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Sample records for assessment index rai

  1. Preoperative serum tetranectin, CA125 and menopausal status used as single markers in screening and in a risk assessment index (RAI) in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F D; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, S K;

    2009-01-01

    of the markers to discriminate between the four groups (208 benign ovarian tumor, 153 borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), 445 OC and 1333 age matched controls) in OC screening was examined. We also constructed a risk assessment index (RAI) for discrimination between tumor groups based on these variables...

  2. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990...

  3. The Modified Rainfall Anomaly Index (mRAI)—is this an alternative to the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) in evaluating future extreme precipitation characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg

    2016-02-01

    Precipitation extremes affect various economic sectors and may result in substantial costs for societies. Future projections of such extreme occurrences are needed to successfully develop robust regional adaptation strategies. Model ensemble-based approaches provide a higher level of confidence since they compensate to some degree for the uncertainties of individual climate model projections. An ensemble of twelve regional climate projections from five regional climate models was used to evaluate the suitability of a modified version of the Rainfall Anomaly Index (mRAI) as an alternative to the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) in assessing future precipitation conditions. We compared frequency distributions and trends of the mRAI with the SPI for a test region that is climatologically representative of Central Eastern Europe. Both indices are highly correlated with each other at all tested timescales—both for stations and for regionally averaged data—with Pearson correlation coefficients >>0.9 and Spearman correlation coefficients >0.99. There are no significant differences in their frequency distributions, although the mRAI shows slightly higher frequencies in the classes of `moderately dry' to `very dry' conditions. The change signals revealed by SPI and mRAI are very similar for mean changes as well as for changes in the extremes. Considering the large bandwidth of change signals of individual regional climate projections, the mRAI provides sufficiently robust results for the evaluation of future precipitation anomaly trends. The notably more complex calculation of the SPI has no appreciable advantage for this application.

  4. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlman Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH, a clinical assessment system mandated for use in Ontario, Canada as well as many other jurisdictions internationally. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on two datasets containing RAI-MH assessments for 1,056 patients from 7 facilities and 34,788 patients from 70 facilities in Ontario, Canada. The RAI-MH was completed by clinical staff of each facility at admission and follow-up, typically at discharge. The RAI-MH includes a breadth of information on symptoms, functioning, socio-demographics, and service utilization. Potential MHQIs were derived by examining the empirical patterns of improvement and incidence in depressive symptoms and cognitive performance across facilities in both sets of data. A prevalence indicator was also constructed to compare restraint use. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk adjustment of MHQIs using patient case-mix index scores derived from the RAI-MH System for Classification of Inpatient Psychiatry. Results Subscales from the RAI-MH, the Depression Severity Index (DSI and Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, were found to have good reliability and strong convergent validity. Unadjusted rates of five MHQIs based on the DSI, CPS, and restraints showed substantial variation among facilities in both sets of data. For instance, there was a 29.3% difference between the first and third quartile facility rates of improvement in cognitive performance. The case-mix index score was significantly related to MHQIs for cognitive performance

  5. Development and Psychometric Properties of an Assessment for Persons with Intellectual Disability--The InterRAI ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.; Fries, Brant E.; Smith, Trevor F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the interRAI-Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID), a comprehensive instrument that assesses all key domains of interest to service providers relative to a person with an intellectual disability (ID). The authors report on the reliability and validity of embedded scales for cognition, self-care, aggression,…

  6. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Perlman Christopher M; Hirdes John P; Barbaree Howard; Fries Brant E; McKillop Ian; Morris John N; Rabinowitz Terry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs) using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH), a clinical asses...

  7. Diet quality assessment indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho; Eliane Said Dutra; Nathalia Pizato; Nádia Dias Gruezo; Marina Kiyomi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I...

  8. The RAI DBS experiment with Olympus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Enzo

    The Italian broadcasting network (RAI) has studied the development of a national DBS service in an effort to outline a proposal for a space segment configuration compatible with development of new services, including HDTV. Proposals so far considered feature the integration of RAI's channel on Olympus in a future operational system and after extensive experimental use. Contents of the experimental program are discussed, and need for a broadcasting standard which considers projected introduction of HDTV is noted. The debate between RAI and consumer electronic industries on the use of broadcasting standards is outlined. The position of RAI in the context of HDTV and DBS is defined and the issue of determining the most effective transmission standard during the experimental stage is raised. It is pointed out that, in the absence of new production facilities for HDTV, the maximum quality which MAC will yield will be that of PAL since programs must be produced in PAL and then converted into MAC. Two alternatives for strategy on the use of broadcasting standards for DBS are offered. Finally, technical experiments and a market survey are discussed.

  9. Nepotizmo raiškos organizacijoje modelis

    OpenAIRE

    Vveinhardt, Jolita; Petrauskaitė, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Šiame straipsnyje analizuojama nepotizmo raiška organizacijoje ir neigiamas reiškinio poveikis. Pristatomi straipsnio autorių atliktų empirinių tyrimų rezultatai. Remiantis straipsnio autorių atliktų tyrimų rezultatais ,suformuotas nepotizmo poveikio organizacijoje modelis. Suformuotą nepotizmo poveikio organizacijoje modelį sudaro keturi kertiniai akcentai, apimantys giminystės ryšiais susijusio asmens įdarbinimo procesus; teigiamą / neigiamą nepotizmo reiškinio vertinimą organizacijos atžvi...

  10. New assessment for the risk of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis. Prognostic factor analysis in hypercholesterolemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concise and non-invasive methods to detect the risk of cerebrovascular disease in high risk patients are considered useful. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the contribution to ischemic cerebrovascular risk of the Revised Atherosclerotic Index (RAI) which is calculated from the Atherogenic Index (AI), patient's age and number of risk factors of atherosclerotic disease. I studied retrospectively the serum lipid levels, carotid stenosis measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction diagnosed from the symptoms and CT in 56 hypercholesterolemic outpatients. I assessed the relation between the RAI and carotid stenoic findings, history of cerebral infarction, and type of cerebral infarction. I also assessed the relation between the RAI and changes in LDL-cholesterol level before and after atorvastatin administration. The RAI was significantly increased in patients with carotid lesions and cerebral infarction, but the AI was not. While the odds ratio of the AI for carotid lesions was high but not significantly so, that of the RAI increased with statistical significance. The odds ratio for cerebral infarction was high for the RAI but not for the AI. Furthermore, the RAI was significantly high in patients with aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction as compared to that in patients without any infarction. The serum lipids were well controlled under administration of atorvastatin and the mean RAI was also significantly decreased; however, more comprehensive control of risk factors might be necessary. The AI adjusted for patient's age and number of risk factors might be useful for assessing the risk of carotid lesion atherosclerosis and aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction. (author)

  11. Theoretical study on safety assessment indexes system of coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-liang(施式亮); LI Run-qiu(李润求); XIE Jian-xiang(谢建湘)

    2003-01-01

    The safety status of the coal mines is closely correlated with the operating status and its changes of the whole working system in the coal mines, and the safety system is the sub-system of the whole production system. In this paper, based on the analysis of the complicacy of the safety sub-system and its affecting factors, the theory basis of the indexes system of the safety assessment was studied, including the establishing principles of the indexes system , the structure of the indexes system, the determining methods of the assessment indexes. The complete indexes system was established for the safety assessment of the coal mines in the paper.

  12. Assessment of age bias in site index equations

    OpenAIRE

    Socha J; Coops NC; Ochal W

    2016-01-01

    The most widely accepted method of evaluating site productivity is site index. In spite of some important restrictions it is still a useful concept in both forest research and management. One of the most important challenges when using site index is an age trend manifested by a negative correlation between site index and stand age. Age trend may result from the inappropriateness of site index models. In this paper we develop a new approach for assessing age bias in site index models. Field da...

  13. STUDI ANALISIS SETTING RELAY PENGAMAN DI PENYULANG NGURAH RAI I DAN PENYULANG NGURAH RAI II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Komang Sutarjana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan gangguan di jaringan distribusi 20 kV seringkali menyebabkan terputusnya pasokan daya listrik kepada pelanggan. Salah satu penyebab keandalan sistem kurang baik adalah kesalahan koordinasi setting relay pada penyulang. Seperti yang terjadi pada penyulang Ngurah Rai I dan Penyulang Ngurah Rai II dimana terdapat kesalahan koordinasi setting antara relay pada pangkal penyulang yang terletak di Gardu Induk (GI dengan relay pada di ujung jaringan yang terletak di Gardu Hubung (GH. Untuk memecahkan masalah tersebut maka perlu dianalisis setting relay yang sudah ada (eksisting. Untuk membuktikan koordinasi setting relay sudah sempurna, maka akan dilakukan simulasi menggunakan bantuan program computer yaitu Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh nilai setting dimulai dari setting Over Current Relay (OCR pada pangkal penyulang (GI 360 A dan Tms 0,36 sedangkan untuk nilai setting arus OCR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional 330 A dan TMS 0,16. Kemudian untuk setting GFR pada pangkal penyulang (GI diperoleh nilai 34 A dan TMS 0,2. Sedangkan setting GFR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional diperoleh nilai 31 A dan TMS 0,1.

  14. Assessment of age bias in site index equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely accepted method of evaluating site productivity is site index. In spite of some important restrictions it is still a useful concept in both forest research and management. One of the most important challenges when using site index is an age trend manifested by a negative correlation between site index and stand age. Age trend may result from the inappropriateness of site index models. In this paper we develop a new approach for assessing age bias in site index models. Field data collected from 311 sample plots established in Norway spruce stands in the Polish region of the Carpathians formed the basis of this study. In the proposed approach the appropriateness of site index models is assessed by analyzing the existence of age trends in residuals of geocentric site index prediction models. Using the developed approach we demonstrated that when significant correlations exist between residuals of site index prediction models and stand age, it likely indicates the existence of an age trend and thus the inappropriateness of site index model. To remedy this situation, we demonstrated that the observed age trend can be quantified and utilized in new, non-biased, site index models.

  15. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Alberici, Federico; Baslund, Bo; Brown, Denise; Hasan, Nadeem; Holle, Julia; Hruskova, Zdenka; Jayne, David; Judge, Andrew; Little, Mark A; Merkel, Peter A; Palmisano, Alessandra; Seo, Philip; Stegeman, Coen; Tesar, Vladimir; Vaglio, Augusto; Westman, Kerstin; Luqmani, Raashid

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  16. "Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Zifirdaus

    2011-01-01

    Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

  17. Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Outcome On RAI-131 Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the variable grades of response of distant functioning thyroid metastases to serial radioactive iodine-131 therapy. One hundred fifty patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer, mainly to lung and bone, were assessed to evaluate the therapeutic response of metastatic lesions to serial RAI-131 therapy regarding the site of metastases (bone or lung), type of response achieved (complete, partial, stable disease or disease progression) and patient survival. Out of 1368 patients with DTC, 150 patients (10.9%) had functioning distant metastases. The peak age of onset was between 40-59 years, 99 patients (66%) were females compared to 51 males (34%). 77 patients (51.3%) had papillary type while 73 patients (48.7%) had follicular type. Lung was the commonest site of metastases (62 patients, 41.4%) followed by bone (38 patients, 25.3%), bone and lung (32 patients, 21.3%) and other sites (18 patients, 12%). Metastases were more common at initial presentation or detected after the first therapy dose (118 patients, 78.7%) than during follow-up (32 patients, 21.3%). 25 patients (16.6%) achieved complete response, 52 patients (34.7%) showed partial response, 52 patients (34.7%) were in stationary state, and 21 patients (14%) showed evidence of disease progression. The overall survival from the detection of metastases was 71% at 5 years and 63% at 10 years. Up to the present time, radioiodine is the only available effective systemic therapy to treat patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and for this reason, serial therapy doses are recommended for patient with metastatic DTC with favorable outcome and overall 5 and 10 year survival.

  18. Research on Assessment Evaluation in Nutritional Indexes of Sports Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingling Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study using social benefits evaluation index, discussed by using attribute recognition method in sports drinks nutrition index system, it can be used in food quality inspection more widely. With the further development of our country public fitness, the continuous improvement of people's living standard, people's demand for sports drinks is more and more high, so in the research and development of sports drink, how to evaluate about the quality of the products effectively, is a comprehensive assessment subject.

  19. Fatores associados ao aumento no índice de incremento de pressão radial em indivíduos hipertensos Factors associated with increased radial augmentation index in hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A rigidez arterial é uma variável preditora de morbimortalidade e um possível marcador de lesão vascular. Sua avaliação não invasiva por tonometria radial e análise do índice de incremento (r-AI permite identificar os pacientes expostos a um maior risco cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do r-AI em variáveis clínico-bioquímicas e sua influência na prevalência de dano em órgão-alvo em pacientes hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Cento e quarenta pacientes hipertensos consecutivos, em seguimento clínico ambulatorial, foram submetidos à análise transversal. Os níveis de pressão arterial (PA e o r-AI foram obtidos por tonometria de aplanação da artéria radial (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. Os pacientes foram alocados em tercis r-AI (r-AI 97%. RESULTADOS: A amostra era predominantemente composta por mulheres (56,4%, com idade média de 61,7 ± 11,7 anos e índice de massa corporal de 29,6 ± 6,1 Kg/m². O maior tercil apresentou uma proporção maior de mulheres (p = 0,001, maior PA sistólica (p = 0,001 e pressão de pulso (p = 0,014, e menor peso (p = 0,044, altura (p BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a variable predictor of morbidity and mortality and a possible marker of vascular injury. Its non-invasive assessment by radial tonometry and analysis of the augmentation index (r-AI allows identifying patients exposed to higher cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of r-AI on clinical-biochemical variables and its influence on the prevalence of target-organ damage in hypertensive patients. METHODS: 140 consecutive hypertensive patients, followed-up in an outpatient clinic, were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Blood pressure (BP levels and r-AI were obtained by applanation tonometry of the radial artery (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. The patients were allocated into r-AI tertiles (r-AI 97%. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly composed of women (56.4%, mean age of 61.7 ± 11.7 years and body mass index 29.6

  20. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ansell Ricky; Hedman Johannes; Nordgaard Anders

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights) of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index ...

  1. Use of the interRAI CHESS scale to predict mortality among persons with neurological conditions in three care settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hirdes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persons with certain neurological conditions have higher mortality rates than the population without neurological conditions, but the risk factors for increased mortality within diagnostic groups are less well understood. The interRAI CHESS scale has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality in the overall population of persons receiving health care in community and institutional settings. This study examines the performance of CHESS as a predictor of mortality among persons with 11 different neurological conditions. METHODS: Survival analyses were done with interRAI assessments linked to mortality data among persons in home care (n = 359,940, complex continuing care hospitals/units (n = 88,721, and nursing homes (n = 185,309 in seven Canadian provinces/territories. RESULTS: CHESS was a significant predictor of mortality in all 3 care settings for the 11 neurological diagnostic groups considered after adjusting for age and sex. The distribution of CHESS scores varied between diagnostic groups and within diagnostic groups in different care settings. CONCLUSIONS: CHESS is a valid predictor of mortality in neurological populations in community and institutional care. It may prove useful for several clinical, administrative, policy-development, evaluation and research purposes. Because it is routinely gathered as part of normal clinical practice in jurisdictions (like Canada that have implemented interRAI assessment instruments, CHESS can be derived without additional need for data collection.

  2. An Initial Assessment of the GOES Microburst Windspeed Potential Index

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Large output values of the microburst index algorithms indicate that the ambient thermodynamic structure of the troposphere fits the prototypical environment for each respective microburst type. Accordingly, a new diagnostic nowcasting product, the Microburst Windspeed Potential Index, is derived from merging existing algorithms and designed to infer the presence of sufficient positive buoyancy and a well-developed convective boundary layer. This paper provides an initial assessment of the MWPI algorithm, presents case studies demonstrating effective operational use of the MWPI product, and presents validatio...

  3. An Initial Assessment of the GOES Microburst Windspeed Potential Index

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of products has been developed and evaluated to assess hazards presented by convective downbursts to aircraft in flight derived from the current generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. The existing suite of GOES microburst products employs the GOES sounder to calculate risk based on conceptual models of favorable environmental profiles for convective downburst generation. Large output values of the microburst index algorithms indicate that the ambient thermody...

  4. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Protiva Rani Das; Md Tabibul Islam; Rownak Jahan; Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healer...

  5. An index for the assessment of degraded Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Diagnosing the degradation degree of forest ecosystems is the basis for restoration strategies. However, there is no literature documenting how to quantify the forest degradation degree by using synthetic indicators, also because there is not a widely accepted definition for "forest degradation" and "degraded forest". Although there are many definitions of forest degradation that converge on the loss of ecosystem services, still today there are no largely accepted methods that give operational guidance to help in defining it. In the present research, with the aim to assess the degree of forest degradation, an integrated index - FDI, Forest Degradation Index - was developed.Area of study: In this first application, the FDI was applied and validated at stand level in two different Mediterranean forest types in two different case studies: Madonie and Nedrodi regional Parks (Sicily, Italy. The first dominated by sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa], the second dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber L..Material and methods: FDI is a synthetic index structured starting from representative and relatively easily detectable parameters. Here, we propose a set of six indicators that should be assessed to determine the forest degradation: Structural Index (SI, Canopy Cover (CC, Natural Regeneration Density (NRD, Focal Species of Degradation (FSD, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD, and Soil Depth (SD. FDI, here proposed and discussed, has been based on a MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique, and implemented in order to contribute in finding simple indicators useful for forest restoration purposes that have an eco-functional basis.Main results: An integrated index of forest degradation has been defined. FDI values are comprised in the closed interval [0, 10], ranging from class I (Higher ecological functionality to class IV (Lower

  6. MODEL BIAYA PEMELIHARAAN FASILITAS PADA BANDAR UDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Dewita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Facilities in an airport requires maintenance activity in order to achieve excellent quality level and able to support activities at the airport to avoid negative impacts, which is the declining quality of the facility that can lead to lower levels of the productivity carried out in an airport. Maintenance facilities at Bali's Ngurah Rai airport need the maintenance costs planning. To get proper maintenance actions,  the maintenance costs early stages of planning phase needs to develop a model of facility maintenance costs that can provide the maintenance costs estimates quickly and accurately. To produce a maintenance costs model we should identify the maintenance activities that exist at Ngurah Rai airport. Maintenance costs data used is within the last 5 years (2007-2011. Using the Cost Significant Model methode and the linear regression equation it showed that several of the facility maintenace significantly affect the facility maintenance costs in the Ngurah Rai Airport which is the cost of passenger terminal building maintenance (X6, the cost of runway maintenance (X1, the cost of taxiway maintenance (X2, the cost of air conditioning installation maintenance (X14, the cost of road maintenance (X4, the cost of vehicle parking maintenance (X5, and the cost of navigation and communication equipment maintenance (X10. There is 3  linear regression equation model which is 1 Y = 11873745878,77 + 0,993 X1 + 0,826 X2 + 0,334 X4 + 1,181 X6, 2 Y = -698840481,94 + 1,327 X1 + 1,716 X2 + 5,516 X5+ 3,060 X14, and 3 Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14. After doing the Cost Model Factor (CMF test to the three linear regression equation, the most accurate equation is linear regression equation Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14 that has the average ratio 0.006% of the actual cost, so it is the best facility maintenance cost model at Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.

  7. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until now, only noncontrolled studies on the effects of implementation of the RAI have been carried out. Desing/methods: Quasi-experimental; intervention wards with RAI compared with wards with no interv...

  8. The Assessment of Mangrove Sediment Quality in Mengkabong Lagoon: An Index Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva M.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Abdullah, Mohd H.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different types of indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mengkabong lagoon and select the best index to describe the Mengkabong sediment quality. The indexes used in this study were Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Marine Sediment Pollution…

  9. Development of a new biotic index to assess freshwater pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a new biotic index of species pollution value (SPV) and community pollution value (CPV) based on the correlation of protozoan communities with chemical water quality to assess freshwater pollution. Five hundred and twenty-three species of protozoa SPV were established based on the data of River Hangjiang and Lake Donghu. The present research was conducted in order to further consummate the biotic index. Protozoa of the water system in Changde City were collected from 16 stations using the PFU method and the water chemical parameters of the stations were analyzed. The results showed that CPV calculated from SPV had a close correlation with the degree of water pollution (p < 0.00001), which indicated that the method is reliable. By combining the data of River Hangjiang, Lake Donghu and Changde City, the final form of SPV was accomplished and the SPV list increased to 757. The ultimate water standard evaluated by CPV calculated from SPV was proposed. - A new biotic index of water quality based on protozoa is described

  10. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  11. Index

    OpenAIRE

    Editörden

    2013-01-01

    ed and indexed in Copernicus, Index Google Scholarship, the PSCR, DOAJ, Research Bible, Indian Open Access Journals (OAJ), Institutional Repositories (IR), Journal TOCs, J-Gate (Informatics India), Ulrich’s, ResearchGate, International Society of Universal Research in Sciences, DRJI, EyeSource

  12. Index

    OpenAIRE

    Editörden

    2014-01-01

    ed and indexed in Copernicus, Index Google Scholarship, the PSCR, DOAJ, Research Bible, Indian Open Access Journals (OAJ), Institutional Repositories (IR), Journal TOCs, J-Gate (Informatics India), Ulrich’s, ResearchGate, International Society of Universal Research in Sciences, DRJI, EyeSource

  13. Assessment of resistive index in acute epididymitis on doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed to review findings of gray-scale ultrasonography and to assess the diagnostic value of the resistive index (RI) in patients with acute epididymitis by comparing with that in normal volunteers. Gray-scale ultrasonogram was reviewed in nine patients with acute epididymitis for echogenicity, size and reactive hydrocele. Normal values of resistive index (RI) were obtained in 20 epididymides from 10 volunteers (aged 20-28, mean 23.7). Nine patients of epididymitis (aged 18-67, mean 37.2) were examinated with color Doppler sonography and RI was measured at 11 sites on epididymal arteries. For the prediction of acute epididymitis, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at the cut-off value of RI in 0.65 and 0.70. Gray-scale ultrasonography showed echogenicity that was variable among the 9 cases (hyperechoic 2 cases, isoechoic 2, hypoechoic 5), enlargement of epididymis in 8, and reactive hydrocele in 8 cases. Normal volunteers displayed color Doppler signals in 14 out of 20. The range of RI in normal volunteers were between 0.64 and 1.00 (mean, 0.79 ± SD 0.10). In patients with acute epididymitis, color Doppler signals were detected in all patients. The range of RI in epididymitis were 0.40-0.68 (mean, 0.56 ± SD 0.10). At cut-off RI value of 0.65, accuracy was 88%, sensitivity 81.1%, and specificity 92.7%. At cut-off value of 0.70 accuracy was 92%, sensitivity 100%, and specificity 85.7%. In addition to the findings of gray-scale ultrasonography, resistive index and color flow changes are valuable in diagnosing acute epididymitis

  14. Assessment of resistive index in acute epididymitis on doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Mun; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Kim, Chung Soo [Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    This study was aimed to review findings of gray-scale ultrasonography and to assess the diagnostic value of the resistive index (RI) in patients with acute epididymitis by comparing with that in normal volunteers. Gray-scale ultrasonogram was reviewed in nine patients with acute epididymitis for echogenicity, size and reactive hydrocele. Normal values of resistive index (RI) were obtained in 20 epididymides from 10 volunteers (aged 20-28, mean 23.7). Nine patients of epididymitis (aged 18-67, mean 37.2) were examinated with color Doppler sonography and RI was measured at 11 sites on epididymal arteries. For the prediction of acute epididymitis, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated at the cut-off value of RI in 0.65 and 0.70. Gray-scale ultrasonography showed echogenicity that was variable among the 9 cases (hyperechoic 2 cases, isoechoic 2, hypoechoic 5), enlargement of epididymis in 8, and reactive hydrocele in 8 cases. Normal volunteers displayed color Doppler signals in 14 out of 20. The range of RI in normal volunteers were between 0.64 and 1.00 (mean, 0.79 {+-} SD 0.10). In patients with acute epididymitis, color Doppler signals were detected in all patients. The range of RI in epididymitis were 0.40-0.68 (mean, 0.56 {+-} SD 0.10). At cut-off RI value of 0.65, accuracy was 88%, sensitivity 81.1%, and specificity 92.7%. At cut-off value of 0.70 accuracy was 92%, sensitivity 100%, and specificity 85.7%. In addition to the findings of gray-scale ultrasonography, resistive index and color flow changes are valuable in diagnosing acute epididymitis.

  15. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  16. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against RAI3 and its expression in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAI3 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been associated with malignancy and may play a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Although its exact function in normal and malignant cells remains unclear and evidence supporting its role in oncogenesis is controversial, its abundant expression on the surface of cancer cells would make it an interesting target for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. To investigate the link with cancer and provide more evidence for its role, we carried out a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in a large set of human breast cancer specimens. We expressed recombinant human RAI3 in bacteria and reconstituted the purified protein in liposomes to raise monoclonal antibodies using classical hybridoma techniques. The specific binding activity of the antibodies was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and immunocytochemistry. We carried out a systematic immunohistochemical analysis of RAI3 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 147) and normal breast tissues (n = 44) using a tissue microarray. In addition, a cDNA dot blot hybridisation assay was used to investigate a set of matched normal and cancerous breast tissue specimens (n = 50) as well as lymph node metastases (n = 3) for RAI3 mRNA expression. The anti-RAI3 monoclonal antibodies bound to recombinant human RAI3 protein with high specificity and affinity, as shown by ELISA, western blot and ICC. The cDNA dot blot and immunohistochemical experiments showed that both RAI3 mRNA and RAI3 protein were abundantly expressed in human breast carcinoma. However, there was no association between RAI3 protein expression and prognosis based on overall and recurrence-free survival. We have generated a novel, highly-specific monoclonal antibody that detects RAI3 in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. This is the first study to report a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in normal and cancerous human

  17. BIRDWATCHING RACE DI TAHURA NGURAH RAI BALI SEBAGAI SARANA PENDIDIKAN LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PELAJAR DAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARYANTO SUDARYANTO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Birdwatching race was conducted on 17-19 October 2008 at Srangan Island, Lagoon BTDC Nusa Dua and Mangrove Information Centre (MIC Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. This activity was aimed to increase the awareness of youngsters to environment, especially bird in their habitat. This activity was also aimed to promote one kind of ecotourism namely birdwatching in Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. One hundred students and youngsters from Java, Lombok and Bali Island participated in this activity. The activity included discourse and birdwatching race, environmental education, and discussion on environmental issues related to development ecotourism of Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali.

  18. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  19. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  20. RAI,one candidate gene associated with differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪皎; 张睿; 刘芝华; 王秀琴; 丁芳; 郭明洲; 吴旻

    2000-01-01

    From all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human lung adenocarcinoma GLC-82 cells and control, subtractive cDNA library has been constructed using subtractive hybridization technique in our laboratory. The screening of the cDNA subtractive library resulted in identification of a clone containing cDNA fragment of one ATRA-induced gene (RAI) in GLC-82 cells. The positive clone with full-length cDNA of RAI was identified by screening fetal brain cDNA library using colony hybridization technique, and then sequenced. RT-PCR results showed that RAI was expressed in many different human fetal tissues. These results suggest that RAI may be involved in cell differentiation and play an important role in vital activities of cells.

  1. Thyroid storm following radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for pediatric graves disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrs, Henry J.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Weinstein, David A.; Amdur, Robert J.; Haller, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 11 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Diarrhea • tachycardia • tachypnea • tremor • wheezing Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: A growing number of pediatric endocrinologists treat Graves disease with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy due to the typically definitive nature of I-131 therapy. Given the published benefits and perceived low risks of RAI when compared to surgery or long-term anti-thyroid medication, the trend ...

  2. The Adaptor Protein Rai/ShcC Promotes Astrocyte-Dependent Inflammation during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Savino, Maria Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Benagiano, Marisa; Ortensi, Barbara; Pelicci, Giuliana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Ballerini, Clara; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana

    2016-07-15

    Th17 cells have been casually associated to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. We have previously demonstrated that Rai/ShcC, a member of the Shc family of adaptor proteins, negatively regulates Th17 cell differentiation and lupus autoimmunity. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic outcome of the Th17 bias associated with Rai deficiency on multiple sclerosis development, using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. We found that, unexpectedly, EAE was less severe in Rai(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts despite an enhanced generation of myelin-specific Th17 cells that infiltrated into the CNS. Nevertheless, when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient Rai(+/+) mice, these cells promoted a more severe disease compared with wild-type encephalitogenic Th17 cells. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by a dampened inflammatory response of astrocytes, which were found to express Rai, to IL-17. The results provide evidence that Rai plays opposite roles in Th17 cell differentiation and astrocyte activation, with the latter dominant over the former in EAE, highlighting this adaptor as a potential novel target for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:27288534

  3. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground

  4. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jorge; Espinosa, Julián; Vázquez, Carmen; Mas, David

    2013-04-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for 'good optics' so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision by taking into account the local structure of the scene, instead of focusing on a particular aberration. As we show, this index highly correlates with visual acuity and allows inter-comparison of natural images around the retina. The usefulness of the index is proven through the analysis of real eyes before and after undergoing corneal surgery, which usually are hard to analyze with standard metrics.

  5. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M. [Endocrinology Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A. [Statistics and Epidemiology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France)

    2012-07-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  6. Research on Assessment Evaluation in Nutritional Indexes of Sports Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xingling Xu

    2015-01-01

    This study using social benefits evaluation index, discussed by using attribute recognition method in sports drinks nutrition index system, it can be used in food quality inspection more widely. With the further development of our country public fitness, the continuous improvement of people's living standard, people's demand for sports drinks is more and more high, so in the research and development of sports drink, how to evaluate about the quality of the products effectively, is a comprehen...

  7. JRC Statistical Assessment of the 2015 ICT Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    SAISANA Michaela; DOMINGUEZ TORREIRO MARCOS

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been publishing its annual ICT Development Index (IDI), which benchmarks countries’ performance with regard to ICT infrastructure, use and skills. The JRC analysis, conducted at ITU’s invitation, suggests that the conceptualized three-level structure of the 2015 IDI is statistically sound in terms of coherence and balance, with the overall index as well as the three sub-indices – on ICT access, use and skills – being driven ...

  8. Retinal image quality assessment through a visual similarity index

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Mas Candela, David

    2013-01-01

    Retinal image quality is commonly analyzed through parameters inherited from instrumental optics. These parameters are defined for ‘good optics’ so they are hard to translate into visual quality metrics. Instead of using point or artificial functions, we propose a quality index that takes into account properties of natural images. These images usually show strong local correlations that help to interpret the image. Our aim is to derive an objective index that quantifies the quality of vision ...

  9. The Risk Assessment of China’s Timber Import Based on SWI Index

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yanbin; Cheng Baodong; Yu Chang; Li Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Derived by the demand of domestic economy and forest products export, timber import shows the features of high concentration and strong dependence. Thus the risk of China's timber import significantly increases. Based on SWI Index, we construct the short-term and long-term timber risk index from resource risk, country risk, market risk, transportation risk etc. Using this index, we make a more comprehensive risk assessment and find out the trend and factors of risk. The results of index const...

  10. Use of rai and wavelet of analysis of the influence of the temporal multi-scales in the rainfall of the Mundaú River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sousa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the rainfall in a region of the Mundaú river watershed, at state of Alagoas, Brazil, had been studied using the rainfall anomaly index (RAI and the Wavelet Analysis. This method involves transformation of a one-dimensional series in a time space and frequency, allowing determining the dominant scales of variability and its secular variations. The results had shown that the precipitation variability in the two regions is defined by located secular multi-scales in certain intervals of time. However, on inter-annual variability to the ENSO cycle and the decadal variability of the scales had influenced in the local pluviometric variability.

  11. The CAPM and the risk appetite index; theoretical differences and empirical similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pericoli; Massimo Sbracia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Risk Appetite Index (RAI), a measure of investors� risk aversion proposed by Kumar and Persaud (2001, 2002). We show that the RAI distinguishes between risk and risk aversion only under theoretically restrictive assumptions on the distribution of returns and the shocks affecting assets� riskiness. However, by comparing the RAI with a measure of risk aversion derived from the CAPM � a model that does not require those restrictive assumptions � we find that estim...

  12. Assessing landscape changes in Laos using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hett, Cornelia; Hurni, Kaspar; Heinimann, Andreas; Mueller, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing rapid and vast land cover and land use transformations in Laos are only documented by punctual local case studies; information on national level is barely available. We explore ways to address this by using MODIS vegetation index times series data to detect medium to large scale transformation on the national level.

  13. Longitudinal data assessment of global stability index in kale leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Alcinei Mistico Azevedo; Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior; Carlos Enrrik Pedrosa; Nermy Ribeiro Valadares; Marcos Aurélio Miranda Ferreira; Paulo Roberto Cecon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kale plants are usually sold “in natura” in street markets and malls. Kale leaves can have their appearance compromised by dehydration and discoloration due to increased post-harvest time exposure. We aimed to analyze the Global Stability Index (GSI) in kale accessions by means of repeated measurement analysis and curve grouping as a complementary form of superior sample identification with regard to post-harvest preservation. Thirty kale accessions were evaluated using a randomized ...

  14. Erosion Resistance Index (ERI) to Assess Surface Stability in Desert Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new spectral index—erosion resistance index (ERI)—was developed to assess erosion risks in desert landscapes. The index was developed by applying trigonometry to the combination of the green/red band-ratio and the red/near infrared band-ratio from very high spatial resolution imagery. The resultant ERI maps showed spatially cohesive distributions of high and low index values across the study areas. High index values were observed over areas that were resistant to erosion (such as desert pavement and dense vegetation), while low index values overlapped with areas likely dominated by loose sandy soils, such as stream beds and access roads. Although further investigation is warranted, this new index, ERI, shows promise for the assessment of erosion risks in desert regions.

  15. USING A QUASI HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX TO ASSESS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    ROSTOM G.R.

    2015-01-01

    An adjusted Quasi Human Development Index is proposed to perfect the assessing of human development. The adjustments concern two dimension: long and healthy life dimension, which is measured by days of healthy life lived index; and decent standard of living dimension, which is measured. by the share of population with incomes above the subsistence minimum index. On the example of the Russian Federation it is shown that the resulting spatial distribution of the Quasi HDI more precisely reflect...

  16. Assessment of impact on seafloor features in INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    ,burrows,and animal tracks. In the reference area (T1) also,sediment cover was observed at all the locations. Fecal casts and burrows could be seen at almost all locations,anda holothurian with its trail was sen in one of the photos. Nodules were not exposed,but bio.... The ecological impactsof joint US-Russian Benthic Impact Experiment. Proceedings of Ocean Mining Sympo-sium (Seoul,Korea,November 1997). Pp. 139–145. Impact on Seafloor Features in INDEX Area 249 Sharma,R.,and B. N. Nath. 2000. Selection of test and reference...

