDVI). Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season (May-September) and final yield, according to data collection from 2000 to 2010. The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July, but no correlation with SPI. Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad, particularly in July. To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale, a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years. The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area. Therefore, the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  16. The area of the pressure-flow loop for assessment of arterial stenosis: a new index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava; Einav, Shmuel; Zaretsky, Uri; Castel, David; Toledo, Eran; Eldar, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study describes a novel method for assessing stenotic severity, based on simultaneous pressure and flow wave measurements. Pressure and flow measurements were performed in latex and rubber tubes, and in a clinically-used vascular graft. Pressure waves were recorded at several degrees of stenosis and at different distances proximal to the stenosis. Pressure wave versus flow wave was plotted. Internal pressure-flow loop area (PFLA), loop slope and pressure-axis intercept were calculated. Values of these three indices significantly increased with increasing degrees of stenosis P sensor and stenosis (R2 > 0.96). In addition, tube compliance was measured and found to correlate with the polynomial coefficients (/R/ > 0.9). This innovative approach could significantly contribute to detecting and evaluating arterial stenoses, and to characterize the elasticity of the artery. PMID:11847447

  17. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The objective of this study was to determine the most effective diagnostic procedure when assessing fetal oxygenation. Materials and Methods. The prospective study included 119 pregnant women. They all underwent cardiotocography, biophysical profile and colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The babies’ umbilical artery blood pH was determined in the first minute upon birth, along with the Apgar score. Results. The results were processed statistically and the most effective diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of fetal oxygenation was selected, after which the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality were calculated. The findings revealed that cardiotocography was the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, while the fetal biophysical profile proved the most specific. The rates of perinatal morbidity and of perinatal mortality were 24.37% and 1.68%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings analysis revealed a high statistical significance of both biophysical tests and the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation as predictors of the fetal distress syndrome. The analysis of the cerebral-umbilical ratio and biophysical tests showed that the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation not only was more sensitive as a parameter compared to biophysical tests but it was also more specific than cardiotocography. Cardiotocography is the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, followed by the cerebral

  18. CT finding is an index in assessment of outcome in patients with diffuse traumatic brain swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the prognosis of the patients with diffuse traumatic brain swelling (DTBS) and the changes of the ventricles and the cisterns in CT scans. Methods: The outcome of the patients with DTBS and the changes of the ventricles and the cisterns in CT scans were studied and analyzed in a group of 268 cases.We focused on the changes of the third ventricle and the basal cistern, age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: Of 268 cases, there were changes of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern in 124, 65 died. In 18 cases, the third ventricle and the basal cistern were both absent and 16 died (88.9%). The third ventricle changed significantly in 59 cases, 33 died (55.9%), while the basal cistern changed in 47 cases and 16 died (34%). Of the 124 patients with changes of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern, 26 were children, 8 died; 98 adults, 57 died. Conclusions: For patients with DTBS, the outcome was in direct correlation with the change of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern, the change of the third ventricle was much more important in assessment of the outcome than that of basal cisterns. There is no significant difference in, the incidence of DTBS between children and adults while the outcome of children is much better than that of adults. The patients with the changes of the third ventricle and the basal cistern accompanied with lower GCS scores have poor outcome.

  19. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  20. Assessing the Influence of Different Comorbidities Indexes on the Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Developing Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Machado Teixeira

    Full Text Available Although the application of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI has enabled better prediction of transplant-related mortality (TRM in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (AHSCT, data from developing countries are scarce. This study prospectively evaluated the HCT-CI and the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE-27, in its original and in a modified version, as predictors of post-transplant complications in adults undergoing a first related or unrelated AHSCT in Brazil. Both bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC as graft sources were included. We analyzed the cumulative incidence of granulocyte and platelet recovery, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse and transplant-related mortality, and rates of event-free survival and overall survival. Ninety-nine patients were assessed. Median age was 38 years (18-65 years; HCT-CI ≥ 3 accounted for only 8% of cases; hematologic malignancies comprised 75.8% of the indications for AHSCT. There was no association between the HCT-CI or the original or modified ACE-27 with TRM or any other studied outcomes after AHSCT. These results show that, in the population studied, none of the comorbidity indexes seem to be associated with AHSCT outcomes. A significantly low frequency of high-risk (HCT-CI ≥ 3 in this Brazilian population might justify these results.

  1. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  2. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-08

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  3. Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móslem SAMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and energy of wheat and maize production systems in two farms in Khuzestan province of Iran was assessed. The results showed that totally wheat farming is more efficient than maize farming in terms of energy and CO2-eq indexes. The total energy requirement for maize and wheat farming was 92560.24 MJ ha-1 and 39624.15 MJ ha-1, which caused the emission of 20191.47 and 7541.04 kg CO2-equivalent per hectare in maize and wheat farms respectively. Electricity, fertilizers and fuel were the most important pollutants of environment in terms of energy and gas emission in both farms. Theses inputs consumed 55.52, 22.62 and 6.44 % of total energy of maize and 47.32, 21.19 and 9.01 % of total energy of wheat farm and were responsible for the 88.60, 8.79 and 2.03 % of CO2-equivalent in maize and 86.54, 9.54 and 3.24 % of CO2-equivalent in wheat farms respectively. The results of this study also showed that the enhancement of 60.74 and 27.02 % in energy ratio and 46.06 and 27.87 % in CO2-eq index in maize and wheat farming can be expected using simple improving scenarios.

  4. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  5. Validation of nutritional risk index method against patient-generated subjective global assessment in screening malnutrition in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578

  6. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  7. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  8. Oferta ir akceptas kaip šalių valios sudaryti sutartį išraiška – teoriniai ir praktiniai aspektai

    OpenAIRE

    Karpickis, Kazimieras

    2011-01-01

    Šiame magistro baigiamajame darbe atskleidžiama ofertos ir akcepto, kaip asmens valios išraiškos aktų, teisinė prigimtis. Kadangi teisės doktrinoje ir teismų praktikoje oferta ir akceptas yra prilyginami vienašaliams sandoriams, darbe oferta ir akceptas yra analizuojami sandorių ir vienos iš jų rūšies, t. y. vienašalių sandorių, atžvilgiu. Pirmajame darbo skyriuje analizuojama asmens valia ir jos išraiška bei prieinama išvados, jog bendrąja prasme, nevertinant ofertos ir akcepto teisinės prig...

  9. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H; Lawrence, Theodore S; Tsien, Christina I; Cao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test–retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability

  10. Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, R. [Halton OY, Kausala (Finland); Tan, F. [CapitaLand Commercial Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This theoretical study reports on the assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned office buildings using the PMV approach and makes use of Wyon's reviews [D.P. Wyon, P.O. Fanger, B.W. Olesen, C.J.K. Pedersen, The mental performance of subjects clothed for comfort at two different air temperatures, Ergonomics 18 (1975) 358-374; D.P. Wyon, Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility, in: Proceedings of Indoor Air '96, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 1996; D.P. Wyon, Indoor environmental effects on productivity. IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/Keynote address. Y. Kevin. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp. 5-15] as the basis to compare and to relate how the productivity loss could be minimised through improved thermal comfort design criteria. The finding shows that task-related performance is significantly correlated with the human perception of thermal environment that in turn is dependent on temperatures. Different combinations of thermal criteria (air velocity, clo, metabolic, etc.) can lead to similar PMV value and the PMV equation is useful to predict productivity loss that is due to the rate of change in thermal conditions. The study also highlights the issues that remain to be resolved in future research. (author)

  11. The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppe, P

    1999-10-01

    With considerably increased coverage of weather information in the news media in recent years in many countries, there is also more demand for data that are applicable and useful for everyday life. Both the perception of the thermal component of weather as well as the appropriate clothing for thermal comfort result from the integral effects of all meteorological parameters relevant for heat exchange between the body and its environment. Regulatory physiological processes can affect the relative importance of meteorological parameters, e.g. wind velocity becomes more important when the body is sweating. In order to take into account all these factors, it is necessary to use a heat-balance model of the human body. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is based on the Munich Energy-balance Model for Individuals (MEMI), which models the thermal conditions of the human body in a physiologically relevant way. PET is defined as the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting (without wind and solar radiation), the heat budget of the human body is balanced with the same core and skin temperature as under the complex outdoor conditions to be assessed. This way PET enables a layperson to compare the integral effects of complex thermal conditions outside with his or her own experience indoors. On hot summer days, for example, with direct solar irradiation the PET value may be more than 20 K higher than the air temperature, on a windy day in winter up to 15 K lower.

  12. Behavioral regulation assessment in exercise: exploring an autonomous and controlled motivation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Moutão, João; Leitão, José; Alves, José

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and to test the hypothesis that the different types of behavioral regulation can be combined on a single factor to assess autonomous and controlled motivation. Data were collected from 550 members of private fitness centres who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years. The analysis supported an 18-item, 5-factor model after excluding one item (S-B chi2 = 221.7, df = 125, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 1.77; SRMR = .06; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .04, 90% CI = .03-.05). However, the analysis also revealed a lack of internal consistency. The results of a hierarchical model based on 2 second-order factors that reflected controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation) provided an acceptable fit to the data (S-B chi2 = 172.6, df = 74, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 2.33; SRMR = .07; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI = .04-.06), with reliability coefficients of .75 for controlled motivation and .76 for autonomous motivation. The study findings indicated that when item 17 was excluded, the Portuguese BREQ-2 was an appropriate measure of the controlled and autonomous motivation in exercise.

  13. A Novel Index Using Ankle Hemodynamic Parameters to Assess the Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Jun; Gatate, Yodo; Kasai, Takatoshi; Nakano, Shintaro; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Sato, Osamu; Ichioka, Shigeru; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities, the presence of flow-limiting stenoses can be objectively detected by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, the severity of ischemic symptoms is not necessarily associated with the ABI value. Atherosclerotic plaque in lower extremity PAD induces ankle arterial stiffness and reduces ankle vascular resistance, which may decrease ankle blood flow and cause ischemic symptoms. We hypothesized that the ankle hemodynamic index (AHI), defined as the ratio of ankle arterial stiffness to ankle vascular resistance, could be used to assess the blood supply deficiency in a diseased lower limb in patients with PAD. The 85 consecutive patients with PAD who were retrospectively analyzed in this study had Rutherford grade 1 to grade 6 ischemia diagnosed as PAD and significant stenotic lesions (>50% diameter stenosis) of the lower extremity on contrast angiography. The AHI was calculated as the product of the ankle pulse pressure and the ratio of heart rate to ankle mean arterial pressure (ankle pulse pressure × heart rate/ankle mean arterial pressure). The Rutherford grade was significantly correlated with the AHI (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), but not with the ABI (r = 0.07, P = 0.52). Multiple ordinal regression analysis showed that anemia (odds ratio 0.66, P = 0.002) and AHI (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.02) were independently associated with Rutherford grade. Our study shows that AHI, a novel parameter based on the ABI measurement, is well correlated with ischemic symptoms, and may be a useful means to assess the arterial blood supply of the lower extremities of patients with PAD. PMID:27760183

  14. FAbry STabilization indEX (FASTEX): an innovative tool for the assessment of clinical stabilization in Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Renzo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Berri, Francesco; Burlina, Alessandro; Chinea, Benito; Gallieni, Maurizio; Pieroni, Maurizio; Salviati, Alessandro; Spada, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Two disease severity scoring systems, the Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and Fabry Disease Severity Scoring System (DS3), have been validated for quantifying the disease burden of Fabry disease. We aimed to develop a dynamic mathematical model [the FASTEX (FAbry STabilization indEX)] to assess the clinical stability. A multidisciplinary panel of experts in Fabry disease first defined a novel score of severity [raw score (RS)] based on three domains with a small number items in each domain (nervous system domain: pain, cerebrovascular events; renal domain: proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate; cardiac domain: echocardiography parameters, electrocardiograph parameters and New York Heart Association class) and evaluated the clinical stability over time. The RS was tested in 28 patients (15 males, 13 females) with the classic form of Fabry disease. There was good statistical correlation between the newly established RS and a weighted score (WS), with DS3 and MSSI (R (2) = 0.914, 0.949, 0.910 and 0.938, respectively). In order to refine the RS further, a WS, which was expressed as a percentage value, was calculated. This was based on the relative clinical significance of each item within the domain with the panel agreeing on the attribution of a different weight of clinical damage to a specific organ system. To test the variation of the clinical burden over time, the RS was repeated after 1 year. The panel agreed on a cut-off of a 20% change from baseline as the clinical WS to define clinical stability. The FASTEX model showed good correlation with the clinical assessment and with clinical variation over time in all patients. PMID:27679722

  15. FAbry STabilization indEX (FASTEX): an innovative tool for the assessment of clinical stabilization in Fabry disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Renzo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Berri, Francesco; Burlina, Alessandro; Chinea, Benito; Gallieni, Maurizio; Pieroni, Maurizio; Salviati, Alessandro; Spada, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Two disease severity scoring systems, the Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and Fabry Disease Severity Scoring System (DS3), have been validated for quantifying the disease burden of Fabry disease. We aimed to develop a dynamic mathematical model [the FASTEX (FAbry STabilization indEX)] to assess the clinical stability. A multidisciplinary panel of experts in Fabry disease first defined a novel score of severity [raw score (RS)] based on three domains with a small number items in each domain (nervous system domain: pain, cerebrovascular events; renal domain: proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate; cardiac domain: echocardiography parameters, electrocardiograph parameters and New York Heart Association class) and evaluated the clinical stability over time. The RS was tested in 28 patients (15 males, 13 females) with the classic form of Fabry disease. There was good statistical correlation between the newly established RS and a weighted score (WS), with DS3 and MSSI (R2 = 0.914, 0.949, 0.910 and 0.938, respectively). In order to refine the RS further, a WS, which was expressed as a percentage value, was calculated. This was based on the relative clinical significance of each item within the domain with the panel agreeing on the attribution of a different weight of clinical damage to a specific organ system. To test the variation of the clinical burden over time, the RS was repeated after 1 year. The panel agreed on a cut-off of a 20% change from baseline as the clinical WS to define clinical stability. The FASTEX model showed good correlation with the clinical assessment and with clinical variation over time in all patients.

  16. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  17. Development of a diet quality index assessing adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations and dietary guidelines in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Jan; Wallström, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, di...

  18. Leaf Area Index and Biomass Assessment over Tropical Peatland Forest Ecosystem Using ALOS PalSAR and Envisat ASAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Arief; Susanti, Ari; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Wardhana, Wahyu; Yanto, Edi; Soeprijadi, Djoko; McFarlane, Craig; Qomar, Nurul

    2011-03-01

    Provision of accurate forest parameter properties is important as a basis for forest resources monitoring and carbon cycle assessment. The present study aims to model leaf area index (LAI), above ground biomass and carbon stocks over tropical peatland forests using single polarization SAR, full polarimetry SAR (PolSAR) data. Single band ALOS Palsar data (HH band, acquired on November 17, 2008) and polarimetric data (HH, VV, HV and VH, collected on April 4 and May 5, 2007) are used for the study. A series of ENVISAT ASAR data (5 datasets) collected in 2004 - 2005 are also used to model the forest properties. Landsat ETM data collected on January 22, 2009 is also used as a reference. The relationship between forest parameters and normalized radar backscattering is estimated using empirical models, and preliminary results show that Polarimetric SAR data has better correlations with the LAI and biomass than single polarimetry SAR data. The field data were collected during field work in March - April 2009 and the reliability of identified forest classes was also assessed from available Landsat ETM data. Analysis will be conducted on the basis of statistical correlations between radar data and modeled forest properties, such as LAI, biomass and tree age. This study focuses on a unique tropical peatland ecosystem in Kampar Peninsula, Sumatera, Indonesia, which has great potentials as carbon sinks and/or sources. Only few studies have been conducted in the study area due to limited satellite and field observation data.

  19. Multidimensional Geriatric Prognostic Index, Based on a Geriatric Assessment, for Long-Term Survival in Older Adults in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Won Jung

    Full Text Available The patient´s survival estimate is important for clinical decision-making, especially in frail patients with multimorbidities. We aimed to develop a multidimensional geriatric prognosis index (GPI for 3- and 5-year mortality in community-dwelling elderly and to validate the GPI in a separate hospital-based population. The GPI was constructed using data for 988 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA and cross-validated with 1109 patients who underwent a geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH. The GPI, with a total possible score of 8, included age, gender, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, comorbidities, mood, cognitive function, and nutritional status. During the 5-year observation period, 179 KLoSHA participants (18.1% and 340 SNUBH patients (30.7% died. The c-indices for 3- and 5-year mortality were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively, in the KLoSHA group and 0.73 and 0.80, respectively, in the SNUBH group. Positive linear trends were observed for GPI scores and both 3- and 5-year mortality in both groups. In conclusions, using common components of a geriatric assessment, the GPI can stratify the risk of 3- and 5-year mortality in Korean elderly people both in the community and hospital.

  20. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on estuarine fish nurseries along the Portuguese coast: a multi-metric index and conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R P; Reis-Santos, P; Fonseca, V; Maia, A; Ruano, M; França, S; Vinagre, C; Costa, M J; Cabral, H

    2007-03-15

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems and simultaneously among the most threatened by conflicting human activities which damage their ecological functions, namely their nursery role for many fish species. A thorough assessment of the anthropogenic pressures in Portuguese estuarine systems (Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) was made applying an aggregating multi-metric index, which quantitatively evaluates influences from key components: dams, population and industry, port activities and resource exploitation. Estuaries were ranked from most (Tejo) to least pressured (Mira), and the most influential types of pressure identified. In most estuaries overall pressure was generated by a dominant group of pressure components, with several systems being afflicted by similar problematic sources. An evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic pressures on the most important sparidae, soleidae, pleuronectidae, moronidae and clupeidae species that use these estuaries as nurseries was also performed. To consolidate information and promote management an ecological conceptual model was built to identify potential problems for the nursery function played by these estuaries, identifying pressure agents, ecological impacts and endpoints for the anthropogenic sources quantified in the assessment. This will be important baseline information to safeguard these vital areas, articulating information and forecasting the potential efficacy of future management options.

  1. Temporomandibular joint effusion and its relationship with perceived disability assessed using musculoskeletal ultrasound and a patient-reported disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Katie; Bird, Lance; Bright, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and patient-reported disability is poorly researched. This pilot study explored the link between TMJ inflammation as measured by ultrasound and patient disability assessed by the Steigerwald Maher TMD Disability Index (SMTDI). The study design used a prospective correlational approach involving a sample with TMJ dysfunction (TMD). Twenty-four patients were recruited from the European School of Osteopathy and a Kent dental practice. Participants completed the SMTDI to determine the level of TMD (symptomatic score >20). A SonoSite SLA "Hockey Stick" [13-6 MHz] musculo-skeletal transducer was placed over the TMJ in a transverse direction and effusion was calculated indirectly by measuring capsular width. An upper left quadrant protocol was used throughout. A regression analysis was run with participants' gender, age and capsular width as predictor variables modelled against reported SMTDI. Larger capsular widths were found to be significant predictors of SMTDI scores (r = 0.803, p < 0.0001). The patient profile matched with the previous studies and the TMD sufferer population, indicating external validity. Results suggest that the SMTDI could be integrated into practice life as a quick, accessible and easy tool to monitor patients' progress and assess levels of inflammation, without the need for repetitive imaging. The study design proved reproducible and a larger scale study is indicated. PMID:27433242

  2. Accuracy of the third molar index for assessing the legal majority of 18 years in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsahi, Ayse; De Luca, Stefano; Cehreli, S Burcak; Tirali, R Ebru; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In the last few years, forced and unregistered child marriage has widely increased into Turkey. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years. Digital panoramic images of 293 Turkish children and young adults (165 girls and 128 boys), aged between 14 and 22 years, were analysed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity was 85.9% (95% CI 77.1-92.8%) and specificity was 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.7%. For boys, the sensitivity was 94.6% (95% CI 88.1-99.8%) and specificity was 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 97.6%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is a useful method to assess if a subject is older than 18 years of age or not.