  17. A phylogenetic study of SPBP and RAI1: evolutionary conservation of chromatin binding modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Darvekar

    Full Text Available Our genome is assembled into and array of highly dynamic nucleosome structures allowing spatial and temporal access to DNA. The nucleosomes are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications, altering the DNA-histone interaction and serving as docking sites for proteins exhibiting effector or "reader" modules. The nuclear proteins SPBP and RAI1 are composed of several putative "reader" modules which may have ability to recognise a set of histone modification marks. Here we have performed a phylogenetic study of their putative reader modules, the C-terminal ePHD/ADD like domain, a novel nucleosome binding region and an AT-hook motif. Interactions studies in vitro and in yeast cells suggested that despite the extraordinary long loop region in their ePHD/ADD-like chromatin binding domains, the C-terminal region of both proteins seem to adopt a cross-braced topology of zinc finger interactions similar to other structurally determined ePHD/ADD structures. Both their ePHD/ADD-like domain and their novel nucleosome binding domain are highly conserved in vertebrate evolution, and construction of a phylogenetic tree displayed two well supported clusters representing SPBP and RAI1, respectively. Their genome and domain organisation suggest that SPBP and RAI1 have occurred from a gene duplication event. The phylogenetic tree suggests that this duplication has happened early in vertebrate evolution, since only one gene was identified in insects and lancelet. Finally, experimental data confirm that the conserved novel nucleosome binding region of RAI1 has the ability to bind the nucleosome core and histones. However, an adjacent conserved AT-hook motif as identified in SPBP is not present in RAI1, and deletion of the novel nucleosome binding region of RAI1 did not significantly affect its nuclear localisation.

  18. Explanatory value of the ability index as assessed by cardiologists and patients with congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Schrader, Anne-Marie; Lisby, Karen Holst;

    2012-01-01

    The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has never been...

  19. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has...

  20. Using [Delta]Goodness-of-Fit Indexes in Assessing Mean Structure Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Sivo, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning model invariance across populations, researchers have discussed the limitations of the conventional chi-square difference test ([Delta] chi-square test). There have been some research efforts in using goodness-of-fit indexes (i.e., [Delta]goodness-of-fit indexes) for assessing multisample model invariance, and some specific…

  1. Effective index approximations of photonic crystal slabs: a 2-to-1-D assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Manfred; Ivanova, Olena V.

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab-like photonic crystals are often discussed on the basis of effective index (EI) approximations, where a 2-D effective refractive index profile replaces the actual 3-D structure. Our aim is to assess this approximation by analogous steps that reduce finite 2-D waveguide

  2. Mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raiškos diagnozavimas Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose

    OpenAIRE

    Pavolas, Rytis

    2013-01-01

    Objektas: mobingas darbuotojų santykiuose. Problema: Koks mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose išplitimas Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose ir kaip sumažinti šio reiškinio pasekmes vidiniame organizacijos kontekste? Tikslas: Ištirti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raišką Lietuvos turizmo organizacijose. Uždaviniai: 1. Apžvelgti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose konceptualią esmę. 2. Nustatyti mobingo darbuotojų santykiuose raišką organizacijose. 3. Suformuoti vadybinių priemonių rinkin...

  3. Watershed Sustainability Index Assessment of a Watershed in Chhattisgarh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surendra Kumar Chandniha; M. L Kansal; G. Anvesh

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve continuous sustainable development in a watershed, it is desired that natural resources such as water are assessed and utilized efficiently. Generally, water resources are assessed considering watershed as a unit. Since the water requirements and availability varies in space and time, it is desired to manage the water resources so as to satisfy the demand on sustainable basis. Further, in order to achieve sustainability, it is necessary to consider social, economic and en...

  4. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  5. Completing Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Incorporating the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NatureServe and Heritage Program collaborators have developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to provide a rapid, scientifically defensible assessment...

  6. The impacts of Modernization on the traditional Sakawa Sili festival in the Rai Kirat community of Nepal: a case study of the Rai community

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Dik Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the different aspects of the Sakawa Sili indigenous festival where the Sili dance is performed. Modernization and rituals theories are deeply observed to analyze my research questions. The main leading questions are: what is the importance of Sakawa Sili festival in Rai community? How it is celebrated? How is this festival affected by modernization and globalization? How do younger generations understand this festival? And how does...

  7. Is the Purchasing Managers' Index useful for assessing the economy's strength? A directional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoichi Tsuchiya

    2012-01-01

    The Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI) is one of the key variables to which economists pay considerable attention for assessing US economic activities, particularly, business conditions in the manufacturing sector. Although the PMI has been used to assess the US economy, there is hardly any attempt to evaluate the directional accuracy of the PMI to predict the direction of change in the index of industrial production (IP) and Gross Domestic Production (GDP). We present evidence that the PMI is ...

  8. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krishan; C.P. Kumar; Purandara, B. K.; Surjeet Singh; N.C. Ghosh; Suman Gurjar; A. G. Chachadi

    2016-01-01

    A water quality index (WQI) is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and m...

  9. Assessment of liquefaction potential index for Mumbai city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dixit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mumbai city is the financial capital of India and is fifth most densely populated city in the world. Seismic soil liquefaction is evaluated for Mumbai city in terms of the factors of safety against liquefaction (FS along the depths of soil profiles for different earthquakes with 2% probability of exceedance in 50 yr using standard penetration test (SPT-based simplified empirical procedure. This liquefaction potential is evaluated at 142 representative sites in the city using the borehole records from standard penetration tests. Liquefaction potential index (LPI is evaluated at each borehole location from the obtained factors of safety (FS to predict the potential of liquefaction to cause damage at the surface level at the site of interest. Spatial distribution of soil liquefaction potential is presented in the form of contour maps of LPI values. As the majority of the sites in the city are of reclaimed land, the vulnerability of liquefaction is observed to be very high at many places.

  10. Assessment of nuclear energy sustainability index using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is increasingly perceived as an attractive mature energy generation technology that can deliver an answer to the worldwide increasing energy demand while respecting environmental concerns as well as contributing to a reduced dependence on fossil fuel. Advancing nuclear energy deployment demands an assessment of nuclear energy with respect to all sustainability dimensions. In this paper, the nuclear energy, whose sustainability will be assessed, is governed by the dynamics of three subsystems: environmental, economic, and sociopolitical. The overall sustainability is then a non-linear function of the individual sustainabilities. Each subsystem is evaluated by means of many components (pressure, status, and response). The combination of each group of indicators by means of fuzzy logic provides a measurement of sustainability for each subsystem.

  11. Designing an Index for Assessing Wind Energy Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Matthias; Shen, Zhiwei; López Cabrera, Brenda; Odening, Martin; Deckert, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for renewable energy such as wind energy, more and more new wind parks are installed worldwide. Finding a suitable location, however, requires a detailed and often costly analysis of the local wind conditions. Plain average wind speed maps cannot provide a precise forecast of wind power because of the non-linear relationship between wind speed and production. In this paper, we suggest a new approach of assessing the local wind energy potential: Meteorologi...

  12. Hydrogen Isotopes of Glassy and Phyllosilicate Spherules in Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) Chondrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yunbin; Michael E. ZOLENSKY

    2004-01-01

    The hydroxyl in phyllosilicate minerals is the most common occurrence of water in primitive meteorites.Direct hydrogen isotopic analysis of this water component using an ion microprobe has been made in some glassy or phyllosilicate spherules from the Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) chondrites. The spherules from Al Rais show large deuterium excesses (δD = +200 - +800) relative to terrestrial standards, whereas deuterium-enrichments in the spherules from Orgueil are much smaller (δD = +40 - +130‰). The phyllosilicate spherules are products of aqueous alteration of glassy precursors. In A1 Rais the phyllosilicate spherules have relatively higher δD values than the glassy ones, indicating that water introduced during aqueous alteration was deuterium-enriched. The deuterium-enrichments in the phyllosilicate spherules from Orgueil could result from isotopic exchange under thermodynamic conditions within the solar nebula. The much larger δD excesses of the Al Rais spherules, however, cannot be attributed to the similar process;instead, an interstellar origin needs to be invoked.

  13. EVALUASI PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA DI KAWASAN TAHURA NGURAH RAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU IKA WAHYUNI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since January 1992 MIC has initiate Tahura Ngurah Rai are as a ecotourism area, offering programs such as :Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking, Bird Watching; Finishing; Mangrove Tree Plantation or Adoption, Canoeing, andBoating programs. However, its growth has not me the management’s targets in term of the number of visitors, improvedfacilities available, and the surrounding Tahura are – especially its cleanliness-these are far from expectation standard.The evaluation of eco-tourism area of Tahura is aimed at understanding the profile of the eco-tourism area and tounderstand to what extent the ecotourism has met criteria/principles issued in the national workshop. This ecotourism willoffer recommendations designed in relation to programs that has not been working so far after identifying obstacles oftheir implementation.The method used in the evaluation of this eco-tourism area I descriptive analysis by analyzing interview data,observations, and literature studies. These descriptive data then are measured against criteria and principles of nationaleco-tourism.Since March 12, 2007 Mangrove forest area is under the management of BPHM-wil-I continuing JICA ICprogram. Facilities available in the area are as follows; Wood Trails, 5 Huts along the trail, Floating Decks, 2 ViewingTowers; MIC/BPHM Office Building, Touch Pools, Seeding area, and a Monitor Pool. These facilities right now are stillin good condition and can be used to implement the eco-tourism programs.From the 6 programs offered, the Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking Program gets the most interests fromvisitors than the other 5 programs. From 9 criteria used to evaluate the programs, the outcome is as follows: 1 Beingsensitive to and respecting socio-cultural values and religious tradition of local community (88% met; 2 Showingconcern, commitment, and responsibility to natural conservation and cultural heritage (95,24% met; 3 Provideinterpretation that facilities visitors to enjoy

  14. Climate analysis of river basin Paraíba – rain anomaly index (RAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basin hidrografic of the river Paraíba is of extreme importance for the agricultural section, and consequently, for the socialeconomic and local and regional. That work has as main objective to analyze the climatology of the basin of the river Paraíba, as the climatic variability it influences the local precipitation and as it feels the space-temporary variability of the rains in the area, using for that the tool IAC developed by Rooy in 1965. It was found likeness between the pattern of precipitation of the area of Taperoá and High Paraíba and of the sub-basins of Medium and Low Paraíba. A " inflection " point in the precipitation distribution was found in the area of Taperoá and High Paraíba, in the which until the decade of 1960, they were observed consecutive dry years. Already for the sub-basins of Medium and Low Paraíba, likeness was verified in the alternation among dry and rainy years along the series of IAC.

  15. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular Tei index in congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi Sivanandam; Andrew Wey; James St. Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of the Tei index has not been described to assess myocardial function before or after surgery in pediatric patients. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function using the Tei index pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with lesion that result in a volume loaded right ventricle (RV). Methods: Retrospective data on 55 patients who underwent repair of a cardiac defect were analyzed. Patients with volume overload RV (n = 15) were compared to p...

  16. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  17. A novel manifold–manifold distance index applied to looseness state assessment of viscoelastic sandwich structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscoelastic sandwich structures (VSS) are widely used in mechanical equipment; their state assessment is necessary to detect structural states and to keep equipment running with high reliability. This paper proposes a novel manifold–manifold distance-based assessment (M2DBA) method for assessing the looseness state in VSSs. In the M2DBA method, a manifold–manifold distance is viewed as a health index. To design the index, response signals from the structure are firstly acquired by condition monitoring technology and a Hankel matrix is constructed by using the response signals to describe state patterns of the VSS. Thereafter, a subspace analysis method, that is, principal component analysis (PCA), is performed to extract the condition subspace hidden in the Hankel matrix. From the subspace, pattern changes in dynamic structural properties are characterized. Further, a Grassmann manifold (GM) is formed by organizing a set of subspaces. The manifold is mapped to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), where support vector data description (SVDD) is used to model the manifold as a hypersphere. Finally, a health index is defined as the cosine of the angle between the hypersphere centers corresponding to the structural baseline state and the looseness state. The defined health index contains similarity information existing in the two structural states, so structural looseness states can be effectively identified. Moreover, the health index is derived by analysis of the global properties of subspace sets, which is different from traditional subspace analysis methods. The effectiveness of the health index for state assessment is validated by test data collected from a VSS subjected to different degrees of looseness. The results show that the health index is a very effective metric for detecting the occurrence and extension of structural looseness. Comparison results indicate that the defined index outperforms some existing state-of-the-art ones. (papers)

  18. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  19. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  20. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no daterestriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases thateach index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  1. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  2. The Risk Assessment of China’s Timber Import Based on SWI Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanbin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived by the demand of domestic economy and forest products export, timber import shows the features of high concentration and strong dependence. Thus the risk of China's timber import significantly increases. Based on SWI Index, we construct the short-term and long-term timber risk index from resource risk, country risk, market risk, transportation risk etc. Using this index, we make a more comprehensive risk assessment and find out the trend and factors of risk. The results of index construction and estimation indicate that China's timber import generally shows the trend from high risk to low risk. Besides, it also points out that the majority of new timber-importing countries are those developing countries with high country risk and high resources risk. These factors may cause considerable potential risks. Finally, the study gives policy recommendations for reducing the risk of timber import.

  3. Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anchana Prathep; Ekkalak Rattanachot; Piyalap Tuntiprapas

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf ofThailand, were investigated between July 2006 - July 2008 using SeagrassNet protocol. The SeagrassNet protocol is astandard method for monitoring seagrass worldwide, and Koh Tha Rai is among the first few places using such protocol inThailand. The standard protocol such as SeagrassNet allows comparisons of findings among various sites worldwide. Fivespecies of seagrass found at Ko...

  4. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular Tei index in congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Sivanandam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of the Tei index has not been described to assess myocardial function before or after surgery in pediatric patients. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV function using the Tei index pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with lesion that result in a volume loaded right ventricle (RV. Methods: Retrospective data on 55 patients who underwent repair of a cardiac defect were analyzed. Patients with volume overload RV (n = 15 were compared to patients without volume overload but with other cardiac defects (n = 40. We reviewed pre- and post-operative LV myocardial performance index (Tei index. Tei index was obtained from transesophageal Doppler echocardiogram. Results: Patients with right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei index was 0.6, with a postoperative mean decrease of 0.207 (P = 0.014. Patients without right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei was 0.48 with no significant postoperative change (P = 0.82. Conclusion: Pre- and post-operative transesophageal echocardiogram assessment provides an easy and quick way of evaluating LV function intra-operatively using LV Tei index. Preoperative LV Tei index was greater in the RV volume overload defects indicating diminished LV global function. This normalized in the immediate postoperative period, implying an immediate improvement in LV function. In patients without right heart volume load, consist of other cardiac defects, demonstrated no changes in the pre- and post-operative LV Tei. This implies that LV function was similar after the surgery.

  5. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  6. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A water quality index (WQI is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and management of North Goa. Data of 19 groundwater samples were collected in the year 2005 during January, March and April, are used for the analysis. The Water Quality Index has been computed using four parameters viz. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness and Chloride. The WQI results show that the overall water quality class is ‘good’ and water is acceptable for domestic use.

  7. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Weng; Yan, D. H.; H. Wang; Liu, J H; Yang, Z. Y.; T. L. Qin; Yin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological mode...

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including c...

  9. Sobre la partícula «rai» i els tòpics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Solà i Pujols

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, I characterize the particle "rai", used in some dialects of Catalan, as a topic­emphasizer (by topic I mean left-dislocated constituent. In the second part I use this particle as a criterion to identify the class of topics, and I speculate on the nature of this class, which is in complementary distribution with the class of operators.

  10. Aspects of the grammar of Thulung Rai
    an endangered Himalayan language

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaussois, Aimée

    2002-01-01

    Thulung Rai is an endangered Tibeto-Burman language of eastern Nepal, currentlyspoken by approximately one thousand people. It is a member of the Kiranti group in theHimalayish branch of Tibeto-Burman, along with languages characterized principally by theircomplex pronominalizing verbal inflectional systems.This dissertation provides an overview of the grammar of the Thulung language, alongwith selected texts and a glossary. The aspects of the grammar which are discussed are thosewhich are pa...

  11. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiva Rani Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.

  12. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  13. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto, Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012. Daily AQI data and meteorological information were simultaneously recorded. We compared outpatient counts between the index days and comparison days, and calculated Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient between outpatient counts and AQI levels. Results The average AQI level for index days was significantly higher than that for comparison days. No significant difference was observed in temperature or relative humidity between index days and comparison days. The outpatient counts for pediatrics were significantly higher on index days than on comparison days, and no significant difference was noted in other clinical departments. The outpatient counts for pediatrics positively correlated with the AQI level, and no correlation was noted in other clinical departments. Conclusion The present study assessed the association between daily outpatient visits and air pollution using AQI. The results obtained suggest that air pollution could increase the outpatient count for pediatrics. PMID:25901100

  14. Development of Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI for Welding Workplace's Safety and Health Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azian Hariri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an index that can rank welding workplace that associate well with possible health risk of welders.Welding Fumes Health Index (WFHI were developed based on data from case studies conducted in Plant 1 and Plant 2. Personal sampling of welding fumes to assess the concentration of metal constituents along with series of lung function tests was conducted. Fifteen metal constituents were investigated in each case study. Index values were derived from aggregation analysis of metal constituent concentration while significant lung functions were recognized through statistical analysis in each plant.The results showed none of the metal constituent concentration was exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL for all plants. However, statistical analysis showed significant mean differences of lung functions between welders and non-welders. The index was then applied to one of the welding industry (Plant 3 for verification purpose. The developed index showed its promising ability to rank welding workplace, according to the multiple constituent concentrations of welding fumes that associates well with lung functions of the investigated welders.There was possibility that some of the metal constituents were below the detection limit leading to '0' value of sub index, thus the multiplicative form of aggregation model was not suitable for analysis. On the other hand, maximum or minimum operator forms suffer from compensation issues and were not considered in this study.

  15. Using the H Index to Assess Impact of DOE National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The most readily accessible elements of the Emerald Matrix by quantitative measures are the knowledge and economy related measures. In this paper, the H Index for an institution will be used to assess STE impact, which is in the knowledge generation element. The H Index was developed by Hirsch (2005) as a measure of an individual’s scientific impact. The H Index is defined as the number of publications that have been cited h or more times for a given author. It has been generalized to organizations. Doing so leads to a complication in that H index scales with the number of publications. Although this may not be problematic when comparing individual researchers, it systematically favors larger institutions. Molinari and Molinari (2008) proposed an alternative index (hm) designed to assess organizational impact. It transforms the H Index for an organization into an impact index by removing a factor dependent on the number of publications. The hm provides another approach to compare institutions provided that differences in the citation patterns associated with fields of study are addressed. Kinney (2007) used the Molinari and Molinari (2008) approach to compare various scientific institutions in nonbiomedical research areas. Kinney (2007) used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) as the source and used publications in nonbiomedical research areas, which is very important because the research areas of universities are much broader than say a DOE national laboratory. Also there are differences in citation rates for the various research fields that make comparisons between individuals or organizations difficult. The results from Kinney (2007) are given in Table 1 and indicate that the DOE national laboratories compare favorably with the selected universities in terms of impact (hm) in the research areas used in Kinney’s analysis. This report will compare hm for DOE national laboratories using an approach similar to Kinney (2007) providing a measure of impact of

  16. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  17. Assessment of the digital competence in Russian adolescents and parents: Digital Competence Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova G.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption. The Digital Competence Index (DCI is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents, acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

  18. A ranking index for quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles forensic DNA profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansell Ricky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of DNA profile quality is vital in forensic DNA analysis, both in order to determine the evidentiary value of DNA results and to compare the performance of different DNA analysis protocols. Generally the quality assessment is performed through manual examination of the DNA profiles based on empirical knowledge, or by comparing the intensities (allelic peak heights of the capillary electrophoresis electropherograms. Results We recently developed a ranking index for unbiased and quantitative quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles, the forensic DNA profile index (FI (Hedman et al. Improved forensic DNA analysis through the use of alternative DNA polymerases and statistical modeling of DNA profiles, Biotechniques 47 (2009 951-958. FI uses electropherogram data to combine the intensities of the allelic peaks with the balances within and between loci, using Principal Components Analysis. Here we present the construction of FI. We explain the mathematical and statistical methodologies used and present details about the applied data reduction method. Thereby we show how to adapt the ranking index for any Short Tandem Repeat-based forensic DNA typing system through validation against a manual grading scale and calibration against a specific set of DNA profiles. Conclusions The developed tool provides unbiased quality assessment of forensic DNA profiles. It can be applied for any DNA profiling system based on Short Tandem Repeat markers. Apart from crime related DNA analysis, FI can therefore be used as a quality tool in paternal or familial testing as well as in disaster victim identification.

  19. Validity of the Katz Index to assess activities of daily living by informants in neuropathological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the evidences of construct validity of the Katz Index for the retrospective assessment of activities of daily living (ADL by informants, to assist neuropathological studies in the elderly. METHOD A cross-sectional study analyzed the functional ability of ADL measure by the Katz Index, of 650 cases randomly selected from the Brazilian Brain Bank of the Ageing Brain Study Group (BBBABSG database. Sample was divided in two subsamples for the analysis (N=325, each and then stratified according to cognitive decline assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR. Factor analyses with calculations of internal consistency and invariance were performed. RESULTS Factor analysis evidenced a unidimensional instrument with optimal internal consistency, in all subgroups. Goodness of fit indices were obtained after two treatments of covariance, indicating adequacy of the scale for assessing ADL by informants. The scale is invariant to cognitive decline meaning that it can be used for subjects with or without cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION Katz Index is valid for the retrospective assessment of basic ADL by informants, with optimal reliability.

  20. Validation of no-reference image quality index for the assessment of digital mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Barufaldi, Bruno; Borges, Lucas R.; Gabarda, Salvador; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2016-03-01

    To ensure optimal clinical performance of digital mammography, it is necessary to obtain images with high spatial resolution and low noise, keeping radiation exposure as low as possible. These requirements directly affect the interpretation of radiologists. The quality of a digital image should be assessed using objective measurements. In general, these methods measure the similarity between a degraded image and an ideal image without degradation (ground-truth), used as a reference. These methods are called Full-Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA). However, for digital mammography, an image without degradation is not available in clinical practice; thus, an objective method to assess the quality of mammograms must be performed without reference. The purpose of this study is to present a Normalized Anisotropic Quality Index (NAQI), based on the Rényi entropy in the pseudo-Wigner domain, to assess mammography images in terms of spatial resolution and noise without any reference. The method was validated using synthetic images acquired through an anthropomorphic breast software phantom, and the clinical exposures on anthropomorphic breast physical phantoms and patient's mammograms. The results reported by this noreference index follow the same behavior as other well-established full-reference metrics, e.g., the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM). Reductions of 50% on the radiation dose in phantom images were translated as a decrease of 4dB on the PSNR, 25% on the SSIM and 33% on the NAQI, evidencing that the proposed metric is sensitive to the noise resulted from dose reduction. The clinical results showed that images reduced to 53% and 30% of the standard radiation dose reported reductions of 15% and 25% on the NAQI, respectively. Thus, this index may be used in clinical practice as an image quality indicator to improve the quality assurance programs in mammography; hence, the proposed method reduces the subjectivity

  1. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until

  2. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  3. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  4. The clinical significance of biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment in the newborns. Methods: Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in neonates were measured with RIA, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and prealbumin (PA) were measured with enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The tested groups consisted of 65 SGAs and AGAs (according to birth weight) with nutritionally normals and abnormals approximately equally numbered. Results: The serum levels of IGF-1, RBP and PA in the 32 malnutritional SGAs were significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal SGAs. The serum levels of the above-mentioned three in the 33 malnutritional AGAs were also significantly lower than those in the 35 nutritionally normal AGAs. Conclusion: IGF-1, RBP and PA could be used as biochemical indexes for nutritional assessment and would not be affected by the gestational age and birth weight. Biochemical measurements cannot be substituted by anthropometric measurements for the diagnosis of neonatal malnutrition

  5. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  6. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    OpenAIRE

    Oleh Mozhovyi; Nataliia Stukalo

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some count...

  7. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif SedighNejad; Tariq Iqbal; John Quaicoe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI), measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated communit...

  8. Assessment of Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Outpatient Visits using the Air Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Okamoto,Mikizo; Yokoyama, Yae; Tokushima, Yasuko; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The air quality index (AQI) is widely used to characterize the quality of ambient air. Chinese cities officially report the AQI on a daily basis. To assess the possible effects of air pollution on daily outpatient visits, we examined the association between AQI and the daily outpatient count. Methods Daily data on outpatient visits to each clinical department were collected from the Z county hospital of Datong City, China. The collection period was between 5 April and 30 June, 2012...

  9. Mortality attributable to excess body mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the comparative risk assessment methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Djalalinia; Sahar Saeedi Moghaddam; Niloofar Peykari; Amir Kasaeian; Ali Sheidaei; Anita Mansouri; Younes Mohammadi; Mahboubeh Parsaeian; Parinaz Mehdipour; Bagher Larijani; Farshad Farzadfar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25-65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; is...

  10. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  11. Assessment of capability index of processes revealing significant asymmetry with respect to tolerance limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bukowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of basic capability indices for production processes, Cp and Cpk, as well as the Cpm index for processes asymmetric with respect to tolerance limits. A method is presented for the estimation of process admissible asymmetry, when anappropriate PPM level of defective products is to be maintained. It is proved that an unbiased capability assessment for asymmetricprocesses is only feasible if the pair of indices Cp and Cpk is included in the assessment. An example is given of an analysis of data on the production of automotive bearings. The computations were performed with use of the KWSPP program.

  12. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-01

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. PMID:26631334

  13. Cost per severe accident as an index for severe accident consequence assessment and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Accident emphasizes the need to integrate the assessments of health effects, economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts, in order to perform a comprehensive consequence assessment of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. “Cost per severe accident” is introduced as an index for that purpose. The calculation methodology, including the consequence analysis using level 3 probabilistic risk assessment code OSCAAR and the calculation method of the cost per severe accident, is proposed. This methodology was applied to a virtual 1,100 MWe boiling water reactor. The breakdown of the cost per severe accident was provided. The radiation effect cost, the relocation cost and the decontamination cost were the three largest components. Sensitivity analyses were carried out, and parameters sensitive to cost per severe accident were specified. The cost per severe accident was compared with the amount of source terms, to demonstrate the performance of the cost per severe accident as an index to evaluate severe accident consequences. The ways to use the cost per severe accident for optimization of radiation protection countermeasures and for estimation of the effects of accident management strategies are discussed as its applications. - Highlights: • Cost per severe accident is used for severe accident consequence assessment. • Assessments of health, economic, social and environmental impacts are included. • Radiation effect, relocation and decontamination costs are important cost components. • Cost per severe accident can be used to optimize radiation protection measures. • Effects of accident management can be estimated using the cost per severe accident

  14. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  15. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. ► Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. ► Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. ► Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  16. Clinical factors affecting the outcome in postradioactive iodine (RAI) therapy patients - Philippine Heart Center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clinical factors such as patient's age, duration of the underlying autoimmune thyroid stimulus and anti-thyroid drug therapy may affect the outcome of patients who underwent RAI therapy. Objective: To evaluate the clinical factors affecting the outcome of RAI therapy. Methodology: Patients (n=41) with Graves' disease treated with anti-thyroid drugs were followed up after Radioactive Iodine therapy treatment. Thyroid scan, 2 and 24 hours radioactive iodine uptake were taken to compute for the therapy dose (120 uci) (computed thyroid weight in gms) (24-hour I 131 uptake). Patients were then divided into groups (Group 1= hypothyroid, Group 2= euthyroid, Group 3 hyperthyroid) based on their thyroid function results (FT3, FT4, TSH) after 2, 4, 6, 12 months post-therapy. Clinical and physiologic factors were then correlated with the outcome. Results: The population consisted of 41 patients (male=8, female=33) with an overall incidence of Group 1= 17%, Group 2= 54% and Group 3= 29% posttherapy. Factors such as age, with their means (Groups 134, 2= 39, 3=39 p= 0.42) and gland uptake (24-hour Groups 1= 53, 2= 61 358, p= 0.41) were not associated with the remission rate. Other factors that were related to the length of the disease such as duration of symptoms (Groups 121, 2=24, 3= 29 months p0.68), duration of medicine prior to RAI therapy (Group 1= 10, 2= 15, 3= 18 months p=0.306) and gland weight (Groups 1=40 2=42 3=46 grams p=0.78) tends to have a higher mean values in therapy failure patients. Conclusion: Clinical factors studied showed no significant differences among patients developing hypothyroid, euthyroid or hyperthyroid state. The data suggested that treatment failures in patients with Graves' disease could be improved by lessening the time interval between the diagnosis and radioactive iodine therapy. (author)

  17. The use of a vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K. P.; Mcnab, A. L.; Karl, T. R.; Brown, J. F.; Hood, J. J.; Tarpley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    A vegetation index and radiative surface temperature were derived from NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data for the Seattle, WA region from 28 June through 4 July 1991. The vegetation index and surface temperature values were computed for locations of weather observation stations within the region and compared to observed minimum air temperatures. These comparisons were used to evaluate the use of AVHRR data to assess the influence of the urban environment on observed minimum air temperatures (the urban heat island effect). AVHRR derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and radiant surface temperature data from a one week composite product were both related significantly to observed minimum temperatures, however, the vegetation index accounted for a greater amount of the spatial variation observed in mean minimum temperatures. The difference in the NDVI between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (i.e., evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for differences in urban and rural minimum temperatures.

  18. The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovac Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

  19. Muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai interpretacinės raiškos galimybių kontekste

    OpenAIRE

    Baltutis, Donatas

    2011-01-01

    Bakalauro darbas „Muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai interpretacinės raiškos galimybių kontekste“ parengtas 2011 metais. Tyrimo objektas – muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumai. Tyrimo tikslas – išanalizuoti muzikavimo saksofonu ypatumus muzikos mokyklose. Tyrimo uždaviniai: atskleisti saksofono ypatumus, apibūdinti žymiausius saksofono muzikos atlikėjus, išsiaiškinti saksofonu atliekamas muzikos rūšis, išanalizuoti metodines rekomendacijas ir interpretacijos ypatumus, aprašyti meninį projektą. Mokan...

  20. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  1. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  2. Safeguards Indexing Method for the Regulatory Assessment of Safeguards Culture at Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) has just introduced a safeguards indexing method for evaluation the safeguards culture at Hungarian nuclear facilities. The main goal of this indexing method is to provide a useful tool for the regulatory body to evaluate the safeguards culture at nuclear facilities. The evaluated parameters are e.g. educational requirement for safeguards staff, quality of safeguards reporting for IAEA and EC, results of safeguards inspections etc. Input of the method is for the one hand the outcome of the comprehensive domestic safeguards verification system consisting of regular comprehensive SSAC verifications of the facilities. The main goals of the comprehensive verification system are: (1) to assess the facilities safeguards system compliance with the relevant national legislation and recommendations, (2) to assess the activities of the facility aimed at maintaining and further developing its safeguards system and (3) to revise validity of data and information previously provided by the facility subject to safeguards licensing procedures. On the other hand the annual report of the nuclear facilities also supports the safeguards indexing method, which is a good indicator of the present and future effectiveness of the facility level safeguards system and the level of safeguards culture.

  3. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk – comparative assessment regarding the particularities of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seceleanu Mihaela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of autoimmune cause hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia involvement in the apparition of major vascular complications. Methods: A total of 152 patients were investigated appreciating in comparison to a healthy control lot the hormone serum level, the presence of antimicrosomal thyroid antibodies and the serum levels of lipids. Atherogenic index and coronarian risk were calculated and correlated with the incidence of coronarian and cerebral vascular accidents. Results: Among the patients with goiter it was noted a high incidence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (31,58%. Thyroid autoimmunity was involved in 94,4% of the patients with clinical hypothyroidism, in 93,7 % with subclinical hypothyroidism and 100% in the patients with thyrotoxicosis. Low serum level of HDL-cholesterol was identified in 66,6% of patients with clinical hypothyroidism and 64,5% patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The assessment of atherogenic index and coronarian risk was significantly higher (p<0,01 in patients with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy control subjects. The incidence of vascular accidents was significantly higher (p<0,01 among the hypothyroid patients ( 19,7%/ 10,8%, of masculine gender (12,7% where the main cause of hypothyroidism was autoimmunity. Conclusions: The atherogenic index and coronarian risk were higher in patients with hypothyroidism associated to thyroid autoimmunity resulting in an increased probability in producing vascular accidents

  4. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  5. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, relationships, participation, and newly proposed environmental aspects. The corresponding subthemes and criteria are classified accordingly (e.g., nutrition, child mortality, immunization, etc., are assigned to the theme health. However, gaps in current studies, such as the heterogeneous classification of relevant aspects, regional and societal bias in addressing certain aspects, the limited number of subthemes, and criteria and the missing inclusion of environmental aspects impede the assessment of sustainable child development. To address the existing gaps, a comprehensive framework, the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI, is proposed. The SCDI is based on sustainable development as the core value, considers relevant aspects of CD with regard to newly-proposed environmental aspects and includes 26 aspects on an outcome and 37 indicators on a context level to tackle the heterogeneous classifications and interdependencies of relevant aspects. The proposed index intends to strengthen the stakeholder perspective of children in sustainability assessment.

  6. Assessing the physical vulnerability of check dams through an empirical damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dell'Agnese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of flood risk in mountain streams has to include an assessment of the vulnerability of the protection systems, in addition to an assessment of the vulnerability of the constructed environment on alluvial fans and floodplains. Structures forming the protection systems are of a dual nature, i.e. they are designed to mitigate natural process-related hazards and, on the other hand, are prone to be damaged during their lifecycle by the same processes they should mitigate. Therefore, their effectiveness declines over time. Hence, the knowledge of how effectively control structures perform is essential for risk management. A procedure was developed to assess the physical vulnerability of check dams based on empirical evidence collected in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. A damage index defined on pre- and postevent comparisons of check dam conditions was evaluated for 362 structures in 18 mountain streams along with the relevant processes and the structural characteristics affecting it. Although the available dataset did not allow conclusive functional relationships between damage index and impact variables to be established, it was possible to assess the average expected residual functionality of check dams according to structure characteristics, and event type and intensity. These results may help plan appropriate check dam maintenance.

  7. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    mapping. The study groups included 434 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and an identical number of individually matched controls. Methods and Results: Studying one marker at a time, we found a region spanning the gene RAI ( alias PPP1R13L or iASPP) and the 5' portion of XPD to be associated with this...... with cancers were located in the gene RAI and just 3' to the gene. Coinciding peaks were seen in the region of RAI in groups of women of different age. In a follow-up to these results we sequenced 10 cases and 10 controls in a 44 kb region spanning the peaks of association. This revealed 106...