  3. Assessment of Overall SCP State of Company: Results of Application of New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP in 2 Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge for every company on the way to sustainable consumption and production (SCP is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but first of all to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to use an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. Since there is still no comprehensive framework for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state on the basis of manufacturing processes, products/services as well as relationship with various stakeholders, the algorithm for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state that can help to solve the most significant problems in 3 levels - manufacturing processes/company’s activities, products/services and relationship with various stakeholders - was presented in an earlier author’s publication. This framework proposes the assessment of current sustainability conditions of a company on the basis of sub-indices of the composite index ISCP for sustainability evaluation and, according to them, can help to select and introduce the most suitable sustainable development tools for a particular enterprise to achieve its environmental and social performance goals. As the subjected algorithm was still theoretical, there was an urgent necessity to verify its real potential in particular enterprises. Therefore, the results of its verification procedure performed in 2 large, well-known Lithuanian joint-stock companies (JSC from different business sectors are presented. The preliminary results of algorithm verification, despite all the limitations, are enough to propose that it is universal enough to be adapted for companies from various sectors of activities. Calculated values of the ISCP indicated an average level of the

  4. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no date restriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases that each index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  5. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  6. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaroli Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality. Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. Results The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%. Conclusions Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  7. Development and assessment of a landscape-scale ecological threat index for the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, Craig P.; Pitts, K.L.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Olden, Julian D.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances impact freshwater biota but are rarely incorporated into conservation planning due to the difficulties in quantifying threats. There is currently no widely accepted method to quantify disturbances, and determining how to measure threats to upstream catchments using disturbance metrics can be time consuming and subjective. We compared four watershed-scale ecological threat indices for the Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB) using landscape-level threats of land use (e.g., agricultural and urban lands), waterway development and diversions (e.g., number of canals, dams), and human development (e.g., road and railroads density, pollution sites). The LCRB is an ideal region to assess ecological threat indices because of the increasing need for conservation to ensure the persistence of native fishes in highly altered habitat. Each threat was measured for severity (i.e., level of influence on the upstream watershed) and frequency throughout each watershed; both severity and frequency were measured using two different methods. Severity values were based either on peer-reviewed literature and weighted in accordance to their published ecological impact, or assumed equal severity across stressors. Threat frequency was calculated according to either the presence/absence of each stressor, or on the relative density of each stressor in the watershed. Each measure of severity was combined with a measure of frequency, creating four ecological threat indices, and transformed to a 0–100 scale. Threat indices were highly correlated (slopes of 0.94–1.63; R2 of 0.82–0.98), and were highest for watersheds close to urban centers, including Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff, Arizona, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Road crossings and density appeared to be the most influential stressors in the index, but the removal of any individual stressor only changed the index by planning for the Lower Colorado River Basin.

  8. Modifying the Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) protocol for rapid assessment of streambank erosion in northeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sara E; Drenten, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the source of pollution in a stream is vital to preserving, restoring, and maintaining the stream's function and habitat it provides. Sediments from highly eroding streambanks are a major source of pollution in a stream system and have the potential to jeopardize habitat, infrastructure, and stream function. Watershed management practices throughout the Cleveland Metroparks attempt to locate and inventory the source and rate the risk of potential streambank erosion to assist in formulating effect stream, riparian, and habitat management recommendations. The Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI), developed by David Rosgen of Wildland Hydrology is a fluvial geomorphic assessment procedure used to evaluate the susceptibility of potential streambank erosion based on a combination of several variables that are sensitive to various processes of erosion. This protocol can be time consuming, difficult for non-professionals, and confined to specific geomorphic regions. To address these constraints and assist in maintaining consistency and reducing user bias, modifications to this protocol include a "Pre-Screening Questionnaire", elimination of the Study Bank-Height Ratio metric including the bankfull determination, and an adjusted scoring system. This modified protocol was used to assess several high priority streams within the Cleveland Metroparks. The original BEHI protocol was also used to confirm the results of the modified BEHI protocol. After using the modified assessment in the field, and comparing it to the original BEHI method, the two were found to produce comparable BEHI ratings of the streambanks, while significantly reducing the amount of time and resources needed to complete the modified protocol. PMID:25742064

  9. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration. PMID:22292377

  10. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  11. Universal Index Formulae for Eco-Environment Quality Assessment Based on Normalized Index Transformation%基于指标规范变换的生态环境质量评价普适指数公式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正健; 李祚泳; 余春雪

    2011-01-01

    为了建立科学合理、计算简便和实用性强的生态环境质量评价普适指数公式,在确定典型区域的生态环境评价指标体系及其分级标准的基础上,适当设定各项生态环境指标的参照值和指标值的(规范)变换式,使不同指标同级标准值的变换值差异较小,而变换值的对数值差异更小,从而可以认为用变换值表示的不同指标皆“等效”于某个指标.因此,用变换值表示的不同指标的某种类型的生态环境质量评价指数公式都可以用该“等效”指标的生态环境质量评价指数公式代替.在满足一定优化目标准则的条件下,用免疫进化粒子群混洗蛙跳算法对公式中的普适参数进行优化,分别得到优化后对23项生态环境指标皆适用的对数型幂函数、韦伯-费希纳定律、T型分布函数、污染危害S型函数和加权加和型幂函数5种形式的生态环质量评价普适指数公式,并对公式的可靠性进行了理论分析,对其实用效果进行了检验.%In order to establish universal index formulae, which should be scientific, reasonable, simple and practical in application to eco-environment quality assessment, based on determination of the eco-environment assessment index systems and grading standards for typical regions, proper reference values and transformation formulae were set for each eco-environment index, separately, so as to minimize differences of the transformation values, especially logarithmic values of the transformation values from the standard values of different indexes of the same grade. Thus, the various indexes expressed by transformation values can be held to be equivalent to a certain index. Therefore, various types of eco-environment quality assessment index formulae with transformation values expressing various indices can all be replaced by eco-environment quality assessment index formulae of corresponding " equivalent" indices. Meanwhile universal parameters

  12. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI 80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  13. On Index System and Quantitative Assessment of Eco-cities:A Case Study on Urban Agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yali; Jiang Dahe; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Urban agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urban complex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based on the analysis on social-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD,this paper attempts to set up an index system of eco-cities combining with local characteristics,and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower;sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  14. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  15. Assessment of pollution index of heavy metals in groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain (2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Nazari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today's development of industrial and agricultural activities is among the leading causes of groundwater pollution. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain using pollution index of heavy metals. Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 randomly selected stations in Qaleh Shahin during two seasons, winter and spring in 2014. After going through laboratory preparation processes and reading the concentration of elements by ICP machine, the qualitative assessment of the samples was carried out by HPI. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the maximum mean concentrations of As and Zn in groundwater samples in winter season were 12.0±0.11 and 19.40±0.50 ppb for stations 19 and 7, respectively, and the maximum mean concentrations of these elements in groundwater samples in spring season were 19.80±0.20 and 48.60±0.40 ppb for stations 15 and 13, respectively. Also, the maximum values of HPI were 11.40 and 19.5 for stations 19 and 7, respectively. Conclusion: Currently, the groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain are not contaminated with heavy metals. However, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs can contaminate the groundwater resources of this area, thereby causing the incidence of health risks for the drinking water consumers.

  16. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6< EF<4.0), mainly at sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5< EF<1.0 was obtained, indicating that they mostly originate from crustal contribution. The Igeo Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0< EF<2.0) were obtained, and, according to this criteria, these sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  17. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  18. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  19. Maximal mid-expiratory flow is a surrogate marker of lung clearance index for assessment of adults with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Jing-Jing; Gao, Yong-Hua; Li, Hui-Min; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the comparative diagnostic value of lung clearance index (LCI) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) in bronchiectasis. We compared the diagnostic performance, correlation and concordance with clinical variables, and changes of LCI and MMEF% predicted during bronchiectasis exacerbations (BEs). Patients with stable bronchiectasis underwent history inquiry, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), multiple-breath nitrogen wash-out test, spirometry and sputum culture. Patients who experienced BEs underwent these measurements during onset of BEs and 1 week following antibiotics therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed in mild, moderate and severe bronchiectasis. We recruited 110 bronchiectasis patients between March 2014 and September 2015. LCI demonstrated similar diagnostic value with MMEF% predicted in discriminating moderate-to-severe from mild bronchiectasis. LCI negatively correlated with MMEF% predicted. Both parameters had similar concordance in reflecting clinical characteristics of bronchiectasis and correlated significantly with forced expiratory flow in one second, age, HRCT score, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, cystic bronchiectasis, ventilation heterogeneity and bilateral bronchiectasis. In exacerbation cohort (n = 22), changes in LCI and MMEF% predicted were equally minimal during BEs and following antibiotics therapy. In sensitivity analyses, both parameters had similar diagnostic value and correlation with clinical variables. MMEF% predicted is a surrogate of LCI for assessing bronchiectasis severity. PMID:27339787

  20. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30–39 (men) and 40–49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations’ sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  1. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0

  2. The Hirsch-index: a simple, new tool for the assessment of scientific output of individual scientists: The case of Dutch professors in clinical cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Opthof; A.A.M. Wilde

    2009-01-01

    In this brief paper we explore the Hirsch-index together with a couple of other bibliometric parameters for the assessment of the scientific output of 29 Dutch professors in clinical cardiology. It appears that even within such a homogeneous group there is large interindividual variability. Although

  3. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) . Methods Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group) and 30 healthy people(control group) underwent pulmonary

  4. Effects of using the simplified airway risk index vs usual airway assessment on unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation - a cluster randomized trial with 64,273 participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet Nørskov, Anders; Wetterslev, J; Rosenstock, C V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unanticipated difficult intubation remains a challenge in anaesthesia. The Simplified Airway Risk Index (SARI) is a multivariable risk model consisting of seven independent risk factors for difficult intubation. Our aim was to compare preoperative airway assessment based on the SARI w...

  5. MTA index: a simple 2D-method for assessing atrophy of the medial temporal lobe using clinically available neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite a strong correlation between severity of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, its measurement has not been widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In this pilot study we aim to describe a novel, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method.Description: This method consists of calculating a ratio of 3 regions traced manually on one single coronal MRI slide at the level of the interpeduncular fossa: i the medial temporal lobe region (A; ii the parenchyma within the medial temporal region, that includes the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus -the fimbriae taenia and choroid plexus are excluded- (B; and iii the body of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle (C. Therefore we can compute the ratio Medial Temporal Atrophy index at both sides as follows: MTAi = (A-B x10/C.Conclusions: The MTAi is a simple 2D-method for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. This method can be useful for a more accurate diagnosis of AD in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of MTAi in the diagnosis of early AD, in tracking the progression of AD and in the differential diagnosis of AD with other dementias.

  6. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J Starling

    Full Text Available Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.

  7. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; Starling, Timothy R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.

  8. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % (D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ˜30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  9. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  10. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  11. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  12. Assessment of whey protein nitrogen index as an indicator of heat treatment for UHT milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Natália Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During heat treatment of dairy products it is possible to occur several chemical modifications which whey protein denaturation is quite evident and studied. This phenomenon can cause gelation in UHT milk and some problems in reconstitution of milk powder, two major dairy products widely used in dairy foods and by consumer. The whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI can be an useful tool to assess the degree of severity that milk was submitted, and therefore inferred from the occurrence of possible defects associated with protein denaturation. This study presents theevaluation of the non-denaturated whey protein contents as a heat treatment indicator for ultrapasteurization and drying milk processing. Commercial samples of UHT milk and milk powdershowed WPNI confidence interval of (2.39 ± 1.41 mgWPN.mL-1 and (2.63 ± 1.38 mgWPN.mL-1, respectively. According to the statistical analysis of variance, all samples differed with a p-value < 0.001; and 90% of UHT milk and 67% milk powder samples were classified as medium heat treatment. It was possible to infer the severity of the heat treatment associated with each kind of product analyzed.The results were able to demonstrate the lack of standardization of heat treatment processes on the samples studied, a fact that may result in the growth of undesirablecharacteristics in the products during the storage or commercia lization.

  13. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  14. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  15. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-a or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  16. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-α or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  17. Assessing regulatory violations of disinfection by-products in water distribution networks using a non-compliance potential index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nilufar; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Legay, Christelle

    2016-05-01

    Inactivating pathogens is essential to eradicate waterborne diseases. However, disinfection forms undesirable disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of natural organic matter. Many regulations and guidelines exist to limit DBP exposure for eliminating possible health impacts such as bladder cancer, reproductive effects, and child development effects. In this paper, an index named non-compliance potential (NCP) index is proposed to evaluate regulatory violations by DBPs. The index can serve to evaluate water quality in distribution networks using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). BBN is a graphical model to represent contributing variables and their probabilistic relationships. Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids (HAA5), and free residual chlorine (FRC) are selected as the variables to predict the NCP index. A methodology has been proposed to implement the index using either monitored data, empirical model results (e.g., multiple linear regression), and disinfectant kinetics through EPANET simulations. The index's usefulness is demonstrated through two case studies on municipal distribution systems using both full-scale monitoring and modeled data. The proposed approach can be implemented for data-sparse conditions, making it especially useful for smaller municipal drinking water systems.

  18. Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S Halpern

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington to 74 (Oregon. Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99 and clean waters (87, while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48 and artisanal fishing opportunities (57. Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment.

  19. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  20. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  1. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  2. Assessing the usefulness of the water poverty index by applying it to a special case: Can one be water poor with high levels of access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenic, V.; Ahlers, R.; Zaag, P. van der

    Using indices and indicators in assessment of progress of a developing country has two sides. Such indicators offer an easy-to-understand shorthand/synopsis of issues vital for a country’s development. The other side of the coin, however, is that this synopsis may be distorted due to incorrect data or inapplicability of an index or an indicator to a specific case. This paper assesses the applicability of Water Poverty Index for the countries riparian to the Sava sub-basin, a tributary to the Danube river basin and presents the results of its application. At the same time, the paper discusses the concept of water poverty and the appropriateness of its use in the case of Sava River Basin countries by differentiating the economic poverty in some of those countries from sufficient access to and use of water resources in all of them.

  3. Integration of bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology by three lines of evidence into ecological risk indexes for contaminated soil assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Rutgers, Michiel; Marcomini, Antonio

    2008-01-15

    A Weight of Evidence approach was applied to define three integrated effect indexes estimating the impairment on terrestrial ecosystems caused by the stressor(s) of concern. According to a Triad approach, the integrated effect indexes combined the information provided by the measurement endpoints of each line of evidence (chemistry/bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology) and allowed to analyse the impairment degree highlighted by each measurement endpoint as difference from the reference condition. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used for the aggregation of the complementary Triad information, including expert judgement and a weighted procedure based on the endpoint sensitivity and the sensitivity of the test for ecosystem effects. The developed methodology was implemented in the DSS-ERAMANIA, Module 2, and is presented in this paper as "Integrated Effect Indexes" (IEI) sub-module. The latter has been preliminary applied to the Acna di Cengio (Italy) contaminated site; the results of this application are presented and discussed. PMID:17904618

  4. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  5. The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), Based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, Predicts Short- and Long-Term Mortality in Hospitalized Older Patients with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pilotto, Alberto; Sancarlo, Daniele; Panza, Francesco; Paris, Francesco; D’Onofrio, Grazia; Cascavilla, Leandro; Addante, Filomena; Seripa, Davide; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Franceschi, Marilisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for predicting mortality risk in older patients with dementia. The present was a retrospective study with a year of follow-up that included 262 patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of dementia. A standardized CGA that included information on clinical, cognitive, functional, and nutritional aspects, as well as comorbidity, medications, a...

  6. A novel index based on fractional calculus to assess the dynamics of heart rate variability: changes due to chi or yoga meditations

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Miguel Ángel; Ramos Castro, Juan José; Fernández Chimeno, Mireya

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to present and interpret a novel index based on fractional calculus ( αc) and to assess differences in RR time series dynamics in subjects during meditation. Fractional differintegration (FDI) of a RR time series provides a new time series.αc is defined as the order of the FDI operator that provides the time series with minimum variance. Analyzed time series were obtained from the Exaggerated Heart Rate Oscillations During Two Meditation Techniques database. This da...

  7. Generalization of Youden index for multiple-class classification problems applied to the assessment of externally validated cognition in Parkinson disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakas, Christos T; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Anderson, Tim J; Alonzo, Todd A

    2013-03-15

    Routine cognitive screening in Parkinson disease (PD) has become essential for management, to track progression and to assess clinical status in therapeutic trials. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are more likely to progress to dementia and therefore need to be distinguished from patients with normal cognition and those with dementia. A three-class Youden index has been recently proposed to select cut-off points in three-class classification problems. In this article, we examine properties of a modification of the three-class Youden index and propose a generalization to k-class classification problems. Geometric and theoretical properties of the modified index J(k) are examined. It is shown that J(k) is equivalent to the sum of the k - 1 two-class Youden indices for the adjacent classes of the ordered alternative problem given that the ordering holds. Methods are applied in the assessment of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test when screening cognition in PD.

  8. Indexing books

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvany, Nancy C

    2009-01-01

    Since 1994, Nancy Mulvany's Indexing Books has been the gold standard for thousands of professional indexers, editors, and authors. This long-awaited second edition, expanded and completely updated, will be equally revered.Like its predecessor, this edition of Indexing Books offers comprehensive, reliable treatment of indexing principles and practices relevant to authors and indexers alike. In addition to practical advice, the book presents a big-picture perspective on the nature and purpose of indexes and their role in published works. New to this edition are discus

  9. [Alpha-amylase/glucose index in amniotic fluid as a new method in prenatal assessment of fetal maturity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałacińska, B; Krasomski, G; Broniarczyk, D; Swiatkowska, E

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic fluid enables fetal maturity evaluation, particularly that of fetal lungs. The aim of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of on alpha-amylase/glucose index in amniotic fluid in comparison to routinely performed tests, used for prenatal fetal lung maturity evaluation, particularly in respect of PG concentration, whose predictive value is almost 100%. The study was carried out on 180 pregnant women, chosen by random selection, hospitalized in Polish Mother's Health Centre Hospital in the period from 15.06.1994 to 31.12.1995. 223 samples of amniotic fluid were tested- in all samples following assays and tests were performed: bubble stability test (BST), optical density, orange cells test, phosphatidylglycerol concentration (PG), glucose concentration, alpha-amylase activity urea and creatinine concentration. The alpha-amylase/glucose index in amniotic fluid is statistically significant with PG concentration. The value of the alpha-amylase/glucose index is < 6.0 when amniotic fluid assay indicates fetal immaturity, but when amniotic fluid assay indicates fetal maturity, its value is 36.0. The evaluation of fetal lung maturity on the basis of the alpha-amylase/glucose index multiply decreases the cost of examinations. Authors make a suggestion to implement this method in all hospital departments of the country. PMID:11757481

  10. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  11. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  12. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  13. Global assessment of Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP and Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS version 3 products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marshall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation based long-term global vegetation index products are used by scientists from a wide range of disciplines concerned with global change. Inter-comparison studies are commonly performed to keep the user community informed on the consistency and accuracy of such records as they evolve. In this study, we compared two new records: (1 Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Version 3 (NDVI3g and (2 Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP Version 3 NDVI (NDVI3v and Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI3v. We evaluated the two records via three experiments that addressed the primary use of such records in global change research: (1 prediction of the Leaf Area Index (LAI used in light-use efficiency modeling, (2 estimation of vegetation climatology in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models, and (3 trend analysis of the magnitude and phenology of vegetation productivity. Experiment one, unlike previous inter-comparison studies, was performed with a unique Landsat 30 m spatial resolution and in situ LAI database for major crop types on five continents. Overall, the two records showed a high level of agreement both in direction and magnitude on a monthly basis, though VIP values were higher and more variable and showed lower correlations and higher error with in situ LAI. The records were most consistent at northern latitudes during the primary growing season and southern latitudes and the tropics throughout much of the year, while the records were less consistent at northern latitudes during green-up and senescence and in the great deserts of the world throughout much of the year. The two records were also highly consistent in terms of trend direction/magnitude, showing a 30+ year increase (decrease in NDVI over much of the globe (tropical rainforests. The two records were less consistent in terms of timing due to the poor correlation of the records during start and end of growing season.

  14. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  15. [Evaluating the Significance of Odor Gas Released During the Directly Drying Process of Sludge: Based on the Multi-index Integrated Assessment Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-jie; Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-02-15

    Co-processing of sewage sludge using the cement kiln can realize sludge harmless treatment, quantity reduction, stabilization and reutilization. The moisture content should be reduced to below 30% to meet the requirement of combustion. Thermal drying is an effective way for sludge desiccation. Odors and volatile organic compounds are generated and released during the sludge drying process, which could lead to odor pollution. The main odor pollutants were selected by the multi-index integrated assessment method. The concentration, olfactory threshold, threshold limit value, smell security level and saturated vapor pressure were considered as indexes based on the related regulations in China and foreign countries. Taking the pollution potential as the evaluation target, and the risk index and odor emission intensity as evaluation indexes, the odor pollution potential rated evaluation model of the pollutants was built according to the Weber-Fechner law. The aim of the present study is to form the rating evaluation method of odor potential pollution capacity suitable for the directly drying process of sludge. PMID:27363173

  16. Superior assessment of CVD death by MACD index compared with the framingham score is highly associated with predisposition to diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie;

    . These markers were compared to SCORE card, Framingham score, and the Aortic Calcification Severity score - AC24, and correlated to baseline demographics and all standard traditional risk-factors.   Results: AC24 adjusted by age, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels predicted mortality in postmenopausal...... women (CVD p=0.03, All-cause p=0.006). The SCORE card and the Framingham score resulted in mortality odds ratios (OR) of 5.0 and 5.2 - defining high risk as =6 and =18, respectively. All scores based on the calcification geometry provided highly significant predictions. The MACD index provided...... investigated the relation between mortality and biological aspects of plaque dynamics such as of number, size, morphology and distribution in the lumbar aorta of postmenopausal women. We compared the MACD index to the Framingham AC24 score and correlated those to baseline demographic and biochemical risk...