  8. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  9. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  10. Assessing pricing assumptions for weather index insurance in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Daron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather index insurance is being offered to low-income farmers in developing countries as an alternative to traditional multi-peril crop insurance. There is widespread support for index insurance as a means of climate change adaptation but whether or not these products are themselves resilient to climate change has not been well studied. Given climate variability and climate change, an over-reliance on historical climate observations to guide the design of such products can result in premiums which mislead policyholders and insurers alike, about the magnitude of underlying risks. Here, a method to incorporate different sources of climate data into the product design phase is presented. Bayesian Networks are constructed to demonstrate how insurers can assess the product viability from a climate perspective, using past observations and simulations of future climate. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the dependence of pricing decisions on both the choice of information, and the method for incorporating such data. The methods and their sensitivities are illustrated using a case study analysing the provision of index-based crop insurance in Kolhapur, India. We expose the benefits and limitations of the Bayesian Network approach, weather index insurance as an adaptation measure and climate simulations as a source of quantitative predictive information. Current climate model output is shown to be of limited value and difficult to use by index insurance practitioners. The method presented, however, is shown to be an effective tool for testing pricing assumptions and could feasibly be employed in the future to incorporate multiple sources of climate data.

  11. KUALITAS AIR MANGROVE DITINJAU DARI SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DI HUTAN MANGROVE PATUNG NGURAH RAI TUBAN DENPASAR SELATAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Suriani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to find out of mangrove water quality at Patung Ngurah Rai Tuban Denpasar Selatan Baliregarding to physical-chemical . Values of some variables such as total disolved solid, Cromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd, , Nitrit, and oilwas higher than that of standard quality.This is caused by organic and anorganic waste such as garment factory come from BadungRiver, domestic waste, Ngurah Rai iar Port waste, and car workshop. The inpact of this problem is that the species of mangrove forestis not good condition.

  12. KUALITAS AIR MANGROVE DITINJAU DARI SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DI HUTAN MANGROVE PATUNG NGURAH RAI TUBAN DENPASAR SELATAN BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Suriani

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to find out of mangrove water quality at Patung Ngurah Rai Tuban Denpasar Selatan Baliregarding to physical-chemical . Values of some variables such as total disolved solid, Cromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), , Nitrit, and oilwas higher than that of standard quality.This is caused by organic and anorganic waste such as garment factory come from BadungRiver, domestic waste, Ngurah Rai iar Port waste, and car workshop. The inpact of this problem is that the species ...

  13. Combined acoustic radiation force impulse, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and Forns index assessment for hepatic fibrosis grading in hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang-Feng; Xiao, Jia; Shan, Ling-Bo; Li, Han-Ying; Xiong, Yong-Jia; Yang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Jing; Yao, Si-Min; Li, Sha-Xi; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Bo-Ping; Tipoe, George L; Liu, Ying-Xia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and Forns index for a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 206 patients had CHB with liver fibrosis stages F0-F4 classified by METAVIR and 40 were healthy volunteers were measured by ARFI, APRI and Forns index separately or combined as indicated. RESULTS: ARFI, APRI or Forns index demonstrated a significant correlation with the histological stage (all P < 0.001). According to the AUROC of ARFI and APRI for evaluating fibrotic stages more than F2, ARFI showed an enhanced diagnostic accuracy than APRI (P < 0.05). The combined measurement of ARFI and APRI exhibited better accuracy than ARFI alone when evaluating ≥ F2 fibrotic stage (Z = 2.77, P = 0.006). Combination of ARFI, APRI and Forns index did not obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy compared to the combination of ARFI and APRI (Z = 0.958, P = 0.338). CONCLUSION: ARFI + APRI showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI alone for significant liver fibrosis and ARFI + APRI + Forns index shows the same effect with ARFI + APRI. PMID:27190578

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini Lucio; Steinwurz Flávio; Klug Wilmar; Rolim Ernani; Fang Chia; Vieira Andrea; Candelária Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS...

  15. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  16. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  17. Conventional digital cameras as a tool for assessing leaf area index and biomass for cereal breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaume Casadesús; Dolors Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and easy-to-use methods for assessing biomass and leaf area index (LAI) would be of interest in most breeding programs. Here, we describe the evaluation of a protocol for photographic sampling and image analysis aimed at providing low-labor yet robust indicators of biomass and LAI. In this trial, two genotypes of triticale, two of bread wheat, and four of tritordeum were studied. At six dates during the growing cycle, biomass and LAI were measured destructively, and digital photography was taken on the same dates. Several vegetation indices were calculated from each image. The results showed that repeatable and consistent values of the indices were obtained in consecutive photographic samplings on the same plots. The photographic indices were highly correlated with the destructive measure-ments, though the magnitude of the correlation was lower after anthesis. This work shows that photographic assess-ment of biomass and LAI can be fast, affordable, have good repeatability, and can be used under bright and overcast skies. A practical vegetation index derived from pictures is the fraction of green pixels over the total pixels of the image, and as it shows good correlations with all biomass variables, is the most robust to lighting conditions and has easy interpretation.

  18. The Improvement and Completion of Outcome index: A new assessment system for quality of orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system―the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index―to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or −1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Results Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Conclusions Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process.

  19. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  20. VSI: a visual saliency-induced index for perceptual image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongyu

    2014-10-01

    Perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) aims to use computational models to measure the image quality in consistent with subjective evaluations. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied by psychologists, neurobiologists, and computer scientists during the last decade to investigate, which areas of an image will attract the most attention of the human visual system. Intuitively, VS is closely related to IQA in that suprathreshold distortions can largely affect VS maps of images. With this consideration, we propose a simple but very effective full reference IQA method using VS. In our proposed IQA model, the role of VS is twofold. First, VS is used as a feature when computing the local quality map of the distorted image. Second, when pooling the quality score, VS is employed as a weighting function to reflect the importance of a local region. The proposed IQA index is called visual saliency-based index (VSI). Several prominent computational VS models have been investigated in the context of IQA and the best one is chosen for VSI. Extensive experiments performed on four large-scale benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed IQA index VSI works better in terms of the prediction accuracy than all state-of-the-art IQA indices we can find while maintaining a moderate computational complexity. The MATLAB source code of VSI and the evaluation results are publicly available online at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/IQA/VSI/VSI.htm. PMID:25122572

  1. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  2. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  3. Doppler ultrasound for assessment of pulsatility index variation of middle cerebral artery in intrauterine growth retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess variation of pulsatility index of middle cerebral artery (MCA-PI) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in department of Radiology, Combined Military Hospital Lahore, from March 2006 to September 2006. Patients and Method: A total 100 patients with IUGR in third trimester were selected. Ultrasound estimation of fetal weight (using fetal biometry) below 10th percentile for that gestational age was labeled as IUGR. MCA-PI value of less than 0.751 was labeled as abnormal. Result: Abnormal values of PI-MCA were found in 79% of IUGR cases while 21% had normal values. Conclusion: PI-MCA is a sensitive modality of assessing IUGR. (author)

  4. Assessment of Overall SCP State of the Company: New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The encouragement of sustainable consumption and production (SCP in order to continuously improve the well-being of present and future generations is the most important goal stated in the European Union (EU Sustainable Development Strategy, which was renewed in 2006. The challenge for every company on the way to SCP is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but, first of all, to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to apply an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. However, despite various approaches to create frameworks and methodologies for the development of integrated sustainability indicators that measure, monitor and assess the progress of an enterprise towards sustainability, there is still no comprehensive framework for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state on the basis of manufacturing processes, products/services as well as relationship with various stakeholders. An algorithm is here presented in respect of this demand. This algorithm offers methodical suggestions to assess the customers’ opinion about the presence of company’s environmental and social sustainability activities and initiatives, to identify and select most appropriate sustainability indicators, to determine their significance according to analytic hierarchy process (AHP, and to solve the most important sustainability problems in 3 aforementioned levels by adapting most suitable tools. The final suggestions are based on the values of 3 sub-indices of a new integrated index for the overall assessment of the SCP state in the company, ISCP.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.3.11482

  5. Ecological assessment of integrated bioenergy systems using the Sustainable Process Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass utilisation for energy production presently faces an uphill battle against fossil fuels. The use of biomass must offer additional benefits to compensate for higher prices: on the basis of a life cycle assessment (using BEAM to evaluate a variety of integrated bioenergy systems in connection with the Sustainable Process Index as a highly aggregated environmental pressure index) it is shown that integrated bioenergy systems are superior to fossil fuel systems in terms of environmental compatibility. The implementation of sustainability measures provides additional valuable information that might help in constructing and optimising integrated bioenergy systems. For a set of reference processes, among them fast pyrolysis, atmospheric gasification, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), combustion and steam cycle (CS) and conventional hydrolysis, a detailed impact assessment is shown. Sensitivity analyses of the most important ecological parameters are calculated, giving an overview of the impacts of various stages in the total life cycle and showing 'what really matters'. Much of the ecological impact of integrated bioenergy systems is induced by feedstock production. It is mainly the use of fossil fuels in cultivation, harvesting and transportation as well as the use of fertilisers in short-rotation coppice production that impose considerable ecological pressure. Concerning electricity generation the most problematic pressures are due to gaseous emissions, most notably the release of NOx. Moreover, a rather complicated process (high amount of grey energy) and the use of fossil pilot fuel (co-combustion) leads to a rather weak ecological performance in contrast to other 100% biomass-based systems. (author)

  6. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  7. El Ra'i y su transmisión: la Seija Remiti Rizilaniya (1923-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Muñoz Zajara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo está centrado en el género musical conocido como el rai, considerado entre los más representativos de la música popular argelina y cuya transmisión fue posible gracias a la labor de divulgación realizada por los seij/seijas1 y el mensaje de compromiso con los cambios sociales, religiosos y culturales inmersos en los textos de las composiciones. No obstante, el carácter marginal que sufrió el rai durante décadas, unido a su difusión en Europa mediante los procesos migratorios y la posterior globalización, han contribuido a la incursión del género dentro de las músicas urbanas y a ser conocido, a nivel internacional, bajo la etiqueta de World Music. La popularidad de la que goza actualmente el rai al sintetizar y aunar diferentes tradiciones, lenguas, géneros poéticos e instrumentos tradicionales y occidentales, en general electrónicos, así como su divulgación en los medios de comunicación y la comercialización en la industria discográfica, no impide, sin embargo, que la esencia del rai siga vigente, así como su reivindicación y compromiso social con los más desfavorecidos.

  8. Increased mRNA expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases develop through the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. If an increase in DNA repair expression is detected in both early adenomas and carcinomas it may indicate that low repair capacity in the normal mucosa is a risk factor for adenoma formation. We have examined mRNA expression of two DNA repair genes, ERCC1 and OGG1 as well as the putative apoptosis controlling gene RAI, in normal tissues and lesions from 36 cases with adenomas (mild/moderat n = 21 and severe n = 15, dysplasia) and 9 with carcinomas. Comparing expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI between normal tissue and all lesions combined yielded higher expression levels in lesions, 3.3-fold higher (P = 0.005), 5.6-fold higher(P < 3·10-5) and 7.7-fold higher (P = 0.0005), respectively. The levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI expressions when comparing lesions, did not differ between adenomas and CRC cases, P = 0.836, P = 0.341 and P = 0.909, respectively. When comparing expression levels in normal tissue, the levels for OGG1 and RAI from CRC cases were significantly lower compared to the cases with adenomas, P = 0.012 and P = 0.011, respectively. Our results suggest that increased expression of defense genes is an early event in the progression of colorectal adenomas to carcinomas

  9. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  10. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  11. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5) nuclear infrastructure; (6) the

  12. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5'-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, "R(2)-Δ(2)" analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30-40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5'-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  13. Delayed diagnosis in a house of correction: Smith-Magenis syndrome due to a de novo nonsense RAI1 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeetong, Patra; Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Boulier, Kristin; Schnur, Rhonda E; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan; Laje, Gonzalo; Smith, Ann C M

    2016-09-01

    We report a 25-year-old female confirmed to have Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) due to a de novo RAI1 variant. Her past history is significant for developmental and intellectual delay, early and escalating maladaptive behaviors, and features consistent with significant sleep disturbance, the etiology of which was not confirmed for over two decades. The diagnosis of SMS was initially suspected in 1998 (at age 12 years), but that was 5 years before the initial report of RAI1 variants as causative of the SMS phenotype; cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization studies failed to confirm an interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. Re-evaluation for suspected SMS was pursued with RAI1 sequencing analysis in response to urgent parental concerns of escalating behaviors and aggression with subsequent incarceration of the subject for assault of a health professional. Genetic analysis revealed a de novo RAI1 (NM_030665.3) nonsense variant, c.5536C>T; p.Q1846X. This case illustrates the importance of confirming the SMS diagnosis, which is associated with cognitive and functional impairment, as well as significant psychiatric co-morbidities and behavioral problems. The diagnosis was particularly relevant to the legal discussion and determination of her competence to stand trial. As other similar cases may exist, this report will help to increase awareness of the possibility of a very late diagnosis of SMS, with the need for re-evaluation of individuals suspected to have SMS who were initially evaluated prior to the identification of the RAI1 gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311559

  14. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yang

    Full Text Available The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals. We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales.

  15. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  16. Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Gocentaitė, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Tema: Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai. Temos aktualumas. Homoseksualūs žmonės kenčia įvairią nelygybę, kurios pasekmė homoseksualus paverčia nematomais, dauguma jaunų gėjų ir lesbiečių gyvena lyg ir dvigubus gyvenimus. Jie pasirenka šią strategiją racionaliai, siekdami išvengti nuoskaudų ir didesnių problemų asmeninėje erdvėje, profesinėje-darbinėje aplinkoje ir viešojoje erdvėje. Homoseksualių žmonių yra visur, įvairaus amžiaus, skirtingų socialinių sluoksnių ir profesijų, ...

  17. Mokyklinė uniforma kaip bendruomeniškumo raiškos veiksnys

    OpenAIRE

    Bacevič, Veslava

    2011-01-01

    Remiantis ugdymo filosofinės, socialinės, pedagoginės bei istorinės literatūros analize, darbe keliamas tikslas ištirti mokyklinę uniformą bendruomeniškumo aspektu. Tikslui pasiekti teorinėje darbo dalyje buvo suformuluoti pagrindiniai uždaviniai: išsiaiškinti bendruomeniškumo raiškos visuomenėje ir bendruomeniškumo ugdymo mokykloje ypatumus; atskleisti mokyklinės uniformos istorinius metmenis ir jos stilistinius ypatumus sąlygojančius sociokultūrinius veiksnius bei įvertinti mokyklinės uni...

  18. Komandinio darbo raiška organizacijų kaitos kontekste

    OpenAIRE

    Bublytė, Vitalija

    2014-01-01

    Magistro baigiamojo darbo tema labai aktuali šiandieninėje organizacijoje. Komandinis darbas vykstant pokyčiams svarbus veiksnys. Atlikus mokslinės literatūros analizę darbe pateikiama organizacijų kaitos apibrėžimas, taip pat nustatyta pokyčius sąlygojantys veiksniai, komandinio darbo efektyvumą įtakojantys veiksniai. Kadangi Lietuvoje nėra atlikta panašaus tipo tyrimų, todėl atliekant komandinio darbo raiškos pokyčių metu analizę Lietuvos įmonėse nustatyta, kad pokyčių sėkmę lemia komandini...

  19. Pasitenkinimo veiksnio raiška, formuojant paslaugų vartotojų lojalumą

    OpenAIRE

    Gumauskienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    SANTRAUKA Gumauskienė Lina. Pasitenkinimo veiksnio raiška, formuojant paslaugų vartotojų lojalumą. Magistro darbas. Darbo vadovas doc. dr. Rita Kuvykaitė, - Kaunas, 2008, 97 psl. Šiomis konkurencinės rinkos sąlygomis labai svarbu yra pritraukti ir išlaikyti vartotoją. Siekiant lojalių ir ištikimų klientų, reikia išsiaiškinti jų lūkesčius ir paslaugas teikti taip, kad klientai patirtų kokybiškas paslaugas ir suvoktų jų vertę. Tam organizacijos turi atlikti klientų lūkesčių tyrimus ir paslaugas...

  20. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rotor angles for all generators can be simplified by only assessing the index of areas in a power system. The effectiveness of the proposed index in assessing the stability of power systems and its ability in pinpointing the weakest area in the power system is analyzed. Furthermore, this paper developed an emergency control scheme known as the combined UFLS and generator tripping in order to stabilize the system when unstable faults occurred in a power system. The proposed index is used to identify the generator to be tripped when the developed emergency control scheme operates. The performance of the proposed index and the combined UFLS and generator tripping scheme are evaluated on the IEEE 39-bus test system.

  1. Harmonization of automated hemolysis index assessment and use: Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro

    2014-05-15

    The major source of errors producing unreliable laboratory test results is the pre-analytical phase with hemolysis accounting for approximately half of them and being the leading cause of unsuitable blood specimens. Hemolysis may produce interference in many laboratory tests by a variety of biological and analytical mechanisms. Consequently, laboratories need to systematically detect and reliably quantify hemolysis in every collected sample by means of objective and consistent technical tools that assess sample integrity. This is currently done by automated estimation of hemolysis index (HI), available on almost all clinical chemistry platforms, making the hemolysis detection reliable and reportable patient test results more accurate. Despite these advantages, a degree of variability still affects the HI estimate and more efforts should be placed on harmonization of this index. The harmonization of HI results from different analytical systems should be the immediate goal, but the scope of harmonization should go beyond analytical steps to include other aspects, such as HI decision thresholds, criteria for result interpretation and application in clinical practice as well as report formats. With regard to this, relevant issues to overcome remain the objective definition of a maximum allowable bias for hemolysis interference based on the clinical application of the measurements and the management of unsuitable samples. Particularly, for the latter a recommended harmonized approach is required when not reporting numerical results of unsuitable samples with significantly increased HI and replacing the test result with a specific comment highlighting hemolysis of the sample. PMID:24513329

  2. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed. PMID:24640896

  3. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  4. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  5. Assessment of validity and reliability of Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI into the Hindi language and assess its validity and reliability for use among people in India. Materials and Methods: GOHAI was translated into the Hindi language and self-administered to 420 subjects aged 55 years or above. The measures for reliability, and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity were assessed. The questionnaire sought information about sociodemographic details, habits related to tobacco, dental visits, tooth brushing, and self-reported perceptions of general and oral health. Results: Cronbach′s alpha (0.774 showed high internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Low GOHAI scores were associated with the perceptions of poor oral and general health, low satisfaction with oral health, and a perceived need for dental care. Respondents with high socioeconomic status were likely to have high GOHAI scores. Conclusion: The Hindi version of the GOHAI demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, and will be an important instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL for people in this region.

  6. Assessment of urban stream morphology: an integrated index and modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhu, Wei; Xin, Pei; Li, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Physical morphology is an important attribute of a stream system. The morphological state of a natural pristine stream often reflects its biological condition because of their close links. In contrast, the morphology of an urban stream may exhibit different behaviours due to serious human disturbances. For an urban stream system, the morphological condition not only determines the in-stream habitat quality but also provides the physical basis for the stream's municipal functionalities. By comparing the morphological characters of urban and natural streams, this paper develops an integrated index system and model for the assessment of urban stream morphology. The model is applied to the Ancient Canal (Zhenjiang, China) with the aim of comparing the morphological conditions of reaches with and without ongoing restoration programs and further of assessing the effectiveness of the restoration methods and techniques. The results indicate that the water security and the landscape functionality of the canal have been upgraded. However, the quality of the in-stream habitat has been degraded as a result of the restoration. Based on the modelled results, recommendations are given for improving the effects of the next-phase restoration. The assessment system and findings from the application presented here are expected to have important implications for the restoration of disturbed urban streams in many other cities in China and elsewhere in the world. PMID:19609699

  7. Rank-based biomarker index to assess cadmium ecotoxicity on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarino, O; Hyršl, P; Dobeš, P; Vojtek, L; Vernile, P; Bari, G; Terzano, R; Spagnuolo, M; de Lillo, E

    2016-02-01

    A proper soil risk assessment needs to estimate the processes that affect the fate and the behaviour of a contaminant, which are influenced by soil biotic and abiotic components. For this reason, the measurement of biomarkers in soil bioindicator organisms, such as earthworms, has recently received increasing attention. In this study, the earthworm Eisenia andrei was used to assess the pollutant-induced stress syndrome after exposure to sublethal concentrations of Cd (10 or 100 μg g(-1)) in OECD soil, after 14 d of exposure. Cadmium bioaccumulation and potential biomarkers such as catalase (CAT), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), phenoloxidase (PO), metallothioneins (MTs) and genotoxic damage were determined. Results suggested that the exposure to 10 and 100 μg g(-1) Cd significantly increased Cd bioaccumulation, MTs and MDA; 100 μg g(-1) Cd contamination evidenced significantly higher values of H2O2 content and PO activity; CAT activity was inhibited at the higher concentration while GST and Comet assay did not show any significant differences from the control. Rank-based biomarker index showed that both different contaminated soils had an effect on the earthworms and allowed to validate the ecotoxicological relevance of this battery of biomarkers for a promising integrated multi-marker approach in soil monitoring and assessment. PMID:26694799

  8. Consequences of neurologic lesions assessed by Barthel Index after Botox® injection may be underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Y Dionyssiotis,1,2 D Kiourtidis,3 A Karvouni,3 A Kaliontzoglou,3 I Kliafas31Medical Department, Rehabilitation Center Amyntaio, General Hospital of Florina, Amyntaio, Florina, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, 3Neurologic Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consequences of neurologic lesions are underestimated when the Barthel Index (BI is used to assess the clinical outcome of botulinum toxin injection.Patients and methods: The records for all in- and outpatients with various neurologic lesions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and so forth who had been referred to the authors’ departments and who had received botulinum toxin type A (Botox® for spasticity within a 4-year period (2008–2011 were examined retrospectively. BI data were collected and analyzed.Results: The BI score was found to have increased in follow-up assessments (P = 0.048. No correlation was found between the degree of spasticity and the BI score.Conclusion: The specific injection of Botox in patients with neurologic lesions was not strongly correlated with a significant functional outcome according to the BI. The results of this study suggest that clinicians need to look at other measurement scales for the assessment of significant outcomes of Botox in the rehabilitation process after neurologic lesions.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, spasticity, stroke, multiple sclerosis

  9. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chen; Yu Tao; Fan Song; Xi Yuan; Jian Wang; David Saffen

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-u...

  10. Kineziterapijos ir kinezioteipavimo momentinis poveikis statinei ir dinaminei pusiausvyrai prieš priekinio kryžminio raiščio operaciją

    OpenAIRE

    Keršytė, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Tyrimo objektas: Kineziterapijos ir kinezioteipavimo momentinis poveikis statinei ir dinaminei pusiausvyrai prieš priekinio kryžminio raiščio operaciją. Tyrimo tikslas: Nustatyti kineziterapijos ir kinezioteipavimo momentinį poveikį statinei bei dinaminei pusiausvyrai prieš priekinio kryžminio raiščio operaciją. Tyrimo uždaviniai: 1. Nustatyti kineziterapijos poveikį statinei ir dinaminei pusiausvyrai prieš priekinio kryžminio raiščio operaciją. 2. Nustatyti kinezioteipavimo momen...

  11. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  13. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  14. Assessing Fire Weather Index using statistical downscaling and spatial interpolation techniques in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Anna; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Frias, Maria Dolores; Hatzaki, Maria; Roussos, Anargyros; Casanueva, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires have always been present in the Mediterranean ecosystems, thus they constitute a major ecological and socio-economic issue. The last few decades though, the number of forest fires has significantly increased, as well as their severity and impact on the environment. Local fire danger projections are often required when dealing with wild fire research. In the present study the application of statistical downscaling and spatial interpolation methods was performed to the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), in order to assess forest fire risk in Greece. The FWI is used worldwide (including the Mediterranean basin) to estimate the fire danger in a generalized fuel type, based solely on weather observations. The meteorological inputs to the FWI System are noon values of dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, 10m wind speed and precipitation during the previous 24 hours. The statistical downscaling methods are based on a statistical model that takes into account empirical relationships between large scale variables (used as predictors) and local scale variables. In the framework of the current study the statistical downscaling portal developed by the Santander Meteorology Group (https://www.meteo.unican.es/downscaling) in the framework of the EU project CLIMRUN (www.climrun.eu) was used to downscale non standard parameters related to forest fire risk. In this study, two different approaches were adopted. Firstly, the analogue downscaling technique was directly performed to the FWI index values and secondly the same downscaling technique was performed indirectly through the meteorological inputs of the index. In both cases, the statistical downscaling portal was used considering the ERA-Interim reanalysis as predictands due to the lack of observations at noon. Additionally, a three-dimensional (3D) interpolation method of position and elevation, based on Thin Plate Splines (TPS) was used, to interpolate the ERA-Interim data used to calculate the index

  15. Assessment of the periodontal health and community periodontal index in the army of Serbia

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    Kovačević Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Promotion of oral health in military population is not only a significant component of general health, but also of the military readiness and represents the strategic orientation of each country. The basic task of military dentistry is to provide oral health of military personnel and to enable their operational readiness at the optimal level. The aim of the study was to assess the periodontal condition in Serbian military population using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, and the influence of general life habits and local risk factors on periodontal health. Methods. This prospective cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on 101 examinees at the mean age of 38.94 ± 11.63 years who had dental check-ups at the Dental Clinic of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade. All the categories of military personnel aged 20-64 years were divided into five groups. The frequency distribution of general and local factors on periodontal health, oral hygiene index, and the assessment of the mean number of sextants by CPITN compared to age were examined. Results. The examinees at the age of 51-60 years had the best oral hygiene index (0.95 ± 0.65, whereas the oldest population had the worst (1.63 ± 0.42. Only one person (5.6% at the age group of 51-60 years had a completely healthy periodontium. Observed in relation to the age groups, the mean values of sextants increased linearly, but in general population, the most frequent CPITN categories were in sextant with the periodontal pockets 4-5 mm (score 3. Conclusions. Compared to the results from other countries shown by the World Health Organization, the periodontal condition in our examinees is below the average. The appropriate preventive program preparation and its implementation are needed, including primarily the appropriate training on oral hygiene, as well as education based on periodontal disease prevention and treatment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  16. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Pronio; Annalisa Di-Filippo; Paola Mariani; Annarita Vestri; Chiara Montesani; Monica Boirivant

    2016-01-01

    Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC). To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI). However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use o...

  17. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab; Azah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rot...

  18. Remuneração de professores no Brasil: um olhar a partir da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS Teachers' pay in Brazil: an outlook from the Annual List of Social Information (RAIS

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    Maria Dilnéia Espíndola Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    levels of secondary education teachers working in Brazilian state capitals and, at the same time, to reflect about the potential of this database for the analysis. The choice for an analytical approach related to secondary school teachers is due to the observation that, for the period between 1996 and 2008, the data about these jobs were better informed in the RAIS, despite the fact that its information about the public sector is somewhat irregular. The historical period selected is related to the hypothesis that the funding policy active between 1998 and 2006, which gave priority to fundamental education, could have had a negative effect upon the paying levels of secondary education teachers. In order to analyze the average paying levels, the minimum salary and the Index of Prices to the Consumer (IPC were used as indexes for comparing purchasing powers during the period. This exploratory study seems to confirm a negative relation, which was expected, between the priority given to fundamental education via funding policies and the paying levels of secondary education teachers. Additionally, it reveals the gap between the valuation of the national minimum salary and the valuation policy of the teaching profession; and, finally, it exposes weak points of the RAIS as a tool to work with data about paying levels of the public sector in a separate way. Nevertheless, the convergence between the results of the present work and studies that looked into other databases indicates the pertinence of continuing these analyses.

  19. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km(2) residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  20. Assessing Sparse Coding Methods for Contextual Shape Indexing of Maya Hieroglyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Roman-Rangel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bag-of-visual-words or bag-of-visterms (bov is a common technique used to index Multimedia information with the purposes of retrieval and classification. In this work we address the problem of constructing efficient bov representations of complex shapes as are the Maya syllabic hieroglyphs. Based on retrieval experiments, we assess and evaluate the performance of several variants of the recent sparse coding method KSVD, and compare it with the traditional k-means clustering algorithm. We investigate the effects of a thresholding procedure used to facilitate the sparse decomposition of signals that are potentially sparse, and we also assess the performance of different pooling techniques to construct bov representations. Although the bov's computed via Sparse Coding do not outperform the retrieval precision of those computed by k-means, they achieve competitive results after an adequate enforcement of the sparsity, which leads to more discriminative bag representations with respect to using the original non-sparse descriptors. Also, we propose a simplified formulation of the HOOSC descriptor that improves the retrieval performance.

  1. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  2. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index: assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients

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    Carla Alberici Pastore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal study, including patients from a chemotherapy service in Brazil, between July 2008 and May 2010. INI (Albumin/CRP and nutritional status (by Subjective Global Assessment - SGA were evaluated. Risk INI was defined as lower than 0.35. The mean follow-up of survival was 1.6 year. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.1™. Results: 74 patients participated in the study, mean age 63.4, most of them male (58% and presenting gastrointestinal cancer (71%. Malnutrition was identified in 87% of the patients (22% severely malnourished. The mean INI was 2.67 and 54% of the patients had INI levels considered as risk. During the follow-up there were 49 deaths (66%. The median survival time for INI risk patients was significantly shorter than for normal INI ones (p = 0,002. It took 0.78 year for the INI risk subsample to decline 50%, while it took 2.78 year for the normal INI subsample. INI risk and severe malnutrition were independent predictors for poor survival. Conclusion: The INI showed prognostic capacity in this sample and may be a useful tool, based on routinely available blood tests, to assess cancer patients.

  3. The Helmet Fit Index - An intelligent tool for fit assessment and design customisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Thierry; Subic, Aleksandar; Mustafa, Helmy; Pang, Toh Yen

    2016-07-01

    Helmet safety benefits are reduced if the headgear is poorly fitted on the wearer's head. At present, there are no industry standards available to assess objectively how a specific protective helmet fits a particular person. A proper fit is typically defined as a small and uniform distance between the helmet liner and the wearer's head shape, with a broad coverage of the head area. This paper presents a novel method to investigate and compare fitting accuracy of helmets based on 3D anthropometry, reverse engineering techniques and computational analysis. The Helmet Fit Index (HFI) that provides a fit score on a scale from 0 (excessively poor fit) to 100 (perfect fit) was compared with subjective fit assessments of surveyed cyclists. Results in this study showed that quantitative (HFI) and qualitative (participants' feelings) data were related when comparing three commercially available bicycle helmets. Findings also demonstrated that females and Asian people have lower fit scores than males and Caucasians, respectively. The HFI could provide detailed understanding of helmet efficiency regarding fit and could be used during helmet design and development phases. PMID:26995049

  4. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought

  5. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  6. Effectiveness of Fixed Dose Radioactive Iodine (RAI) for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: Experience of a Teaching Hospital in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Karounwi Omotayo Ogunjobi; John Enyi Ejeh; Kayode Solomon Adedapo; Eniojukan, Joshua F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Using radioactive iodine (RAI) as the first line therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism and as the treatment of choice for relapsed Graves’ disease is increasing in recent times. However, there has been little consensus on the most appropriate dose to use. So this study is to determine the response of hyperthyroidism to fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq RAI therapies and determine the incidence of hypothyroidism at 6 months post therapy. Methods: Hyperthyroid patients’ case records t...

  7. Karjeros moters galios išraiška ir pasiskirstymas šeiminėje veikloje

    OpenAIRE

    Činikienė, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Šio straipsnio tikslas – ištirti galios išraiškos formas ir pasiskirstymą lyčių santykiuose šeiminėje veikloje, žvelgiant į karjeros moterų ankstyvosios vaikystės ir profesinės veiklos patirtis. Analizuojant 20 pusiau struktūruotų interviu, kurie buvo imti iš karjeros moterų, duomenis, šiame straipsnyje atskleidžiami moterų karjeros siekimo motyvai, lyčių vaidmenų pasidalijimo modeliai šeiminėje veikloje, išryškinami galios išraiškos aspektai šeiminiuose lyčių santykiuose priimant sprendimus ...

  8. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  9. Engaging women volunteers of high socioeconomic status in supporting socioeconomically disadvantaged tuberculosis patients in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacharee Kantipong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The 2008 tuberculosis (TB surveillance of Chiang Rai Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand reported that 8.4% of Thai, 22.7% of hill tribe minority and 25% of migrant patients (n = 736 defaulted from treatment. Context: TB patient management in Chiang Rai is complicated due to poverty and HIV stigma. A previous study shows unaffordable travel expense was one of the reasons of patient default. Action: We engaged Chiang Rai women’s organizations whose members are of high socioeconomic status to support poor TB patients financially and socially. A group of women formed a team to support these TB patients (n = 192 by raising and sustaining funds and providing home visits (n = 37. TB surveillance and patient-fund register data were used to evaluate TB treatment outcomes. Outcome: The success of TB treatment was significantly higher for patients receiving financial support (relative risk [RR]: 1.351; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.53; P < 0.000. Lower death rates in all groups were observed among patients receiving financial support. However, financial assistance alone did not improve treatment outcomes for migrant patients. Thirty-seven patients (25 Thai, eight hill tribe, four migrants who were visited by women volunteers at home achieved 95% TB treatment success. Discussion: It is possible to involve volunteers to support poor TB patients. Willingness to support TB patients was driven by presenting provincial TB epidemiology information, research data on the experience of poor patients and the inspiring experiences of other women volunteers. Future research should investigate the reasons for the high treatment success among patients who received home visits.