  17. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    -AVHRR images from 1990 covering part of the Ferlo region of northern, semiarid Senegal in West Africa. The spatial pattern in TVDI has been compared with simulations of soil moisture from a distributed hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE code. The spatial variation in TVDI reflects the variation...... in moisture on a finer scale than can be derived from the hydrological model in this case. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....... interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  18. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  19. Assessing the potential of SWVI (Soil Wetness Variation Index for hydrological risk monitoring by means of satellite microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lacava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years satellite remote sensing applications in hydrology have considerably progressed. A new multi-temporal satellite data-analysis approach has been recently suggested in order to estimate space-time changes of geophysical parameters possibly related to the increase of environmental and hydro-geological hazards. Such an approach has been already used both for flooded area mapping (using AVHRR data and for soil wetness index estimation (using AMSU data. In this work, a preliminary sensitivity analysis of the proposed Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI is made in the case of low intensity meteorological events by the comparison with hydrological (precipitation data. This analysis, as a first step of a more complex work in progress, is targeted to a first evaluation of the reliability of the SWVI in describing soil response to precipitations of different duration and intensity.

  20. Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Improving How Companies Assess and Address Environmental Impacts Through a Revised Higg Index Facility Module

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Clare B.

    2015-01-01

    This study was focused on analyzing the Facility Environmental Module (FEM) of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s (SAC) Higg Index. The research objectives were twofold: 1) to test whether the indicators featured in the FEM could accommodate the data requirements for calculating environmental impacts of apparel products, and 2) to identify if the FEM indicators could satisfy the data and information needs of other key stakeholder groups. The long track record of irresponsible social and e...

  1. Using the Purchasing Managers' Index to assess the economy's strength and the likely direction of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Evan F. Koenig

    2002-01-01

    When economists are concerned that the economy may be about to change direction, one of the indicators to which they give special scrutiny is the Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI), released monthly by the Institute for Supply Management. This article discusses the construction and interpretation of the PMI and presents evidence of its usefulness as an indicator of growth in the manufacturing sector and the economy as a whole, and as a predictor of changes in Federal Reserve policy. PMI values ...

  2. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: A study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Subhadeep Shit; Pranita Taraphdar; Dipta K Mukhopadhyay; Apurba Sinhababu; Akhil B Biswas

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living i...

  3. Drought Assessment by a Short-/Long-Term Composited Drought Index in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Meixiu Yu; Xiaolong Liu; Li Wei; Qiongfang Li; Jianyun Zhang; Guoqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a multiscale composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The newly built shor...

  4. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approac...

  5. Assessment of Overall SCP State of Company: Results of Application of New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP in 2 Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-01-01

    The challenge for every company on the way to sustainable consumption and production (SCP) is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but first of all to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to use an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. S...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI) AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    K. Chandrasekar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; G. Behera

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and Soil Water Balance (SWB) model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. ...

  7. Assessing the potential of SWVI (Soil Wetness Variation Index) for hydrological risk monitoring by means of satellite microwave observations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacava, T.; Greco, M; Leo, E. V.; Martino, G.; Pergola, N.; Romano, F.; Sannazzaro, F.; V. Tramutoli

    2005-01-01

    In the last years satellite remote sensing applications in hydrology have considerably progressed. A new multi-temporal satellite data-analysis approach has been recently suggested in order to estimate space-time changes of geophysical parameters possibly related to the increase of environmental and hydro-geological hazards. Such an approach has been already used both for flooded area mapping (using AVHRR data) and for soil wetness index estimation (using AMSU data). ...

  8. Drought Assessment by a Short-/Long-Term Composited Drought Index in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a multiscale composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The newly built short-term/long-term CDI comprehensively considered three natural forms of drought (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural by selection of different variables that are related to each drought type. The short-term/long-term CDI was developed using the Principle Component Analysis of related drought components. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDI was investigated against the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, and persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition and the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  9. Study on Assessment Index System of Rural Environmental Auditing%农村环保审计评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 邹坤; 杨丽

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the main point of rural environmental protection during the "12th five-year "plan period,5 first level indexes and 26 second level indexes are proposed for the first time. Studies on assessment method of every index are made. And the assessment method is used in a county in southern Jiangsu province. The study has filled the blank of rural environmental auditing and will serve the environment audit from theory to practice.%紧扣“十二五”农村环保工作重点,第一次提出了农村环保审计评价指标体系的5个一级指标和26个二级指标,研究了各个指标的评价方法,并在苏南某县级市进行了应用,填补了农村环保审计指标体系的空白,为农村环保审计从理论走向实践作出了有益的探索.

  10. Assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment compliance - Guide nr 8 - Index 1, Release of 31/03/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the modalities according to which the compliance assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment must be performed by inspecting organisations according to a decree of December 1999 and an order of December 2005. After an indication of reference documents and some technical definitions, this guide describes the equipment classification and the principles of intervention. These principles concern the assessment request and the various assessment tasks to be performed by the inspecting organisation

  11. Applicability of a Serbian version of the “Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP” index - assessment of oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP is a well-known psychometric test used internationally to assess the oral health-related quality of life. The interview and self-administrated questionnaire both assess the degree to which oral health problems have affected the life of the participants over the previous 6 months. The aim of this study was to translate the OIDP index into Serbian and to assess its reliability in practice as its initial verification in the Serbian speaking area. Methods. Following an internationally established methods, the OIDP scale was translated using standardized methodology that consisted of forward translation, pilot study and backward translation. Results. A pilot study was carried out with 44 respondents (24 males i 20 females using a preliminar Serbian version of the OIDP index. All patients were aged over 65 years. A total of 68.2% of the participants replied that they had at least one OIDP impact on daily life in the past 6 months. These troubles were most prominent during eating (47.7% and speaking (36.4%, but there is a little impact of troubles in the domain of psychosocial sphere. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients for all items were above the minimum recommended level of 0.20 for including an item in a scale. The standardized Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.75. Conclusion. Based on these results, we can conclude that this index is suitable for use in everyday practice in Serbian speaking area providing useful information required to assess oral health-related quality of life.

  12. Assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.Methods:A total of 78 cases of ovarian cancer patients receiving treatment in our hospital from September 2012 to May 2014 were included for study, all patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and before and after treatment, transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound (TVCDU) was used to record resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI), the expression levels of serum tumor markers, illness-related indicators and apoptosis-related factors in circulating blood were detected, and the correlation between TVCDU monitoring indexes and ovarian cancer-related indicators was further analyzed.Results: PI value (1.13±0.12) and RI value (0.65±0.05) of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were significantly higher than PI value (0.72±0.06) and RI value (0.32±0.03) of ovarian cancer patients before treatment; serum HE4, CA153, CA125 and毬-HCG levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; serum MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL and Hpa levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; after ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2 gene expression levels were lower than those before treatment; RI and PI values of ovarian cancer patients were inversely proportional to the expression levels of HE4, CA153, CA125,毬-HCG, MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL, Hpa, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2. Conclusion:Blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound can be used as a highly efficient means to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and it has positive significance in judging disease severity, guiding treatment and other aspects.

  13. Ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinių kompetencijų sistemos raiška ir turinys

    OpenAIRE

    Baltutytė, Vitalija

    2008-01-01

    Lietuva įžengė į itin sparčios kaitos ir naujų iššūkių amžių, kuris kelia naujus reikalavimus ir asmeniui, ir visuomenei, ir švietimo sistemai. Kadangi švietimo kokybė tiesiogiai priklauso nuo švietimo įstaigose dirbančių vadovų bei pedagogų kompetencijų, svarbu išryškinti ir apibrėžti ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinių kompetencijų turinį, jų kryptingumą bei raiškos tendencijas. Tyrimo objektas – ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinė...

  14. Visuomenės simbolinių sistemų socialinio struktūravimo ir hierarchizacijos išraiškos

    OpenAIRE

    Jurevičiūtė, Asta

    2010-01-01

    Šiuo straipsniu siekiama pateikti struktūrinės antropologijos ir struktūrinio funkcionalizmo paradigmoje (Mary Douglas, Victor Turner, Edward Evans-Pritchard, Louis Dumont) analizuojamą visuomenės simbolinės „tvarkos–nešvaros“ sistemą kaip socialinio struktūravimo ir hierarchizacijos išraišką. Antropologų pasitelkiama funkcinė analizė leidžia aiškinti socialinius diskursus ir praktikas, susijusias su būtiniausių psichologinių ir fiziologinių poreikių patenkinimu, o struktūrinė analizė nurodo ...

  15. Advanced atherogenic index for the assessment of consolidated lipid risk in premature coronary artery disease patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and prematurity of coronary artery disease (CAD in the Indian population cannot be completely explained by the conventional lipid parameters and the existing lipid indices. Aims and Objectives: To calculate newly defined advanced atherogenic index (AAI in premature CAD patients and compare it between cases and controls and Correlate its values with the existing indices. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty premature CAD patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Lipid profile and nonconventional lipid parameters like oxidized Low density lipoprotein (OX LDL, small dense LDL (SD LDL, lipoprotein (a apolipoprotein B (Apo B, and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 were estimated and their values were used to define AAI and existing lipid indices like AI, lipid tetrad index (LTI and lipid pentad index (LPI. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 37.29 + 4.50 and 36.13 + 3.53 years, respectively. The value of AAI was highly significant in cases (3461.22 ± 45.20 as compared to controls (305.84 ± 21.80. AAI has shown better statistical significance and correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.737 as compared to the earlier indices such as AI (P < 0.01, r = 0.52, LTI (P < 0.001, r = 0.677 and LPI (P < 0.001, r = 0.622 in premature CAD. Kolmogorov D statistic and cumulative distribution function plot has shown that AAI can discriminate cases and controls more accurately as compared to the earlier indices. Conclusion: Statistically AAI appears to be a better marker of consolidated lipid risk in premature CAD patients as compared to the earlier indices.

  16. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

  17. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: A study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Shit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished.

  18. Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

  19. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls) to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81), which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39). The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01) and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13) among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04) compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women

  20. Assessment of obesity with body mass index in primary care health workers in the jurisdiction of Nezahualcoyotl (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are considered a disease - a public health problem that has becomes one of the main factors related to deaths from cardiovascular disease in Mexico. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in search of inference between obesity and overweight among health caregivers and the general population in six primary care clinics that belong to the Ministry of Health of the municipality of Nezahualcoyotl. We recruited 124 participants from the different work areas of the centers, including those responsible for nutritional programs. Diagnostic parameters for obesity and overweight were body mass index, waist hip ratio and percentage of body fat (% BF. Results: Body mass index: 0.22 normal; 0.53 overweight; 0.23 obesity I; 0.03 obesity II; 0.00 obesity III. Waist circumference: normal 0.28 and above normal 0.72. Fat percentage: normal 0.20 and 0.80% higher. We found that 77% of participants were obese or overweight. Discussion: Those in charge of controlling obesity and overweight also suffer from it and can contribute to the failure of programs in the community. It is essential to develop programs in healthy lifestyle based on nutrition and physical activity. These should be applied primarily to healthcare professionals who are in charge of community lifestyle programs.

  1. Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

  2. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  3. Comparison of intima-media thickness and ophthalmic artery resistance index for assessing subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Mariangela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications that potentially increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in this population. Measurement of arterial wall thickness has been used as a surrogate of extent, severity and progression of atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed to compare the validity of two non-invasive arterial measures: carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, a parameter of atherosclerosis, and ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease. Methods A total of 95 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for more than 12 months were consecutively enrolled. IMT and OARI were measured by 7.5 MHz linear probe. Results There was a significant linear increase in IMT and OARI values as the grade of cardiovascular risk (0.70 and 0.69 for very low risk, 0.86 and 0.72 for low risk and 0.98 and 0.74 for medium/high risk, p 0.83 and an OARI > 0.72 were the most discriminatory values for predicting a cardiovascular risk ≥ 10% (sensibility 89.6% and 75.8%; sensitivity 70.5% and 68.4%; p Conclusions Our data indicate that OARI may have a potential as a new precocious marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients.

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) as depression severity scale using the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data) as index of validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Timmerby, N; Martiny, K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was developed to cover the universe of depressive symptoms in DSM-IV major depression as well as in ICD-10 mild, moderate, and severe depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the standardization of the MDI as a depression severity...... scale using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) as index of external validity in accordance with the LEAD approach (Longitudinal Expert Assessment of All Data). METHODS: We used data from two previously published studies in which the patients had a MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview verified diagnosis of DSM-IV...

  5. Applicability of Community Periodontal Index Teeth and Random Half-mouth Examination to Gingival Bleeding Assessment in Untreated Adult Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether Community Periodontal Index (CPI) teeth and random half-mouth methods are representative of full-mouth method in gingival bleeding examination.Methods Data from 1000 untreated adults (age > 18) collected in Beijing from January 2000 to January 2001 were utilized in the analysis.Half of the subjects were examined by Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and the other half by Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI).The data were sorted out and calculated according to CPI teeth and random half-mouth teeth methods.The results of the 2 methods were separately compared with those of full-mouth examination.Results There was a significant difference between CPI teeth method and full-mouth examination (P<0.05) in both GBI and SBI.In contrast,compared with full-mouth examination,significant difference was not observed in diagonal or ipsilateral half-mouth results in SBI (P>0.05),nor in diagonal half-mouth results in GBI (P>0.05)Conclusions The results of CPI teeth method on gingival bleeding could not reflect the full-mouth situation.Ipsilateral and diagonal half-mouth results can serve as a substitute for full-mouth results in SBI,while diagonal half-mouth results in GBI.

  6. Distribution of the h-index in radiation oncology conforms to a variation of power law: implications for assessing academic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Matthew R; Holliday, Emma B; Fuller, Clifton D; Choi, Mehee; Thomas, Charles R

    2012-06-01

    Leaders of academic institutions evaluate academic productivity when deciding to hire, promote, or award resources. This study examined the distribution of the h-index, an assessment of academic standing, among radiation oncologists. The authors collected h-indices for 826 US academic radiation oncologists from a commercial bibliographic database (SCOPUS, Elsevier B.V., NL). Then, logarithmic transformation was performed on h-indices and ranked h-indices, and results were compared to estimates of a power law distribution. The h-index frequency distribution conformed to both the log-linear variation of a power law (r (2) = .99) and the beta distribution with the same fitting exponents as previously described in a power law analysis of the productivity of neurosurgeons. Within radiation oncology, as in neurosurgery, there are exceedingly more faculty with an h-index of 1-2. The distribution fitting the same variation of a power law within two fields suggests applicability to other areas of academia.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  8. ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CARIES PREVALENCE AND BODY MASS INDEX AND NUTRITIONAL DATA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-12 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Arunakul, Malee; Srisuchat, Natchanon; Chotthanakarn, Nutcha; Praisuwanna, Nathaporn; Luckamnuyporn, Natasan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to examine associations between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and diet in 6 to 12 year old children. One hundred subjects were included in the study. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), height and weight were examined in each subject. The primary caregiver for each subject completed a diet questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a Kruskal-Wallis test and an independent sample t-test. Associations between variables and caries were examined using a Spearman's correlation with significance set at a p-value caries (DMFT score = 0), 23% had moderate to many caries (DMFT scores = 3.1-6.9), 22% had very many caries (DMFT scores ≥ 7), 17% had few caries (DMFT scores caries and amount of sugar and carbohydrate consumption and dental caries. PMID:27086436

  9. Oxidative stress index (OSi) as a new tool to assess redox status in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a key role in the initiation or progression of numerous diseases, and dairy cows undergo OS at the transition period. However, discrepancies between methodologies make it difficult to make comparisons between studies, and therefore research on this topic may not be implemented in farms. This study aims to test under field conditions the use of an oxidative stress index (OSi) as a combined measurement through a ratio between pro-oxidants and antioxidants throughout the transition period in dairy farms. Serum samples of high-yielding dairy cows were taken, and markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) late lactation (LL; -2 to -1 months); (ii) prepartum (PrP; -1 month until parturition); (iii) postpartum (PsP; delivery to +1 month); and (iv) peak of lactation (PkL; +1 to +2.5 months). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (CTR, 4th to 5th month of gestation). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that discusses the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers (and the OS index) for cows with low metabolic demands, as to date most research in this area has focused on the transition period. With the joint evaluation through the OSi, differences were found that were not present with the separate evaluation of pro-oxidants or antioxidants, thus supporting our hypothesis that the OSi indicates more accurately the oxidative status of the animals. It was also confirmed that dairy cows undergo OS after parturition, and that antioxidant supplementation from 1 month before parturition until the peak of lactation may be needed to reduce the risk of OS.

  10. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species. PMID:15805093

  11. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  12. Assessment of flood hazard areas at a regional scale using an index-based approach and Analytical Hierarchy Process: Application in Rhodope-Evros region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Kougias, Ioannis; Patsialis, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    The present study introduces a multi-criteria index to assess flood hazard areas in a regional scale. Accordingly, a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been defined and a spatial analysis in a GIS environment has been applied for the estimation of its value. The developed methodology processes information of seven parameters namely flow accumulation, distance from the drainage network, elevation, land use, rainfall intensity and geology. The initials of these criteria gave the name to the developed method: "FIGUSED". The relative importance of each parameter for the occurrence and severity of flood has been connected to weight values. These values are calculated following an "Analytical Hierarchy Process", a method originally developed for the solution of Operational Research problems. According to their weight values, information of the different parameters is superimposed, resulting to flood hazard mapping. The accuracy of the method has been supported by a sensitivity analysis that examines a range for the weights' values and corresponding to alternative scenarios. The presented methodology has been applied to an area in north-eastern Greece, where recurring flood events have appeared. Initially FIGUSED method resulted to a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) and a corresponding flood map. A sensitivity analysis on the parameters' values revealed some interesting information on the relative importance of each criterion, presented and commented in the Discussion section. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis concluded to a revised index FHIS (methodology named FIGUSED-S) and flood mapping, supporting the robustness of FIGUSED methodology. A comparison of the outcome with records of historical flood events confirmed that the proposed methodology provides valid results. PMID:26318691

  13. Application of own computer program for assessment of brain-fluid index in the medial temporal lobe portions in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Epilepsy resistant to pharmacological treatment still remains one of the main problems in contemporary epileptology. The problem most frequently concerns patients with focal epilepsy, with the seizure focus possible to localize. In case of drug-resistant epilepsy, both morphological imaging methods (MR) and manual measurements or volumetry are used. Also functional studies, such as MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance), SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography) are performed. Material/Methods: The study presents application of own computer program based on the method of segmentation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the brain tissue. The program calculates automatically the brain-fluin index in the hippocampal region. The material comprises the brain-fluin index results calculated with the presented program in comparison with the method of manual delineation in a group of 50 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. The program is easy to use, it reads the MR data recorded in DICOM installed on a PC. Results: The brain-fluin index result (expressed as a decimal fraction) is calculated on the basis of 4 consecutive layers examined by MR (evaluating hippocampal structures) performed using SE sequence, and T2-weighted imaging in the frontal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal lobes. The results obtained in epilepsy patients were compared with 24 control subjects. Conclusions: Detailed analysis of the obtained data allowed to conclude that precise hippocampal volume assessment can be obtained by combination of both methods, i.e. manual delineation and automatic calculation of brain-fluin index taking into consideration the total volume of cerebral structures. (authors)

  14. Analysis and assessment of the nutrients, biochemical indexes and heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Li, Yi; Cheng, Qingyuan; Yu, Mingxia; Hu, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest hydropower project, has operated stably for more than five years. To understand its water quality status, the nutrient and biochemical indexes, the total nitrogen (TN), the total phosphorus (TP), the potassium permanganate index (CODMn), the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and fecal coliform (F. coli), as well as the heavy metals (Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Zn and Pb) of samples collected from 10 sites during the time period of 2008-2013 were studied via using multiple analysis approaches. For each parameter, pictures of the spatial and temporal distributions were presented, and the reasons behind their variation trends were elaborated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the types of pollution. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was calculated to concisely mark the water quality. In addition, a human health risk assessment of the heavy metals in a representative site was conducted. The results showed that the water quality state in the Three Gorges Reservoir was intricate but stable and acceptable from 2008 to 2013. The TN, TP and Pb were considered to be the key pollution indexes. Enforcements to alleviate industrial and urban pollution, along with ship management, have worked. The decrease in heavy metal concentrations from upstream to downstream was associated with the self-purification of the reservoir. However, rural pollution became worse in those years. Improper agricultural activity was an important reason for this trend. For local residents, drinking water was generally safe, but cancer caused by As and Pb is a potential issue. PMID:26874779