  10. TINGKAT KEBISINGAN DAN TAJAM DENGAR PETUGAS GROUND HANDLING DI BANDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

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    I W Putra Yadnya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ngurah Rai Airport is an International Airport in Bali, this will increase the air traffic frequency and increase the number of aircraft types. This condition increases the noise risk factor which contributes to probable cause of health problem for airport workers. The objective of this study is to analyze the noise effect against hearing acurity of the ground handling staff in Ngurah Rai Airport.This cross sectional study design with 44 number of sample. The sample was taking by proportional random sampling method.The study results showed that noise level in the Administration Division was between 49.6 – 52 dBA. However, in the Technical Division at 08.00 – 16.00 was averagely between 88,3 – 90.9 dBA, at 16.00 – 24.00 was between 89.3 – 93.5 dBA and at 24.00 – 08.00 was between 69.9 – 73.2 dBA. Hearing acurity of ground handling staff in the administration division was 1 personnel (16.7 % experienced hearing acurity depreciation. However, in the technical division, 23 personnel (60.5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. The staff with ? 20 years working period numbering 6 personnel (37,5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and staff with > 20 years working period numbering 17 personnel (77.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. On the other hand, personnel that always wear hearing protective equipment numbering 7 personnel (33.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and personnel who where not wear hearing protective equipment numbering 16 personnel (94.1% experienced hearing acurity depreciation.The study concluded that noise level in the administration division was under threshold limit value, in technical division between 08.00 – 16.00 and 16.00 – 24.00 was upper threshold limit value but between 24.00 – 08.00 was under threshold limit value. There was a different hearing acurity between administration division staff and the technical division staff. The study also enlighten there was association

  11. BEBAN EMISI AKTIVITAS LTO PESAWAT UDARA DI BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL I GUSTI NGURAH RAI BALI

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    Yohanis Umbu Kaleka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali International Airport is the second highest airport in activity level in Indonesia. Flight activity in this airport increases every year, with an increase of 20% from 2011 until the end of 2012. The research aimed to identify how much the LTO (Landing-Take-Off emission activity in I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali International Airport. The purpose of this research was to identify how much the emission is and the effect of LTO activities towards the ambient air condition of CO and NOx around the airport. Three measurement points and three days recent flight were applied to understand the emission spreading characteristic in every LTO phases. The three phases of LTO which are consisted of take-off phase, taxi in phase and landing phase, were the main focus of this research. The three recent flights were on Monday 5 of May, on Wednesday 7 of May and on Saturday 10 of May in 2014. Regression bifilar linear statistical analysis method was employed to identify the effect and how big the CO and NOx emission contribution towards the ambient air quality. The results of this research showed that the emission of aircraft activity in LTO phases was effected by the ambient air concentration of CO and NOx. It was proved with the result from F test simultaneous with significant level average 0,033 < 0,005 and with r value that exists between 0,77 – 0,97 with mean contribution was 79,1%. Take-off phase was the phase that produced the biggest NOx gas emission compared to the other phases. When the aircraft did the take-off phase, the thrust was used reached 100%, the purpose was to produce the big energy. The combustion that happened in take-off phase in aircraft machine classified in perfect combustion, also this thing effected the phase to produce the smallest CO gas emission compared with the other phases. Taxi in phase was a phase that produced the biggest CO emission between the two other phases, it was happened because the thrust needed

  12. Values of functional indexes in assessment of efficacy of osteoarthritis treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic

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    O Y Maiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study change of knee joints functional disability in pts with predominantly I-II stage of knee osteoarthritis (OA with clinical tests and WOMAC index for assessment of efficacy of treatment with Chondrolon and Zel T in polyclinic. Material and methods. 70 pts with I and II stage of OA according to Kellgren-Lawrence aged from 40 to 67 years were included. They were divided in 2 groups (30 pts in group I and40 pts in group II. Group I pts were treated with Chondrolon and group II pts – with Zel T. Treatment efficacy was assessed with WOMAC index, functional Lequesne index, pain on VAS at rest and at movement, knee mobility, time of walking for 30 m and walking stairs. Results. Positive changes of all parameters were revealed in both groups: significant improvement of pain on VAS, functional tests, Lequesne index, WOMAC scales was achieved. During treatment with Zel T improvement of the efficacy measures increased slower, mainly after 12 weeks of treatment (during treatment with Chondrolon – after8 weeks. Both drugs provided functional improvement assessed by WOMAC index butChondrolon was more effective. Conclusion. Chondrolon and Zel T can be used for treatment of OA at I or II stage with moderate knee joints functional disability. Course of treatment with Zel T should be continued not less than 3 months and with Chondrolon – 2 months.

  13. New automated image analysis method for the assessment of Ki-67 labeling index in meningiomas.

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    Wielisław Papierz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have emphasised the importance of Ki-67 labeling index (LI as the proliferation marker in meningiomas. Several authors confirmed, that Ki-67 LI has prognostic significance and correlates with likelihood of tumour recurrences. These observations were widely accepted by pathologists, but up till now no standard method for Ki-67 LI assessment was developed and introduced for the diagnostic pathology. In this paper we present a new computerised system for automated Ki-67 LI estimation in meningiomas as an aid for histological grading of meningiomas and potential standard method of Ki-67 LI assessment. We also discuss the concordance of Ki-67 LI results obtained by presented computerized system and expert pathologist, as well as possible pitfalls and mistakes in automated counting of immunopositive or negative cells. For the quantitative evaluation of digital images of meningiomas the designed software uses an algorithm based on mathematical description of cell morphology. This solution acts together with the Support Vector Machine (SVM used in the classification mode for the recognition of immunoreactivity of cells. The applied sequential thresholding simulated well the human process of cell recognition. The same digital images of randomly selected tumour areas were parallelly analysed by computer and blindly by two expert pathologists. Ki-67 labeling indices were estimated and the results compared. The mean relative discrepancy between the levels of Ki-67 LI by our system and by the human expert did not exceed 14% in all investigated cases. These preliminary results suggest that the designed software could be an useful tool supporting the diagnostic digital pathology. However, more extended studies are needed for approval of this suggestion.

  14. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:26321048

  15. STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; LI Jing-yi; ZHAO Jing-bo

    2003-01-01

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environ-mental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terriibly weak. This paper intends to understand the per-sonality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the founda-tions of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differ-ences of public perception of disaster appear as follows: female disaster perception is stronger than male; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60,60 year old or over in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational char-acteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in tums; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

  16. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  17. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period. PMID:26163496

  19. Assessment of Iranian Agroclimatological Zone Classification by Using TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Kouzehgaran, Saeedeh; Haghighat, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural zoning is an important tool for authorities to plan and decide about development of the agricultural sector, environmental sustainability issues and plan and provide irrigation and rural infrastructures. Previous different methods have suggested the definition of agroclimatological zones in big areas in Iran, but most of them are not easy to be validated or there are not clear criteria to evaluate whether the zones are correctly defined or not. The current {it Iranian Meteorological Organisation} classification is composed of six significant agroclimatological zones defined using the fundamental climate elements of temperature and precipitation obtained from 30 years data from 180 synoptic stations interpolated using regression kriging methods. Elevation was derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) digital elevation model of 90 m resolution. In this paper we assess the homogeneity of each of these conventionally defined agroclimatological zones using {bf TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)} values obtained from MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI operational products of the last three years between 2013 and 2015.

  20. Mortality Attributable to Excess Body Mass Index in Iran: Implementation of the Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide with alarming rates in most of the world countries. Our aim was to compare the mortality of fatal disease attributable to excess body mass index (BMI) in Iran in 2005 and 2011. Methods: Using standards implementation comparative risk assessment methodology, we estimated mortality attributable to excess BMI in Iranian adults of 25–65 years old, at the national and sub-national levels for 9 attributable outcomes including; ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), stroke, hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), colon cancer, cancer of the body of the uterus, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Results: In 2011, in adults of 25–65 years old, at the national level, excess BMI was responsible for 39.5% of total deaths that were attributed to 9 BMI paired outcomes. From them, 55.0% were males. The highest mortality was attributed to IHD (55.7%) which was followed by stroke (19.3%), and DM (12.0%). Based on the population attributed fractions estimations of 2011, except for colon cancer, the remaining 6 common outcomes were higher for women than men. Conclusions: Despite the priority of the problem, there is currently no comprehensive program to prevention or control obesity in Iran. The present results show a growing need to comprehensive implications for national and sub-national health policies and interventional programs in Iran. PMID:26644906

  1. A service-oriented approach to assessing the infrastructure value index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, R; Alegre, H; Matos, J S

    2016-01-01

    Many national and regional administrations are currently facing challenges to ensure long-term sustainability of urban water services, as infrastructures continue to accumulate alarming levels of deferred maintenance and rehabilitation. The infrastructure value index (IVI) has proven to be an effective tool to support long-term planning, in particular by facilitating the ability to communicate and to create awareness. It is given by the ratio between current value of an infrastructure and its replacement cost. Current value is commonly estimated according to an asset-oriented approach, which is based on the concept of useful life of individual components. The standard values assumed for the useful lives can vary significantly, which leads to valuations that are just as different. Furthermore, with water companies increasingly focused on the customer, effective service-centric asset management is essential now more than ever. This paper shows results of on-going research work, which aims to explore a service-oriented approach for assessing the IVI. The paper presents the fundamentals underlying this approach, discusses and compares results obtained from both perspectives and points to challenges that still need to be addressed. PMID:27438261

  2. Assessment the safety performance of nuclear power plants using Global Safety Index (GSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E., E-mail: ayahabouelnaga@hotmail.co [Alexandria University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Alexandria, 21544 (Egypt); Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Aly, Naguib; Nagy, Mohammad; Agamy, Saeed [Alexandria University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Alexandria, 21544 (Egypt)

    2010-10-15

    The safety performance of the nuclear power plant is a very important factor enhancing the nuclear energy option. It is vague to evaluate the nuclear power plant performance but it can be measured through measuring the safety performance of the plant. In this work, the safety of nuclear power plants is assessed by developing a 'Global Safety Index' (GSI). The GSI is developed by introducing three indicators: probability of accident occurrence, performance of safety system in case of an accident occurrence (during an accident), and the consequences of the accident. The GSI is developed by tracking the performance of the safety system during a design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). This is done by using the PCTran simulation code in simulation a PWR LOCA and introducing four indicators: the sensation time, the response time, and the recovery time together with Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Then Fuzzy Inference System is used for obtaining the GSI. The GSI is also evaluated for the advanced types for nuclear power plants, such as AP1000, and a comparison is made between the GSI evaluated for both conventional and advanced types.

  3. Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ

    OpenAIRE

    Huybrechts, I.; Vereecken, C.; Bacquer, De, D.; Vandevijvere, S.; Oyen, van, A.; Maes, L.; Vanhauwaert, E.; Temme, E.H.M.; Backer,, Jonathan M.; De, Henauw, S

    2010-01-01

    The diet quality index (DQI) for preschool children is a new index developed to reflect compliance with four main food-based dietary guidelines for preschool children in Flanders. The present study investigates: (1) the validity of this index by comparing DQI scores for preschool children with nutrient intakes, both of which were derived from 3d estimated diet records; (2) the reproducibility of the DQI for preschoolers based on a parentally reported forty-seven-item FFQ DQI, which was repeat...

  4. Weight-for-height indices to assess nutritional status--a new index on a slide-rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Donnet, M L; Stanfield, J P

    1981-09-01

    The protein-energy malnutrition classification schemes of Waterlow and McLaren, although similar in other respects, assess the weight-for-height of children in quite different ways. The drawbacks of their two methods are described, and an alternative method is presented which overcomes them. The new index is called weight/height2-for-age, and consists of the ratio weight/height2 expressed as a percentage of the same ratio for a reference child of the same age. Although the index is not age independent, it is insensitive to all but the grossest errors in age for children over 12 months old. The index is equally appropriate for the assessment of obesity. A slide-rule based on the Tanner standard is available to do the calculation. PMID:6792899

  5. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  6. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: A Scale for Assessing the Burden of Caregivers to Adults with Unipolar or Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, Lynn M.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients’ mood symptoms, caregivers’ worry about the future, and caregivers’ interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients’ pharmacotherapy or...

  7. New assessment tools that measure sleep vital signs: the SleepMed Insomnia Index and the Sleep Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Bogan, Richard K; Turner, Jo Anne

    2007-01-01

    Insomnia is the leading sleep disorder in the US; however, diagnosis is often problematic. This pilot study assessed the clinical value of a novel diagnostic insomnia questionnaire. The SleepMed Insomnia Index (SMI) was administered to 543 consecutive patients and 50 normal control subjects during a pilot study. Mean SMI scores were assessed based on subsequent sleep-related diagnoses. The SMI scores for patients with sleep-related disorders were significantly higher than those for the contro...

  8. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  9. Assessment of condition in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae populations: which index works best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R. M. Baigún

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important target species in temperate freshwater fisheries of Argentina, and assessment of condition has been a regular practice and common diagnostic tool. Most pejerrey fishery studies have used Fulton's (K index, without testing whether underlying assumptions or requirements were met. We analyzed and contrasted the applicability of K, Kn and Wr indices to assess condition status in several pejerrey populations inhabiting Pampean lakes. Our results showed that whereas Wr and Kn displayed significant condition changes across length at some study lakes, Kn portrayed a small range of variation. We also noted that pejerrey maximum length and size structure strongly varied among populations probably due to the characteristics of trophic niche changes through lifespan, depending on lake limnological characteristics and zooplankton availability. We conclude that the K index should be disregarded in those cases where populations show allometric growth and size ranges strongly vary. In turn, the Kn index appears to be only appropriate for regular within population assessment, being difficult to apply when comparisons between populations are needed and when they exhibit different weight-length relationship slopes. Finally, the Wr index should be strongly preferred if the objective is to perform comparisons between pejerrey populations, particularly when population structure is not well known, stocking has been used for population recovery, lakes are strongly supported by limnological changes, data are limited to only one or few samplings and metaphoetesis is suspected in pejerrey populations.O peixe-rei Odontesthes bonariensis é a espécie mais importante na pesca de água doce da região temperada da Argentina, e a avaliação de sua condição corpórea tem sido uma prática normal e uma ferramenta de diagnóstico bastante utilizada. Grande parte dos estudos sobre a pesca do peixe-rei utiliza o

  10. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  11. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha−1, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ−1, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha−1 in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha−1. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha−1 and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO2, N2O and CH4 in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha-1, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO2eq ha-1 in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel are necessary for better management of energy flow, global warming potential and environmental crises

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhushan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the heterogeneity in land use distribution pattern on the traffic congestion in rapidly urbanizing Ranchi city, capital of Jharkhand state, India. Traditionally, researchers have used the landscape metrics to determine the heterogeneity in the land use and land cover distribution pattern in both urban and non-urban areas. In the present study, we have introduced a new index: Heterogeneity Index to quantify the distribution pattern of the land use categories present along the various road segments whereas traffic congestion was determined through the Congestion Index Value. Based on the dominant land use categories existing in the study area, four heterogeneity indices were developed such as Residential Heterogeneity Index, Commercial Heterogeneity Index, Industrial Heterogeneity Index and Urban Services Heterogeneity Index, respectively. Finally, a Cumulative Heterogeneity Index was developed to determine the aggregate effect of the heterogeneity of the various land use categories present in the individual roads. Analytical Hierarchical Processing and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. The results of the investigation showed positive relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and traffic congestion.

  13. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  14. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  15. Copula-based drought risk assessment combined with an integrated index in the Wei River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Li, Yunyun; Wang, Yimin; Yuan, Meng

    2016-09-01

    It is critical to assess drought risk based on a reliably integrated drought index incorporating comprehensive information of meteorology, hydrology and agriculture drought indices, which is of great value for further understanding the future drought tendency, prevention and mitigation. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to focus on constructing a multivariate integrated drought index (MIDI) by coupling four drought indices (i.e., Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (PAP), Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP), Standardized Precipitation Index with 6-month aggregation time step (SPI6) and Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI)) to objectively and comprehensively investigate drought risk. The variable fuzzy set theory and entropy weight method are used during the MIDI construction process. Based on the MIDI, a drought event including drought duration and severity is redefined using run theory. Then copula-based drought risk is fully assessed through the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. Results indicate the following: (1) the constructed MIDI is consistent with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP) series, and it is more sensitive and effective to capture historical drought events; (2) the drought characteristics present noticeable spatial variability among five subzones, and the entire basin has 49 droughts with the longest drought duration spanning 8.55 months; and (3) the mainstream, especially the middle and lower reaches, has higher occurrences of severe droughts for approximately every 10 years.

  16. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  17. Comparison between a clinical activity index (Harvey–Bradshaw-Index), laboratory inflammation markers and quantitative assessment of bowel wall vascularization by contrast-enhanced ultrasound in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Due to its character as a remitting inflammatory disease, patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) often undergo several imaging studies subjecting the mostly young patients to ionizing. Contrast enhanced ultrasound for capillary microvascular assessment might be a new diagnostic tool for identifying the activity of inflammation by ultrasound techniques. Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 45 patients with proven Crohn's disease performing contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and laboratory assessment including C-reactive protein (CRP), leucocytes and hematocrit as well as calculating the Harvey–Bradshaw Index (HBI). Thereafter, we applied the quantification software Qontrast® to obtain contrast-enhanced sonographic perfusion maps. Results: Analysis of the 41 finally included patients revealed a correlation of CRP to HBI and TTP[s], respectively. Moreover, an association was found for HBI and TTP[s] and for HBI and TTP[s]/Peak [%]. Analysis of 34 patients with a Peak [%] ≥25 showed a close association of HBI and CRP. Besides, in these patients CRP correlated to TTP[s] and to TTP[s]/Peak [%]. We found a strong negative correlation between HBI and TTP[s] (r = −0.645, p < 0.01), thus, the higher the clinical activity the shorter the time-to-peak. Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation with CEUS, particularly the calculation of TTP[s] in patients with a Peak [%] ≥25, provides a simple method to assess the inflammatory activity in CD.

  18. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP(i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  19. Proposing Melasma Severity Index: A New, More Practical, Office-based Scoring System for Assessing the Severity of Melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Majid; Inaamul Haq; Saher Imran; Abid Keen; Khalid Aziz; Tasleem Arif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI), for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 ) l + 0.4 (a × p 2 ) r + 0.2 (a × p 2 ) n where "a" stands for area,...

  20. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pourmahabadian; Saraji, J. N.; M. Aghabeighi H. Saddeghi-Naeeni

    2005-01-01

    The strain index (SI) is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE) disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The ai...

  1. Superior assessment of CVD death by MACD index compared with the framingham score is highly associated with predisposition to diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie;

    investigated the relation between mortality and biological aspects of plaque dynamics such as of number, size, morphology and distribution in the lumbar aorta of postmenopausal women. We compared the MACD index to the Framingham AC24 score and correlated those to baseline demographic and biochemical risk...... subsequent rupture potential. This results in a superior identification of CVD related death with an OR of 20.  This increased biological information of the MACD index correlated strongly to glucose levels suggesting that this assessment method entails information of pre-diabetic status that is an important...

  2. Using the community health assessment to screen for continued driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Fries, Brant E; Berkowitz, Randi; Goldman, Beryl; David, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This project used the interRAI based, community health assessment (CHA) to develop a model for identifying current elder drivers whose driving behavior should be reviewed. The assessments were completed by independent housing sites in COLLAGE, a non-profit, national senior housing consortium. Secondary analysis of data drawn from older adults in COLLAGE sites in the United States was conducted using a baseline assessment with 8042 subjects and an annual follow-up assessment with 3840 subjects. Logistic regression was used to develop a Driving Review Index (DRI) based on the most useful items from among the many measures available in the CHA assessment. Thirteen items were identified by the logistic regression to predict drivers whose driving behavior was questioned by others. In particular, three variables reference compromised decision-making abilities: general daily decisions, a recent decline in ability to make daily decisions, and ability to manage medications. Two additional measures assess cognitive status: short-term memory problem and a diagnosis of non-Alzheimers dementia. Functional measures reflect restrictions and general frailty, including receiving help in transportation, use of a locomotion appliance, having an unsteady gait, fatigue, and not going out on most days. The final three clinical measures reflect compromised vision, little interest or pleasure in things normally enjoyed, and diarrhea. The DRI focuses the review process on drivers with multiple cognitive and functional problems, including a significant segment of potentially troubled drivers who had not yet been publicly identified by others. There is a need for simple and quickly identified screening tools to identify those older adults whose driving should be reviewed. The DRI, based on the interRAI CHA, fills this void. Assessment at the individual level needs to be part of the backdrop of science as society seeks to target policy to identify high risk drivers instead of simply age

  3. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hydrogen Index (HI), Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogen index (HI) is a parameter obtained from Rock-Eval data which reflects general hydrocarbon generation and maturation trends in petroleum systems. In the...

  4. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) Assessment for the National Park of American Samoa (npsa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within The National Park of American Samoa ....

  5. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  6. Coastal Change Potential Index (CPI) Assessment for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (glba_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CPI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Bhushan Mukherjee; Nilanchal Patel; Akhouri Pramod Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the heterogeneity in land use distribution pattern on the traffic congestion in rapidly urbanizing Ranchi city, capital of Jharkhand state, India. Traditionally, researchers have used the landscape metrics to determine the heterogeneity in the land use and land cover distribution pattern in both urban and non-urban areas. In the present study, we have introduced a new index: Heterogeneity Index to quantify the distribution pattern ...

  8. The use of a satellite derived vegetation index for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, J. D.; Mcnab, Alan L.; Karl, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite derived normalized difference (ND) vegetation index data, based on urban and rural region composed of a variety of land surface environments, are evaluated. These data are linearly related to the difference in observed urban and rural minimum temperatures. It is concluded that the difference in the ND index between urban and rural regions reflects the difference in the surface properties (evaporation and heat storage capacity) of these two environments and urban and rural minimum temperatures (the urban heat island effect).

  9. Homogeneity Index: An objective tool for assessment of conformal radiation treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Tejinder Kataria; Kuldeep Sharma; Vikraman Subramani; K P Karrthick; Shyam S Bisht

    2012-01-01

    Homogeneity Index (HI) is an objective tool to analyz the uniformity of dose distribution in the target volume. Various formulae have been described in literature for its calculation but there is paucity of data regarding the ideal formula and the factors affecting this index. This study was undertaken to analyze HI in our patients using various formulae and to find out the co-relation between HI and prescribed dose, target volume and target location. A retrospective review of 99 patients was...

  10. Assessing Gender Inequality among Italian Regions: The Italian Gender Gap Index

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and evaluating the geographic distribution of gender inequality across Italian regions. The aim of the analysis is two-fold. First we build a composite indicator of gender inequality at the regional level for Italy by applying the methodology developed by the World Economic Forum for the Global Gender Gap Index. Second, we compute the Italian Gender Gap Index for each region in order to measure the within-country heterogeneity that characterizes Italy. We complete...

  11. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  12. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  13. Assessment of optimum thermal humidity index for crossbred dairy cows in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Uttarakhand is a relatively new state and many cross bred cattle were introduced to boost the milk yield of the state. Despite all efforts the milk yield of dairy in Uttarakhand is comparatively low. In our study, we assessed the effect of heat stress on milk production, using thermal humidity index (THI in high (cross bred cattle and low milk producing (LMP cows (native cows in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Effect of heat stress was measured on high and LMP cross bred cows using THI maintained on standard feeding and nutritional value. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the THI. Daily milk production was noted to verify the effect of heat stress. Furthermore, profile the thyroid hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Low yielding cows did not show any significant change when the THI was above 72 from month June to October during stress condition. But high yielding cows shows a significant decrease (p<0.05 in milk yield when THI was above 80 (severe stress zone in the month of June to October and milk production decrease from an average of 18±1.4 to 10.9±0.92 L whereas in November-December when THI declines in the zone of comfort the milk yield did not show significant rise. The thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 level were found lower in summer heat stress condition for a high yielding cattle. Conclusion: Summer heat stress significantly decreased milk yield in high milk producing (HMP crossbred cows. As THI rises from comfort zone to stress zone milk yield decreased by 30-40% and this loss in milk production is irreversible. Management strategies should be needed as environmental control housing is suggested for the HMP crossbred cattle to minimize the heat stress. If all the dairies with cross bred cattle implement these small modifications in housing of cattle, there would be a huge increase in milk production.

  14. Comparison of two assessment tools that measure insomnia: The insomnia severity index and polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder, characterized by difficulties in sleep initiation, sleep maintenance or early morning awakening. Although polysomnography (PSG is a standard method in the evaluation of sleep disorders, it is not recommended for routine use in the clinical assessment of insomnia. Instead, standard questionnaires could be used in the primary evaluation of insomnia. Objective: The main object of this study was to compare the type and severity of patients′ subjective complaints of insomnia gathered from insomnia severity index (ISI questionnaire with the result of their polysomnographic evaluation. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted during 2010-2011 in Iran, all patients in one clinic with sleep disorders were evaluated. The study consisted of self-administered questionnaires completed by participants to provide information on demographic characteristics and ISI questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire, all the participants underwent standard overnight PSG. Results: Subjects were 151 patients (47.2 ± 10.8 years old. The average ISS was 6.1 ± 4. There was a significant relationship between the subjective complaint of difficulty in sleep initiation and sleep onset latency in PSG (r = 0.5, P < 0.001. Furthermore, there was a correlation between the subjective complaint of difficulty in sleep maintenance and number of awakening in PSG (r = 0.19, P = 0.01. A low patients′ satisfaction from their sleep was associated with lower total sleep time (r = -0.2, P = 0.02 and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement (REM sleep in their PSG study (r = -0.25, P = 0.002. No relation was found between patients′ satisfaction and sleep efficiency measured with PSG (r = -0.04, P = 0.6. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that objective insomnia, measured with ISI, is related with PSG variables and ISI could be a useful tool to quantify perceived insomnia severity. Further studies are needed to

  15. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.;

    2012-01-01

    school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality of...... school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...

  16. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas P. Higginbottom; Elias Symeonakis

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The devel...

  17. Assessment of Overall Prevalence of Undernutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) Among Preschool Children of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Chandra Mandal; Kaushik Bose

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Under-nutrition continues to be a primary cause of ill-health and premature mortality among children in developing countries. Present study attempted to assess the overall prevalence of undernutrition using composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among rural preschool children of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India. Methods:A total of 1012 rural children (498 boys; 514 girls) aged 2-6 years were measured. Three commonly used undernutrition indicators, ie, stunting...

  18. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Francesc Alonso; Jordi Riba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electroencephalographic analysis techniques have become a very useful tool to assess brain activity and interactions between cerebral regions, that is, the so-called cerebral connectivity analysis. The effects of some drugs have, so far, been studied using spectral analysis and, to a lesser extent, some linear and nonlinear connectivity techniques. New indexes have recently been designed based on assumptions that make them more robust against volume conduction effects that co...

  19. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, J.; A Esmaili Sari; Abdoli, A; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem qua...

  20. Business risk assessment of the companies on the Mexican Stock Exchange’s sustainable index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Morales Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/10/27 - Accepted: 2014/12/15This work evaluated the business risk change of 20 companies included on the sustainable index of the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV. The unlevered beta coefficient was used for this analysis. Two periods were compared: the one before, and the one after including the companies on the index. For each of the 20 companies it was used financial information, stocks closing prices and the stock market index value, over a period of 234 weeks. Then, considering the two periods, the statistical difference between the unlevered beta coefficient averages was calculated. Finally, a hypothesis proof was made to evaluate the business risk change. It was found that for 12 out of the 20 companies, the unlevered beta coefficient suffered a reduction. The findings suggest that it is not enough for the companies to certify as sustainable in order to reduce its business risk.

  1. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index) method

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Dragana; Milanović Ana; Brankov Jovana; Radovanović M.

    2011-01-01

    The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area) is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index) over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values o...

  2. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.;

    2013-01-01

    greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...... applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important to the...

  3. [Bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI): an approach for assessing river ecosystem health in Dianchi watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Shu, Zhong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems. However, the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment. Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton, we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed. The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level I (8 sites) or level II (3 sites), while the 27 damaged sites were level I (4 sites), level II (14 sites), level III (7 sites), and level IV (2 sites), and there was no level V site. Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index, BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors, the land use types and the upstream water types in river ecosystems. Therefore, BP-IBI is a good method to characterize the health status of river ecosystems. PMID:24191542

  4. Skirtingo amžiaus žirginio sporto (konkūrai) sportininkų motyvacija

    OpenAIRE

    Grajauskas, Lauras; Karbočienė, Eugenija

    2010-01-01

    Straipsnyje nagrinėjami žirginio sporto (konkūrų) sportininkų motyvacijos sportinei veiklai ypatumai. Motyvacijos sportinei veiklai tyrimai svarbūs tuo, kad, remiantis tyrimų rezultatais, galima ne tik prognozuoti būsimus sportinius rezultatus, bet ir laiku imtis priemonių jiems p gerinti. Tyrimo tikslas – atskleisti didelio meistriškumo žirginio sporto (konkūrai) vyrų ir jaunių motyvacijos ypatumus. Tyrimas atliktas taikant anketinės apklausos metodą. Anketą sudarė 25 teiginiai, kuriuos tiri...

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

  6. Validation of the patient benefit index for the assessment of patient-relevant benefit in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Julia; Blome, Christine; Radtke, Marc; Augustin, Matthias

    2012-08-01

    Empirical evidence of the efficacy of drugs and therapeutic procedures becomes more important in industrial countries. The assessment of patient benefit from the patient's perspective is of particular relevance. The Patient Benefit Index (PBI) for skin diseases is a validated instrument to assess patient-relevant benefit in patients with skin diseases. So far, no instrument for the assessment of patient-relevant needs and benefits in patients with psoriasis has been published. Objective of the study was the validation of an instrument to assess patient benefit in psoriasis treatment. Patient-relevant treatment needs and benefits in psoriasis patients were recorded with the PBI questionnaire in two studies conducted in 2007. Treatment goals and benefits were used to calculate an importance-weighted PBI. Data of n = 2,009 patients in the cross-sectional study and n = 93 patients in the longitudinal study were used to test validity, feasibility and reliability of the PBI. The PBI was feasible with a rate of missing values ≤1.5 % in PNQ and ≤2.0 % in PBQ. The subscales of the PBI were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68-0.87). The PBI showed convergent validity regarding the quality of life, psoriasis area and severity index, and two single questions on treatment benefit used in the longitudinal study. The PBI is a suitable instrument for the assessment of patient-reported benefit in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:22722916

  7. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S.G.; Amy, G.L.; Schippers, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) cons

  8. European Green City Index. Assessing the environmental impact of Europe's major cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.; Langer, H.; Watson, J. (ed.) [Economist Intelligence Unit, London (United Kingdom); Stelzner, K. [Corporate Communications and Government Affairs, Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The European Green City Index measures and rates the environmental performance of 30 leading cities from 30 European countries, as well as their commitment to reducing their environmental impact. It takes into account 30 individual indicators per city, touching on a wide range of environmental areas, from environmental governance and water consumption to waste management and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. A "continuity-index" for assessing ice-sheet dynamics from radar-sounded internal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Bingham, Robert G.;

    2012-01-01

    quantitative method for analyzing internallayercontinuity—named the continuity-index. When applied to data from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, the new method clearly identifies a continuum of discontinuity of internallayers that corresponds with the current ice-velocity field. The analysis provides...

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  12. THE ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC DROUGHT DURING VEGETATION SEASON (ACCORDING TO STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX SPI IN CENTRAL-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radzka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an assessment of atmospheric drought during vegetation season defined on the basis of standardized precipitation index (SPI. The data used in this paper come from nine IMWM stations from central-eastern region of Poland, and they were registered in 1971–2005. The frequency of occurrence of vegetation season’s months was determined in particular drought classes. Spatial distribution of SPI index values was shown in all of the vegetation season’s months on the area examined. The direction and significance of values changes tendency of the analyzed index during the vegetation season were also defined. It was noticed that extreme droughts appeared four times less frequently than the normal months. Very dry months were noted most frequently in September while moderately dry – in August. The analysis of the frequency of spatial distribution of particular drought classes showed that extreme dry and very dry months occurred most frequently in western part of the area examined, while the moderately dry months also in south-eastern part. On the basis of the linear trend analysis it can be said that the SPI index values were slightly decreasing year by year.

  13. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  14. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with...

  15. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  18. Proposing melasma severity index: A new, more practical, office-based scoring system for assessing the severity of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI, for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 l + 0.4 (a × p 2 r + 0.2 (a × p 2 n where "a" stands for area, "p" for pigmentation, "l" for left face, "r" for right face, and "n" for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6 th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955 as compared to MASI (0.816. Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman′s correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma.

  19. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  20. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  1. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  2. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  3. Work index and grinding energy assessment of Dilband iron ore Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance of comminution in mineral processing sector is highly acknowledged from energy perspective. In present study an attempt was made to understand the commuting behavior of Dilband iron ore and to compute the grinding energy requirement for production of ultra fine particles up to mesh of liberation. In this regard standard grind ability tests developed by the Chair of Mineral Processing Leoben Austria was used for calculating work index of Dilband iron ore. The grinding tests were conducted in rod and ball mills. The work index value of two feed size fractions with 80% passing at 3800 macro m and 5200 macro m was noted to be 11.85 kwh/t and 9.3 kwh/ton respectively. Ball mill grinding test indicates that dry grinding in open circuit is not efficient and consumes more energy of 88.48kwh/t of ore for grinding 1000/40 macro to 80% <40 macro m size. (author)

  4. Organizacinio klimato ir tarpgeneracinės įtampos raiškos ypatumai lengvosios pramonės įmonėje

    OpenAIRE

    Lukauskaitė, Brigita

    2009-01-01

    Šis magistro darbas – tai savarankiška kolegialaus tyrimo dalis. Juo siekiama nustatyti organizacinio klimato bei tarpgeneracinės įtampos raišką bei sąsajas pasirinktoje lengvosios pramonės įmonėje. Organizacinio klimato ir tarpgeneracinės įtampos raiškos ypatumai buvo tiriami pagal „Organizacinio klimato“ bei „Tarpgeneracinės įtampos“ testą. Tyrime dalyvavo 61 respondentas, 8 komandos. Duomenys apdoroti SPSS programa. Rezultatai atskleidė, kad AB „Linų audiniai“ vyrauja nepalankus organizaci...

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of inferior vena cava/abdominal aorta diameter index: a new approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Ahmad, Rashidi; Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Mohammed, Mohammad Iqhbal

    2016-01-01

    Background We designed this study to expand the usage of ultrasound to detect early occurrence of hypovolemia. We explore the potential use of inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) diameter index (IVC:AA) measured ultrasonographically to detect class 1 hypovolemic shock with blood loss less than 15%.ᅟ Methods The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the diameter of inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta in blood donors by using ultrasound, pre and post blood donation....

  6. A new irrigation priority index based on remote sensing data for assessing the networks irrigation scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Belaqziz, S.; Khabba, S.; Er-Raki, S.; Jarlan, Lionel; Le Page, M.; Kharrou, M.H.; El Adnani, M.; Chehbouni, Abdelghani

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling has become an important tool that significantly influences growth, development and production of crops, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the South Mediterranean. In these regions, most of the irrigation scheduling of the gravity irrigation networks are not optimized in terms of timing and water quantity. In this paper, we present a way of characterizing the irrigation distribution by the extensively used irrigation systems through a new irrigation index: the "...

  7. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of peri-urban mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Augusto de Oliveira Brunow; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. The present study empirically evaluated the vulnerability of forest stands that make up the subtropical Perequê River mangrove (Paranaguá Bay, S Brazil) as the basis for a more appropriate management of its resources. This mangrove is located in the coastal municipality of Pontal do Paraná (Paraná, Brazil) and is part of the Perequê River Mangrove Natural Park, which is still not under a management plan. This study aimed to contribute to the future management plan of this conservation unit through an environmental diagnosis and an empirical evaluation of its vulnerability. The primary data, collected from 51 plots of 100 m(2) each, involved the evaluation of: 1) the exposure to solid waste, deforestation, trails, landfills, and constructions; 2) the degree of sensitivity according to the environmental conditions of each plot; and 3) the adaptive capacity according to the recovery and reproductive potential and structural complexity of the forests. These data were integrated to compose the empirical index of environmental vulnerability (VI) expressed as VI = (SI + EI) - ACI where SI is the sensitivity sub-index, EI is the exposure sub-index, and ACI is the adaptive capacity sub-index. Empirical indices calculated for local forests varied significantly due to differences in values of SI, EI and ACI. This variability defines the local mangrove as a mosaic of vulnerability conditions and suggests that the planning and implementation of local management actions consider such environmental heterogeneity. Applying or extending these actions should be based on local forest conditions at short spatial scales and should not be applied to the mangrove as a whole. PMID:25093304

  8. Water quality assessment of river Rimac in Lima, Peru using the Water Quality Index (WQI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Water Quality Index (WQI) are presented and discussed. They has been obtained using the results of the physical-chemical parameters: pH, oxygen (dissolved), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, nitrate, ammonia; the microbiological parameter: fecal coliforms and the metal analysis of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb in 09 monitoring sites of the river Rimac High Basin (August-December, 2009), characterized by mining industry exploitation. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and dental age

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Sharifi; Hosein Agha Aghili; Maryam Zangouei-Booshehri; Fatemeh Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rela-tionship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and accelerated dental development. The dental developmental ages of 100 children aged between 8 and 12 years were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. BMI status was determined for each subject on the basis of the system developed by the International Obesity Task Force. There was a significant direct relationship between dental development and BMI (P < 0.01). Obese children h...

  10. Assessing Countries’ Financial Inclusion Standing - A New Composite Index

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Amidžić; Alexander Massara; André Mialou

    2014-01-01

    This paper leverages the IMF’s Financial Access Survey (FAS) database to construct a new composite index of financial inclusion. The topic of financial inclusion has gathered significant attention in recent years. Various initiatives have been undertaken by central banks both in advanced and developing countries to promote financial inclusion. The issue has also attracted increasing interest from the international community with the G-20, IMF, and World Bank Group assuming an active role in...

  11. Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Surface Water Quality Status in Goa

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdeep Singh; Rakesh Kant Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. Thirty Six surface water samples were collected from in and around mining talukas of Goa (India). The quality of surface water were evaluated by testing various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Ca...

  12. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory DTC. DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles), whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle) for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS); patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate, response rate, duration of response, safety, and

  13. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  14. An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC, the Duff Moisture Code (DMC, the Drought Code (DC, the Buildup Index (BUI, the Initial Spread Index (ISI, and the Fire Weather Index (FWI, were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind, showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

  15. FibroScan, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index based on the 4 factor (FIB-4), and their combinations in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Deping; Li, Hongbing; Liu, Ping; Chen, Lingli; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Yinhua; Ma, Deqiang; Chen, Yue; Luo, Jie; Meng, Zhongji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of FibroScan, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index based on the 4 factor (FIB-4) and their combinations on liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B. Methods: 406 hospitalized patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and cirrhosis in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively and collected patients clinical indicators, including...

  16. Multivariate drought index: An information theory based approach for integrated drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Singh, Vijay. P.; Mishra, Ashok. K.

    2015-07-01

    Most of the existing drought indices are based on a single variable (e.g. precipitation) or a combination of two variables (e.g., precipitation and streamflow). This may not be sufficient for reliable quantification of the existing drought condition. It is possible that a region might be experiencing only a single type of drought at times, but multiple drought types affecting a region is quite common too. To have a comprehensive representation, it is better to consider all the variables that lead to different physical forms of drought, such as meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural droughts. Therefore, we propose to develop a multivariate drought index (MDI) that will utilize information from hydroclimatic variables, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture as indicator variables, thus accounting for all the physical forms of drought. The entropy theory was utilized to develop this proposed index, that led to the smallest set of features maximally preserving the information of the input data set. MDI was then compared with the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) for all climate regions within Texas for the time period 1950-2012, with particular attention to the two major drought occurrences in Texas, viz. the droughts which occurred in 1950-1957, and 2010-2011. The proposed MDI was found to represent drought conditions well, due to its multivariate, multi scalar, and nonlinear properties. To help the user choose the right time scale for further analysis, entropy maps of MDI at different time scales were used as a guideline. The MDI time scale that has the highest entropy value may be chosen, since a higher entropy indicates a higher information content.

  17. Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the

  18. A macrophage activation switch (MAcS)-index for assessment of monocyte/macrophage activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Lauridsen, Mette; Knudsen, Troels Bygum;

    2008-01-01

    , simplified by the M1-M2 dichotomy of classically activated (M1), pro-inflammatory cells and alternatively activated (M2), anti-inflammatory cells. Macrophages, however, display a large degree of flexibility and are able to switch between activation states (1). The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 is...... cleavage of the receptor. The shedding of sCD163 is dependent on a pro-inflammatory signal such as toll-like receptor (TLR) activation by LPS (3). These unique properties led us to investigate whether an index of combined soluble- and monocyte membrane CD163 could be used as a surrogate marker for...

  19. Site assessment, turbine selection, and local feed-in tariffs through the wind energy index

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Matthias; Deckert, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Since wind energy is rapidly growing, new wind farms are installed worldwide and a discussion is going on concerning the optimal political framework to promote this development. In this paper, we present a wind energy index, which is supportive for wind park planners, operators, and policy-makers. Based on long-term and low-scale reanalysis wind speed data from MERRA and true production data, it can predict the expected wind energy production for every location and turbine type. After an in-s...

  20. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourmahabadian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain index (SI is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The aim of this study was to assess and analyze risk of developing DUE disorders in different jobs as well as hazard classification in an assembling electronic industry through SI method. Also, DUE disorders prevalence, work-related absenteeism and turnover extracted from SI results were compared and assessed by those obtained by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ. The findings of this study showed that more than 50% of investigated jobs are categorized as "hazardous" and there is a significant difference between SI mean in hazardous and safe jobs (P < 0.0001. In addition, significant difference was found between prevalence of DUE disorders in "safe" and "hazardous" jobs (P < 0.049. But, no significant difference (P = 0.3 was obtained between mean absenteeism in "safe" and hazardous jobs. Also, no significant difference statistically was found between turnover in "safe" and hazardous jobs (X2 = 0.133, P = 1 and high prevalence of DUE disorders is due to low turnover rate of workers.

  1. ASSESSING GOING-CONCERN ASSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM BORSA ISTANBUL (BIST INDUSTRIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan TERZİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable model for the Industrial Index of Borsa Istanbul (BIST to evaluate of going-concern. Variables consisting of financial statements and activity reports between the years 2009-2014 of firms that are publicly exchanged in BIST Industrial Index were used in the research. Among the variables selected a correlation analysis was conducted to test whether multi- collinearity existed or not. Based on the results of correlation analysis the paper formed four models by using logistic regression method. The results of logistic regression analysis put forward a statistically significant relationships among several variables namely; going-concern of the firm and the period between the balance sheet date and the date of audit report, firm’s size of assets, revenue of the firm, the risk of failure with respect to financial factors, financial leverage ratio, ratio of working capital to total assets and ratio of cash from operating activities to total assets. Moreover, 80% success rate for four models that were formed in the paper was obtained.

  2. The Stability of Revegetated Ecosystems in Sandy Areas: An Assessment and Prediction Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The stability and sustainability of revegetated ecosystems is a central topic in ecological research. In this study, long-term monitoring and focused research on vegetation, soil and soil moisture from 2006 to 2012 were used to develop a model for evaluating indices of ecosystem stability using the analytical hierarchy process method. The results demonstrated that rainfall (R, vegetation coverage (C, and surface soil moisture (S were the three most influential factors among the 14 indicators considered in a revegetated desert area in the Tengger Desert, China. A stability index (SI was defined as SI = VAR (R × VAR (C/VAR (S, and a comparative study was conducted to examine the stability index of the natural vegetation community. The SI was divided into three regimes: SI < 0.006 was stable, 0.006 ≤ SI < 0.015 was semi-stable, and 0.015 ≤ SI was unstable. The stable, semi-stable and unstable periods of revegetated ecosystems in our simulations were 191, 17 and 11 years, respectively, within the total modeling period of 219 years. These results indicated that the revegetated desert ecosystem would be stable in most years during the vegetation succession, and this study presents new ideas for future artificial vegetation management in arid desert regions.

  3. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  4. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased. PMID:26467200

  5. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  6. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, P; Darmoni, S J; Grabar, N; Douyère, M; Benichou, J

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF. PMID:12463965

  7. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Francesc Alonso

    2015-04-01

    The fact that the considered indexes were not able to find significant differences in the beta band might indicate that phase-coupling changes induced by the drug are weak or too subtle to be detected, given that all measures are corrected by a baseline recording. This might discourage their use in psychopharmacological studies when assessing low doses, mild effects, or when working with a reduced number of participants. However, correlations with plasma concentrations remained high, indicating that PLI, WPLI and IC should not be totally discarded as means of evaluating pharmacological effects on the brain via EEG recordings.

  8. DEA environmental assessment in a time horizon: Malmquist index on fuel mix, electricity and CO2 of industrial nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and global warming become a major policy issue in the world. Economic activities produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO2 emission). The important policy issue is how each nation can balance between economic development and environmental protection to attain a sustainable society. In attaining the sustainable society, environmental assessment is increasingly important because it can serve as an initial step toward the green growth of each nation. For the purpose, this study proposes a new use of DEA (Data Environment Analysis) for environmental assessment in a time horizon. The proposed use of DEA incorporates Malmquist index to examine the degree of a frontier shift among multiple periods. The frontier shift indicates a technology progress and/or managerial innovation during an observed period. The index is conceptually separated into six subcomponents, which are further divided into twelve different subcomponents (six subcomponents × two disposability concepts) under the natural and managerial disposability. In the index measurement, it is necessary for us to consider a frontier crossover among different periods because technology innovation usually has a time lag until it really appears. As an empirical application, this study utilizes the proposed approach to identify the relationship among fuel mix, electricity and CO2 of ten industrial nations. This study finds three important empirical findings. First, there is a time lag in technology innovation on electricity generation and CO2 emission reduction. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the existence of a frontier crossover in assessing the electric power industry. Second, nuclear generation, as found in France, as well as hydro and renewable energy, as found in Netherlands, are important for the development of a sustainable society although the former is associated with a very high level of risk and the latter has a limited generation

  9. Assessing Child Development: A Critical Review and the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Ju Chang; Laura Schneider; Matthias Finkbeiner

    2015-01-01

    Children are an important stakeholder group for sustainable development, as they represent the interface between current and future generations. A comprehensive assessment of child development (CD) in the context of sustainable development is still missing. In this paper, as a first step, a literature review is conducted to identify relevant aspects and gaps related to the assessment of CD. The main issues of CD are categorized into seven themes: health, education, safety, economic status, re...

  10. Public Innovation Support index for Impact Assessment in the European Economic Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Vilys; Artūras Jakubavičius; Eigirdas Žemaitis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The object of this research is public innovation support in European Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. The main aim is to propose a new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, adjusted to contemporary needs and based on practice of public innovation support development. Research Design & Methods: The methods of comparative, cluster, regression, modelling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluatio...

  11. Assessing the Snow Advance Index as potential predictor of winter streamflow of the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, José Manuel; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the ability of the Eurasian snow cover increase during the previous October as potential predictor of winter streamflow in the Iberian Peninsula Rivers. The streamflow data base used has been provided by the Center for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, CEDEX. Series from gauging stations and reservoirs with less than 10% of missing data (filled by regression with well correlated neighboring stations) have been considered. The homogeneity of these series has been evaluated through the Pettit test and degree of human alteration by the Common Area Index. The application of these criteria led to the selection of 382 streamflow time series homogeneously distributed over the Iberian Peninsula, covering the period 1975-2008. For this streamflow data, winter seasonal values were obtained by averaging the monthly values from January to March. The recently proposed Snow Advance Index (SAI) was employed to monitor the snow cover increase during previous October. The stability of the correlations was the criterion followed to establish if SAI could be considered as potential predictor of winter streamflow at each gauging station. Winter streamflow is predicted using a linear regression model. A leave-one-out cross validation approach was adopted to create calibration and validations subsets. The correlation coefficient (RHO), Root Mean Square Error Skill Score (RMSESS) and the Gerrity Skill Score (GSS) were used to evaluate the forecasting skill. From the 382 stations evaluated, significant and stable correlations with SAI were found in 238 stations, covering most of the IP (except for the Cantabrian and Mediterranean slopes). Some forecasting skill was found in 223 of them, being this skill moderate (RHO>0.44, RMSESS>10%, GSS>0.2) in 141 of them, and particularly good (RHO>0.5, RMSESS>20%, GSS>0.4) in 23. This study shows that the SAI of previous October is a reliable predictor of following winter streamflow for the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

  12. The Global Sustainability Index: An Instrument For Assessing The Progress Towards The Sustainable Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    There is rarely an optimal solution in sustainable development but most frequently a need to build compromises between conflicting aspects such as economic, social and environmental ones and different expectations of stakeholders. Moreover, information is rarely available and precise. This paper will focus on how to use indicators to monitor sustainable development, integrating the information provided by many of them into a complex general sustainability index. Having this general indicator is essential for decision makers as it is very complicated to evaluate the performance of the organization based on multiple indicators. The objective of this paper is to find mathematical algorithms for simplifying the decision-making process by offering an instrument for the evaluation of the sustainability progress.

  13. Assessing the use of the Index of Sedation Need in oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, G

    2016-03-25

    Objective This article evaluates the use of the Index of Sedation Need in oral surgery.Design Service evaluation and audit.Setting Oral surgery department of a London dental teaching hospital.Subjects (materials) and methods Patients attending for oral surgery procedures with sedation which had been arranged without reference to the IOSN tool completed the IOSN and a patient questionnaire. Operators completed a similar questionnaire. The IOSN was calculated and the questionnaire responses analysed using SPSS.Results 56% of the patients in this study (n = 105) were receiving sedation appropriately according to the IOSN tool. When the questionnaire responses were analysed depending on sedation need, no statistical difference was found using Fisher's exact test or Pearson Chi-Square (p tool were considered by the operator to have been untreatable without it.Conclusion This study raises questions over the validity and reliability of the IOSN tool as a method of defining sedation need. PMID:27012345

  14. Application of Water Quality Index for Assessment of Surface Water Quality Status in Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is valuable and unique rating to depict the overall water quality status in a single term that is helpful for the selection of appropriate treatment technique to meet the concerned issues. Thirty Six surface water samples were collected from in and around mining talukas of Goa (India. The quality of surface water were evaluated by testing various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS, Total Hardness (TH, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Dissolved Oxygen and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD . The WQI for all samples were found in the range of 34 to 107. The highest value of WQI was observed during the monsoon season while the lowest value was during the post monsoon season. Most of the water samples within study area were found within Good to moderate categories.

  15. Homogeneity Index: an objective tool for assessment of conformal radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogeneity Index (HI) is an objective tool to analyze the uniformity of dose distribution in the target volume. Various formulae have been described in literature for its calculation but there is paucity of data regarding the ideal formula and the factors affecting this index. This study was undertaken to analyze HI in our patients using various formulae and to find out the co-relation between HI and prescribed dose, target volume and target location. A retrospective review of 99 patients was performed. HI was calculated using five different formulae (A-E). The patients were divided in five groups each, based on prescribed dose, target volume and target location and mean HI of each group was analysed to find the co-relation between these factors and HI. When there were multiple target volumes the primary target volume was studied. The statistical calculation was done using SPSS version 16.0. Ninety nine patients were found evaluable with 75 males and 24 females. Ninety five patients were treated with radical intent and four with palliative intent. The sites treated were head and neck (46.4%), Pelvis (17.1%), brain (15.1%), abdomen (12.1%), and thorax (6.1%). The mean prescribed dose was 4304 cGy (centiGray) and the mean target volume was 476.2 cc. The mean value of HI was 1.21, 2.08, 30.13, 21.51 and 1.27 with different formulae. There was considerable agreement between HI calculated using various formulae specially the formulae considering prescribed dose (C, D). On statistical analysis, there was no significant co-relation between the location and volume of target but there was a trend toward better HI with increasing prescribed dose. Future studies with more number of patients can confirm our results. (author)

  16. How Universal Is the Relationship between Remotely Sensed Vegetation Indices and Crop Leaf Area Index? A Global Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghui Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key variable that bridges remote sensing observations to the quantification of agroecosystem processes. In this study, we assessed the universality of the relationships between crop LAI and remotely sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs. We first compiled a global dataset of 1459 in situ quality-controlled crop LAI measurements and collected Landsat satellite images to derive five different VIs including Simple Ratio (SR, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, two versions of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and EVI2, and Green Chlorophyll Index (CIGreen. Based on this dataset, we developed global LAI-VI relationships for each crop type and VI using symbolic regression and Theil-Sen (TS robust estimator. Results suggest that the global LAI-VI relationships are statistically significant, crop-specific, and mostly non-linear. These relationships explain more than half of the total variance in ground LAI observations (R2 > 0.5, and provide LAI estimates with RMSE below 1.2 m2/m2. Among the five VIs, EVI/EVI2 are the most effective, and the crop-specific LAI-EVI and LAI-EVI2 relationships constructed by TS, are robust when tested by three independent validation datasets of varied spatial scales. While the heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes leads to a diverse set of local LAI-VI relationships, the relationships provided here represent global universality on an average basis, allowing the generation of large-scale spatial-explicit LAI maps. This study contributes to the operationalization of large-area crop modeling and, by extension, has relevance to both fundamental and applied agroecosystem research.

  17. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported. PMID:26942843

  18. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  19. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: A Scale for Assessing the Burden of Caregivers to Adults with Unipolar or Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Lynn M.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief measure of caregiver burden, the Mood Disorder Burden Index (MDBI), for use with family members and close friends of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The MDBI assesses burden in three core domains (patients’ mood symptoms, caregivers’ worry about the future, and caregivers’ interpersonal difficulties with the patient) and includes an optional module that assesses caregiver burden associated with patients’ pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. The MDBI was administered to caregivers of older individuals (i.e., 58 years and older) with MDD (n = 123) or BD (n = 38 who were receiving treatment through a research study. Analyses indicated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure well as internal consistency within both caregiver groups. It will be important for future research to administer the MDBI to caregivers of middle-aged and older patients as well as those receiving treatment through inpatient settings or community outpatient clinics. PMID:19427705

  20. Assessment Framework of Building Facade in Optimizing Indoor Thermal Comfort of Green Building Index (GBI Certified Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tharim Asniza Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the construction industry has seen a new trend in the development of “green” or “sustainable” construction concept around the world with vast support from prominent organization, together with the introduction of sustainable building codes. The establishment of green building certification systems worldwide is seen as one of the most efforts in the emerging green building movement. In order to support the development of the “green” and “sustainable” concept in Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI was launched by the government on 21 May 2009 that created to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness of environmental issues. However, the construction industry seems to have focused only on findings the “right mechanism” for an environmentally sustainable “final result” in order for the building to be certified as green with the lacking of continuous assessment on the building performance after the certifications. This study is purposely conducted to investigate the performance of various rated Green Building Index (GBI Non-Residential New Construction office buildings and the influence on Indoor Thermal Comfort (ITC of the selected buildings. The aim is to develop an assessment framework for optimum green building architectural façade to be used for office buildings in Malaysia as well as to analyse the occupants’ perception, satisfaction and performance in the selected Green Building Index (GBI rated office indoor environment. This research is still in its infancy; therefore the paper is focused on research aims, research scope and methodology, and expected deliverables for the proposed research.

  1. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  2. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

    2008-01-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Higginbottom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The development of multi-temporal analysis as a desertification assessment technique is reviewed, with a focus on how current practice has been shaped by controversy and dispute within the literature. The statistical techniques commonly employed are examined from both a statistical as well as ecological point of view, and recommendations are made for future research directions. The scientific requirements for degradation and desertification monitoring systems identified here are: (I the validation of methodologies in a robust and comparable manner; and (II the detection of degradation at minor intensities and magnitudes. It is also established that the multi-temporal analysis of vegetation index data can provide a sophisticated measure of ecosystem health and variation, and that, over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in the respective research.

  4. Hyperglycaemic index as a tool to assess glucose control : a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, M; van der Horst, ICC; Nijsten, MWN

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients may benefit from strict glucose control. An objective measure of hyperglycaemia for assessing glucose control in acutely ill patients should reflect the magnitude and duration of hyperglycaemia, should be independent of the number of measurements, and should not

  5. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  6. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F.; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R.; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A. Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J.; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question ‘How threatened are plants?’ is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world’s plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed. PMID:26252495

  7. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Brummitt

    Full Text Available Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  8. Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Tajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd (2.15±1.17 followed by Zn (1.12±0.09, Pb (0.44±0.32, and lastly, Co (0.36±0.04. Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

  9. Geostatistics for Mapping Leaf Area Index over a Cropland Landscape: Efficiency Sampling Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Haro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of spatial methods to estimate leaf area index (LAI fields from ground-based measurements at high-spatial resolution over a cropland landscape. Three geostatistical model variants of the kriging technique, the ordinary kriging (OK, the collocated cokriging (CKC and kriging with an external drift (KED are used. The study focused on the influence of the spatial sampling protocol, auxiliary information, and spatial resolution in the estimates. The main advantage of these models lies in the possibility of considering the spatial dependence of the data and, in the case of the KED and CKC, the auxiliary information for each location used for prediction purposes. A high-resolution NDVI image computed from SPOT TOA reflectance data is used as an auxiliary variable in LAI predictions. The CKC and KED predictions have proven the relevance of the auxiliary information to reproduce the spatial pattern at local scales, proving the KED model to be the best estimator when a non-stationary trend is observed. Advantages and limitations of the methods in LAI field predictions for two systematic and two stratified spatial samplings are discussed for high (20 m, medium (300 m and coarse (1 km spatial scales. The KED has exhibited the best observed local accuracy for all the spatial samplings. Meanwhile, the OK model provides comparable results when a well stratified sampling scheme is considered by land cover.

  10. Objective assessment of motor fatigue in multiple sclerosis: the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehle, Aida; Vieten, Manfred; Sailer, Simon; Mündermann, Annegret; Dettmers, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue is a common and frequently disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to develop the Fatigue index Kliniken Schmieder (FKS) for detecting motor fatigue in patients with MS using kinematic gait analysis. The FKS relies on the chaos theoretical term "attractor", which, if unchanged, is a necessary and sufficient indicator of a stable dynamical system. We measured the acceleration of the feet at the beginning of and shortly before stopping a treadmill walking task in 20 healthy subjects and 40 patients with multiple sclerosis. The attractor and movement variability were calculated. In the absence of muscular exhaustion a significant difference in the attractor and movement variability between the two time points demonstrates altered motor control indicating fatigue. Subjects were classified using the FKS. All healthy subjects had normal FKS and thus no fatigue. 29 patients with MS were classified into a fatigue group and 11 patients into a non-fatigue group. This classification agreed with the physician's observation and video analyses in up to 97 % of cases. The FKS did not correlate significantly with the overall and motor dimensions of the fatigue questionnaire scores in patients with MS and motor fatigue. The common concept of fatigue as overall subjective sensation of exhaustion can be affected by conditions including depression, sleep disorder and others. FKS constitutes a robust and objective measure of changes in motor performance. Therefore, the FKS allows correct identification of motor fatigue even in cases where common comorbidities mask motor fatigue. PMID:24952620

  11. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  12. Assessment of network traffic congestion through Traffic Congestability Value (TCV: a new index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Nilanchal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major and growing problem in urban areas across the globe. It reduces the effective spatial interaction between different locations. To mitigate traffic congestion, not only the actual status of different routes needs to be known but also it is imperative to determine network congestion in different spatial zones associated with distinct land use classes. In the present paper, a new formula is proposed to quantify traffic congestion in the different spatial zones of a study area characterized by distinct land use classes. The proposed formula is termed the Traffic Congestability Value (TCV. The formula considers three major influencing factors: congestion index value, pedestrian movement and road surface conditions; since these parameters are significantly related to land use in a region. The different traffic congestion parameters, i.e. travel time, average speed and the proportion of time stopped, were collected in real time. Lower values of TCV correspond to a higher degree of congestion in the respective spatial zones and vice-versa and the results were validated in the field. TCV differs from the previous approaches to quantifying traffic congestion since it focuses on the causes of network congestion while in previous works the focus was generally on link flow congestion.

  13. Assessment of sexual function in patients undergoing vasectomy using the international index of erectile function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bertero

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aims to prospectively compare the sexual function in males before and after vasectomy surgery using the international index of erectile function (IIEF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October to December 2002, sixty-four patients who were candidates for male sterilization in the vasectomy program of the Urology Section at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo were included. The same investigator applied the IIEF before and 90 days after the surgery. The mean scores obtained on pre and postoperative visits for all domains of sexual function were analyzed and compared with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 35 years (range from 25 to 48 years and the mean number of children per man was 3. The total mean score of the IIEF was 64.06 before surgery and 65.64 after the procedure, with this difference considered statistically significant (p < 0.001. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients improved their scores, versus 17% and 16% who showed worsening or no change at all in IIEF scores following surgery, respectively. Of the 5 sexual function domains, desire and sexual satisfaction presented statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION: This study showed that vasectomy caused a positive impact on sexual function, especially on desire and sexual satisfaction, in the majority of men undergoing surgery. There was no case of surgery-related erectile dysfunction.

  14. An assessment of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index of punjab coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the delamination of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of coal samples collected from three different coal fields of Punjab; Eastern Salt Range, Central Salt Range and Makerwal coal fields. The chemical properties of Punjab coal reveal that most of the Punjab coal belongs to sub-bituminous category except coal of Tunnel C section of Makerwal Collieries and Iqbal Mineral coal mine of Dalwal, which are high volatile bituminous and lignite, respectively. The results of the research show that the HGI values of Punjab coal vary from 57 to 92. The eastern salt range coals are found to be the softest coals among that of three coal fields. It was further observed that the HGI values of the Punjab coal decrease with increasing moisture content, fixed carbon and sulphur contents, while it has a positive relation with volatile matter, ash content and gross calorific value. It was concluded that moisture content at its lower range has negligible effect on HGI of the Punjab coal. (author)

  15. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  16. Ultrasonography assessment of renal size and its correlation with body mass index in adults without known renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many conditions affect renal size. To evaluate abnormalities in renal size, knowledge of standardised values for normal renal dimensions is essential as it shows variability in the values of normal renal size depending on body size, age and ethnicity. Ultrasound, being an easily available, non-invasive, safe and less expensive modality, is widely used for evaluation of renal dimensions and repeated follow-ups. The objectives of this study were to determine renal size by ultrasound in adults without any known renal disease, and to determine the relationship of renal size with body mass index. Methods: Study was conducted in the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shifa International Hospital and PIMS Islamabad. Renal size was assessed by ultrasound in 4,035 adult subjects with normal serum creatinine and without any known renal disease, between November 2002 and December 2010. Renal length, width, thickness and volume were obtained and mean renal length and volume were correlated with body mass index and other factors like age, side, gender, weight and height of the subjects. Results: Mean renal length on right side was 101.6+-8.9 mm, renal width 42.7+-7.1 mm, and parenchymal thickness 14.4+-2.9 mm. On left side, mean renal length was 102.7+-9.2 mm, width 47.6+-7.0 mm, and parenchymal thickness 15.1+-3.1 mm. Mean renal volume on right was 99.8+-37.2 cm/sup 3/ and on left was 124.4+-41.3 cm/sup 3/. Left renal size was significantly larger than right in both genders. Relationship of mean renal length was significant when correlated with age, side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index. Renal volumes also showed a similar relationship with side, gender, height and weight, and body mass index; but with age such a relationship was seen only for left kidney. Conclusion: Pakistani population has mean renal size smaller than reference values available in international literature. Renal length and volume have a direct relationship with body mass index. Mean renal

  17. Comparison of Two Assessment Tools That Measure Insomnia: The Insomnia Severity Index and Polysomnography

    OpenAIRE

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi; Zohreh Yazdi; Marjan Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder, characterized by difficulties in sleep initiation, sleep maintenance or early morning awakening. Although polysomnography (PSG) is a standard method in the evaluation of sleep disorders, it is not recommended for routine use in the clinical assessment of insomnia. Instead, standard questionnaires could be used in the primary evaluation of insomnia. Objective: The main object of this study was to compare the type and severity of patients′ subjec...

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka; Vilendečić Rade

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of...

  19. Feeding diversity index as complementary information in the assessment of ecological quality status

    OpenAIRE

    Gamito, Sofia; Patrício, Joana; Neto, João M.; Teixeira, Heliana; Marques, João Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The feeding diversity of macroinvertebrates from the estuary of Mondego was estimated with Shannon–Wiener complementary evenness following the methodology presented in Gamito and Furtado (2009. Ecological Indicators, 9: 1009-1019). Results were compared with those from BAT (Benthic Assessment Tool; Teixeira et al., 2009. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58: 1477-1786) applied to the same data set, obtained from sampling carried out in 14 estuarine subtidal stations in Spring of 1990, 1992, 1998,...

  20. Benefit evaluation of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration by an assessment index model based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-hui; GAN Lian-jun

    2007-01-01

    An assessment index model was established to evaulate the benefit of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration through the analytical hierarchy process. Totally 43 indicators were selected to assess the impact of migration on the economic, social and ecological environmental aspects of the migration communities, with the data of the indicators of the years 1992, 1998, 2002 which represented the period of premigration, the end of the first phase migration and the end of the second phase migration, respectively. The evaluation matrix is sufficiently consistent, with a consistency ratio CR equal to 0.086 3. The assessment turned out a benefit value for the economic subsystem in the year 2004 larger than triple the value in the year 1992, indicating a remarkable economic growth in the Reservoir area. The constantly increasing value for the social subsystem reflects the stable social situations. There is a slight decline in the assessment outcome of the ecological subsystem for the year 1998, which implies enviromental conservation was given insufficient importance during that period. On the whole, the implementation of the migration project is favorable to the Reservoir region, as confirmed by the stably increasing overall evaluation value from 42.22% in 1992 to 68.81% in 2002. However, there is still much room to improve from the status quo to the target criteria.

  1. Kainos veiksnio raiška kuriant prekės ženklo vertę

    OpenAIRE

    Viselgaitė, Neringa

    2014-01-01

    Darbo tikslas – atskleisti kainų priedo ir vartotojo suvokiamos prekės ženklo vertės sąsajas. Darbo struktūrą nusako tyrimo objektas, tikslas bei iškelti uždaviniai. Darbą sudaro trys pagrindinės dalys. Pirmoji dalis yra „Kainos veiksnio raiška, kuriant prekės ženklo vertę teoriniai aspektai“. Šioje dalyje nagrinėjami literatūros šaltiniai ir aiškinamasi prekės ženklo samprata ir teikiama nauda, vertė ir jos dedamosios, bei kainų veiksnys kuriant prekės ženklo vertę. Antroji darbo dalis “Empi...

  2. Early-season agricultural drought: detection, assessment and monitoring using Shortwave Angle and Slope Index (SASI) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prabir Kumar; Murthy, Srirama C; Seshasai, M V R

    2013-12-01

    Early season or crop-planting-period (ES/CPP) drought conditions have become a recurrent phenomenon in tropical countries like India, due to fluctuations in the time of onset and progression of monsoon rains. ES/CPP agricultural drought assessment is a major challenge because of the difficulties in the generation of operational products on soil moisture at larger scales. The present study analyzed the Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI) derived from Near Infrared and Shortwave Infrared data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, for tracking surface moisture changes and assessing the agricultural drought conditions during ES/CPP, over Andhra Pradesh state, India. It was found that in-season progression of SASI was well correlated with rainfall and crop planting patterns in different districts of the study area state in both drought and normal years. Rainfall occurrence, increase in crop planted area, and decrease in SASI were in chronological synchronization in the season. Change in SASI from positive to negative values is a unique indication of dryness to wetness shift in the season. Duration of positive SASI values indicated the persistence of agricultural drought in the crop planting period. Mean SASI values were able to discriminate an area which was planted in normal year and unplanted in drought year. SASI thresholds provide an approximate and rapid estimate of the crop planting favorable area in a region which is useful to assess the impact of drought. Thus, SASI is a potential index to strengthen the existing operational drought monitoring systems. Further work needs to be on the integration of multiple parameters-SASI, soil texture, soil depth, rainfall and cropping pattern, to evolve a geospatial product on crop planting favorable areas. Such products pave the way for quantification of drought impact on agriculture in the early part of the season, which is a major inadequacy in the current drought monitoring system. PMID:23793539

  3. Assessment of Life Quality Index Among Patients with Acne Vulgaris in a Suburban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; Rajaprabha, Radha K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of adolescents, often extending into adulthood. Psychosocial impact of acne on health-related quality of life (QoL) has been identified, but it remains under-evaluated, especially in Indian patients. This study was aimed to assess the impact of acne and its sequelae on the QoL. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study done between June and November 2014 on 114 consenting patients above 15 years of...

  4. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI) in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Randler; Julia Haun; Steffen Schaal

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep). The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake ...

  5. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  6. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR as outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED trial. SUBJECTS: 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. RESULTS: Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049 for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038 for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80 for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80 for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  7. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpre...

  8. [Relative validity of self-assessment of silhouette and BMI (body mass index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence is unquestionable risk factor for pathogenic obesity in adulthood, high mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases and other health disorders, and also may cause the worse social and economical adaptation. Nevertheless, little is yet known about subjective perception of own body, the pathway leading to dissatisfaction of the body, development of chronic stress and behavioural disorders (anorexia, binge eating, bulimia) as a consequence. In Health Promotion Department of the National Institute of Hygiene the multidimensional investigations of adolescents' health and life style were undertaken, and analysis of association between subjective image of body and real body mass was a part of these investigations. Data were obtained from 672 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 14-15 years attending seventeen public and private schools in Warsaw. Respondents informed about their weight and high for calculation BMI. Simultaneously, they were asked, whether they assess themselves as leaner than their peers, the same or thicker. The study showed that girls in comparison with boys more accurately assessed their silhouette. The boys were more likely than girls to perceive themselves as the same as their peers, despite they had real underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that real mass of body itself account for variance of subjective perceived body in moderate degree, and there are other factors influencing body image at least as real mass of body. PMID:14755858

  9. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui; LI; Atsushi; TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru; TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security.Because the relationships among short-term rainfall,soil moisture,and crop growth are complex,accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult.In this study,using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction,we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region,Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region,China.To quantify drought,we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI),the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index(CMI),as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI).Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season(May–September)and final yield,according to data collection from 2000 to 2010.The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July,but no correlation with SPI.Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad,particularly in July.To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale,a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years.The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area.Therefore,the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  10. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security. Because the rela-tionships among short-term rainfall, soil moisture, and crop growth are complex, accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult. In this study, using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction, we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region, Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. To quantify drought, we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipita-tion Index (SPI), the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index (CMI), as well as the Normalized Difference Vegeta-tion Index (NDVI). Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season (May-September) and final yield, according to data collection from 2000 to 2010. The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July, but no correlation with SPI. Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad, particularly in July. To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale, a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years. The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area. Therefore, the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  11. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

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    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  12. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study

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    Annamaria Pronio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC. To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI. However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use of modified-PDAI (mPDAI with exclusion of histologic subscore has been proposed. We tested the ability of calprotectin measurement in the pouch endoluminal content to mimic the histologic score as defined in the PDAI, the index that we adopted as gold standard for pouchitis diagnosis. Calprotectin was measured by ELISA in the pouch endoluminal content collected during endoscopy in 40 consecutive patients with J-pouch. In each patient PDAI and mPDAI were calculated and 15% of patients were erroneously classified by mPDAI. ROC analysis of calprotectin values vs. acute histological subscore ≥ 3 identified different calprotectin cut-off values with corresponding sensitivity and specificity allowing the definition and scoring of different range of calprotectin subscores. We incorporated the calprotectin score in the mPDAI obtaining a new score that shows the same specificity as PDAI for diagnosis of pouchitis and higher sensitivity when compared with mPDAI. The use of the proposed new score, once validated in a larger series of patients, might be useful in the early management of patients with symptoms of pouchitis.

  13. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations. PMID:27054908

  14. Assessing the Influence of Different Comorbidities Indexes on the Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Developing Country.

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    Gustavo Machado Teixeira

    Full Text Available Although the application of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI has enabled better prediction of transplant-related mortality (TRM in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (AHSCT, data from developing countries are scarce. This study prospectively evaluated the HCT-CI and the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE-27, in its original and in a modified version, as predictors of post-transplant complications in adults undergoing a first related or unrelated AHSCT in Brazil. Both bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC as graft sources were included. We analyzed the cumulative incidence of granulocyte and platelet recovery, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse and transplant-related mortality, and rates of event-free survival and overall survival. Ninety-nine patients were assessed. Median age was 38 years (18-65 years; HCT-CI ≥ 3 accounted for only 8% of cases; hematologic malignancies comprised 75.8% of the indications for AHSCT. There was no association between the HCT-CI or the original or modified ACE-27 with TRM or any other studied outcomes after AHSCT. These results show that, in the population studied, none of the comorbidity indexes seem to be associated with AHSCT outcomes. A significantly low frequency of high-risk (HCT-CI ≥ 3 in this Brazilian population might justify these results.

  15. Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study

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    Móslem SAMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and energy of wheat and maize production systems in two farms in Khuzestan province of Iran was assessed. The results showed that totally wheat farming is more efficient than maize farming in terms of energy and CO2-eq indexes. The total energy requirement for maize and wheat farming was 92560.24 MJ ha-1 and 39624.15 MJ ha-1, which caused the emission of 20191.47 and 7541.04 kg CO2-equivalent per hectare in maize and wheat farms respectively. Electricity, fertilizers and fuel were the most important pollutants of environment in terms of energy and gas emission in both farms. Theses inputs consumed 55.52, 22.62 and 6.44 % of total energy of maize and 47.32, 21.19 and 9.01 % of total energy of wheat farm and were responsible for the 88.60, 8.79 and 2.03 % of CO2-equivalent in maize and 86.54, 9.54 and 3.24 % of CO2-equivalent in wheat farms respectively. The results of this study also showed that the enhancement of 60.74 and 27.02 % in energy ratio and 46.06 and 27.87 % in CO2-eq index in maize and wheat farming can be expected using simple improving scenarios.

  16. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

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    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  17. Assessment of Metals (Co, Ni, and Zn Content in the Sediments of Mighan Wetland Using Geo-Accumulation Index

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    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sediments are inseparable fractions of wetland ecosystems that work as a his-torical archive in the process of recording heavy metal aggregation changes. This study was carried out for assessing Co, Ni, and Zn in sediment samples of Mighan Wetland using geo-accumulation index in 2013. Methods:The sediment samples were taken from 11 stations. The samples were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning and Co, Ni, and Zn concentrations of the sediments were determined by ICP-OES. Geo-accumulation index (I-geo was used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile. Results: The results showed that Co, Ni, and Zn concentrations in the sediment samples were 10.0±0.65-60.0±3.79, 21.0±1.71-42.0±2.80, and 64.0±6.97-263.0±26.13 µg g-1, respectively. Moreover, according to the I-geo values, the sediments’ qualities fell into the unpolluted category. Conclusion: Although at present, sediments of Mighan Wetland are not polluted with heavy metals, disposal of urban and industrial wastewaters into the wetland as well as the settlement of Iran Mineral Salt Company and the establishment of Arak Refinery in the vicinity of the wet-land, can discharge different pollutants especially heavy metals to the wetland and cause irreparable damages in the long run.

  18. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  19. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  20. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

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    Čančarević-Đajić Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The objective of this study was to determine the most effective diagnostic procedure when assessing fetal oxygenation. Materials and Methods. The prospective study included 119 pregnant women. They all underwent cardiotocography, biophysical profile and colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The babies’ umbilical artery blood pH was determined in the first minute upon birth, along with the Apgar score. Results. The results were processed statistically and the most effective diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of fetal oxygenation was selected, after which the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality were calculated. The findings revealed that cardiotocography was the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, while the fetal biophysical profile proved the most specific. The rates of perinatal morbidity and of perinatal mortality were 24.37% and 1.68%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings analysis revealed a high statistical significance of both biophysical tests and the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation as predictors of the fetal distress syndrome. The analysis of the cerebral-umbilical ratio and biophysical tests showed that the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation not only was more sensitive as a parameter compared to biophysical tests but it was also more specific than cardiotocography. Cardiotocography is the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, followed by the cerebral

  1. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  2. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  3. Validation of nutritional risk index method against patient-generated subjective global assessment in screening malnutrition in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad; Nasirimotlagh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate malnutrition screening tool of nutrition risk index (NRI) against patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) as a gold standard tool in colorectal cancer patients before radiotherapy. Methods Nutritional status of 52 volunteer colorectal cancer patients with a mean age of 54.1±16.8 years who referred to radiotherapy center were assessed by PG-SGA (gold standard method) and NRI. Serum albumin levels of patients were determined by colorimetric method. A contingency table was used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the NRI in screening patients at risk of malnutrition, in comparison with the PG-SGA in patients before radiotherapy. Results The findings of PG-SGA and NRI showed that 52% and 45% of patients in our study were moderately or severely malnourished respectively. The NRI had a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 60% against PG-SGA. The positive predictive value was 64% and the negative predicative value was 62%. The agreement between NRI and PG-SGA was statistically insignificant (kappa =0.267; P>0.05). Conclusions The findings of present study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition was high in patients with colorectal cancer. Moreover, NRI method had low sensitivity and specificity in assessing nutritional status of patients with cancer. It seems that the combination of anthropometric, laboratory parameters and a subjective scoring system may be helpful tools in screening of malnutrition in cancer patients. PMID:24255578

  4. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  5. An Assessment on Reports of Institutional Social Responsibility in Turkey: Companies Included In BİST -30 Index

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    Ender Guler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the technological and economic developments experienced in line with globalization, the competition between companies and dependency of societies to one another increased. This burdened the companies the responsibility of developing their knowledge and interest in the society in which they live and operate. Within this framework, the concept of “Institutional Social Responsibility” came into prominence as well. Companies prepare reports for the purpose of publicizing the projects they fulfill with respect to institutional social responsibility in addition to explaining their financial situations. In this study, the companies operating in BIST-30 Index in Turkey were classified on sector basis and reports indicating the projects they fulfill in accordance with the concept of institutional social responsibility were discussed and assessed. Normal 0 21 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore. PMID:25906591

  7. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Pan, Yu; Yan, Jianye; Huang, Dan; Li, Shunxiang

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good therapeutic effect on the model of acute eczema in mice. The alcohol extraction method is the preferable method according to a comprehensive evaluation of each index of seven kinds of methods to extract the egg yolk oil. PMID:26797592

  8. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB. The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good therapeutic effect on the model of acute eczema in mice. The alcohol extraction method is the preferable method according to a comprehensive evaluation of each index of seven kinds of methods to extract the egg yolk oil.

  9. Uncertainty in assessment of radiation-induced diffusion index changes in individual patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H; Lawrence, Theodore S; Tsien, Christina I; Cao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate repeatability coefficients of diffusion tensor indices to assess whether longitudinal changes in diffusion indices were true changes beyond the uncertainty for individual patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT). Twenty-two patients who had low-grade or benign tumors and were treated by partial brain radiation therapy (PBRT) participated in an IRB-approved MRI protocol. The diffusion tensor images in the patients were acquired pre-RT, week 3 during RT, at the end of RT, and 1, 6, and 18 months after RT. As a measure of uncertainty, repeatability coefficients (RC) of diffusion indices in the segmented cingulum, corpus callosum, and fornix were estimated by using test–retest diffusion tensor datasets from the National Biomedical Imaging Archive (NBIA) database. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval of the estimated RC from the test and retest data were used to evaluate whether the longitudinal percentage changes in diffusion indices in the segmented structures in the individual patients were beyond the uncertainty and thus could be considered as true radiation-induced changes. Diffusion indices in different white matter structures showed different uncertainty ranges. The estimated RC for fractional anisotropy (FA) ranged from 5.3% to 9.6%, for mean diffusivity (MD) from 2.2% to 6.8%, for axial diffusivity (AD) from 2.4% to 5.5%, and for radial diffusivity (RD) from 2.9% to 9.7%. Overall, 23% of the patients treated by RT had FA changes, 44% had MD changes, 50% had AD changes, and 50% had RD changes beyond the uncertainty ranges. In the fornix, 85.7% and 100% of the patients showed changes beyond the uncertainty range at 6 and 18 months after RT, demonstrating that radiation has a pronounced late effect on the fornix compared to other segmented structures. It is critical to determine reliability of a change observed in an individual patient for clinical decision making. Assessments of the repeatability

  10. Diagnostic role of new Doppler index in assessment of renal artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Ramón N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal artery stenosis (RAS is one of the main causes of secondary systemic arterial hypertension. Several non-invasive diagnostic methods for RAS have been used in hypertensive patients, such as color Doppler ultrasound (US. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of a new renal Doppler US direct-method parameter: the renal-renal ratio (RRR, and compare with the sensitivity and specificity of direct-method conventional parameters: renal peak systolic velocity (RPSV and renal aortic ratio (RAR, for the diagnosis of severe RAS. Methods Our study group included 34 patients with severe arterial hypertension (21 males and 13 females, mean age 54 (± 8.92 years old consecutively evaluated by renal color Doppler ultrasound (US for significant RAS diagnosis. All of them underwent digital subtraction arteriography (DSA. RAS was significant if a diameter reduction > 50% was found. The parameters measured were: RPSV, RAR and RRR. The RRR was defined as the ratio between RPSV at the proximal or mid segment of the renal artery and RPSV measured at the distal segment of the renal artery. The sensitivity and specificity cutoff for the new RRR was calculated and compared with the sensitivity and specificity of RPSV and RAR. Results The accuracy of the direct method parameters for significant RAS were: RPSV >200 cm/s with 97% sensitivity, 72% specificity, 81% positive predictive value and 95% negative predictive value; RAR >3 with 77% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 90% positive predictive value and 76% negative predictive value. The optimal sensitivity and specificity cutoff for the new RRR was >2.7 with 97% sensitivity (p Conclusion The new RRR has improved specificity compared with the direct method conventional parameters (RPSV >200cm/s and RAR >3. Both RRR and RPSV show better sensitivity than RAR for the RAS diagnosis.

  11. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  12. Ultrasonic assessment of shape index and number of graphite precipitations in spheroidal cast iron manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J.

    OpenAIRE

    W. Orłowicz; M. Tupaj; M. Mróz; E. Guzik; J. Nykiel; A Zając; B. Piotrowski

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the results of testing the shape index, number of graphite precipitations, and longitudinal ultrasound wave velocity with wedge castings used for production of samples for the assessment of mechanical characteristics. To differentiate values of the parameters, the castings were made at the same time as the production castings. The data obtained were used to establish the relationship between the ultrasonic wave velocity cL, the shape index SS and the number of graphite pre...

  13. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in the Experiences of Discrimination Index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Cunningham; Berkman, Lisa F; Gortmaker, Steven L; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of instruments used to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination in epidemiologic studies are rarely assessed, especially regarding construct validity. The authors used 2000–2001 data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in 2 versions of the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) Index, an index measuring self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic and gender discrimination. DI...

  14. Development of a diet quality index assessing adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations and dietary guidelines in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Isabel; Gullberg, Bo; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Jan; Wallström, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index (DQI) that assesses adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendations (SNR) and the Swedish dietary guidelines (SDG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study within the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. A diet history method collected dietary data, a structured questionnaire lifestyle and socio-economic information, and anthropometric data were collected by direct measurements. The index (DQI-SNR) included six components: SFA, PUFA, fish and shellfish, di...

  15. A Modified Soil Quality Index to Assess the Influence of Soil Degradation Processes on Desertification Risk: The Apulia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ancona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Apulia is one of the most prone Italian regions to soil alteration phenomena, due to geographical and climatic conditions and also to human activities’ impact. In this study, in order to investigate regional soil degradation processes, following the “European Directive for Soil Protection”, the ESA’s method has been adopted. It is based on the use of an indicator’s set to assess the desertification risk. This approach simplifies the diagnosis and monitoring of soil degradation processes, defining their status and trend. Special attention has been given to Soil Quality Index (SQI determined by six predisposing indicators (parent material, soil texture, rock fragment, soil depth, drainage and slope grade. The integration in the SQI calculation of two additional soil parameters (organic matter content and soil salinity has been considered particularly significant. In fact, through the evaluation of a so “modified SQI” and the Apulia land use too, it could be possible to assess the role of agriculture management on soil degradation processes, which predisposing regional area to desertification threat. Moreover this approach provides short, but accurate, information thanks to GIS integration, which defines phenomena in detail, offering helpful planning tools.

  16. Temporomandibular joint effusion and its relationship with perceived disability assessed using musculoskeletal ultrasound and a patient-reported disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Katie; Bird, Lance; Bright, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and patient-reported disability is poorly researched. This pilot study explored the link between TMJ inflammation as measured by ultrasound and patient disability assessed by the Steigerwald Maher TMD Disability Index (SMTDI). The study design used a prospective correlational approach involving a sample with TMJ dysfunction (TMD). Twenty-four patients were recruited from the European School of Osteopathy and a Kent dental practice. Participants completed the SMTDI to determine the level of TMD (symptomatic score >20). A SonoSite SLA "Hockey Stick" [13-6 MHz] musculo-skeletal transducer was placed over the TMJ in a transverse direction and effusion was calculated indirectly by measuring capsular width. An upper left quadrant protocol was used throughout. A regression analysis was run with participants' gender, age and capsular width as predictor variables modelled against reported SMTDI. Larger capsular widths were found to be significant predictors of SMTDI scores (r = 0.803, p < 0.0001). The patient profile matched with the previous studies and the TMD sufferer population, indicating external validity. Results suggest that the SMTDI could be integrated into practice life as a quick, accessible and easy tool to monitor patients' progress and assess levels of inflammation, without the need for repetitive imaging. The study design proved reproducible and a larger scale study is indicated. PMID:27433242

  17. Assessment of Overall SCP State of Company: Results of Application of New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP in 2 Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge for every company on the way to sustainable consumption and production (SCP is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but first of all to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to use an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. Since there is still no comprehensive framework for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state on the basis of manufacturing processes, products/services as well as relationship with various stakeholders, the algorithm for integrated sustainability assessment of the overall company state that can help to solve the most significant problems in 3 levels - manufacturing processes/company’s activities, products/services and relationship with various stakeholders - was presented in an earlier author’s publication. This framework proposes the assessment of current sustainability conditions of a company on the basis of sub-indices of the composite index ISCP for sustainability evaluation and, according to them, can help to select and introduce the most suitable sustainable development tools for a particular enterprise to achieve its environmental and social performance goals. As the subjected algorithm was still theoretical, there was an urgent necessity to verify its real potential in particular enterprises. Therefore, the results of its verification procedure performed in 2 large, well-known Lithuanian joint-stock companies (JSC from different business sectors are presented. The preliminary results of algorithm verification, despite all the limitations, are enough to propose that it is universal enough to be adapted for companies from various sectors of activities. Calculated values of the ISCP indicated an average level of the

  18. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no date restriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases that each index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  19. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration. PMID:22292377

  20. Caudal epidural injections for lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral disc: assessment with urdu version of oswestry disability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/Aims: Oswestry Disability index is an established tool for assessment of Spinal Disability. It has been translated into many languages and but not to Urdu. The aim of this prospective observational study was translation, application and validation of Urdu version of the Oswestry Disability Index (Urdu ODI) for our specific cultural background. Methods: Urdu version of ODI was developed and applied for outcome assessment in 50 patients, suffering from lumbar prolapsed inter vertebral discs and treated with caudal epidural steroid injection. All patients having mechanical low backache with radiculopathy and single level disc prolapse at L-4-5 or L5- S 1 on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were included in the study. Single Steroid Injection with local anesthetic was injected into sacral caudal epidural space through sacral hiatus. A Performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Outcome was assessed using Urdu ODI and validation by comparing with Numeric rating Scale 0-10 at each visit. Results: Fifty patients received caudal epidural injections, 23 (46%) were male and 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was 34 years, with the range being 21-55. Low mechanical backache with right sided radiculopathy was in 29 (58%) and left sided in 21 (42%) patients. The commonest involved disc was L4-S in 28 (56%) and L5-S1 in 22 (44%) patients Pain was assessed with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of ten points. This was mean 7.35, range 9-6 at presentation and mean improvement was 4.15 with range 5-3 at fist week, 3.80 with range 5-2 at first month and 3.05 with range 4-1 after six months. Functional disability assessment was done using Urdu ODI. The mean Urdu ODI at the time of presentation was 66.23% with range 81%-48%. The mean functional status was found to be 38.64% with range 26%-45% at the end of the first week, 43.65% with range 31%-48% after one month and 44.85% with range 28%-48% after six months. So there was

  1. Ultrasound-assessed perirenal fat is related to increased ophthalmic artery resistance index in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiavaroli Roberto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has dramatically changed the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, with a significant decline in morbidity and mortality. Changes in body fat distribution are a common finding in individuals with HIV infection being treated with antiretrovirals, and this condition (collectively termed lipodystrophy syndrome is associated with depletion of subcutaneous fat, increased triglycerides and insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly visceral obesity, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, estimating visceral fat distribution is important in identifying subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether perirenal fat thickness (PRFT, a parameter of central obesity, is related to ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease in HIV-1 infected patients. Methods We enrolled 88 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months, in a prospective cohort study. Echographically measured PRFT and OARI, as well as serum metabolic parameters, were evaluated. PRFT and OARI were measured by 3.75 MHz convex and 7.5 MHz linear probe, respectively. Results The means of PRFT and OARI in HIV-1-infected patients with visceral obesity was considerably higher than in patients without it (p 0.74 (sensitivity 78.9%, specificity 82.8%. Conclusions Our data indicate that ultrasound assessment of PRFT may have potential as a marker of increased endothelial damage with specific involvement of the ocular vascular region in HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. Neverbalinė kūno raiška daugialypėje terpėje (Lietuva, 2000-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Šironas, Paulius

    2014-01-01

    Magistro darbe „Neverbalinė kūno raiška daugialypėje terpėje (Lietuva, 2000-2008)“ analizuojama žmogaus kūno ir jo neverbalinės kalbos evoliucija įsigalint daugialypei terpei. Remiantis teoriniais ir praktiniais pavyzdžiais, įrodinėjama, kad mass medijų veikiamas žmogaus kūnas peržengia iki šiol jam taikytas fizines dimensijas. XXI amžiaus pradžioje kūno raiškos apibrėžimai susiję su terpėmis, kuriose ji pasireiškia. Nuosekliai aptariamas tradicinis kūnas, vėliau analizuojami pokyčiai žmoguje...

  3. Modifying the Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI) protocol for rapid assessment of streambank erosion in northeastern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sara E; Drenten, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the source of pollution in a stream is vital to preserving, restoring, and maintaining the stream's function and habitat it provides. Sediments from highly eroding streambanks are a major source of pollution in a stream system and have the potential to jeopardize habitat, infrastructure, and stream function. Watershed management practices throughout the Cleveland Metroparks attempt to locate and inventory the source and rate the risk of potential streambank erosion to assist in formulating effect stream, riparian, and habitat management recommendations. The Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI), developed by David Rosgen of Wildland Hydrology is a fluvial geomorphic assessment procedure used to evaluate the susceptibility of potential streambank erosion based on a combination of several variables that are sensitive to various processes of erosion. This protocol can be time consuming, difficult for non-professionals, and confined to specific geomorphic regions. To address these constraints and assist in maintaining consistency and reducing user bias, modifications to this protocol include a "Pre-Screening Questionnaire", elimination of the Study Bank-Height Ratio metric including the bankfull determination, and an adjusted scoring system. This modified protocol was used to assess several high priority streams within the Cleveland Metroparks. The original BEHI protocol was also used to confirm the results of the modified BEHI protocol. After using the modified assessment in the field, and comparing it to the original BEHI method, the two were found to produce comparable BEHI ratings of the streambanks, while significantly reducing the amount of time and resources needed to complete the modified protocol. PMID:25742064

  4. Does caval aorta index correlate with central venous pressure in intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic transuretheral resection of prostate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G F El-Baradey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Ultrasonography has been suggested as a useful noninvasive tool for intravascular volume assessment in critically ill-patients. Fluid absorption is an inevitable complication of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. However, there are few data comparing the caval aortic index with central venous pressure (CVP measurement for intravascular volume assessment in patients undergoing TURP. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observer blinded study carried out on 50 patients who underwent elective TURP. The primary outcome measure of our study was the correlation of the caval aorta (Ao index with CVP, and the secondary outcome measures were the sensitivity and specificity of the caval Ao index. Results: There was a positive correlation of inferior vena cava/Ao (IVC/Ao index to CVP (R = 0.9 and significant P = 0.001FNx01. The sensitivity and specificity of the IVC/Ao index were measured to predict the CVP. A CVP ≤7 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 0.8 ± 0.3 mean ± standard deviation (SD (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.66, a CVP of 8-12 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.5 ± 0.2 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.42, and a CVP >12 cm H 2 O correlated with IVC/Ao index 1.8 ± 0.07 mean ± SD (sensitivity 0.93, specificity 0.58. Conclusion: Sonographic caval Ao index is useful for the evaluation of preoperative and intraoperative volume status, especially in major surgeries with marked fluid shift or blood loss and had the advantage of being noninvasive, safe, quick, and easy technique with no complications.

  5. Assessment of ecological quality status of Küçükçekmece Bay (Marmara Sea by applying BENTIX, AMBI, BOPA and BO2A biotic indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CAGLAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to explore the effectiveness of different biotic indexes in the Marmara Sea. The assessment of ecological quality status (EQS was performed by applying the biotic indexes BENTIX, AMBI, BOPA, BO2A and Shannon-Wienerdiversity, in combination with the estimation of total organic carbon (TOC content of sediments. BOPA and BO2A indexes tended to overestimate the EQS of the stations. BENTIX was the most efficient index as it demonstrated conceivable EQS results with respect to TOC load and successfuly determined “acceptable” or “not acceptable” status of the stations. TOC content of sediment, which significantly correlated with several benthic measures (S, N, AMBI, BENTIX, proved to be a valuable proxy measure in evaluating the likelihood of benthic impairment. When overall EQS of northern Marmara Sea was discussed, the region was designated as ecologically disturbed with only 25.7% of the stations in acceptable status.

  6. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of the new EULAR recommendations on the score cardiovascular risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Robustillo, Montserrat; Narváez, Javier; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Nolla, Joan Miquel; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the application of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recommendations in the cardiovascular (CV) risk of a series of Spanish patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred consecutive RA patients seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, were studied. Information on clinical features of the disease, classic CV risk factors, and history of CV events was assessed. Both the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) CV risk index and the modified SCORE (mSCORE) according to the last EULAR recommendations were calculated. Based on the classic CV risk factors, the mean ± standard deviation SCORE was 2.1 ± 2.3% (median, 2; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3). Twenty-three (11%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk for the Spanish population (≥5%). Following the EULAR recommendations, a change in the score was required in 119 (59%) patients. Therefore, the mean mSCORE was 2.7 ± 2.9% (median, 2; IQR, 1-3) and, due to this, 28 (14%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk. Nine (5%) had at least one ischemic CV event. Patients with CV events were older and had more CV risk factors and higher SCORE and mSCORE than those without CV events. Although a large proportion of patients from this series fulfilled the criteria for the application of the EULAR recommendations, the final impact on the calculated CV risk was low and clinically significant in only a few patients. However, an association between the mSCORE and the presence of ischemic CV events was observed. PMID:21567119

  7. Assessment of body mass index and its relationship with iron status indices among women in rural areas of Kermanprovince, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amirkhizi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of obesity has increased steadily and markedly in both Westernized andnon-Westernized countries. Few studies have examined the relationship of anthropometric indiceswith iron status indices. The objective of the present study was to assess the body mass index (BMIstatus and its relationship with iron status indices among reproductive age group women in rural areasof Kerman province, Iran.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 370 reproductive age group women (20-45years old were selected. General information data were gathered from each person usingquestionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Body weight and height was measured for each subject andBMI was calculated. Venous blood samples were drawn from subjects and plasma separated. In thestudy, iron status was assessed by measuring the concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma ferritin andhematocrit. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and pearson'scorrelation coefficient tests.Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 24.3 Kg/m2. 19.7% and 15.9% of subjects wereoverweight and obese respectively. Mean BMI significantly increased with age (p<0.0001 andnumber of pregnancy (p<0.002. Furthermore, BMI was positively associated with age (r =0.32,p<0.0001 and number of pregnancy (r = 0.26, p<0.003. Mean hemoglobin and plasma ferritinconcentrations were significantly greater in higher weight and BMI quartiles. The hematocrit was alsosignificantly greater in higher BMI quartiles.Conclusion: From these observations, it is concluded that obesity and overweight are importantnutritional problems in rural women in Kerman province. In addition, obese women had higher ironstores than did the non-obese women. Therefore, obese reproductive age women are at low risk ofdepleting iron stores.

  8. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  9. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0

  10. On Index System and Quantitative Assessment of Eco-cities:A Case Study on Urban Agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yali; Jiang Dahe; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Urban agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urban complex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based on the analysis on social-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD,this paper attempts to set up an index system of eco-cities combining with local characteristics,and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower;sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  11. Assessment of pollution index of heavy metals in groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain (2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Nazari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today's development of industrial and agricultural activities is among the leading causes of groundwater pollution. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain using pollution index of heavy metals. Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 randomly selected stations in Qaleh Shahin during two seasons, winter and spring in 2014. After going through laboratory preparation processes and reading the concentration of elements by ICP machine, the qualitative assessment of the samples was carried out by HPI. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the maximum mean concentrations of As and Zn in groundwater samples in winter season were 12.0±0.11 and 19.40±0.50 ppb for stations 19 and 7, respectively, and the maximum mean concentrations of these elements in groundwater samples in spring season were 19.80±0.20 and 48.60±0.40 ppb for stations 15 and 13, respectively. Also, the maximum values of HPI were 11.40 and 19.5 for stations 19 and 7, respectively. Conclusion: Currently, the groundwater resources of Qaleh Shahin plain are not contaminated with heavy metals. However, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs can contaminate the groundwater resources of this area, thereby causing the incidence of health risks for the drinking water consumers.

  12. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6< EF<4.0), mainly at sampling points near the water supply catchment point from the Water Treatment Agency of Sao Paulo State, indicating anthropogenic contribution. As for the other elements, a 0.5< EF<1.0 was obtained, indicating that they mostly originate from crustal contribution. The Igeo Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0< EF<2.0) were obtained, and, according to this criteria, these sediments can be classified as moderately contaminated. (author)

  13. Maximal mid-expiratory flow is a surrogate marker of lung clearance index for assessment of adults with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Jing-Jing; Gao, Yong-Hua; Li, Hui-Min; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the comparative diagnostic value of lung clearance index (LCI) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) in bronchiectasis. We compared the diagnostic performance, correlation and concordance with clinical variables, and changes of LCI and MMEF% predicted during bronchiectasis exacerbations (BEs). Patients with stable bronchiectasis underwent history inquiry, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), multiple-breath nitrogen wash-out test, spirometry and sputum culture. Patients who experienced BEs underwent these measurements during onset of BEs and 1 week following antibiotics therapy. Sensitivity analyses were performed in mild, moderate and severe bronchiectasis. We recruited 110 bronchiectasis patients between March 2014 and September 2015. LCI demonstrated similar diagnostic value with MMEF% predicted in discriminating moderate-to-severe from mild bronchiectasis. LCI negatively correlated with MMEF% predicted. Both parameters had similar concordance in reflecting clinical characteristics of bronchiectasis and correlated significantly with forced expiratory flow in one second, age, HRCT score, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, cystic bronchiectasis, ventilation heterogeneity and bilateral bronchiectasis. In exacerbation cohort (n = 22), changes in LCI and MMEF% predicted were equally minimal during BEs and following antibiotics therapy. In sensitivity analyses, both parameters had similar diagnostic value and correlation with clinical variables. MMEF% predicted is a surrogate of LCI for assessing bronchiectasis severity. PMID:27339787

  14. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30–39 (men) and 40–49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations’ sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  15. Effects of using the simplified airway risk index vs usual airway assessment on unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation - a cluster randomized trial with 64,273 participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet Nørskov, Anders; Wetterslev, J; Rosenstock, C V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unanticipated difficult intubation remains a challenge in anaesthesia. The Simplified Airway Risk Index (SARI) is a multivariable risk model consisting of seven independent risk factors for difficult intubation. Our aim was to compare preoperative airway assessment based on the SARI w...

  16. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) . Methods Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group) and 30 healthy people(control group) underwent pulmonary

  17. The Hirsch-index: a simple, new tool for the assessment of scientific output of individual scientists: The case of Dutch professors in clinical cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Opthof; A.A.M. Wilde

    2009-01-01

    In this brief paper we explore the Hirsch-index together with a couple of other bibliometric parameters for the assessment of the scientific output of 29 Dutch professors in clinical cardiology. It appears that even within such a homogeneous group there is large interindividual variability. Although

  18. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  19. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  20. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  1. Assessment of whey protein nitrogen index as an indicator of heat treatment for UHT milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Natália Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During heat treatment of dairy products it is possible to occur several chemical modifications which whey protein denaturation is quite evident and studied. This phenomenon can cause gelation in UHT milk and some problems in reconstitution of milk powder, two major dairy products widely used in dairy foods and by consumer. The whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI can be an useful tool to assess the degree of severity that milk was submitted, and therefore inferred from the occurrence of possible defects associated with protein denaturation. This study presents theevaluation of the non-denaturated whey protein contents as a heat treatment indicator for ultrapasteurization and drying milk processing. Commercial samples of UHT milk and milk powdershowed WPNI confidence interval of (2.39 ± 1.41 mgWPN.mL-1 and (2.63 ± 1.38 mgWPN.mL-1, respectively. According to the statistical analysis of variance, all samples differed with a p-value < 0.001; and 90% of UHT milk and 67% milk powder samples were classified as medium heat treatment. It was possible to infer the severity of the heat treatment associated with each kind of product analyzed.The results were able to demonstrate the lack of standardization of heat treatment processes on the samples studied, a fact that may result in the growth of undesirablecharacteristics in the products during the storage or commercia lization.

  2. MTA index: a simple 2D-method for assessing atrophy of the medial temporal lobe using clinically available neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite a strong correlation between severity of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, its measurement has not been widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In this pilot study we aim to describe a novel, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method.Description: This method consists of calculating a ratio of 3 regions traced manually on one single coronal MRI slide at the level of the interpeduncular fossa: i the medial temporal lobe region (A; ii the parenchyma within the medial temporal region, that includes the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus -the fimbriae taenia and choroid plexus are excluded- (B; and iii the body of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle (C. Therefore we can compute the ratio Medial Temporal Atrophy index at both sides as follows: MTAi = (A-B x10/C.Conclusions: The MTAi is a simple 2D-method for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. This method can be useful for a more accurate diagnosis of AD in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of MTAi in the diagnosis of early AD, in tracking the progression of AD and in the differential diagnosis of AD with other dementias.

  3. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  4. Reliability of the Brazilian version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy‐Lung (FACT‐L) and the FACT‐Lung Symptom Index (FLSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini Juliana; José R Jardim; Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes; Sérgio Jamnik; Ilka Lopes Santoro

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung (FACT-L) with the FACT-Lung Symptom Index (FLSI) questionnaire. INTRODUCTION: The assessment of quality of life in patients with lung cancer has become an important evaluative endpoint in current clinical trials. For lung cancer patients, one of the most common quality of life tools available is the FACT-L. Despite the amount of data available regard...

  5. A new accurate and flexible index to assess the contribution of building materials to indoor gamma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of building materials as a source of gamma radiation has been recognized in the new EU Basic Safety Standards Directive which introduces an index I to screen building materials of radiological concern. This index was developed to account for average concrete values of thickness and density, the main structural characteristics of building materials that have an effect on gamma irradiation. Consequently, this screening procedure could be unfit in case of significantly different density and/or thickness of the building materials under examination. The paper proposes a more accurate and flexible activity concentration index, accounting for the actual density and thickness of building materials. - Highlights: • Overview of natural radioactivity in industrial residues used in building material. • Estimation of the radiological impact of residues by RP112 index I and room models. • Estimation of building material contribution to the indoor dose by ISS room model

  6. A critique of the use of ICRP-29's 'Robustness Index' in evaluating uncertainties associated with radiological assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern is expressed regarding the use of the robustness index, as proposed in ICRP 79, to characterise the uncertainties associated with a model's predictions. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation employing a model of the grass-cow-milk-infant pathway for 131I are used to elucidate the author's criticisms. It is recommended that the robustness index should be carefully examined to appraise its possible usefulness and potential dangers. Alternate methods for analysis of uncertainty are proposed. (author)

  7. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Li; Tao Zhou; Xiang Zhao; Kaicheng Huang; Shan Gao; Hao Wu; Hui Luo

    2015-01-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated ...

  8. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant......The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF–κB). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with...... allele carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-α or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination...

  9. Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S Halpern

    Full Text Available Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington to 74 (Oregon. Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99 and clean waters (87, while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48 and artisanal fishing opportunities (57. Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment.

  10. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  11. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  12. Assessing the usefulness of the water poverty index by applying it to a special case: Can one be water poor with high levels of access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenic, V.; Ahlers, R.; Zaag, P. van der

    Using indices and indicators in assessment of progress of a developing country has two sides. Such indicators offer an easy-to-understand shorthand/synopsis of issues vital for a country’s development. The other side of the coin, however, is that this synopsis may be distorted due to incorrect data or inapplicability of an index or an indicator to a specific case. This paper assesses the applicability of Water Poverty Index for the countries riparian to the Sava sub-basin, a tributary to the Danube river basin and presents the results of its application. At the same time, the paper discusses the concept of water poverty and the appropriateness of its use in the case of Sava River Basin countries by differentiating the economic poverty in some of those countries from sufficient access to and use of water resources in all of them.

  13. Indexing books

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvany, Nancy C

    2009-01-01

    Since 1994, Nancy Mulvany's Indexing Books has been the gold standard for thousands of professional indexers, editors, and authors. This long-awaited second edition, expanded and completely updated, will be equally revered.Like its predecessor, this edition of Indexing Books offers comprehensive, reliable treatment of indexing principles and practices relevant to authors and indexers alike. In addition to practical advice, the book presents a big-picture perspective on the nature and purpose of indexes and their role in published works. New to this edition are discus

  14. A novel index based on fractional calculus to assess the dynamics of heart rate variability: changes due to chi or yoga meditations

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Miguel Ángel; Ramos Castro, Juan José; Fernández Chimeno, Mireya

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to present and interpret a novel index based on fractional calculus ( αc) and to assess differences in RR time series dynamics in subjects during meditation. Fractional differintegration (FDI) of a RR time series provides a new time series.αc is defined as the order of the FDI operator that provides the time series with minimum variance. Analyzed time series were obtained from the Exaggerated Heart Rate Oscillations During Two Meditation Techniques database. This da...

  15. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Julius D. Elias; Jasper N. Ijumba; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Mamboya, Florence A.

    2014-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites)...

  16. The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), Based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, Predicts Short- and Long-Term Mortality in Hospitalized Older Patients with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pilotto, Alberto; Sancarlo, Daniele; Panza, Francesco; Paris, Francesco; D’Onofrio, Grazia; Cascavilla, Leandro; Addante, Filomena; Seripa, Davide; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Franceschi, Marilisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for predicting mortality risk in older patients with dementia. The present was a retrospective study with a year of follow-up that included 262 patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of dementia. A standardized CGA that included information on clinical, cognitive, functional, and nutritional aspects, as well as comorbidity, medications, a...

  17. Integration of bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology by three lines of evidence into ecological risk indexes for contaminated soil assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenzin, Elena; Critto, Andrea; Rutgers, Michiel; Marcomini, Antonio

    2008-01-15

    A Weight of Evidence approach was applied to define three integrated effect indexes estimating the impairment on terrestrial ecosystems caused by the stressor(s) of concern. According to a Triad approach, the integrated effect indexes combined the information provided by the measurement endpoints of each line of evidence (chemistry/bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology) and allowed to analyse the impairment degree highlighted by each measurement endpoint as difference from the reference condition. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used for the aggregation of the complementary Triad information, including expert judgement and a weighted procedure based on the endpoint sensitivity and the sensitivity of the test for ecosystem effects. The developed methodology was implemented in the DSS-ERAMANIA, Module 2, and is presented in this paper as "Integrated Effect Indexes" (IEI) sub-module. The latter has been preliminary applied to the Acna di Cengio (Italy) contaminated site; the results of this application are presented and discussed. PMID:17904618

  18. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  19. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  20. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Perlyn, Chad A.; Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy of...... landmark matching is limited using only affine transformations, the errors were considered acceptable. The automatic estimation of the cephalic index was in full agreement with the gold standard measurements. Discriminant analysis of the three scaling parameters resulted in a good classification of the...

  1. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  2. Global assessment of Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP and Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS version 3 products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marshall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation based long-term global vegetation index products are used by scientists from a wide range of disciplines concerned with global change. Inter-comparison studies are commonly performed to keep the user community informed on the consistency and accuracy of such records as they evolve. In this study, we compared two new records: (1 Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Version 3 (NDVI3g and (2 Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP Version 3 NDVI (NDVI3v and Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI3v. We evaluated the two records via three experiments that addressed the primary use of such records in global change research: (1 prediction of the Leaf Area Index (LAI used in light-use efficiency modeling, (2 estimation of vegetation climatology in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models, and (3 trend analysis of the magnitude and phenology of vegetation productivity. Experiment one, unlike previous inter-comparison studies, was performed with a unique Landsat 30 m spatial resolution and in situ LAI database for major crop types on five continents. Overall, the two records showed a high level of agreement both in direction and magnitude on a monthly basis, though VIP values were higher and more variable and showed lower correlations and higher error with in situ LAI. The records were most consistent at northern latitudes during the primary growing season and southern latitudes and the tropics throughout much of the year, while the records were less consistent at northern latitudes during green-up and senescence and in the great deserts of the world throughout much of the year. The two records were also highly consistent in terms of trend direction/magnitude, showing a 30+ year increase (decrease in NDVI over much of the globe (tropical rainforests. The two records were less consistent in terms of timing due to the poor correlation of the records during start and end of growing season.

  3. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  4. Classification of annual rainfall and the rainy quarter of the year in the Paraíba river basin using Rain Anomaly Index (RAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Miguel de Moraes Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba river basin is very important to the agricultural sector and to the local and regional socio-economy. This study aims at investigating the climatology of the Paraíba river basin including the analysis of the climate variability influence on local precipitation and the study of rainfall space-time variability in the region, using a tool IAC developed by Rooy (1965. Similarity was found between the pattern of precipitation in the region of High Paraíba and Taperoá and sub-basins of the Middle and Low Paraíba. A "turning point" in the distribution of precipitation was found in the region of High Paraíba and Taperoá, which until the 1960s consecutively dry years were observed. In the other hand, similarity in the alternation between dry and wet years was verified over the IAC series for the sub-basins of the Middle and Low Paraíba.

  5. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme climate event characterized by a temporary deficit of precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow, or any combination of the three taking place at the same time. The immediate consequences of short-term (i.e. a few weeks duration) droughts are, for example, a fall in crop production, poor pasture growth and a decline in fodder supplies from crop residues, whereas prolonged water shortages (e.g. of several months or years duration) may, amongst others, lead to a reduction in hydro-electrical power production and an increase of forest fires. As a result, comprehensive drought risk management is nowadays critical for many regions in the world. Examples are many African and South-and Central American countries that strongly depend on rain-fed agriculture for economic development with hydroelectricity and biomass as main sources of energy. Drought risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between drought hazard, i.e. the physical nature of droughts, and the degree to which a population or activity is vulnerable to its effects. As vulnerability to drought is increasing globally and certain tasks, such as distributive policies (e.g. relief aid, regulatory exemptions, or preparedness investments), require information on drought severity that is comparable across different climatic regions, greater attention has recently been directed to the development of methods for a standardized quantification of drought hazard. In this study we, therefore, concentrate on a methodology for assessing the severity of historical droughts and on mapping the frequency of their occurrence. To achieve these goals, we use a new Meteorological Drought Severity Index (MDSI). The motivation is twofold: 1) the observation that primitive indices of drought severity directly measure local precipitation shortages and cannot be compared geographically; and that 2) standardized indices of drought do not take into account

  6. CLINICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, SEVERITY ASSESSMENT BY CURB 65 AND PNEUMONIA SEVERITY INDEX (PSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Varma

    2015-10-01

    of temporary renal replacement, dSepsis and MODS, e Prolonged ventilator support and need for Tracheostomy. CAP is a disease with significant mortality–18% in our study. It seems the resistance to penicillins and simple antibiotics may be rising. And need of extended spectrum pencillins and a higher antibiotic is also rising but there is a need for larger studies to confirm the same. CURB-65 class >3, PSI class>4 class were having sensitivity of 41.67% and 91.67% in predicting ICU admission with a specificity of 89.5% and 59.21 % respectively. Their sensitivity in predicting death was 44.40% and 88.9% with a specificity of 87.80% and 54.88% respectively. In both PSI scoring systems, mortality rate, need for intensive care unit (ICU admission increased progressively with increasing scores but CURB-65 score did not show this correlation. PSI class of 4 and above is most sensitive and CURB 65 class of 3 and above is most specific in predicting both death and ICU admission. Both PSI and CURB 65 are complementary to each other in predicting mortality and ICU admission. But if patient fits in PSI class of 5 or CURB 65 class of 4 and above any one of criteria can be used as both were highly specific. In brief; at tertiary care centers where all laboratory reports are available within a few hours PSI scoring system can be used as a prognostic index whereas in primary or secondary care centers where it is difficult to get investigations done in a short span of time CURB 65 scoring system can be used as most of its parameters are based on clinical assessment

  7. [Evaluating the Significance of Odor Gas Released During the Directly Drying Process of Sludge: Based on the Multi-index Integrated Assessment Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-jie; Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-02-15

    Co-processing of sewage sludge using the cement kiln can realize sludge harmless treatment, quantity reduction, stabilization and reutilization. The moisture content should be reduced to below 30% to meet the requirement of combustion. Thermal drying is an effective way for sludge desiccation. Odors and volatile organic compounds are generated and released during the sludge drying process, which could lead to odor pollution. The main odor pollutants were selected by the multi-index integrated assessment method. The concentration, olfactory threshold, threshold limit value, smell security level and saturated vapor pressure were considered as indexes based on the related regulations in China and foreign countries. Taking the pollution potential as the evaluation target, and the risk index and odor emission intensity as evaluation indexes, the odor pollution potential rated evaluation model of the pollutants was built according to the Weber-Fechner law. The aim of the present study is to form the rating evaluation method of odor potential pollution capacity suitable for the directly drying process of sludge. PMID:27363173

  8. Clinical and cytogenetic features of a Potocki-Lupski syndrome with the shortest 0.25Mb microduplication in 17p11.2 including RAI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cha Gon; Park, Sang-Jin; Yim, Shin-Young; Sohn, Young Bae

    2013-08-01

    Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS [MIM 610883]) is a recently recognized microduplication syndrome associated with 17p11.2. It is characterized by mild facial dysmorphic features, hypermetropia, infantile hypotonia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, behavioral abnormalities, sleep apnea, and cardiovascular anomalies. In several studies, the critical PTLS region was deduced to be 1.3Mb in length, and included RAI1 and 17 other genes. We report a 3-year-old Korean boy with the smallest duplication in 17p11.2 and a milder phenotype. He had no family history of neurologic disease or developmental delay and no history of seizure, autistic features, or behavior problems. He showed subtle facial dysmorphic features (dolichocephaly and a mildly asymmetric smile) and flat feet. All laboratory tests were normal and he had no evidence of internal organ anomalies. He was found to have mild intellectual disabilities (full scale IQ 65 on K-WPPSI) and language developmental delay (age of 2.2year-old on PRESS). Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) showed about a 0.25Mb microduplication on chromosome 17p11.2 containing four Refseq (NCBI reference sequence) genes, including RAI1 [arr 17p11.2(17,575,978-17,824,623)×3]. When compared with previously reported cases, the milder phenotype of our patient may be associated with the smallest duplication in 17p11.2, 0.25Mb in length. PMID:23078968

  9. Development of a benthic diatom index of biotic integrity (BD-IBI) for ecosystem health assessment of human dominant subtropical rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiang; Ma, Peiming; Bunn, Stuart E; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-03-15

    As efforts intensify to address the issues of declining water quality and biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems, there have been great demands for effective methods of evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. In this study, benthic algae assemblages and water quality variables were analyzed to develop a benthic diatom-based index of biotic integrity (BD-IBI) for assessment of the aquatic environment in the upper Han River (China). Through the use of multivariate and multimetric approaches, four metrics - % prostrate individuals, % Amphora individuals, % polysaprob species, and diatom-based eutrophication/pollution index (EPI-D) - were identified from 98 candidate metrics to develop a BD-IBI. Application of the index revealed that water quality in 11% of the 31 sampled sites could be described as excellent condition, in 43% of the sites it could be described as good condition, in 25% as moderate condition, and in 21% as poor condition. The assessment further revealed that the main reason for degradation of the Han river ecosystem was nutrient enrichment through agricultural land use. PMID:25585141

  10. Assessing the potential of SWVI (Soil Wetness Variation Index for hydrological risk monitoring by means of satellite microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lacava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years satellite remote sensing applications in hydrology have considerably progressed. A new multi-temporal satellite data-analysis approach has been recently suggested in order to estimate space-time changes of geophysical parameters possibly related to the increase of environmental and hydro-geological hazards. Such an approach has been already used both for flooded area mapping (using AVHRR data and for soil wetness index estimation (using AMSU data. In this work, a preliminary sensitivity analysis of the proposed Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI is made in the case of low intensity meteorological events by the comparison with hydrological (precipitation data. This analysis, as a first step of a more complex work in progress, is targeted to a first evaluation of the reliability of the SWVI in describing soil response to precipitations of different duration and intensity.

  11. A Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of the RESNET HERS Index as an Alternative Compliance Path for the IECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Goel, Supriya

    2013-12-02

    This analysis provides a limited evaluation of the relationship between the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index and the simulation-based performance approach used in the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Not all differences between the approaches are analyzed here; only a few distinctions considered likely to result in quantifiable differences in the outcomes of the two approaches and for which available studies have not quantified those differences. This analysis establishes, for a single-family residence with gas heat and a crawlspace foundation, a set of climate-zone-specific, complying HERS Index values that could be used to inform the development of a HERS-based compliance path in the IECC.

  12. Sustainability in the Apparel Industry: Improving How Companies Assess and Address Environmental Impacts Through a Revised Higg Index Facility Module

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Clare B.

    2015-01-01

    This study was focused on analyzing the Facility Environmental Module (FEM) of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s (SAC) Higg Index. The research objectives were twofold: 1) to test whether the indicators featured in the FEM could accommodate the data requirements for calculating environmental impacts of apparel products, and 2) to identify if the FEM indicators could satisfy the data and information needs of other key stakeholder groups. The long track record of irresponsible social and e...

  13. Using the Purchasing Managers' Index to assess the economy's strength and the likely direction of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Evan F. Koenig

    2002-01-01

    When economists are concerned that the economy may be about to change direction, one of the indicators to which they give special scrutiny is the Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI), released monthly by the Institute for Supply Management. This article discusses the construction and interpretation of the PMI and presents evidence of its usefulness as an indicator of growth in the manufacturing sector and the economy as a whole, and as a predictor of changes in Federal Reserve policy. PMI values ...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI) AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    K. Chandrasekar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; G. Behera

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and Soil Water Balance (SWB) model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. ...

  15. Assessing the potential of SWVI (Soil Wetness Variation Index) for hydrological risk monitoring by means of satellite microwave observations

    OpenAIRE

    Lacava, T.; Greco, M; Leo, E. V.; Martino, G.; Pergola, N.; Romano, F.; Sannazzaro, F.; V. Tramutoli

    2005-01-01

    In the last years satellite remote sensing applications in hydrology have considerably progressed. A new multi-temporal satellite data-analysis approach has been recently suggested in order to estimate space-time changes of geophysical parameters possibly related to the increase of environmental and hydro-geological hazards. Such an approach has been already used both for flooded area mapping (using AVHRR data) and for soil wetness index estimation (using AMSU data). ...

  16. Assessment of Overall SCP State of Company: Results of Application of New Integrated Sustainability Index ISCP in 2 Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gintė Jonkutė

    2015-01-01

    The challenge for every company on the way to sustainable consumption and production (SCP) is not only to use appropriate methods and measures to solve their specific sustainability problems, but first of all to select appropriate performance indicators and implement an effective sustainability performance evaluation system. It may be useful to use an integrated indicator as a single comparable index, reducing the number of sustainability decision-making criteria that need to be considered. S...

  17. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: A study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Subhadeep Shit; Pranita Taraphdar; Dipta K Mukhopadhyay; Apurba Sinhababu; Akhil B Biswas

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living i...

  18. Drought Assessment by a Short-/Long-Term Composited Drought Index in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Meixiu Yu; Xiaolong Liu; Li Wei; Qiongfang Li; Jianyun Zhang; Guoqing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a multiscale composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The newly built shor...

  19. Vegetation Index Differencing for Broad-Scale Assessment of Productivity Under Prolonged Drought and Sequential High Rainfall Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Caitriana M. Steele; Dawn M. Browning

    2013-01-01

    Spatially-explicit depictions of plant productivity over large areas are critical to monitoring landscapes in highly heterogeneous arid ecosystems. Applying radiometric change detection techniques we sought to determine whether: (1) differences between pre- and post-growing season spectral vegetation index values effectively identify areas of significant change in vegetation; and (2) areas of significant change coincide with altered ecological states. We differenced NDVI values, standardized ...

  20. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approac...

  1. Drought Assessment by a Short-/Long-Term Composited Drought Index in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a multiscale composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The newly built short-term/long-term CDI comprehensively considered three natural forms of drought (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural by selection of different variables that are related to each drought type. The short-term/long-term CDI was developed using the Principle Component Analysis of related drought components. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDI was investigated against the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, and persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition and the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  2. Applicability of a Serbian version of the “Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP” index - assessment of oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP is a well-known psychometric test used internationally to assess the oral health-related quality of life. The interview and self-administrated questionnaire both assess the degree to which oral health problems have affected the life of the participants over the previous 6 months. The aim of this study was to translate the OIDP index into Serbian and to assess its reliability in practice as its initial verification in the Serbian speaking area. Methods. Following an internationally established methods, the OIDP scale was translated using standardized methodology that consisted of forward translation, pilot study and backward translation. Results. A pilot study was carried out with 44 respondents (24 males i 20 females using a preliminar Serbian version of the OIDP index. All patients were aged over 65 years. A total of 68.2% of the participants replied that they had at least one OIDP impact on daily life in the past 6 months. These troubles were most prominent during eating (47.7% and speaking (36.4%, but there is a little impact of troubles in the domain of psychosocial sphere. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients for all items were above the minimum recommended level of 0.20 for including an item in a scale. The standardized Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.75. Conclusion. Based on these results, we can conclude that this index is suitable for use in everyday practice in Serbian speaking area providing useful information required to assess oral health-related quality of life.

  3. Assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.Methods:A total of 78 cases of ovarian cancer patients receiving treatment in our hospital from September 2012 to May 2014 were included for study, all patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and before and after treatment, transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound (TVCDU) was used to record resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI), the expression levels of serum tumor markers, illness-related indicators and apoptosis-related factors in circulating blood were detected, and the correlation between TVCDU monitoring indexes and ovarian cancer-related indicators was further analyzed.Results: PI value (1.13±0.12) and RI value (0.65±0.05) of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were significantly higher than PI value (0.72±0.06) and RI value (0.32±0.03) of ovarian cancer patients before treatment; serum HE4, CA153, CA125 and毬-HCG levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; serum MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL and Hpa levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; after ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2 gene expression levels were lower than those before treatment; RI and PI values of ovarian cancer patients were inversely proportional to the expression levels of HE4, CA153, CA125,毬-HCG, MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL, Hpa, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2. Conclusion:Blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound can be used as a highly efficient means to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and it has positive significance in judging disease severity, guiding treatment and other aspects.

  4. Assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment compliance - Guide nr 8 - Index 1, Release of 31/03/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the modalities according to which the compliance assessment of pressurized nuclear equipment must be performed by inspecting organisations according to a decree of December 1999 and an order of December 2005. After an indication of reference documents and some technical definitions, this guide describes the equipment classification and the principles of intervention. These principles concern the assessment request and the various assessment tasks to be performed by the inspecting organisation

  5. Index Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Diewert, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Index numbers are used to aggregate detailed information on prices and quantities into scalar measures of price and quantity levels or their growth. The paper reviews four main approaches to bilateral index number theory where two price and quantity vectors are to be aggregated: fixed basket and average of fixed baskets, stochastic, test or axiomatic and economic approaches. The paper also considers multilateral index number theory where it is necessary to construct price and quantity aggrega...

  6. Assessment of Crohn's disease activity by Doppler sonography of the superior mesenteric artery, clinical evaluation and the Crohn's Disease activity index: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: Recent data have shown that superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow rates are significantly increased in active Crohn's disease, suggesting that SMA flow may be a useful, non-invasive index of disease activity. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the use of SMA Doppler sonography as an indicator of Crohn's disease activity and to compare with clinical evaluation and the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with active Crohn's (n = 19), inactive Crohn's (n = 17) and control subjects (n = 17) were evaluated. Categorization of disease activity was based on a reference standard. CDAI scores were also calculated independently. The SMA flow parameters evaluated were resistive index, pulsatility index, end diastolic velocity, peak systolic velocity, time averaged maximum velocity, cross-sectional area and maximum flow volume. RESULTS: Using a three-group ANOVA for each of peak systolic velocity (PSV) (P = 0.01), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) (P = 0.04), pulsatility index (PI) (P = 0.003), time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV) (P = 0.05), and maximum flow volume (TAMV.CSA) (P = 0.01), there was a significant effect of group. Using post-hoc tests, only EDV (P = 0.01), TAMV (P = 0.02) and TAMV.CSA (P 0.003) were significantly different between active and inactive Crohn's disease, though with considerable overlap of values for EDV and TAMV. The mean CDAI scores were significantly different between patients with active Crohn's (287) and inactive Crohn's (71) (P = 0.0001) and correlated well with the reference standard. CONCLUSION: Only three of several parameters previously described as allowing Crohn's disease activity assessment actually did so in our study. However, for two of these parameters (EDV, TAMV), there was overlap between the measurements in the active and inactive groups, thus limiting the ability to discriminate disease activity in practice. The degree of overlap for maximum flow volume (TAMV.CSA) between active

  7. Advanced atherogenic index for the assessment of consolidated lipid risk in premature coronary artery disease patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and prematurity of coronary artery disease (CAD in the Indian population cannot be completely explained by the conventional lipid parameters and the existing lipid indices. Aims and Objectives: To calculate newly defined advanced atherogenic index (AAI in premature CAD patients and compare it between cases and controls and Correlate its values with the existing indices. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty premature CAD patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Lipid profile and nonconventional lipid parameters like oxidized Low density lipoprotein (OX LDL, small dense LDL (SD LDL, lipoprotein (a apolipoprotein B (Apo B, and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 were estimated and their values were used to define AAI and existing lipid indices like AI, lipid tetrad index (LTI and lipid pentad index (LPI. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 37.29 + 4.50 and 36.13 + 3.53 years, respectively. The value of AAI was highly significant in cases (3461.22 ± 45.20 as compared to controls (305.84 ± 21.80. AAI has shown better statistical significance and correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.737 as compared to the earlier indices such as AI (P < 0.01, r = 0.52, LTI (P < 0.001, r = 0.677 and LPI (P < 0.001, r = 0.622 in premature CAD. Kolmogorov D statistic and cumulative distribution function plot has shown that AAI can discriminate cases and controls more accurately as compared to the earlier indices. Conclusion: Statistically AAI appears to be a better marker of consolidated lipid risk in premature CAD patients as compared to the earlier indices.

  8. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  9. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®) System for Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life in Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    William J Furlong; Feeny, David H; George W. Torrance; Barr, Ronald D.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. The paper reviews the Health Utilities Index (HUI®) as a means to describe health status and obtain utility scores reflecting health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials. The HUI Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3) classification and scoring systems are described. The methods used to estimate multi-attribute utility functions for HUI2 and HUI3 are reviewed. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. Principal Fi...

  10. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: a study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, Subhadeep; Taraphdar, Pranita; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23354144

  11. Assessment of nutritional status by composite index for anthropometric failure: A study among slum children in Bankura, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Shit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF among 117 slum dwelling under-five children in Bankura town, West Bengal and its relation with some common socio-economic factors. Among study population, the prevalence of underweight was 41.6%, whereas CIAF was 80.3%. CIAF gave a near complete estimation of undernutrition unlike underweight. Children who were unimmunized, with more number of siblings, living in a nuclear family, or with illiterate mothers were more likely to be undernourished.

  12. Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

  13. Assessment of obesity with body mass index in primary care health workers in the jurisdiction of Nezahualcoyotl (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez Soto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are considered a disease - a public health problem that has becomes one of the main factors related to deaths from cardiovascular disease in Mexico. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in search of inference between obesity and overweight among health caregivers and the general population in six primary care clinics that belong to the Ministry of Health of the municipality of Nezahualcoyotl. We recruited 124 participants from the different work areas of the centers, including those responsible for nutritional programs. Diagnostic parameters for obesity and overweight were body mass index, waist hip ratio and percentage of body fat (% BF. Results: Body mass index: 0.22 normal; 0.53 overweight; 0.23 obesity I; 0.03 obesity II; 0.00 obesity III. Waist circumference: normal 0.28 and above normal 0.72. Fat percentage: normal 0.20 and 0.80% higher. We found that 77% of participants were obese or overweight. Discussion: Those in charge of controlling obesity and overweight also suffer from it and can contribute to the failure of programs in the community. It is essential to develop programs in healthy lifestyle based on nutrition and physical activity. These should be applied primarily to healthcare professionals who are in charge of community lifestyle programs.

  14. Comparison of intima-media thickness and ophthalmic artery resistance index for assessing subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tana Mariangela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications that potentially increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in this population. Measurement of arterial wall thickness has been used as a surrogate of extent, severity and progression of atherosclerosis. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed to compare the validity of two non-invasive arterial measures: carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, a parameter of atherosclerosis, and ophthalmic artery resistance index (OARI, an index of occlusive carotid artery disease. Methods A total of 95 patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for more than 12 months were consecutively enrolled. IMT and OARI were measured by 7.5 MHz linear probe. Results There was a significant linear increase in IMT and OARI values as the grade of cardiovascular risk (0.70 and 0.69 for very low risk, 0.86 and 0.72 for low risk and 0.98 and 0.74 for medium/high risk, p 0.83 and an OARI > 0.72 were the most discriminatory values for predicting a cardiovascular risk ≥ 10% (sensibility 89.6% and 75.8%; sensitivity 70.5% and 68.4%; p Conclusions Our data indicate that OARI may have a potential as a new precocious marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-1-infected patients.

  15. Development and Validation of the Korean Version of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite: Questionnaire Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life after Prostate Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jung Jun; Lim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although the quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is a major issue, there is no unified and useful methodology for assessing QoL. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) is a globally used tool to measure QoL after PCa treatment that comprises urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal domains. Acknowledging the need for such a tool applicable to Korean PCa patients, we translated EPIC into Korean and validated the new version. Materials and Methods The Korean...

  16. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  17. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  18. Applicability of Community Periodontal Index Teeth and Random Half-mouth Examination to Gingival Bleeding Assessment in Untreated Adult Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether Community Periodontal Index (CPI) teeth and random half-mouth methods are representative of full-mouth method in gingival bleeding examination.Methods Data from 1000 untreated adults (age > 18) collected in Beijing from January 2000 to January 2001 were utilized in the analysis.Half of the subjects were examined by Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and the other half by Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI).The data were sorted out and calculated according to CPI teeth and random half-mouth teeth methods.The results of the 2 methods were separately compared with those of full-mouth examination.Results There was a significant difference between CPI teeth method and full-mouth examination (P<0.05) in both GBI and SBI.In contrast,compared with full-mouth examination,significant difference was not observed in diagonal or ipsilateral half-mouth results in SBI (P>0.05),nor in diagonal half-mouth results in GBI (P>0.05)Conclusions The results of CPI teeth method on gingival bleeding could not reflect the full-mouth situation.Ipsilateral and diagonal half-mouth results can serve as a substitute for full-mouth results in SBI,while diagonal half-mouth results in GBI.

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  20. ASSESSING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CARIES PREVALENCE AND BODY MASS INDEX AND NUTRITIONAL DATA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 6-12 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Arunakul, Malee; Srisuchat, Natchanon; Chotthanakarn, Nutcha; Praisuwanna, Nathaporn; Luckamnuyporn, Natasan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to examine associations between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) and diet in 6 to 12 year old children. One hundred subjects were included in the study. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT), height and weight were examined in each subject. The primary caregiver for each subject completed a diet questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a chi-square test, a Fisher's exact test, a Kruskal-Wallis test and an independent sample t-test. Associations between variables and caries were examined using a Spearman's correlation with significance set at a p-value caries (DMFT score = 0), 23% had moderate to many caries (DMFT scores = 3.1-6.9), 22% had very many caries (DMFT scores ≥ 7), 17% had few caries (DMFT scores caries and amount of sugar and carbohydrate consumption and dental caries. PMID:27086436

  1. Performance Indexes Assessment for Lighting Systems Based on the Normalized Power Density and Energy Losses Estimation in University Workrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hajibabaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed lighting decreases accidents and diseases of eyes and can increase productivity and concentration. Increase of energy price and a high proportion of electric lighting energy consumption in buildings due to defects in designing and maintenance led to desirable lighting to be reduced. One of our challenges in providing health and quality of lighting is lack of economic justification of projects. Furthermore, evaluating the lighting systems is very important to improve these systems and maintaining lighting quality. In this study the performance of the various lighting systems has been evaluated. The health and quality conditions of lighting systems, energy loss and the difference between the lighting variables, based on room index and the designed required levels (normalized power density in studied schools and education workrooms in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (south-west of Iran have been evaluated. Results showed that the modern lighting systems had 58% more efficient than the traditional others. In other words, modern lighting systems increase illuminance to 58 percent without increasing the electrical energy power. The performance indices of lighting systems between workrooms that had modern systems and traditional was significant (p=0.000. In 77.4% of spaces of the school of Medicine, where that had new lighting systems, the satisfaction index of users was equal to one. Evaluation of lighting systems in order to decreasing the electrical energy power along with preserving the standards of illumination intensity is very important, and some appropriate solutions could be adopted by replacing the traditional systems with the new others.

  2. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species. PMID:15805093

  3. Application of own computer program for assessment of brain-fluid index in the medial temporal lobe portions in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Epilepsy resistant to pharmacological treatment still remains one of the main problems in contemporary epileptology. The problem most frequently concerns patients with focal epilepsy, with the seizure focus possible to localize. In case of drug-resistant epilepsy, both morphological imaging methods (MR) and manual measurements or volumetry are used. Also functional studies, such as MRS (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance), SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography) are performed. Material/Methods: The study presents application of own computer program based on the method of segmentation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the brain tissue. The program calculates automatically the brain-fluin index in the hippocampal region. The material comprises the brain-fluin index results calculated with the presented program in comparison with the method of manual delineation in a group of 50 patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. The program is easy to use, it reads the MR data recorded in DICOM installed on a PC. Results: The brain-fluin index result (expressed as a decimal fraction) is calculated on the basis of 4 consecutive layers examined by MR (evaluating hippocampal structures) performed using SE sequence, and T2-weighted imaging in the frontal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the temporal lobes. The results obtained in epilepsy patients were compared with 24 control subjects. Conclusions: Detailed analysis of the obtained data allowed to conclude that precise hippocampal volume assessment can be obtained by combination of both methods, i.e. manual delineation and automatic calculation of brain-fluin index taking into consideration the total volume of cerebral structures. (authors)

  4. Analysis and assessment of the nutrients, biochemical indexes and heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Li, Yi; Cheng, Qingyuan; Yu, Mingxia; Hu, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest hydropower project, has operated stably for more than five years. To understand its water quality status, the nutrient and biochemical indexes, the total nitrogen (TN), the total phosphorus (TP), the potassium permanganate index (CODMn), the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and fecal coliform (F. coli), as well as the heavy metals (Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Zn and Pb) of samples collected from 10 sites during the time period of 2008-2013 were studied via using multiple analysis approaches. For each parameter, pictures of the spatial and temporal distributions were presented, and the reasons behind their variation trends were elaborated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the types of pollution. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was calculated to concisely mark the water quality. In addition, a human health risk assessment of the heavy metals in a representative site was conducted. The results showed that the water quality state in the Three Gorges Reservoir was intricate but stable and acceptable from 2008 to 2013. The TN, TP and Pb were considered to be the key pollution indexes. Enforcements to alleviate industrial and urban pollution, along with ship management, have worked. The decrease in heavy metal concentrations from upstream to downstream was associated with the self-purification of the reservoir. However, rural pollution became worse in those years. Improper agricultural activity was an important reason for this trend. For local residents, drinking water was generally safe, but cancer caused by As and Pb is a potential issue. PMID:26874779

  5. Assessment of flood hazard areas at a regional scale using an index-based approach and Analytical Hierarchy Process: Application in Rhodope-Evros region, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Kougias, Ioannis; Patsialis, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    The present study introduces a multi-criteria index to assess flood hazard areas in a regional scale. Accordingly, a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been defined and a spatial analysis in a GIS environment has been applied for the estimation of its value. The developed methodology processes information of seven parameters namely flow accumulation, distance from the drainage network, elevation, land use, rainfall intensity and geology. The initials of these criteria gave the name to the developed method: "FIGUSED". The relative importance of each parameter for the occurrence and severity of flood has been connected to weight values. These values are calculated following an "Analytical Hierarchy Process", a method originally developed for the solution of Operational Research problems. According to their weight values, information of the different parameters is superimposed, resulting to flood hazard mapping. The accuracy of the method has been supported by a sensitivity analysis that examines a range for the weights' values and corresponding to alternative scenarios. The presented methodology has been applied to an area in north-eastern Greece, where recurring flood events have appeared. Initially FIGUSED method resulted to a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) and a corresponding flood map. A sensitivity analysis on the parameters' values revealed some interesting information on the relative importance of each criterion, presented and commented in the Discussion section. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis concluded to a revised index FHIS (methodology named FIGUSED-S) and flood mapping, supporting the robustness of FIGUSED methodology. A comparison of the outcome with records of historical flood events confirmed that the proposed methodology provides valid results. PMID:26318691

  6. Quality Index of Subtidal Macroalgae (QISubMac): A suitable tool for ecological quality status assessment under the scope of the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, A; Derrien-Courtel, S

    2015-12-15

    Despite their representativeness and importance in coastal waters, subtidal rocky bottom habitats have been under-studied. This has resulted in a lack of available indicators for subtidal hard substrate communities. However, a few indicators using subtidal macroalgae have been developed in recent years for the purpose of being implemented into the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Accordingly, a quality index of subtidal macroalgae has been defined as a French assessment tool for subtidal rocky bottom habitats in coastal waters. This approach is based on 14 metrics that consider the depth penetration, composition (sensitive, characteristic and opportunistic) and biodiversity of macroalgae assemblages and complies with WFD requirements. Three ecoregions have been defined to fit with the geographical distribution of macroalgae along the French coastline. As a test, QISubMac was used to assess the water quality of 20 water bodies. The results show that QISubMac may discriminate among different quality classes of water bodies. PMID:26555795

  7. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  8. A Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for the Assessment of Streams Located in a Sugarcane-Dominated Landscape in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda Bastos; Esteves, Katharina Eichbaum

    2015-08-01

    A multimetric, fish-based Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was developed and tested to assess the ecological status of streams with different riparian conditions in the Piracicaba River Basin. Nine streams with three categories of riparian zone preservation were selected: native forest (NF) with preserved forest, secondary forest (SF) with forest in an advanced state of regeneration and surrounded by sugarcane plantations, and sugarcane (SC) without riparian vegetation and surrounded by SC crops. A continuous scoring system was employed, and candidate metrics were tested for range, responsiveness, and redundancy, resulting in the selection of eight metrics to compose the index. The final IBI score was positively correlated with an Environmental Index both in the dry (Spearman's rho = 0.76; P = 0.01) and rainy seasons (Spearman's rho = 0.66; P = 0.04), suggesting that this IBI is a suitable tool for the assessment of the biological conditions of these streams. The highest IBI values were observed in the rainy season at the NF and SF sites, with significant differences between the NF and SC sites (Kruskal-Wallis test: P = 0.03). The results indicated some variability in the biological integrity at SF and SC sites, suggesting a relationship with the intensity of the management of this crop. Patterns were consistent with other studies that have shown the effects of agriculture on the environmental quality of streams, which indicate the importance of the riparian zone to the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and supports the use of the IBI for biological monitoring in similar regions.

  9. 沙尘暴灾害风险评估指标体系初探%A Preliminary Discussion on Risk Assessment Index System of Sandstorm Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋

    2011-01-01

    以自然灾害系统理论为基础,阐述了沙尘暴灾害风险的概念;从致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境稳定性和承灾体脆弱性三个方面分析了沙尘暴灾害风险构成;根据其风险构成特点初步研究了这三个方面的风险评估指标,探讨了这些指标在沙尘暴灾害风险评估中应用的意义.%Based on the theory of natural disaster system, the concept of sandstorm disaster risk is expounded, and the composition of the risk is analyzed in three aspects as the danger of disaster-causing factors, the stability of hazard inducing environment and the vulnerability of hazard bearing bodies. The risk assessment indexes of the above-mentioned three aspects are researched according to the composition characteristics of the risk, and the significance of the indexes application in the risk assessment of sandstorm disaster is discussed.

  10. Ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinių kompetencijų sistemos raiška ir turinys

    OpenAIRE

    Baltutytė, Vitalija

    2008-01-01

    Lietuva įžengė į itin sparčios kaitos ir naujų iššūkių amžių, kuris kelia naujus reikalavimus ir asmeniui, ir visuomenei, ir švietimo sistemai. Kadangi švietimo kokybė tiesiogiai priklauso nuo švietimo įstaigose dirbančių vadovų bei pedagogų kompetencijų, svarbu išryškinti ir apibrėžti ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinių kompetencijų turinį, jų kryptingumą bei raiškos tendencijas. Tyrimo objektas – ikimokyklinių įstaigų direktoriaus pavaduotojų ugdymui vadybinė...

  11. Visuomenės simbolinių sistemų socialinio struktūravimo ir hierarchizacijos išraiškos

    OpenAIRE

    Jurevičiūtė, Asta

    2010-01-01

    Šiuo straipsniu siekiama pateikti struktūrinės antropologijos ir struktūrinio funkcionalizmo paradigmoje (Mary Douglas, Victor Turner, Edward Evans-Pritchard, Louis Dumont) analizuojamą visuomenės simbolinės „tvarkos–nešvaros“ sistemą kaip socialinio struktūravimo ir hierarchizacijos išraišką. Antropologų pasitelkiama funkcinė analizė leidžia aiškinti socialinius diskursus ir praktikas, susijusias su būtiniausių psichologinių ir fiziologinių poreikių patenkinimu, o struktūrinė analizė nurodo ...

  12. GCUBE INDEXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Laxmaiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Online Analytical Processing System involves the non-categorical attribute information also whereas standard online analytical processing system deals with only categorical attributes. Providing spatial information to the data warehouse (DW; two major challenges faced are; 1.Defining and Aggregation of Spatial or Continues values and 2.Representation, indexing, updating and efficient query processing. In this paper, we present GCUBE (Geographical Cube storage and indexing procedure to aggregate the spatial information/Continuous values. We employed the proposed approach storing and indexing using synthetic and real data sets and evaluated its build, update and Query time. It is observed that the proposed procedure offers significant performance advantage.

  13. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  14. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud, Patrice; Chartier, Sylvain; Rouleau, Joanne-L.; Proulx, Jean; Trottier, Dominique; John P. Bradford; Fedoroff, Paul; Bouchard, Stéphane; Décarie, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  15. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls) to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81), which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39). The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01) and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13) among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04) compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women

  16. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  17. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkabiliy Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  18. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  19. Developing a quantitative index system for assessing sustainable forestry management in Heilongjiang Province, China:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan Yang; Feng-you Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a comprehensive index system for forestry sustainability of Heilongjiang Province, which includes forest resources sustainability, sustainable economic development, sustainable social development and sustainable advancement in science and technology. Based on this system and the regional forest development, we further evaluated the sustainability of Heilongjiang Province for year 2008–2013. The results show that even though the regional forestry has been pre-liminarily on the track of sustainable development, it is fragile. Four indicators, e.g. soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of national investment and the annual carbon sequestration have important impact on the sustainability, with a weight of 39.0%in all the indicators. We also analyzed the factors hindering the sustainable development. It turns out that soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of science and technology funds, per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry production are the main factors hindering regional sustainable devel-opment, which accounts for 50.94% of the total obstacle degrees in the system. At last, we discussed how to pro-mote the regional sustainable development from the perspectives of forest resources sustainability, economic development sustainability, society development sustain-ability and the sustainable advancement of science and technology.

  20. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  1. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  2. Assessment of Soil Water Content in Field with Antecedent Precipitation Index and Groundwater Depth in the Yangtze River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-ping; YANG Jing-song

    2013-01-01

    To better understand soil moisture dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and predict its variation in a simple way, a field monitoring experiment was carried out along the north branch of the Yangtze River, where seawater intrusion was strong and salt-water variation is one of the limiting factors of local agriculture. In present paper, relation between antecedent precipitation index (API) and soil water content is studied, and effects of groundwater depth on soil water content was analyzed. A relatively accurate prediction result of soil water content was reached using a neural network model. The impact analysis result showed that the variation of the API was consistent with soil water content and it displayed significant correlations with soil water content in both 20 and 50 cm soil layer, and higher correlation was observed in the layer of 20 cm. Groundwater impact analysis suggested that soil moisture was affected by the depth of groundwater, and was affected more greatly by groundwater at depth of 50 cm than that at 20 cm layer. By introducing API, groundwater depth and temperature together, a BP artificial network model was established to predict soil water content and an acceptable agreement was achieved. The model can be used for supplementing monitoring data of soil water content and predicting soil water content in shallow groundwater areas, and can provide favorable support for the research of water and salt transport in estuary area.

  3. Assessment of anatomic parameters on lateral cephalogram and body mass index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Mokhtari Amir Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious and life threatening disorder caused by various anatomic and physio-pathologic factors. This study was conducted to clarify some anatomic etiologic factors of OSAS and the role of body mass index (BMI in expression of its symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 127 patients were included. Sixty patients had OSAS symptoms and 67 patients were considered as controls. Cephalometric parameters from lateral skull view of CT scan and BMI of patients were statistically analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: The position of hyoid bone was significantly lower and soft palate was significantly larger in patients with OSAS symptoms than control group. Moreover, mean BMI measurement was significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in addition to apparent role of BMI in OSAS symptoms, increased soft tissue compartment of pharyngeal area and position of hyoid bone are significant etiologic factors in this syndrome.    

  4. Index-Based Assessment of Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow Phenomena in a Distribution Feeder Under High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Salehi, Vahid;

    2015-01-01

    -based methodology for assessing the impact of high solar PV generation, considering the reverse power flow and voltage rise phenomena. Indices are defined that link these two phenomena and their impact on the voltage profile across the feeder. This assessment relies on detailed modeling of the network and the solar...... PV generation components, which are performed over a 24-h window. Results are presented for a modified 13-bus IEEE test network, emulating a weak network with three-phase balanced loads. This methodology can only be applied to three-phase balanced networks. Actual insolation levels and load profiles...... are used to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed indices. This paper derives the acceptable range of the proposed indices and safe margin, which have been compared with the basic active power curtailment method with no constraint, in order to avoid voltage rise. The IEEE 69-bus network is also...

  5. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Brummitt, Neil; Bachman, Steven; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas Robert; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A. Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly k...

  6. A Modified Soil Quality Index to Assess the Influence of Soil Degradation Processes on Desertification Risk: The Apulia Case

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Ancona; Delia Evelina Bruno; Nicola Lopez; Giuseppe Pappagallo; Vito Felice Uricchio

    2010-01-01

    Apulia is one of the most prone Italian regions to soil alteration phenomena, due to geographical and climatic conditions and also to human activities’ impact. In this study, in order to investigate regional soil degradation processes, following the “European Directive for Soil Protection”, the ESA’s method has been adopted. It is based on the use of an indicator’s set to assess the desertification risk. This approach simplifies the diagnosis and monitoring of so...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrasekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and Soil Water Balance (SWB model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. It was observed that the Rate of Increase (RoI of LSWI was the highest during the fortnights when the onset of monsoon occurred. The study showed that LSWI is sensitive to the onset of monsoon and initiation of cropping season. The second part of this study attempted to develop a simple book keeping – bucket type – water tight soil water balance model to derive the top 30cm profile soil moisture using climatic, soil and crop parameters as the basic inputs. Soil moisture derived from the model was used to compute the Area Conducive for Sowing (ACS during the sowing window of the cropping season. The soil moisture was validated spatially and temporally with the ground observed soil moisture values. The ACS was compared with the RoI of LSWI. The results showed that the RoI was high during the sowing window whenever the ACS was greater than 50% of the district area. The observation was consistent in all the districts of the two states. Thus the analysis revealed the potential of LSWI for early season agricultural drought management.

  8. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  9. Evaluation of an index of biotic integrity approach used to assess biological condition in western U.S. streams and rivers at varying spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Whittier, T.R.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hughes, R.M.; Peck, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent assessments of biological condition are needed across multiple ecoregions to provide a greater understanding of the spatial extent of environmental degradation. However, consistent assessments at large geographic scales are often hampered by lack of uniformity in data collection, analyses, and interpretation. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely used in eastern and central North America, where fish assemblages are complex and largely composed of native species, but IBI development has been hindered in the western United States because of relatively low fish species richness and greater relative abundance of alien fishes. Approaches to developing IBIs rarely provide a consistent means of assessing biological condition across multiple ecoregions. We conducted an evaluation of IBIs recently proposed for three ecoregions of the western United States using an independent data set covering a large geographic scale. We standardized the regional IBIs and developed biological condition criteria, assessed the responsiveness of IBIs to basin-level land uses, and assessed their precision and concordance with basin-scale IBIs. Standardized IBI scores from 318 sites in the western United States comprising mountain, plains, and xeric ecoregions were significantly related to combined urban and agricultural land uses. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation revealed relatively low variation in IBI scores based on multiple sampling reaches at sites. A relatively high degree of corroboration with independent, locally developed IBIs indicates that the regional IBIs are robust across large geographic scales, providing precise and accurate assessments of biological condition for western U.S. streams. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Louisiana ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  11. Assessment of Egg Yolk Oil Extraction Methods of for ShiZhenKang Oil by Pharmacodynamic Index Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wu; Yu Pan; Jianye Yan; Dan Huang; Shunxiang Li

    2016-01-01

    To assess the extraction methods of egg yolk oil in ShiZhenKang (SZK) oil, which is used to treat eczema, a mice model of eczema was established by using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). The therapeutic effects of egg yolk oil extracted by different methods from SZK oil on the model of acute eczema in mice were evaluated. The oil yield rate of ethanol extraction is 42.06%. Its egg yolk oil is orange and has a rich, sweet, egg smell. Moreover, the SZK oil prepared from it has a very good thera...

  12. A combined deficit index for regional agricultural drought assessment over semi-arid tract of India using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Swapnil S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nigam, Rahul; Guhathakurta, Pulak; Ghosh, Kripan; Chattopadhyay, N.; Gairola, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The untimely onset and uneven distribution of south-west monsoon rainfall lead to agricultural drought causing reduction in food-grain production with high vulnerability over semi-arid tract (SAT) of India. A combined deficit index (CDI) has been developed from tri-monthly sum of deficit in antecedent rainfall and deficit in monthly vegetation vigor with a lag period of one month between the two. The formulation of CDI used a core biophysical (e.g., NDVI) and a hydro-meteorological (e.g., rainfall) variables derived using observation from Indian geostationary satellites. The CDI was tested and evaluated in two drought years (2009 and 2012) within a span of five years (2009-2013) over SAT. The index was found to have good correlation (0.49-0.68) with standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed from rain-gauge measurements but showed lower correlation with anomaly in monthly land surface temperature (LST). Significant correlations were found between CDI and reduction in agricultural carbon productivity (0.67-0.83), evapotranspiration (0.64-0.73), agricultural grain yield (0.70-0.85). Inconsistent correlation between CDI and ET reduction was noticed in 2012 in contrast to consistent correlation between CDI and reduction in carbon productivity both in 2009 and 2012. The comparison of CDI-based drought-affected area with those from existing operational approach showed 75% overlapping regions though class-to-class matching was only 40-45%. The results demonstrated that CDI is a potential indicator for assessment of late-season regional agricultural drought based on lag-response between water supply and crop vigor.

  13. Correlation between coronary artery disease severity, left ventricular mass index and carotid intima media thickness, assessed by radio-frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone Marco M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT is a validated marker of systemic atherosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coronary artery disease (CAD, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and CCA-IMT, assessed by Radio Frequency-Quality Intima Media Thickness (RFQIMT method, the next generation of IMT real-time measurement, based on the direct analysis of the radiofrequency signal and endowed with high accuracy and reproducibility in early detection of arterial wall thickness. Methods 115 patients (76 men, mean age: 65.1 ± 12 years referred to our department and shown significant (≥ 70% luminal obstruction stenosis at least in one major epicardial coronary artery were studied. Coronary angiograms were divided for severity and extent of the disease: 79 patients (69% had one, 24 patients (21% two, 12 patients (10% three major epicardial coronary arteries with ≥ 70% stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and carotid ultrasound examination, assessed by RF. Results Dividing RFQIMT data in tertiles, dyslipidaemia (31 patients with IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 16 with IMT = 0.91-1.19 vs 25 with IMT ≤ 0.9, p = 0.004, LVMI (153.5 ± 20.6 g/m2 in IMT ≥ 1.20 mm vs 131.2 ± 8.4 g/m2 in IMT = 0.91-1.19 mm vs 114.3 ± 11.1 g/m2 in IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, P 2 = 0.88, RFQIMT remained significantly associated with the dyslipidemia (regression coefficient ± standard error [SE]: 0.057 ± 0.023; p = 0.017, LVMI (regression coefficient ± SE: 0.01 ± 0.001; P Conclusions RFQIMT is a sophisticated method for carotid ultrasound evaluation. Its evaluation in patients with at least one important major epicardial coronary vessel stenosis would help the accuracy in the general assessment of the number of coronary lesions in these patients.

  14. Cytogenetic index and functional genome alterations in Chironomus piger Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the assessment of sediment pollution: a case study of Bulgarian and UK rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, P; Ilkova, J; Dean, A P; White, K N

    2015-01-01

    The genotoxicity of trace metals in the sediments from a number of polluted sites on UK and Bulgarian rivers to Chironomus piger was assessed by an examination of genome instability as demonstrated by structural and functional changes to the salivary glands chromosomes. Based on the metal assays, the sediments were characterized to range from 'extremely' to 'strongly contaminated'. The cytogenetic index calculated on the basis of somatic structural chromosome alterations in the polytene chromosomes indicates a high level of pollution (0.07-0.06 in Bulgarian and 0.10-0.13 in UK stations). Exposure of C. piger to contaminated sediments resulted in a high level of chromosome damage as indicated by a somatic index of between 1.96 and 4.0. The transcription mechanism of the Balbiani rings and nucleolar organizer was damaged as their activity was either partially or completely suppressed. We have demonstrated that the C. piger genome is a sensitive sublethal indicator of sediment contamination, and is a highly suitable candidate for ecotoxicological monitoring of running waters. PMID:25450937

  15. Assessment of the Indicators Atherogenic Index and Lipid Preventive Score of White Brine Cheese by Buffalo Milk after Technological Processing and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  16. On the Construction of Competence Assessment Index System for Logic Enterprises%物流企业竞争力评价指标体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭焘

    2012-01-01

    面对物流市场全球化和国际化的背景,提高物流企业竞争力,已成为我国经济发展的当务之急。通过构建物流企业竞争力指标体系,采用AHP法确定指标的权重,可以定量地给出每项因素的相对重要性,也可以看出各因素对于竞争力提高的权重,从而使企业在进行决策时有所取舍,从根本上提高竞争力。%With the background of globalization and internationalization of logic industry, we should try hard to improve the competence of our logic enterprises, which has become an urgent task for our economic development. By constructing competence assessment index system and applying AHP method to determine the importance of the indexes, we can not only define the importance of each element with concrete qualities, but also understand the influence of each element for us to improve the competence. Therefore, we can help enterprises make decisions and improve their competence.

  17. Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowska, Alicja; Domonik, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    In constructions, the usefulness of modern technical diagnostics of stone as a raw material requires predicting the effects of long-term environmental impact of its qualities and geomechanical properties. The paper presents geomechanical research enabling presentation of the factors for strength loss of the stone and forecasting the rate of development of destructive phenomena on the stone structure on a long-time basis. As research material Turkish travertines were selected from the Denizli-Kaklık Basin (Pamukkale and Hierapolis quarries), which have been commonly used for centuries in global architecture. The rock material was subjected to testing of the impact of various environmental factors, as well as European standards recommended by the author of the research program. Their resistance to the crystallization of salts from aqueous solutions and the effects of SO2, as well as the effect of frost and high temperatures are presented. The studies allowed establishing the following quantitative indicators: the ultrasonic waves index (IVp) and the strength reduction index (IRc). Reflections on the assessment of deterioration effects indicate that the most active factors decreasing travertine resistance in the aging process include frost and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Their negative influence is particularly intense when the stone material is already strongly weathered.

  18. Assessment of the indicators atherogenic index and lipid preventive score of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after technological processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  19. Study on Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Some Tanzanian Rivers as a Basis for Developing Biomonitoring Index for Assessing Pollution in Tropical African Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius D. Elias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters were assessed at 15 sites along five rivers in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, with the aim of understanding their ecological status and setting a base to the development of a biological index for tropical regions. Investigated rivers that occur within Pangani basin include Karanga, Rau, Lumbanga, Sere, and Umbwe. Sampling sites were categorized according to the level of water and habitat quality as follows: reference or least impacted (4 sites, moderately impacted (5 sites, and highly impacted (6 sites sites. A total of 12,527 macroinvertebrates belonging to 13 orders and 48 families were recorded. The highest total abundance of 4,110 individuals per m2 was found in Karanga river, while Umbwe river had the lowest with 1,203 individuals per m2. Chironomidae was the most abundant family (2,588 individuals per m2 and the least were Hydridae and Thiaridae, each having 5 individuals per m2. High numbers of taxa were noted among the orders: Ephemeroptera (8, Odonata (8, Diptera (7, and Trichoptera (6. In conclusion, orders with greater diversity of macroinvertebrate families offer a wide range of tolerance to pollution and, thus can potentially be used to develop a biomonitoring index for evaluating pollution in tropical African rivers.

  20. The perceived temperature - a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part A: scientific basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Henning; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grätz, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The Perceived Temperature (PT) is an equivalent temperature based on a complete heat budget model of the human body. It has proved its suitability for numerous applications across a wide variety of scales from micro to global and is successfully used both in daily forecasts and climatological studies. PT is designed for staying outdoors and is defined as the air temperature of a reference environment in which the thermal perception would be the same as in the actual environment. The calculation is performed for a reference subject with an internal heat production of 135 W m-2 (who is walking at 4 km h-1 on flat ground). In the reference environment, the mean radiant temperature equals the air temperature and wind velocity is reduced to a slight draught. The water vapour pressure remains unchanged. Under warm/humid conditions, however, it is implicitly related to a relative humidity of 50%. Clothing is adapted in order to achieve thermal comfort. If this is impossible, cold or heat stress will occur, respectively. The assessment of thermal perception by means of PT is based on Fanger's Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) together with additional model extensions taking account of stronger deviations from thermal neutrality. This is performed using a parameterisation based on a two-node model. In the cold, it allows the mean skin temperature to drop below the comfort value. In the heat, it assesses additionally the enthalpy of sweat-moistened skin and of wet clothes. PT has the advantages of being self-explanatory due to its deviation from air temperature and being—via PMV—directly linked to a thermo-physiologically-based scale of thermal perception that is widely used and has stood the test of time. This paper explains in detail the basic equations of the human heat budget and the coefficients of the parameterisations.

  1. Ankle Brachial Index <0.9 Underestimates the Prevalence of Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease Assessed with Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H. [Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one {>=}50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a {>=} 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population.

  2. New Magnetic Resonance Imaging Index for Renal Fibrosis Assessment: A Comparison between Diffusion-Weighted Imaging and T1 Mapping with Histological Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, I; Crowe, L A; Berchtold, L; Moll, S; Hadaya, K; de Perrot, T; Vesin, C; Martin, P-Y; de Seigneux, S; Vallée, J-P

    2016-01-01

    A need exists to noninvasively assess renal interstitial fibrosis, a common process to all kidney diseases and predictive of renal prognosis. In this translational study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T1 mapping and a new segmented Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI) technique, for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), were first compared to renal fibrosis in two well-controlled animal models to assess detection limits. Validation against biopsy was then performed in 33 kidney allograft recipients (KARs). Predictive MRI indices, ΔT1 and ΔADC (defined as the cortico-medullary differences), were compared to histology. In rats, both T1 and ADC correlated well with fibrosis and inflammation showing a difference between normal and diseased kidneys. In KARs, MRI indices were not sensitive to interstitial inflammation. By contrast, ΔADC outperformed ΔT1 with a stronger negative correlation to fibrosis (R(2) = 0.64 against R(2) = 0.29 p < 0.001). ΔADC tends to negative values in KARs harboring cortical fibrosis of more than 40%. Using a discriminant analysis method, the ΔADC, as a marker to detect such level of fibrosis or higher, led to a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 71%, respectively. This new index has potential for noninvasive assessment of fibrosis in the clinical setting. PMID:27439482

  3. GCUBE Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Laxmaiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Online Analytical Processing System involves the non-categorical attribute information alsowhereas standard online analytical processing system deals with only categorical attributes. Providingspatial information to the data warehouse (DW; twomajor challenges faced are; 1.Defining andAggregation of Spatial or Continues values and 2.Representation, indexing, updating and efficient queryprocessing. In this paper, we present GCUBE (Geographical Cube storage and indexing procedure toaggregate the spatial information/Continuous values. We employed the proposed approach storing andindexing using synthetic and real data sets and evaluated its build, update and Query time. It is observedthat the proposed procedure offers significant performance advantage.

  4. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx. Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval. Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days. The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6. Pearson (r and intraclass correlations (ICC were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen’s κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10 and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63, while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45. Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05 with total blood cholesterol (r = −0.33 and triglycerides (r = −0.22. ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional

  5. The Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the Assessment of the Habitual Diet of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Vizmanos, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The study of diet quality in a population provides information for the development of programs to improve nutritional status through better directed actions. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and relative validity of a Mexican Diet Quality Index (ICDMx) for the assessment of the habitual diet of adults. The ICDMx was designed to assess the characteristics of a healthy diet using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-Mx). Reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 ICDMx based on FFQs (one-year interval). Relative validity was assessed by comparing the ICDMx (2nd FFQ) with that estimated based on the intake averages from dietary records (nine days). The questionnaires were answered by 97 adults (mean age in years = 27.5, SD = 12.6). Pearson (r) and intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated; Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's κ coefficients and blood lipid determinations complemented the analysis. Additional analysis compared ICDMx scores with nutrients derived from dietary records, using a Pearson correlation. These nutrient intakes were transformed logarithmically to improve normality (log10) and adjusted according to energy, prior to analyses. The ICDMx obtained ICC reproducibility values ranged from 0.33 to 0.87 (23/24 items with significant correlations; mean = 0.63), while relative validity ranged from 0.26 to 0.79 (mean = 0.45). Bland-Altman plots showed a high level of agreement between methods. ICDMx scores were inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with total blood cholesterol (r = -0.33) and triglycerides (r = -0.22). ICDMx (as calculated from FFQs and DRs) obtained positive correlations with fiber, magnesium, potassium, retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and folate. The ICDMx obtained acceptable levels of reproducibility and relative validity in this population. It can be useful for population nutritional surveillance and to assess the changes resulting from the implementation of nutritional interventions

  6. The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome measures are important when evaluating treatments and physiological progress in paediatric populations. Reliable, relevant measures of foot posture are important for such assessments to be accurate over time. The aim of the study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of common outcome measures for paediatric foot conditions. Methods A repeated measures, same-subject design assessed the intra- and inter-rater reliability of measures of foot posture, joint hypermobility and ankle range: the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6, the ankle lunge test, the Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment scale (LLAS, used by two examiners in 30 healthy children (aged 7 to 15 years. The Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire (OxAFQ-C was completed by participants and a parent, to assess the extent of foot and ankle problems. Results The OxAFQ-C demonstrated a mean (SD score of 6 (6 in adults and 7(5 for children, showing good agreement between parents and children, and which indicates mid-range (transient disability. Intra-rater reliability was good for the FPI-6 (ICC = 0.93 - 0.94, ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.85-0.95, Beighton scale (ICC = 0.96-0.98 and LLAS (ICC = 0.90-0.98. Inter-rater reliability was largely good for each of the: FPI-6 (ICC = 0.79, ankle lunge test (ICC = 0.83, Beighton scale (ICC = 0.73 and LLAS (ICC = 0.78. Conclusion The four measures investigated demonstrated adequate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability in this paediatric sample, which further justifies their use in clinical practice.

  7. Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis with combined serum aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and hyaluronic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To construct a noninvasive assessment model consisting of routine laboratory data to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: A total of 137 consecutive patients with CHB who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups according to their aminotransferase (ALl-) level. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), the likelihood ratio (LR) of aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥ 1.5 or 300 ng/mL could detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients. The PPV was 93.7%, the specificity was 98.9%. The APRI 300 ng/mL can detect moderate to severe fibrosis (stages 2-4) in CHB patients.

  8. The impact of different sources of body mass index assessment on smoking onset: An application of multiple-source information models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Maria Paola; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-source data are often collected to provide better information of some underlying construct that is difficult to measure or likely to be missing. In this article, we describe regression-based methods for analyzing multiple-source data in Stata. We use data from the BROMS Cohort Study, a cohort of Swedish adolescents who collected data on body mass index that was self-reported and that was measured by nurses. We draw together into a single frame of reference both source reports and relate these to smoking onset. This unified method has two advantages over traditional approaches: 1) the relative predictiveness of each source can be assessed and 2) all subjects contribute to the analysis. The methods are applicable to other areas of epidemiology where multiple-source reports are used. PMID:22065944

  9. Inadequacy of 3-month Oswestry Disability Index outcome for assessing individual longer-term patient experience after lumbar spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Chotai, Silky; Devin, Clinton J; Speroff, Theodore; Harrell, Frank E; Nian, Hui; Dittus, Robert S; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Knightly, John J; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad; Archer, Kristin R; Foley, Kevin T; McGirt, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Prospective longitudinal outcomes registries are at the center of evidence-driven health care reform. Obtaining real-world outcomes data at 12 months can be costly and challenging. In the present study, the authors analyzed whether 3-month outcome measurements sufficiently represent 12-month outcomes for patients with degenerative lumbar disease undergoing surgery. METHODS Data from 3073 patients undergoing elective spine surgery for degenerative lumbar disease were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (N(2)QOD). Baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded. The absolute differences between actual 12- and 3-month ODI scores was evaluated. Additionally, the authors analyzed the absolute difference between actual 12-month ODI scores and a model-predicted 12-month ODI score (the model used patients' baseline characteristics and actual 3-month scores). The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for ODI of 12.8 points and the substantial clinical benefit (SCB) for ODI of 18.8 points were used based on the previously published values. The concordance rate of achieving MCID and SCB for ODI at 3-and 12-months was computed. RESULTS The 3-month ODI scores differed from 12-month scores by an absolute difference of 11.9 ± 10.8, and predictive modeling estimations of 12-month ODI scores differed from actual 12-month scores by a mean (± SD) of 10.7 ± 9.0 points (p = 0.001). Sixty-four percent of patients (n = 1982) achieved an MCID for ODI at 3 months in comparison with 67% of patients (n = 2088) by 12 months; 51% (n = 1731) and 61% (n = 1860) of patients achieved SCB for ODI at 3 months and 12 months, respectively. Almost 20% of patients had ODI scores that varied at least 20 points (the point span of an ODI functional category) between actual 3- and 12-month values. In the aggregate analysis of achieving MCID, 77% of patients were concordant and 23% were discordant in achieving or not achieving

  10. Social vulnerability assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SEVI model) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI model) - a case study for Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Gavriş, A.

    2013-06-01

    In recent decades, the development of vulnerability frameworks has enlarged the research in the natural hazards field. Despite progress in developing the vulnerability studies, there is more to investigate regarding the quantitative approach and clarification of the conceptual explanation of the social component. At the same time, some disaster-prone areas register limited attention. Among these, Romania's capital city, Bucharest, is the most earthquake-prone capital in Europe and the tenth in the world. The location is used to assess two multi-criteria methods for aggregating complex indicators: the social vulnerability index (SoVI model) and the spatial multi-criteria social vulnerability index (SEVI model). Using the data of the 2002 census we reduce the indicators through a factor analytical approach to create the indices and examine if they bear any resemblance to the known vulnerability of Bucharest city through an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). This is a critical issue that may provide better understanding of the social vulnerability in the city and appropriate information for authorities and stakeholders to consider in their decision making. The study emphasizes that social vulnerability is an urban process that increased in a post-communist Bucharest, raising the concern that the population at risk lacks the capacity to cope with disasters. The assessment of the indices indicates a significant and similar clustering pattern of the census administrative units, with an overlap between the clustering areas affected by high social vulnerability. Our proposed SEVI model suggests adjustment sensitivity, useful in the expert-opinion accuracy.

  11. Assessment of Under Nutrition with Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF Among Under-Five Children in a Rural Area of West Bengal

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    Aparajita Dasgupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under-nutrition continues to be a major public health problem in India despite years of incessant preventive measures. Composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF provides the burden of under-nutrition as a single measure and helps in detection of children with multiple anthropometric failures. Research with multivariate modelling for various factors associated with CIAF is limited especially in rural West Bengal. Methods: This cross-sectional community based study was done in Singur block of West Bengal to determine the prevalence of under-nutrition among the under-five children and to find out the determinants of under-nutrition assessed by CIAF using multivariate analysis. WHO Z-score system and the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF were used to estimate the magnitude of under-nutrition. Results: Out of 113 children, 37 (32.7% were suffering from under-nutrition according to CIAF. Both underweight and wasting was present in 17.7% while stunting was prevalent in 15%. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that high birth order, low birth weight, lesser duration of breast-feeding, and low education level of mother were significantly associated with under-nutrition assessed by CIAF after adjusting for other variables. Conclusion: CIAF gives a better estimate of under-nutrition than the currently used weight-for-age Z score, hence we recommend the inclusion of height measurement in growth monitoring activities for calculating CIAF. The study also reinforces the importance of appropriate maternal care, proper infant and child feeding practices and family planning services in prevention of under-nutrition.

  12. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health

  13. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  14. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  15. Entropy and bispectral index for assessment of sedation, analgesia and the effects of unpleasant stimuli in critically ill patients: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenggi, Matthias; Ypparila-Wolters, Heidi; Bieri, Christine; Steiner, Carola; Takala, Jukka; Korhonen, Ilkka; Jakob, Stephan M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Sedative and analgesic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients. Their overuse may prolong mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the intensive care unit. Guidelines recommend use of sedation protocols that include sedation scores and trials of sedation cessation to minimize drug use. We evaluated processed electroencephalography (response and state entropy and bispectral index) as an adjunct to monitoring effects of commonly used sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning. Methods Electrodes for monitoring bispectral index and entropy were placed on the foreheads of 44 critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation and who previously had no brain dysfunction. Sedation was targeted individually using the Ramsay Sedation Scale, recorded every 2 hours or more frequently. Use of and indications for sedative and analgesic drugs and intratracheal suctioning were recorded manually and using a camera. At the end of the study, processed electroencephalographical and haemodynamic variables collected before and after each drug application and tracheal suctioning were analyzed. Ramsay score was used for comparison with processed electroencephalography when assessed within 15 minutes of an intervention. Results The indications for boli of sedative drugs exhibited statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, differences in terms of their association with processed electroencephalographical parameters. Electroencephalographical variables decreased significantly after bolus, but a specific pattern in electroencephalographical variables before drug administration was not identified. The same was true for opiate administration. At both 30 minutes and 2 minutes before intratracheal suctioning, there was no difference in electroencephalographical or clinical signs in patients who had or had not received drugs 10 minutes before suctioning. Among patients who received drugs, electroencephalographical parameters

  16. Sportininkų po ūmios čiurnos raiščių traumos izometrinės eversijos ir inversijos jėgų pokyčių vertinimas reabilitacijos eigoje

    OpenAIRE

    Tankevičius, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Disertacijoje įvertinta 144 sportininkų, patyrusių ūmią čiurnos raiščių traumą, čiurnos funkciją atspindinčių rodiklių kaita reabilitacijos eigoje. Greta įprastinių čiurnos funkciją atspindinčių rodiklių, tokių kaip čiurnos skausmas, patinimas, subjektyviai vertinama čiurnos funkcija, šiame darbe taip pat buvo vertinama čiurnos izometrinė eversijos ir inversijos jėga. Kadangi izometriniai jėgų matavimai buvo atliekami ūmiuoju čiurnos raiščių pažeidimo periodu, tai buvo vertinamas ir šių matav...

  17. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    OpenAIRE

    David, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC) Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS) for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the P...

  18. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  19. Sequential Oxygenation Index and Organ Dysfunction Assessment within the First 3 Days of Mechanical Ventilation Predict the Outcome of Adult Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Ching Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method. 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw, and oxygenation index (OI on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results. 38 out of 100 (38% patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48% failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI ( and SOFA ( score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA ( was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, . Conclusion. Early OI (within 3 days and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.

  20. Assessment of the sensitivity of core / shell parameters derived using the single-particle soot photometer to density and refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. W.; Allan, J. D.; Liu, D.; Flynn, M.; Weber, R.; Zhang, X.; Lefer, B. L.; Grossberg, N.; Flynn, J.; Coe, H.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the dominant absorbing aerosol in the atmosphere, and plays an important role in climate and human health. The optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of soot depend on the amounts (both relative and absolute) of BC and non-refractory material in the particles. Mixing between these two components is often represented in models by a core / shell coated sphere. The single-particle soot photometer (SP2) is one of, if not the only, instrument capable of reporting distributions of both core size and coating thickness. Most studies combine the SP2's incandescence and 1064 nm scattering data to report coating properties, but to date there is no consistency in the assumed values of density and refractive index of the core that are used in these calculations, which can greatly affect the reported parameters such as coating thickness. Given that such data are providing an important constraint for model comparisons and comparison between large data sets, it is important that this lack of consistency is addressed. In this study we explore the sensitivity of the reported coatings to these parameters. An assessment of the coating properties of freshly emitted, thermodenuded ambient particles demonstrated that a core density of 1.8 g cm-3 and refractive index of (2.26-1.26i) were the most appropriate to use with ambient soot in the Los Angeles area. Using these parameters generated a distribution with median shell / core ratio of 1.02 ± 0.11, corresponding to a median absolute coating thickness of 2 ± 8 nm. The main source of statistical error in the single-particle data was random variation in the incandescence signals. Other than the sensitivity to core refractive index, the incandescence calibration was the main source of uncertainty when optically determining the average coatings. The refractive index of coatings was found to have only a minor influence. This work demonstrates that using this technique the SP2 can accurately