  15. Quality Index of Subtidal Macroalgae (QISubMac): A suitable tool for ecological quality status assessment under the scope of the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, A; Derrien-Courtel, S

    2015-12-15

    Despite their representativeness and importance in coastal waters, subtidal rocky bottom habitats have been under-studied. This has resulted in a lack of available indicators for subtidal hard substrate communities. However, a few indicators using subtidal macroalgae have been developed in recent years for the purpose of being implemented into the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Accordingly, a quality index of subtidal macroalgae has been defined as a French assessment tool for subtidal rocky bottom habitats in coastal waters. This approach is based on 14 metrics that consider the depth penetration, composition (sensitive, characteristic and opportunistic) and biodiversity of macroalgae assemblages and complies with WFD requirements. Three ecoregions have been defined to fit with the geographical distribution of macroalgae along the French coastline. As a test, QISubMac was used to assess the water quality of 20 water bodies. The results show that QISubMac may discriminate among different quality classes of water bodies. PMID:26555795

  16. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  17. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Patrice; Chartier, Sylvain; Rouleau, Joanne-L.; Proulx, Jean; Trottier, Dominique; John P. Bradford; Fedoroff, Paul; Bouchard, Stéphane; Décarie, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  18. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  19. Mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment characteristics and the index system%矿山遥感监测评估特点与指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进生; 牛建英; 张旭; 于艳蕊

    2014-01-01

    矿山遥感监测评估是通过遥感监测手段获得对矿产资源开发利用状况、矿山环境和矿产资源规划执行情况的评判,为改进矿产资源规划、整顿矿业秩序、治理矿山环境等提供依据。根据矿山遥感监测实施效果评估的对象多、内容多、应用面广及难度大等特点,提出了矿产资源监管效果、效率和效益3个一级指标,9个二级指标的评估体系,并根据实验性评估结论提出简化指标体系、侧重连续监测区动态评估等建议。%Remote sensing monitoring is used by mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment so as to understand the situation of mineral resources development, mining environment and evaluate mineral resource planning implementation, thus providing the basis for mineral resources planning, mining order rectifying and mine environment governing. The authors analyzed the situation of evaluating the implementation effect of the mine remote sensing monitoring, which is characterized by numerous objects and contents, wide applications and considerable difficulties. In view of such a complex situation, this paper puts forward the index evaluation system for the mineral resources monitoring result, benefit and efficiency, which consists of three primary and nine secondary indexes. According to the experimental evaluation conclusion, some constructive suggestions, such as simplification of the index system and emphasis on the dynamic assessment of continuous monitoring area, have been put forward in this paper.

  20. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions.

  1. 沙尘暴灾害风险评估指标体系初探%A Preliminary Discussion on Risk Assessment Index System of Sandstorm Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋

    2011-01-01

    以自然灾害系统理论为基础,阐述了沙尘暴灾害风险的概念;从致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境稳定性和承灾体脆弱性三个方面分析了沙尘暴灾害风险构成;根据其风险构成特点初步研究了这三个方面的风险评估指标,探讨了这些指标在沙尘暴灾害风险评估中应用的意义.%Based on the theory of natural disaster system, the concept of sandstorm disaster risk is expounded, and the composition of the risk is analyzed in three aspects as the danger of disaster-causing factors, the stability of hazard inducing environment and the vulnerability of hazard bearing bodies. The risk assessment indexes of the above-mentioned three aspects are researched according to the composition characteristics of the risk, and the significance of the indexes application in the risk assessment of sandstorm disaster is discussed.

  2. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  3. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  4. Assessment of Soil Water Content in Field with Antecedent Precipitation Index and Groundwater Depth in the Yangtze River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-ping; YANG Jing-song

    2013-01-01

    To better understand soil moisture dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and predict its variation in a simple way, a field monitoring experiment was carried out along the north branch of the Yangtze River, where seawater intrusion was strong and salt-water variation is one of the limiting factors of local agriculture. In present paper, relation between antecedent precipitation index (API) and soil water content is studied, and effects of groundwater depth on soil water content was analyzed. A relatively accurate prediction result of soil water content was reached using a neural network model. The impact analysis result showed that the variation of the API was consistent with soil water content and it displayed significant correlations with soil water content in both 20 and 50 cm soil layer, and higher correlation was observed in the layer of 20 cm. Groundwater impact analysis suggested that soil moisture was affected by the depth of groundwater, and was affected more greatly by groundwater at depth of 50 cm than that at 20 cm layer. By introducing API, groundwater depth and temperature together, a BP artificial network model was established to predict soil water content and an acceptable agreement was achieved. The model can be used for supplementing monitoring data of soil water content and predicting soil water content in shallow groundwater areas, and can provide favorable support for the research of water and salt transport in estuary area.

  5. Assessment of anatomic parameters on lateral cephalogram and body mass index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Mokhtari Amir Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious and life threatening disorder caused by various anatomic and physio-pathologic factors. This study was conducted to clarify some anatomic etiologic factors of OSAS and the role of body mass index (BMI in expression of its symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 127 patients were included. Sixty patients had OSAS symptoms and 67 patients were considered as controls. Cephalometric parameters from lateral skull view of CT scan and BMI of patients were statistically analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: The position of hyoid bone was significantly lower and soft palate was significantly larger in patients with OSAS symptoms than control group. Moreover, mean BMI measurement was significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in addition to apparent role of BMI in OSAS symptoms, increased soft tissue compartment of pharyngeal area and position of hyoid bone are significant etiologic factors in this syndrome.    

  6. Developing a quantitative index system for assessing sustainable forestry management in Heilongjiang Province, China:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan Yang; Feng-you Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a comprehensive index system for forestry sustainability of Heilongjiang Province, which includes forest resources sustainability, sustainable economic development, sustainable social development and sustainable advancement in science and technology. Based on this system and the regional forest development, we further evaluated the sustainability of Heilongjiang Province for year 2008–2013. The results show that even though the regional forestry has been pre-liminarily on the track of sustainable development, it is fragile. Four indicators, e.g. soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of national investment and the annual carbon sequestration have important impact on the sustainability, with a weight of 39.0%in all the indicators. We also analyzed the factors hindering the sustainable development. It turns out that soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of science and technology funds, per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry production are the main factors hindering regional sustainable devel-opment, which accounts for 50.94% of the total obstacle degrees in the system. At last, we discussed how to pro-mote the regional sustainable development from the perspectives of forest resources sustainability, economic development sustainability, society development sustain-ability and the sustainable advancement of science and technology.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrasekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and Soil Water Balance (SWB model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. It was observed that the Rate of Increase (RoI of LSWI was the highest during the fortnights when the onset of monsoon occurred. The study showed that LSWI is sensitive to the onset of monsoon and initiation of cropping season. The second part of this study attempted to develop a simple book keeping – bucket type – water tight soil water balance model to derive the top 30cm profile soil moisture using climatic, soil and crop parameters as the basic inputs. Soil moisture derived from the model was used to compute the Area Conducive for Sowing (ACS during the sowing window of the cropping season. The soil moisture was validated spatially and temporally with the ground observed soil moisture values. The ACS was compared with the RoI of LSWI. The results showed that the RoI was high during the sowing window whenever the ACS was greater than 50% of the district area. The observation was consistent in all the districts of the two states. Thus the analysis revealed the potential of LSWI for early season agricultural drought management.

  8. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  9. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  10. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkabiliy Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  11. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  12. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wu; Yu Pan; Jianye Yan; Dan Huang; Shunxiang Li

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good thera...

  13. Evaluation of an index of biotic integrity approach used to assess biological condition in western U.S. streams and rivers at varying spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Whittier, T.R.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hughes, R.M.; Peck, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent assessments of biological condition are needed across multiple ecoregions to provide a greater understanding of the spatial extent of environmental degradation. However, consistent assessments at large geographic scales are often hampered by lack of uniformity in data collection, analyses, and interpretation. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely used in eastern and central North America, where fish assemblages are complex and largely composed of native species, but IBI development has been hindered in the western United States because of relatively low fish species richness and greater relative abundance of alien fishes. Approaches to developing IBIs rarely provide a consistent means of assessing biological condition across multiple ecoregions. We conducted an evaluation of IBIs recently proposed for three ecoregions of the western United States using an independent data set covering a large geographic scale. We standardized the regional IBIs and developed biological condition criteria, assessed the responsiveness of IBIs to basin-level land uses, and assessed their precision and concordance with basin-scale IBIs. Standardized IBI scores from 318 sites in the western United States comprising mountain, plains, and xeric ecoregions were significantly related to combined urban and agricultural land uses. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation revealed relatively low variation in IBI scores based on multiple sampling reaches at sites. A relatively high degree of corroboration with independent, locally developed IBIs indicates that the regional IBIs are robust across large geographic scales, providing precise and accurate assessments of biological condition for western U.S. streams. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 1: homogeneity index bases and blending processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    The Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has established a framework for the development of imaging techniques to determine the real-time distribution of mixture components during the production of solid dosage forms. This study, which is the first in a series of two parts, uses existing mixing indices and a new criterion called the "percentage of homogeneity" (H%) to assess image homogeneity. Image analysis techniques use feature extraction procedures to extract information from images subjected to treatments including colour segmentation and binarization. The surface distribution of components was determined by macropixel analysis, which splits an image into non-overlapping blocks of a preset size and calculates several statistical parameters for the resulting divisional structure. Such parameters were used to compute mixing indices. In this work, we explored the potential of image processing in combination with mixing indices and H% for assessing blending end-point and component distribution on images. As a simplified test, an arrangement of binary and ternary systems of coloured particles was mixed collecting at-line multispectral (MSI) and non-invasive RGB pictures at preset intervals.

  15. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 1: homogeneity index bases and blending processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    The Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) initiative of the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has established a framework for the development of imaging techniques to determine the real-time distribution of mixture components during the production of solid dosage forms. This study, which is the first in a series of two parts, uses existing mixing indices and a new criterion called the "percentage of homogeneity" (H%) to assess image homogeneity. Image analysis techniques use feature extraction procedures to extract information from images subjected to treatments including colour segmentation and binarization. The surface distribution of components was determined by macropixel analysis, which splits an image into non-overlapping blocks of a preset size and calculates several statistical parameters for the resulting divisional structure. Such parameters were used to compute mixing indices. In this work, we explored the potential of image processing in combination with mixing indices and H% for assessing blending end-point and component distribution on images. As a simplified test, an arrangement of binary and ternary systems of coloured particles was mixed collecting at-line multispectral (MSI) and non-invasive RGB pictures at preset intervals. PMID:22818029

  16. Sportininkų po ūmios čiurnos raiščių traumos izometrinės eversijos ir inversijos jėgų pokyčių vertinimas reabilitacijos eigoje

    OpenAIRE

    Tankevičius, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Disertacijoje įvertinta 144 sportininkų, patyrusių ūmią čiurnos raiščių traumą, čiurnos funkciją atspindinčių rodiklių kaita reabilitacijos eigoje. Greta įprastinių čiurnos funkciją atspindinčių rodiklių, tokių kaip čiurnos skausmas, patinimas, subjektyviai vertinama čiurnos funkcija, šiame darbe taip pat buvo vertinama čiurnos izometrinė eversijos ir inversijos jėga. Kadangi izometriniai jėgų matavimai buvo atliekami ūmiuoju čiurnos raiščių pažeidimo periodu, tai buvo vertinamas ir šių matav...

  17. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  18. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  19. Louisiana ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. Maryland ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  1. On the Construction of Competence Assessment Index System for Logic Enterprises%物流企业竞争力评价指标体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭焘

    2012-01-01

    面对物流市场全球化和国际化的背景,提高物流企业竞争力,已成为我国经济发展的当务之急。通过构建物流企业竞争力指标体系,采用AHP法确定指标的权重,可以定量地给出每项因素的相对重要性,也可以看出各因素对于竞争力提高的权重,从而使企业在进行决策时有所取舍,从根本上提高竞争力。%With the background of globalization and internationalization of logic industry, we should try hard to improve the competence of our logic enterprises, which has become an urgent task for our economic development. By constructing competence assessment index system and applying AHP method to determine the importance of the indexes, we can not only define the importance of each element with concrete qualities, but also understand the influence of each element for us to improve the competence. Therefore, we can help enterprises make decisions and improve their competence.

  2. Assessment of the Water Quality of Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India: Using Water Quality Index (WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchala Lingaswamy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the water quality of three lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India viz., Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lake by using water quality index (WQI. For this study systematic sampling has been carried out by collecting sixteen samples from each lake. The collected samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Total Hardness (TH, Total Alkalinity (TA, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Nitrates (NO32-, Sulphates (SO42-, Fluoride (F- and Chloride (Cl- according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA 2005 and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB guide manual: Water and Waste water analysis. The results were compared with water quality guidelines for drinking purpose (BIS 2012. The mean values of most water quality parameters were significantly higher than the accept limits in all three lakes. Ten important water variables were chosen to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI. All the three lakes fall under unsuitable for drinking purpose (>100 according to WQI scale.

  3. Assessment of the Indicators Atherogenic Index and Lipid Preventive Score of White Brine Cheese by Buffalo Milk after Technological Processing and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  4. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  5. Assessment of the indicators atherogenic index and lipid preventive score of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after technological processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  6. Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowska, Alicja; Domonik, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    In constructions, the usefulness of modern technical diagnostics of stone as a raw material requires predicting the effects of long-term environmental impact of its qualities and geomechanical properties. The paper presents geomechanical research enabling presentation of the factors for strength loss of the stone and forecasting the rate of development of destructive phenomena on the stone structure on a long-time basis. As research material Turkish travertines were selected from the Denizli-Kaklık Basin (Pamukkale and Hierapolis quarries), which have been commonly used for centuries in global architecture. The rock material was subjected to testing of the impact of various environmental factors, as well as European standards recommended by the author of the research program. Their resistance to the crystallization of salts from aqueous solutions and the effects of SO2, as well as the effect of frost and high temperatures are presented. The studies allowed establishing the following quantitative indicators: the ultrasonic waves index (IVp) and the strength reduction index (IRc). Reflections on the assessment of deterioration effects indicate that the most active factors decreasing travertine resistance in the aging process include frost and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Their negative influence is particularly intense when the stone material is already strongly weathered.

  7. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving

  8. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving

  9. New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Index for Renal Fibrosis Assessment: A Comparison between Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T1 Mapping with Histological Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, I; Crowe, L A; Berchtold, L; Moll, S; Hadaya, K; de Perrot, T; Vesin, C; Martin, P-Y; de Seigneux, S; Vallée, J-P

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to noninvasively assess renal interstitial fibrosis, a common process to all kidney diseases and predictive of renal prognosis. In this translational study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T1 mapping and a new segmented Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) technique, for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), were first compared to renal fibrosis in two well-controlled animal models to assess detection limits. Validation against biopsy was then performed in 33 kidney allograft recipients (KARs). Predictive MRI indices, ΔT1 and ΔADC (defined as the cortico-medullary differences), were compared to histology. In rats, both T1 and ADC correlated well with fibrosis and inflammation showing a difference between normal and diseased kidneys. In KARs, MRI indices were not sensitive to interstitial inflammation. By contrast, ΔADC outperformed ΔT1 with a stronger negative correlation to fibrosis (R(2) = 0.64 against R(2) = 0.29 p < 0.001). ΔADC tends to negative values in KARs harboring cortical fibrosis of more than 40%. Using a discriminant analysis method, the ΔADC, as a marker to detect such level of fibrosis or higher, led to a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 71%, respectively. This new index has potential for noninvasive assessment of fibrosis in the clinical setting. PMID:27439482

  10. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen’s κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = −0.33) and triglycerides (r = −0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional

  11. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-08-23

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = -0.33) and triglycerides (r = -0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional interventions.

  12. The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome measures are important when evaluating treatments and physiological progress in paediatric populations. Reliable, relevant measures of foot posture are important for such assessments to be accurate over time. The aim of the study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of common outcome measures for paediatric foot conditions. Methods A repeated measures, same-subject design assessed the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measures of foot posture, joint hypermobility and ankle range: the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6, the ankle lunge test, the Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment scale (LLAS, used by two examiners in 30 healthy children (aged 7 to 15 years. The Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OxAFQ-C was completed by participants and a parent, to assess the extent of foot and ankle problems. Results The OxAFQ-C demonstrated a mean (SD score of 6 (6 in adults and 7(5 for children, showing good agreement between parents and children, and which indicates mid-range (transient disability. Intra-rater reliability was good for the FPI-6 (ICC = 0.93 - 0.94, ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.85-0.95, Beighton scale (ICC = 0.96-0.98 and LLAS (ICC = 0.90-0.98. Inter-rater reliability was largely good for each of the: FPI-6 (ICC = 0.79, ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.83, Beighton scale (ICC = 0.73 and LLAS (ICC = 0.78. Conclusion The four measures investigated demonstrated adequate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in this paediatric sample, which further justifies their use in clinical practice.

  13. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx. Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval. Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days. The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6. Pearson (r and intraclass correlations (ICC were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen’s κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10 and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63, while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45. Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05 with total blood cholesterol (r = −0.33 and triglycerides (r = −0.22. ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional

  14. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = -0.33) and triglycerides (r = -0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional interventions

  15. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis with combined serum aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To construct a noninvasive assessment model consisting of routine laboratory data to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 137 consecutive patients with CHB who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to their aminotransferase (ALl-) level. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), the likelihood ratio (LR) of aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥ 1.5 or 300 ng/mL could detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients. The PPV was 93.7%, the specificity was 98.9%. The APRI 300 ng/mL can detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients.

  16. 无创中心动脉压检测在高血压患者血压管理及血管功能评估中的应用%The Application of Noninvasive Central Blood Pressure Detection in Blood Pressure Management and Vessel Function Assessment of Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明珠; 刘玥; 李敏; 江华

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the significance of noninvasive central blood pressure detection in blood pressure management and vessel function assessment of hypertension.MethodsA total of 348 subjects were recruited in the study and A-pulse CASP software were derived to measure the parameters of CASP and vessel function. The recruited subjects were divided into different groups for analysis according to age and disease.Results①CASP in hypertension group were both higher than those in normal group, while RAI and PRT lower.②Hypertensive patients of which brachial blood pressure were controlled have lower CASP and RAI than those above the level.③ Hypertensive patients whose brachial blood pressure were controled have significantly higher CASP than normal subjects.Conclusions Central blood pressure is more reflective of actural blood pressure and vessel function. Enhanced control of CASP in hypertensive patients contributes to improving vessel compliance.%目的 探索无创中心动脉压检测对血压管理及评估血管功能的意义.方法 入选对象348例.采用BPro?动脉脉搏波采集设备结合A-PULSE CASP?中心动脉压应用软件检测,按年龄、疾病等分组统计,探讨无创中心动脉压检测在血压管理及评估血管功能方面的临床意义.结果①高血压组中心动脉收缩压(Central Aortic Systolic Pressure,CASP)显著高于正常组;反射波增强指数(Radial Augmentation Index,RAI)、收缩期巅峰与动脉反射波时差(Peak Relative Time, PRT)小于正常组.②血压控制达标组CASP、RAI均小于未达标组.③血压控制达标组CASP较正常组偏高.结论 CASP能更准确地反映实际血压,控制中心动脉压有助于改善血管顺应性.

  17. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior. PMID:22659562

  18. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  19. The prosthetic need WHO index: a comparison between self-perception and professional assessment in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, Claudia Flemming; De Freitas, Sérgio Fernando Torres; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider the criteria for establishing the need for prosthesis, by comparing the need perceived subjectively by a patient (self-perception) with that assessed by an examiner according to the WHO diagnosis criteria. The proposed domiciliary sample comprised 270 elderly (aged 60 years or older) residents in a municipality in southern Brazil. The interviews and oral examinations were conducted by two dentists following a period of training and calibration. The criteria used conformed to the WHO and FDI standards. Statistical treatment of data included bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS 10.0. Only five patients identified the need for a prosthesis when not identified by the examiner. In the case of 172 elderly subjects, there was agreement in the self-perceived and observed treatment needs. The need for prosthesis was found in 93 elderly subjects who did not perceive any need for prosthetic treatment. The multivariate analysis showed that the variables age, gender, residential area and form of service most sought after during their lives were significantly associated with a better self-perception of oral health. The professional criteria based on WHO guidelines differed from the self-perceived need. Elderly male subjects who lived in a rural area and were 70 years of age or more, who did not participate in third age groups, and who had not sought dental services for most of their lives were the least likely to perceive the need for prosthetic treatment, thereby underestimating their oral health needs.

  20. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior.