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Sample records for assessment index rai

  1. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990 as...

  2. Preoperative serum tetranectin, CA125 and menopausal status used as single markers in screening and in a risk assessment index (RAI) in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F D; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, S K;

    2009-01-01

    risk for OC for quick referral to highly specialized centers in gynecologic oncology. These aims were addressed in the present study by evaluating serum tetranectin (TN) and serum CA125 on a large number of pre- and postmenopausal women with ovarian tumors and controls. METHODS: The potential ability...... of the markers to discriminate between the four groups (208 benign ovarian tumor, 153 borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), 445 OC and 1333 age matched controls) in OC screening was examined. We also constructed a risk assessment index (RAI) for discrimination between tumor groups based on these variables...

  3. Development of mental health quality indicators (MHQIs for inpatient psychiatry based on the interRAI mental health assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlman Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome quality indicators are rarely used to evaluate mental health services because most jurisdictions lack clinical data systems to construct indicators in a meaningful way across mental health providers. As a result, important information about the effectiveness of health services remains unknown. This study examined the feasibility of developing mental health quality indicators (MHQIs using the Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health (RAI-MH, a clinical assessment system mandated for use in Ontario, Canada as well as many other jurisdictions internationally. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on two datasets containing RAI-MH assessments for 1,056 patients from 7 facilities and 34,788 patients from 70 facilities in Ontario, Canada. The RAI-MH was completed by clinical staff of each facility at admission and follow-up, typically at discharge. The RAI-MH includes a breadth of information on symptoms, functioning, socio-demographics, and service utilization. Potential MHQIs were derived by examining the empirical patterns of improvement and incidence in depressive symptoms and cognitive performance across facilities in both sets of data. A prevalence indicator was also constructed to compare restraint use. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk adjustment of MHQIs using patient case-mix index scores derived from the RAI-MH System for Classification of Inpatient Psychiatry. Results Subscales from the RAI-MH, the Depression Severity Index (DSI and Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, were found to have good reliability and strong convergent validity. Unadjusted rates of five MHQIs based on the DSI, CPS, and restraints showed substantial variation among facilities in both sets of data. For instance, there was a 29.3% difference between the first and third quartile facility rates of improvement in cognitive performance. The case-mix index score was significantly related to MHQIs for cognitive performance

  4. User experience of interRAI assessment tools in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanne; Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The international residential assessment instrument (interRAI) has been adopted for phased national implementation in New Zealand. It targets people over 65 years who require needs assessment for access to long term publicly funded services. There is limited research on the barriers to adoption for interRAI electronic assessment tools, and none relating to the New Zealand health sector. This research qualitatively explored clinicians' perceptions and experience of using interRAI electronic assessment tools using semi-structured interviews guided by constructs from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model [9]. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. Three major barriers to adoption of interRAI tools emerged from the research: 1) lack of ready access to individual laptops/computers with consistent network connectivity, 2) need for ongoing training for interRAI assessors, and, 3) lack of understanding of what information is being collected and for what reasons. The growth in aging populations will see greater use of interRAI electronic assessment tools, and therefore more clinicians required to learn and use the technology. Addressing these barriers to adoption is therefore vital.

  5. Care planning needs of palliative home care clients: Development of the interRAI palliative care assessment clinical assessment protocols (CAPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Shannon; Hirdes, John P; Stolee, Paul; Garcia, John; Smith, Trevor Frise; Steel, Knight; Morris, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The interRAI Palliative Care (interRAI PC) assessment instrument provides a standardized, comprehensive means to identify person-specific need and supports clinicians to address important factors such as aspects of function, health, and social support. The interRAI Clinical Assessment Protocols (CAPs) inform clinicians of priority issues requiring further investigation where specific intervention may be warranted and equip clinicians with evidence to better inform development of a ...

  6. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times

    OpenAIRE

    Gyeong-Cheol Kim; Ki-Young Ji; Yi-Soon Kim; Yi-Sub Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different eating times on blood circulation index, pulse wave energy (E), and radial augmentation index (RAI) of healthy adult men. Methods: Blood circulation index, E, and RAI were measured using a three-dimensional (3-D) pulse imaging system (3-D MAC) at before, right after, 30 minutes after, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after eating. Results: In the blood circulation index, heart rate (HR), estimated cardiac output (ECO)...

  7. Reliability of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments: a 12-country study of an integrated health information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Len

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-domain suite of instruments has been developed by the interRAI research collaborative to support assessment and care planning in mental health, aged care and disability services. Each assessment instrument comprises items common to other instruments and specialized items exclusive to that instrument. This study examined the reliability of the items from five instruments supporting home care, long term care, mental health, palliative care and post-acute care. Methods Paired assessments on 783 individuals across 12 nations were completed within 72 hours of each other by trained assessors who were blinded to the others' assessment. Reliability was tested using weighted kappa coefficients. Results The overall kappa mean value for 161 items which are common to 2 or more instruments was 0.75. The kappa mean value for specialized items varied among instruments from 0.63 to 0.73. Over 60% of items scored greater than 0.70. Conclusion The vast majority of items exceeded standard cut-offs for acceptable reliability, with only modest variation among instruments. The overall performance of these instruments showed that the interRAI suite has substantial reliability according to conventional cut-offs for interpreting the kappa statistic. The results indicate that interRAI items retain reliability when used across care settings, paving the way for cross domain application of the instruments as part of an integrated health information system.

  8. Diet quality assessment indexes

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    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  9. Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashrafi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of the information. The present study, while offering a capsule definition of index, will investigate the indexing evaluation criteria and would follow it up with a definition of indexing. Finally a number of standards in the field of indexing are presented and would make its conclusions.

  10. Rapid Acting Insulin Use and Persistence among Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Patients Adding RAI to Oral Antidiabetes Drug Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Steve; Fan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-naïve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence. Of 3734 patients adding RAI to their OAD regimen, 2334 (62.5%) had a RAIp during follow-up. Factors associated with RAIp included using ≤2 OADs; cognitive impairment, basal insulin use during follow-up; and higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30). Patients were less likely to persist with RAI when on ≤2 OADs versus ≥3 OADs and when having higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30) and more likely to persist when they had cognitive impairment and basal insulin use during follow-up. Real-world persistence of RAI in insulin-naïve elderly patients with type 2 diabetes was very poor when RAI was added to an OAD regimen. PMID:27761472

  11. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  12. Relationship between interRAI HC and the ICF: opportunity for operationalizing the ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Gunnar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is embraced as a framework to conceptualize human functioning and disability. Health professionals choose measures to represent the domains of the framework. The ICF coding classification is an administrative system but multiple studies have linked diverse clinical assessments to ICF codes. InterRAI-HC (home care is an assessment designed to assist planning of care for patients receiving home care. Examining the relationship between the ICF and the interRAI HC is of particular interest because the interRAI assessments are widely used in clinical practice and research, are computerized, and uploaded to databases that serve multiple purposes including public reporting of quality in Canada and internationally. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the interRAI HC (home care assessment and the ICF. Specifically, the goal was to determine the proportion of interRAI HC items that can be linked to each of the major domains of the ICF (Body Function, Body Structure, Activities and Participation, and the Environmental Factors, the chapters and the specific ICF codes. Methods Three coders who were familiar with both the home care assessment and the ICF independently assigned ICF codes to inter-RAI HC items. Subsequently, a series of teleconference meetings were held to reach consensus on the primary code and much later consensus was used to finalize codes for additional items added to the interRAI HC. Results Following exclusion of administrative and diagnostic sections, 175 interRAI items were examined for potential assignment of codes. Of these 52 were assigned codes related to body function, 43 to activities and participation, 34 to environment, 1 to body structure, 17 to not coded, and 26 to not defined. Considering all 3-digit ICF codes, interRAI items addressed 43.2% of Body Function and 50.6% of Activities and Participation

  13. The RAI DBS experiment with Olympus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Enzo

    The Italian broadcasting network (RAI) has studied the development of a national DBS service in an effort to outline a proposal for a space segment configuration compatible with development of new services, including HDTV. Proposals so far considered feature the integration of RAI's channel on Olympus in a future operational system and after extensive experimental use. Contents of the experimental program are discussed, and need for a broadcasting standard which considers projected introduction of HDTV is noted. The debate between RAI and consumer electronic industries on the use of broadcasting standards is outlined. The position of RAI in the context of HDTV and DBS is defined and the issue of determining the most effective transmission standard during the experimental stage is raised. It is pointed out that, in the absence of new production facilities for HDTV, the maximum quality which MAC will yield will be that of PAL since programs must be produced in PAL and then converted into MAC. Two alternatives for strategy on the use of broadcasting standards for DBS are offered. Finally, technical experiments and a market survey are discussed.

  14. Constipation and Laxative Use among Nursing Home Patients: Prevalence and Associations Derived from the Residents Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities (interRAI LTCF

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    Lene Elisabeth Blekken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Constipation is a common, bothersome, and potentially dangerous condition among nursing home (NH patients. Between 50 and 74% of NH patients use laxatives. Objective. To study prevalence and associations of laxative use and constipation using the comprehensive Norwegian version of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Patients from 20 NH units were included. Logistic regression was used to analyze the results. Data collected in NHs might be clustered. Consequently, the multivariable models were tested against a mixed effects regression model to investigate variance both on the level of patients and on the level of NH units. Results. In all, 261 patients were included. The prevalence of constipation was 23.4%, and 67.1% used laxatives regularly. Balance problems, urinary incontinence, hypothyroidism, and Parkinson’s disease were associated with constipation. Reduced ability to communicate and number of drugs were associated with laxative use. Antidementia-drugs and being involved in activities 1/3 to 2/3 of daytime were protective factors for laxative use. Mixed effects analyses identified variance on the level of NH units as nonsignificant. Conclusion. Constipation and laxative use are common. Variance is mainly explained by different patient characteristics/health deficiencies. Hence, patients might benefit from individualized care to compensate for deficiencies.

  15. Constipation and Laxative Use among Nursing Home Patients: Prevalence and Associations Derived from the Residents Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities (interRAI LTCF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekken, Lene Elisabeth; Nakrem, Sigrid; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen; Mørkved, Siv; Gjeilo, Kari Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Constipation is a common, bothersome, and potentially dangerous condition among nursing home (NH) patients. Between 50 and 74% of NH patients use laxatives. Objective. To study prevalence and associations of laxative use and constipation using the comprehensive Norwegian version of the Resident Assessment Instrument for Long-Term Care Facilities. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Patients from 20 NH units were included. Logistic regression was used to analyze the results. Data collected in NHs might be clustered. Consequently, the multivariable models were tested against a mixed effects regression model to investigate variance both on the level of patients and on the level of NH units. Results. In all, 261 patients were included. The prevalence of constipation was 23.4%, and 67.1% used laxatives regularly. Balance problems, urinary incontinence, hypothyroidism, and Parkinson's disease were associated with constipation. Reduced ability to communicate and number of drugs were associated with laxative use. Antidementia-drugs and being involved in activities 1/3 to 2/3 of daytime were protective factors for laxative use. Mixed effects analyses identified variance on the level of NH units as nonsignificant. Conclusion. Constipation and laxative use are common. Variance is mainly explained by different patient characteristics/health deficiencies. Hence, patients might benefit from individualized care to compensate for deficiencies. PMID:26884751

  16. STUDI ANALISIS SETTING RELAY PENGAMAN DI PENYULANG NGURAH RAI I DAN PENYULANG NGURAH RAI II

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    I Komang Sutarjana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan gangguan di jaringan distribusi 20 kV seringkali menyebabkan terputusnya pasokan daya listrik kepada pelanggan. Salah satu penyebab keandalan sistem kurang baik adalah kesalahan koordinasi setting relay pada penyulang. Seperti yang terjadi pada penyulang Ngurah Rai I dan Penyulang Ngurah Rai II dimana terdapat kesalahan koordinasi setting antara relay pada pangkal penyulang yang terletak di Gardu Induk (GI dengan relay pada di ujung jaringan yang terletak di Gardu Hubung (GH. Untuk memecahkan masalah tersebut maka perlu dianalisis setting relay yang sudah ada (eksisting. Untuk membuktikan koordinasi setting relay sudah sempurna, maka akan dilakukan simulasi menggunakan bantuan program computer yaitu Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh nilai setting dimulai dari setting Over Current Relay (OCR pada pangkal penyulang (GI 360 A dan Tms 0,36 sedangkan untuk nilai setting arus OCR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional 330 A dan TMS 0,16. Kemudian untuk setting GFR pada pangkal penyulang (GI diperoleh nilai 34 A dan TMS 0,2. Sedangkan setting GFR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional diperoleh nilai 31 A dan TMS 0,1.

  17. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  18. Numerical assessment of the stiffness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sally; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Elliott, Paul; Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Elevated systemic vascular stiffness is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that the time difference between the two characteristic peaks of the digital volume pulse (DVP) measured at the finger using photoplethysmography is related to the stiffness of the arterial tree, and inversely proportional to the stiffness index (SI). However, the precise physical meaning of the SI and its relation to aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) is yet to be ascertained. In this study we investigated numerically the effect of changes in arterial wall stiffness, peripheral resistances, peripheral compliances or peripheral wave reflections on the SI and aPWV. The SI was calculated from the digital area waveform simulated using a nonlinear one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in a 75-artery network, which includes the larger arteries of the hand. Our results show that aPWV is affected by changes in aortic stiffness, but the SI is primarily affected by changes in the stiffness of all conduit vessels. Thus, the SI is not a direct substitute for aPWV. Moreover, our results suggest that peripheral reflections in the upper body delay the time of arrival of the first peak in the DVP. The second peak is predominantly caused by the impedance mismatch within the 75 arterial segments, rather than by peripheral reflections.

  19. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan;

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  20. Separation index and fit items of creative thinking skills assessment

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    Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyzed using the Quest software including the separation index and fit item. The results indicate that the creative thinking skills assessment instrument that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers has a good separation index and all the items fit PCM-1PL.

  1. Fatores associados ao aumento no índice de incremento de pressão radial em indivíduos hipertensos Factors associated with increased radial augmentation index in hypertensive individuals

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    Renan Oliveira Vaz-de-Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A rigidez arterial é uma variável preditora de morbimortalidade e um possível marcador de lesão vascular. Sua avaliação não invasiva por tonometria radial e análise do índice de incremento (r-AI permite identificar os pacientes expostos a um maior risco cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do r-AI em variáveis clínico-bioquímicas e sua influência na prevalência de dano em órgão-alvo em pacientes hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Cento e quarenta pacientes hipertensos consecutivos, em seguimento clínico ambulatorial, foram submetidos à análise transversal. Os níveis de pressão arterial (PA e o r-AI foram obtidos por tonometria de aplanação da artéria radial (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. Os pacientes foram alocados em tercis r-AI (r-AI 97%. RESULTADOS: A amostra era predominantemente composta por mulheres (56,4%, com idade média de 61,7 ± 11,7 anos e índice de massa corporal de 29,6 ± 6,1 Kg/m². O maior tercil apresentou uma proporção maior de mulheres (p = 0,001, maior PA sistólica (p = 0,001 e pressão de pulso (p = 0,014, e menor peso (p = 0,044, altura (p BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is a variable predictor of morbidity and mortality and a possible marker of vascular injury. Its non-invasive assessment by radial tonometry and analysis of the augmentation index (r-AI allows identifying patients exposed to higher cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of r-AI on clinical-biochemical variables and its influence on the prevalence of target-organ damage in hypertensive patients. METHODS: 140 consecutive hypertensive patients, followed-up in an outpatient clinic, were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Blood pressure (BP levels and r-AI were obtained by applanation tonometry of the radial artery (HEM-9000AI, Onrom. The patients were allocated into r-AI tertiles (r-AI 97%. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly composed of women (56.4%, mean age of 61.7 ± 11.7 years and body mass index 29.6

  2. [Assessing forest ecosystem health I. Model, method, and index system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Dai, Limin; Ji, Lanzhu; Deng, Hongbing; Hao, Zhanqing; Wang, Qingli

    2004-10-01

    Ecosystem health assessment is one of the main researches and urgent tasks of ecosystem science in 21st century. An operational definition on ecosystem health and an all-sided, simple, easy operational and standard index system, which are the foundation of assessment on ecosystem health, are necessary in obtaining a simple and applicable assessment theory and method of ecosystem health. Taking the Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem as an example, an originally creative idea on ecosystem health was put forward in this paper based on the idea of mode ecosystem set and the idea of forest ecosystem health, together with its assessment. This creative idea can help understand what ecosystem health is. Finally, a formula was deduced based on a new effective health assessment method--health distance (HD), which is the first time to be brought forward in China. At the same time, aiming at it's characteristics by status understanding and material health questions, a health index system of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest ecosystem was put forward in this paper, which is a compound ecosystem based on the compound properties of nature, economy and society. It is concrete enough to measure sub-index, so it is the foundation to assess ecosystem health of Korean pine and broadleaved mixed forest in next researches.

  3. [The Helkimo index for assessing treatment results after mandibular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, J; Hellmuth, M; Hellmuth, K O

    1991-01-01

    Based on the Helkimo index we assessed the success of conservative and conservative-surgical forms of treatment for mandibular fractures in a total of 166 patients. The control group consisted of 50 probands. The Helkimo dysfunction index, which is based on various criteria, showed dysfunction in 81.9% of the patients with only slight functional impairment in 57.2% of these cases. 18.1% of the patients were clinically symptom-free. A comparison with the probands revealed no major differences in dysfunction between the two groups. Significant differences were observed only in the case of 2 isolated criteria (maximum mandibular protrusion, muscle pain). Severe dysfunction, however, was more common in the fracture patients. Based on the Helkimo occlusion index disorder were noted in 91.7% of the patients, while severe occlusion disorder were observed particularly in patients with combined mandibular body and condyle fractures (40.0%). In the control group a more favorable occlusion index was found to be due mainly to the greater number of present and/or occluding teeth. The Helkimo index, particularly the dysfunctionindex, is a very useful instrument for assessing the success of treatment measures in mandibular fracture cases. It should be more commonly used to improve the possibilites of objective comparisons between patients from different hospitals.

  4. Use of the interRAI CHESS scale to predict mortality among persons with neurological conditions in three care settings.

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    John P Hirdes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persons with certain neurological conditions have higher mortality rates than the population without neurological conditions, but the risk factors for increased mortality within diagnostic groups are less well understood. The interRAI CHESS scale has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality in the overall population of persons receiving health care in community and institutional settings. This study examines the performance of CHESS as a predictor of mortality among persons with 11 different neurological conditions. METHODS: Survival analyses were done with interRAI assessments linked to mortality data among persons in home care (n = 359,940, complex continuing care hospitals/units (n = 88,721, and nursing homes (n = 185,309 in seven Canadian provinces/territories. RESULTS: CHESS was a significant predictor of mortality in all 3 care settings for the 11 neurological diagnostic groups considered after adjusting for age and sex. The distribution of CHESS scores varied between diagnostic groups and within diagnostic groups in different care settings. CONCLUSIONS: CHESS is a valid predictor of mortality in neurological populations in community and institutional care. It may prove useful for several clinical, administrative, policy-development, evaluation and research purposes. Because it is routinely gathered as part of normal clinical practice in jurisdictions (like Canada that have implemented interRAI assessment instruments, CHESS can be derived without additional need for data collection.

  5. RAI1 transcription factor activity is impaired in mutants associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

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    Paulina Carmona-Mora

    Full Text Available Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS is a complex genomic disorder mostly caused by the haploinsufficiency of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1, located in the chromosomal region 17p11.2. In a subset of SMS patients, heterozygous mutations in RAI1 are found. Here we investigate the molecular properties of these mutated forms and their relationship with the resulting phenotype. We compared the clinical phenotype of SMS patients carrying a mutation in RAI1 coding region either in the N-terminal or the C-terminal half of the protein and no significant differences were found. In order to study the molecular mechanism related to these two groups of RAI1 mutations first we analyzed those mutations that result in the truncated protein corresponding to the N-terminal half of RAI1 finding that they have cytoplasmic localization (in contrast to full length RAI1 and no ability to activate the transcription through an endogenous target: the BDNF enhancer. Similar results were found in lymphoblastoid cells derived from a SMS patient carrying RAI1 c.3103insC, where both mutant and wild type products of RAI1 were detected. The wild type form of RAI1 was found in the chromatin bound and nuclear matrix subcellular fractions while the mutant product was mainly cytoplasmic. In addition, missense mutations at the C-terminal half of RAI1 presented a correct nuclear localization but no activation of the endogenous target. Our results showed for the first time a correlation between RAI1 mutations and abnormal protein function plus they suggest that a reduction of total RAI1 transcription factor activity is at the heart of the SMS clinical presentation.

  6. RAI1 transcription factor activity is impaired in mutants associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Canales, Cesar P; Cao, Lei; Perez, Irene C; Srivastava, Anand K; Young, Juan I; Walz, Katherina

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a complex genomic disorder mostly caused by the haploinsufficiency of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1), located in the chromosomal region 17p11.2. In a subset of SMS patients, heterozygous mutations in RAI1 are found. Here we investigate the molecular properties of these mutated forms and their relationship with the resulting phenotype. We compared the clinical phenotype of SMS patients carrying a mutation in RAI1 coding region either in the N-terminal or the C-terminal half of the protein and no significant differences were found. In order to study the molecular mechanism related to these two groups of RAI1 mutations first we analyzed those mutations that result in the truncated protein corresponding to the N-terminal half of RAI1 finding that they have cytoplasmic localization (in contrast to full length RAI1) and no ability to activate the transcription through an endogenous target: the BDNF enhancer. Similar results were found in lymphoblastoid cells derived from a SMS patient carrying RAI1 c.3103insC, where both mutant and wild type products of RAI1 were detected. The wild type form of RAI1 was found in the chromatin bound and nuclear matrix subcellular fractions while the mutant product was mainly cytoplasmic. In addition, missense mutations at the C-terminal half of RAI1 presented a correct nuclear localization but no activation of the endogenous target. Our results showed for the first time a correlation between RAI1 mutations and abnormal protein function plus they suggest that a reduction of total RAI1 transcription factor activity is at the heart of the SMS clinical presentation.

  7. MODEL BIAYA PEMELIHARAAN FASILITAS PADA BANDAR UDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Dewita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Facilities in an airport requires maintenance activity in order to achieve excellent quality level and able to support activities at the airport to avoid negative impacts, which is the declining quality of the facility that can lead to lower levels of the productivity carried out in an airport. Maintenance facilities at Bali's Ngurah Rai airport need the maintenance costs planning. To get proper maintenance actions,  the maintenance costs early stages of planning phase needs to develop a model of facility maintenance costs that can provide the maintenance costs estimates quickly and accurately. To produce a maintenance costs model we should identify the maintenance activities that exist at Ngurah Rai airport. Maintenance costs data used is within the last 5 years (2007-2011. Using the Cost Significant Model methode and the linear regression equation it showed that several of the facility maintenace significantly affect the facility maintenance costs in the Ngurah Rai Airport which is the cost of passenger terminal building maintenance (X6, the cost of runway maintenance (X1, the cost of taxiway maintenance (X2, the cost of air conditioning installation maintenance (X14, the cost of road maintenance (X4, the cost of vehicle parking maintenance (X5, and the cost of navigation and communication equipment maintenance (X10. There is 3  linear regression equation model which is 1 Y = 11873745878,77 + 0,993 X1 + 0,826 X2 + 0,334 X4 + 1,181 X6, 2 Y = -698840481,94 + 1,327 X1 + 1,716 X2 + 5,516 X5+ 3,060 X14, and 3 Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14. After doing the Cost Model Factor (CMF test to the three linear regression equation, the most accurate equation is linear regression equation Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14 that has the average ratio 0.006% of the actual cost, so it is the best facility maintenance cost model at Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.

  8. An index for the assessment of degraded Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Diagnosing the degradation degree of forest ecosystems is the basis for restoration strategies. However, there is no literature documenting how to quantify the forest degradation degree by using synthetic indicators, also because there is not a widely accepted definition for "forest degradation" and "degraded forest". Although there are many definitions of forest degradation that converge on the loss of ecosystem services, still today there are no largely accepted methods that give operational guidance to help in defining it. In the present research, with the aim to assess the degree of forest degradation, an integrated index - FDI, Forest Degradation Index - was developed.Area of study: In this first application, the FDI was applied and validated at stand level in two different Mediterranean forest types in two different case studies: Madonie and Nedrodi regional Parks (Sicily, Italy. The first dominated by sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa], the second dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber L..Material and methods: FDI is a synthetic index structured starting from representative and relatively easily detectable parameters. Here, we propose a set of six indicators that should be assessed to determine the forest degradation: Structural Index (SI, Canopy Cover (CC, Natural Regeneration Density (NRD, Focal Species of Degradation (FSD, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD, and Soil Depth (SD. FDI, here proposed and discussed, has been based on a MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique, and implemented in order to contribute in finding simple indicators useful for forest restoration purposes that have an eco-functional basis.Main results: An integrated index of forest degradation has been defined. FDI values are comprised in the closed interval [0, 10], ranging from class I (Higher ecological functionality to class IV (Lower

  9. The Assessment of Mangrove Sediment Quality in Mengkabong Lagoon: An Index Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, Sarva M.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Abdullah, Mohd H.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different types of indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mengkabong lagoon and select the best index to describe the Mengkabong sediment quality. The indexes used in this study were Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Marine Sediment Pollution…

  10. An initial assessment of Suomi NPP VIIRS vegetation index EDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M.; Miura, T.; Shabanov, N.; Kato, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite with Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard was launched in October 2011. VIIRS is the primary instrument for a suite of Environmental Data Records (EDR), including Vegetation Index (VI) EDR, for weather forecasting and climate research. The VIIRS VI EDR operational product consists of the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and per-pixel product quality information. In this paper, we report results of our assessment of the early VIIRS VI EDR (beta quality) using Aqua MODIS and NOAA-18 AVHRR/3 as a reference for May 2012 to March 2013. We conducted two types of analyses focused on an assessment of physical (global scale) and radiometric (regional scale) performances of VIIRS VI EDR. Both TOA NDVI and TOC EVI of VIIRS showed spatial and temporal trends consistent with the MODIS counterparts, whereas VIIRS TOA NDVI was systematically higher than that of AVHRR. Performance of the early VIIRS VI EDR was limited by a lack of adequate per-pixel quality information, commission/omission errors of the cloud mask, and uncertainties associated with the surface reflectance retrievals. A number of enhancements to the VI EDR are planned, including: (1) implementation of a TOC EVI back-up algorithm, (2) addition of more detailed quality flags on aerosols, clouds, and snow cover, and (3) implementation of gridding and temporal compositing. A web-based, product quality monitoring tool has been developed and automated product validation protocols are being prototyped.

  11. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  12. Molecular and Neural Functions of Rai1, the Causal Gene for Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Guenthner, Casey J; Xu, Jin; Nguyen, Tiffany; Schwarz, Lindsay A; Wilkinson, Alex W; Gozani, Or; Chang, Howard Y; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Luo, Liqun

    2016-10-19

    Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication. Behavioral analyses demonstrated that pan-neural loss of Rai1 causes deficits in motor function, learning, and food intake. These SMS-like phenotypes are produced by loss of Rai1 function in distinct neuronal types: Rai1 loss in inhibitory neurons or subcortical glutamatergic neurons causes learning deficits, while Rai1 loss in Sim1(+) or SF1(+) cells causes obesity. By integrating molecular and organismal analyses, our study suggests potential therapeutic avenues for a complex neurodevelopmental disorder.

  13. Vegetation of Doi Tung, Chiang Rai Province, Northern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Maxwell

    Full Text Available The climate of Doi Tung, Chiang Rai Province, is monsoonal with three distinctseasons, viz. cool-dry, hot-dry, and rainy. The elevation ranges from c. 350-1525m and mostof the bedrock is limestone and granite. Vegetation below c. 1000m is mostly deciduous,while above this it is evergreen. A mixed evergreen + deciduous facies is present on thelimestone peaks (up to 1425m. Forest destruction as well as settlements are widespread,thus creating increasingly severe problems with water resources, soil quality and stability, andbiodiversity. The planting on pine monocultures in deforested areas 20 years ago in uplandgranite areas has resulted in much environmental degradation which requires immediaterectification.

  14. Dietary regimens modify early onset of obesity in mice haploinsufficient for Rai1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Alaimo

    Full Text Available Smith-Magenis syndrome is a complex genomic disorder in which a majority of individuals are obese by adolescence. While an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2 is the leading cause, mutation or deletion of the RAI1 gene alone results in most features of the disorder. Previous studies have shown that heterozygous knockout of Rai1 results in an obese phenotype in mice and that Smith-Magenis syndrome mouse models have a significantly reduced fecundity and an altered transmission pattern of the mutant Rai1 allele, complicating large, extended studies in these models. In this study, we show that breeding C57Bl/6J Rai1+/- mice with FVB/NJ to create F1 Rai1+/- offspring in a mixed genetic background ameliorates both fecundity and Rai1 allele transmission phenotypes. These findings suggest that the mixed background provides a more robust platform for breeding and larger phenotypic studies. We also characterized the effect of dietary intake on Rai1+/- mouse growth during adolescent and early adulthood developmental stages. Animals fed a high carbohydrate or a high fat diet gained weight at a significantly faster rate than their wild type littermates. Both high fat and high carbohydrate fed Rai1+/- mice also had an increase in body fat and altered fat distribution patterns. Interestingly, Rai1+/- mice fed different diets did not display altered fasting blood glucose levels. These results suggest that dietary regimens are extremely important for individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome and that food high in fat and carbohydrates may exacerbate obesity outcomes.

  15. Production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against RAI3 and its expression in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer Hans

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RAI3 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR that has been associated with malignancy and may play a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Although its exact function in normal and malignant cells remains unclear and evidence supporting its role in oncogenesis is controversial, its abundant expression on the surface of cancer cells would make it an interesting target for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. To investigate the link with cancer and provide more evidence for its role, we carried out a systematic analysis of RAI3 expression in a large set of human breast cancer specimens. Methods We expressed recombinant human RAI3 in bacteria and reconstituted the purified protein in liposomes to raise monoclonal antibodies using classical hybridoma techniques. The specific binding activity of the antibodies was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, western blot and immunocytochemistry. We carried out a systematic immunohistochemical analysis of RAI3 expression in human invasive breast carcinomas (n = 147 and normal breast tissues (n = 44 using a tissue microarray. In addition, a cDNA dot blot hybridisation assay was used to investigate a set of matched normal and cancerous breast tissue specimens (n = 50 as well as lymph node metastases (n = 3 for RAI3 mRNA expression. Results The anti-RAI3 monoclonal antibodies bound to recombinant human RAI3 protein with high specificity and affinity, as shown by ELISA, western blot and ICC. The cDNA dot blot and immunohistochemical experiments showed that both RAI3 mRNA and RAI3 protein were abundantly expressed in human breast carcinoma. However, there was no association between RAI3 protein expression and prognosis based on overall and recurrence-free survival. Conclusion We have generated a novel, highly-specific monoclonal antibody that detects RAI3 in formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. This is the first study to report a systematic

  16. BIRDWATCHING RACE DI TAHURA NGURAH RAI BALI SEBAGAI SARANA PENDIDIKAN LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PELAJAR DAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARYANTO SUDARYANTO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Birdwatching race was conducted on 17-19 October 2008 at Srangan Island, Lagoon BTDC Nusa Dua and Mangrove Information Centre (MIC Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. This activity was aimed to increase the awareness of youngsters to environment, especially bird in their habitat. This activity was also aimed to promote one kind of ecotourism namely birdwatching in Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. One hundred students and youngsters from Java, Lombok and Bali Island participated in this activity. The activity included discourse and birdwatching race, environmental education, and discussion on environmental issues related to development ecotourism of Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali.

  17. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3Mthird molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia.

  18. RAI,one candidate gene associated with differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪皎; 张睿; 刘芝华; 王秀琴; 丁芳; 郭明洲; 吴旻

    2000-01-01

    From all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human lung adenocarcinoma GLC-82 cells and control, subtractive cDNA library has been constructed using subtractive hybridization technique in our laboratory. The screening of the cDNA subtractive library resulted in identification of a clone containing cDNA fragment of one ATRA-induced gene (RAI) in GLC-82 cells. The positive clone with full-length cDNA of RAI was identified by screening fetal brain cDNA library using colony hybridization technique, and then sequenced. RT-PCR results showed that RAI was expressed in many different human fetal tissues. These results suggest that RAI may be involved in cell differentiation and play an important role in vital activities of cells.

  19. RAI, one candidate gene associated with differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human lung adenocarcinoma GLC-82 cells and control, subtractive cDNA library has been constructed using subtractive hybridization technique in our laboratory. The screening of the cDNA subtractive library resulted in identification of a clone containing cDNA fragment of one ATRA-induced gene (RAI) in GLC-82 cells. The positive clone with full-length cDNA of RAI was identified by screening fetal brain cDNA library using colony hybridization technique, and then sequenced. RT-PCR results showed that RAI was expressed in many different human fetal tissues. These results suggest that RAI may be involved in cell differentiation and play an important role in vital activities of cells.

  20. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  1. BIRDWATCHING RACE DI TAHURA NGURAH RAI BALI SEBAGAI SARANA PENDIDIKAN LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PELAJAR DAN MAHASISWA

    OpenAIRE

    SUDARYANTO SUDARYANTO; L. P. ESWARYANTI KUSUMA YUNI; YUNITA HARDINI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Birdwatching race was conducted on 17-19 October 2008 at Srangan Island, Lagoon BTDC Nusa Dua and Mangrove Information Centre (MIC) Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. This activity was aimed to increase the awareness of youngsters to environment, especially bird in their habitat. This activity was also aimed to promote one kind of ecotourism namely birdwatching in Tahura Ngurah Rai Bali. One hundred students and youngsters from Java, Lombok and Bali Island participated in this activ...

  2. A new index for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro; Ichino; Keisuke; Osakabe; Toru; Nishikawa; Hiroko; Sugiyama; Miho; Kato; Shiho; Kitahara; Senju; Hashimoto; Naoto; Kawabe; Masao; Harata; Yoshifumi; Nitta; Michihito; Murao; Takuji; Nakano; Yuko; Arima; Hiroaki; Shimazaki; Koji; Suzuki; Kentaro; Yoshioka

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To construct and evaluate a new non-invasive fibrosis index for assessment of the stage of liver f ibrosis. METHODS:A new f ibrosis index (Fibro-Stiffness index) was developed in 165 of 285 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and was validated in the other 120 patients where liver biopsy was performed. Its usefulness was compared with liver stiffness (LS) measured by FibroScan, the aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, the Forns index and the FibroIndex. RESULTS: The Fibro-Stiffness index consists of...

  3. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  4. Absence of survival benefit of radioactive iodine (RAI) after thyroidectomy in low risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, C.; Fieffe, S.; Pochart, J.M. [Endocrinology Nuclear Medicine, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bonnetain, F.; Gauthier, M.; Cueff, A. [Statistics and Epidemiology, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France); Crevisy, E.; Dygai-Cochet, I.; Toubeau, M. [Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges Francois Leclerc, Dijon (France)

    2012-07-01

    After thyroidectomy, the goal of the first dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) is remnant ablation to facilitate the initial staging with the post-therapy scan and to facilitate the early detection of recurrences. The purpose of this study is to the survival benefit of RAI in low-risk thyroid cancer patients. Using Cancer thyroid registry of Marne Ardennes (1041 patients) and hospital data base of centre Leclerc (257 patients), we included all differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients at low risk from 1975 to 2005. Median follow-up was 10.3 years, during which 19 recurrences, 61 other malignant diseases and 105 deaths were registered. 387 patients (30%) received no RAI and 911 had RAI (70%). If we confirmed that some clinical characteristics were associated with RAI intake, the study failed to demonstrate any survival benefit of RAI in low risk DTC patients

  5. Assessment of agricultural drought in Rajasthan (India using remote sensing derived Vegetation Condition Index (VCI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanwita Dutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its severe effect on productivity of rain-fed crops and indirect effect on employment as well as per capita income, agricultural drought has become a prime concern worldwide. The occurrence of drought is mainly a climatic phenomenon which cannot be eliminated. However, its effects can be reduced if actual spatio-temporal information related to crop status is available to the decision makers. The present study attempts to assess the efficiency of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring the spatio-temporal extent of agricultural drought. In the present study, NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data were used for monitoring agricultural drought through NDVI based Vegetation Condition Index. VCI was calculated for whole Rajasthan using the long term NDVI images which reveals the occurrence of drought related crop stress during the year 2002. The VCI values of normal (2003 and drought (2002 year were compared with meteorological based Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Rainfall Anomaly Index and Yield Anomaly Index and a good agreement was found among them. The correlation coefficient between VCI and yield of major rain-fed crops (r > 0.75 also supports the efficiency of this remote sensing derived index for assessing agricultural drought.

  6. Research on the Weight of Index for the Assessment Standard for Green Store Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Assessment standard for green store building of national standard has been compiled. The index has been given by experts’ subjective assignment based on experience. Analytic hierarchy process has been used, making questionnaires of experts, using pairwise comparison and calculating the weight of each index. The weight of index in assessment would not only make quantitative evaluation on the whole situation of green store buildings, but also provide the foundation for compilation and revision.

  7. Use of rai and wavelet of analysis of the influence of the temporal multi-scales in the rainfall of the Mundaú River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Salviano de Sousa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the rainfall in a region of the Mundaú river watershed, at state of Alagoas, Brazil, had been studied using the rainfall anomaly index (RAI and the Wavelet Analysis. This method involves transformation of a one-dimensional series in a time space and frequency, allowing determining the dominant scales of variability and its secular variations. The results had shown that the precipitation variability in the two regions is defined by located secular multi-scales in certain intervals of time. However, on inter-annual variability to the ENSO cycle and the decadal variability of the scales had influenced in the local pluviometric variability.

  8. Circadian abnormalities in mouse models of Smith-Magenis syndrome: evidence for involvement of RAI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaria, Melanie; Gu, Wenli; Lupski, James R

    2013-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a genomic disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and disordered sleep resulting from an ~3.7 Mb deletion copy number variant (CNV) on chromosome 17p11.2 or from point mutations in the gene RAI1. The reciprocal duplication of this region results in another genomic disorder, Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; OMIM 610883), characterized by autism, intellectual disability, and congenital anomalies. We previously used chromosome-engineering and gene targeting to generate mouse models for PTLS (Dp(11)17/+), and SMS due to either deletion CNV or gene knock-out (Df(11)17-2/+ and Rai1(+/-) , respectively) and we observed phenotypes in these mouse models consistent with their associated human syndromes. To investigate the contribution of individual genes to the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS, we now report the analysis of free-running period lengths in Rai1(+/-) and Df(11)17-2/+ mice, as well as in mice deficient for another known circadian gene mapping within the commonly deleted/duplicated region, Dexras1, and we compare these results to those previously observed in Dp(11)17/+ mice. Reduced free-running period lengths were seen in Df(11)17-2/+, Rai1(+/-) , and Dexras1(-/-) , but not Dexras1(+/-) mice, suggesting that Rai1 may be the primary gene underlying the circadian defects in SMS. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that cis effects between multiple haploinsufficient genes in the SMS critical interval (e.g., RAI1 and DEXRAS1) either exacerbate the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS patients with deletions or increase their penetrance in certain environments. This study also confirms a previous report of abnormal circadian function in Dexras1(-/-) mice.

  9. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja;

    2008-01-01

    , many of which were not in the public databases. We tested an additional 44 of these for association with disease and found a new tandem repeat marker, called RAI-3' d1, located downstream of the transcribed region of RAI, which was more strongly associated with breast cancer than any other marker we...

  10. Erosion Resistance Index (ERI) to Assess Surface Stability in Desert Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A new spectral index—erosion resistance index (ERI)—was developed to assess erosion risks in desert landscapes. The index was developed by applying trigonometry to the combination of the green/red band-ratio and the red/near infrared band-ratio from very high spatial resolution imagery. The resultant ERI maps showed spatially cohesive distributions of high and low index values across the study areas. High index values were observed over areas that were resistant to erosion (such as desert pavement and dense vegetation), while low index values overlapped with areas likely dominated by loose sandy soils, such as stream beds and access roads. Although further investigation is warranted, this new index, ERI, shows promise for the assessment of erosion risks in desert regions.

  11. Assessment of impact on seafloor features in INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    and resettlement. Vertical mixing as well as lateral transport of sediment alter the geological, biological, physical, and chemical conditions on the seafloor, which need to be monitored over time to assess the process and the time taken for restoration...

  12. Functional and cellular characterization of human Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1 mutations associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona-Mora Paulina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome in which the dosage sensitive gene has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1. Little is known about the function of human RAI1. Results We generated the full-length cDNA of the wild type protein and five mutated forms: RAI1-HA 2687delC, RAI1-HA 3103delC, RAI1 R960X, RAI1-HA Q1562R, and RAI1-HA S1808N. Four of them have been previously associated with SMS clinical phenotype. Molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcription factor activity of the wild type and mutant forms were studied by western blot, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays respectively. The wild type protein and the two missense mutations presented a higher molecular weight than expected, localized to the nucleus and activated transcription of a reporter gene. The frameshift mutations generated a truncated polypeptide with transcription factor activity but abnormal subcellular localization, and the same was true for the 1-960aa N-terminal half of RAI1. Two different C-terminal halves of the RAI1 protein (1038aa-end and 1229aa-end were able to localize into the nucleus but had no transactivation activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that transcription factor activity and subcellular localization signals reside in two separate domains of the protein and both are essential for the correct functionality of RAI1. The pathogenic outcome of some of the mutated forms can be explained by the dissociation of these two domains.

  13. Effective index approximations of photonic crystal slabs: a 2-to-1-D assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Manfred; Ivanova, Olena V.

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of slab-like photonic crystals are often discussed on the basis of effective index (EI) approximations, where a 2-D effective refractive index profile replaces the actual 3-D structure. Our aim is to assess this approximation by analogous steps that reduce finite 2-D waveguide

  14. Explanatory Value of the Ability Index as Assessed by Cardiologists and Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Anne-Marie Voss; Lisby, Karen H; King, Catriona;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Ability Index was developed to classify patients with congenital heart disease into four functional classes. Functional class is typically determined by the cardiologist, based on data from a clinical interview. The validity of the Ability Index as assessed by the patient has...

  15. Development of a symptom assessment instrument for chronic hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Symptom Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Rotondi, Armando J; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Switzer, Galen E

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, severity, or impact of symptoms in hemodialysis patients because of the lack of a validated symptom assessment instrument. We systematically developed an index to assess physical and emotional symptom burden in this patient population. We employed four steps in the generation of this index: a review of dialysis quality-of-life instruments, three focus groups, experts' content validity assessment, and test-retest reliability measurement. Seventy-five symptoms were identified. Of these, 46 appeared in > or = 4 of the instruments/focus groups and were considered for inclusion. Twelve were grouped into other symptom constructs and experts judged four of the remaining items not to be pertinent, leaving 30 items in the new index. Overall kappa statistic was 0.48+/-0.22. These steps allowed the systematic development of a 30-item symptom assessment index for hemodialysis patients. Additional reliability and validity testing is needed prior to its widespread use.

  16. Completing Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Incorporating the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NatureServe and Heritage Program collaborators have developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to provide a rapid, scientifically defensible assessment of...

  17. Risk Assessment Index System of Natural Gas Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a risk assessment index system for the natural gas industrial chain. China's natural gas industrial chain is entering a stage of rapid growth. In order to guarantee healthy development of the natural gas industrial chain,it is urgent to establish a risk alert system, which is based on a risk assessment index system. First of all, the risks of the natural gas industrial chain are defined in the paper; then the risk factors are analyzed according to the present status of the natural gas industrial chain, and five categories of risk factors are summarized: resource risk, transport risk, marketing risk, risk of unbalanced chain links, and environment risk. The paper presents the principles of the risk assessment index system. The natural gas industrial chain risk assessment index system is established with four levels and forty-six risk indices.

  18. Construction of an Index System for Earthquake Emergency Loss Assessment and Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Gaozhong; An Jiwen; Deng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Loss assessment and decision-making are essential for earthquake emergency rescues, and for scientific prediction of seismic damage and determination of rescue objectives. In practice, however, there exist some problems, such as basic data not being precise and rich enough and decision making not having systematic and complete criteria. This paper tries to solve these problems using the method of data indexation by constructing an index system for earthquake emergency loss assessment and decision-making.

  19. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  20. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  1. EVALUASI PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA DI KAWASAN TAHURA NGURAH RAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUTU IKA WAHYUNI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since January 1992 MIC has initiate Tahura Ngurah Rai are as a ecotourism area, offering programs such as :Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking, Bird Watching; Finishing; Mangrove Tree Plantation or Adoption, Canoeing, andBoating programs. However, its growth has not me the management’s targets in term of the number of visitors, improvedfacilities available, and the surrounding Tahura are – especially its cleanliness-these are far from expectation standard.The evaluation of eco-tourism area of Tahura is aimed at understanding the profile of the eco-tourism area and tounderstand to what extent the ecotourism has met criteria/principles issued in the national workshop. This ecotourism willoffer recommendations designed in relation to programs that has not been working so far after identifying obstacles oftheir implementation.The method used in the evaluation of this eco-tourism area I descriptive analysis by analyzing interview data,observations, and literature studies. These descriptive data then are measured against criteria and principles of nationaleco-tourism.Since March 12, 2007 Mangrove forest area is under the management of BPHM-wil-I continuing JICA ICprogram. Facilities available in the area are as follows; Wood Trails, 5 Huts along the trail, Floating Decks, 2 ViewingTowers; MIC/BPHM Office Building, Touch Pools, Seeding area, and a Monitor Pool. These facilities right now are stillin good condition and can be used to implement the eco-tourism programs.From the 6 programs offered, the Mangrove Education Tour & Tracking Program gets the most interests fromvisitors than the other 5 programs. From 9 criteria used to evaluate the programs, the outcome is as follows: 1 Beingsensitive to and respecting socio-cultural values and religious tradition of local community (88% met; 2 Showingconcern, commitment, and responsibility to natural conservation and cultural heritage (95,24% met; 3 Provideinterpretation that facilities visitors to enjoy

  2. Hydrogen Isotopes of Glassy and Phyllosilicate Spherules in Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) Chondrites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yunbin; Michael E. ZOLENSKY

    2004-01-01

    The hydroxyl in phyllosilicate minerals is the most common occurrence of water in primitive meteorites.Direct hydrogen isotopic analysis of this water component using an ion microprobe has been made in some glassy or phyllosilicate spherules from the Al Rais (CR) and Orgueil (CI) chondrites. The spherules from Al Rais show large deuterium excesses (δD = +200 - +800) relative to terrestrial standards, whereas deuterium-enrichments in the spherules from Orgueil are much smaller (δD = +40 - +130‰). The phyllosilicate spherules are products of aqueous alteration of glassy precursors. In A1 Rais the phyllosilicate spherules have relatively higher δD values than the glassy ones, indicating that water introduced during aqueous alteration was deuterium-enriched. The deuterium-enrichments in the phyllosilicate spherules from Orgueil could result from isotopic exchange under thermodynamic conditions within the solar nebula. The much larger δD excesses of the Al Rais spherules, however, cannot be attributed to the similar process;instead, an interstellar origin needs to be invoked.

  3. Performance Degradation Assessment of Rolling Element Bearings Based on an Index Combining SVD and Information Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation assessment of rolling element bearings is vital for the reliable and cost-efficient operation and maintenance of rotating machines, especially for the implementation of condition-based maintenance (CBM. For robust degradation assessment of rolling element bearings, uncertainties such as those induced from usage variations or sensor errors must be taken into account. This paper presents an information exergy index for bearing performance degradation assessment that combines singular value decomposition (SVD and the information exergy method. Information exergy integrates condition monitoring information of multiple instants and multiple sensors, and thus performance degradation assessment uncertainties are reduced and robust degradation assessment results can be obtained using the proposed index. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed information exergy index are validated through experimental case studies.

  4. drought assessment using Standard precipitation Index in semi arid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaoui, Zoubeida

    2015-04-01

    The Gamma distribution is classically fitted at monthly resolution to assess drought occurrence with respect to precipitation series. SPI estimation reports deviations from normal situations and allows the classification of months from extremely wet to extremely dry. However in case where time series contain zeros (no rainfall observed for some months) the choice of Gamma distribution is not appropriate. The objective of this study is compare Gamma distribution results to the loi des fuites distribution as alternative (Ref : Parent et al., Rev. Statistique Appliquée, 2006, LIV (4), 85-111 ). A network composed by 43 rainfall stations from the extreme North region of Tunisia (Mediterranean façade) using long series records (exceeding 30 years) is adopted to develop the methodology. the distributions for the 1- month, 3-months totals as well as 6 months totals and 12-months totals are adjusted station by station for both distributions and SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6 , SPI-12 are computed. It is found that especially for SPI-1 and SPI-3 that reflect meteorological drought, the decision status is well related to the underlined distribution which results in many operational concerns.

  5. Assessing Diagnostic Expertise of Counselors Using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Cilia L. M.; Weiss, David J.; Metzmacher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Counseling studies have shown that increasing experience is not always associated with better judgments. However, in such studies performance is assessed against external criteria, which may lack validity. The authors applied the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) index, which assesses the ability to consistently discriminate. Results showed that novice…

  6. Assessing Diagnostic Expertise of Counselors Using the Cochran-Weiss-Shanteau (CWS) Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, C.L.M.; Weiss, D.J.; Metzmacher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Counseling studies have shown that increasing experience is not always associated with better judgments. However, in such studies performance is assessed against external criteria, which may lack validity. The authors applied the CochranWeissShanteau (CWS) index, which assesses the ability to consis

  7. The Neuron-Specific Rai (ShcC) Adaptor Protein Inhibits Apoptosis by Coupling Ret to the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelicci, Giuliana; Troglio, Flavia; Bodini, Alessandra; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Pettirossi, Valentina; Coda, Laura; De Giuseppe, Antonio; Santoro, Massimo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Rai is a recently identified member of the family of Shc-like proteins, which are cytoplasmic signal transducers characterized by the unique PTB-CH1-SH2 modular organization. Rai expression is restricted to neuronal cells and regulates in vivo the number of postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We report here that Rai is not a common substrate of receptor tyrosine kinases under physiological conditions and that among the analyzed receptors (Ret, epidermal growth factor receptor, and TrkA) it is activated specifically by Ret. Overexpression of Rai in neuronal cell lines promoted survival by reducing apoptosis both under conditions of limited availability of the Ret ligand glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and in the absence of Ret activation. Overexpressed Rai resulted in the potentiation of the Ret-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Notably, increased Akt phosphorylation and PI3K activity were also found under basal conditions, e.g., in serum-starved neuronal cells. Phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated Rai proteins form a constitutive complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K: upon Ret triggering, the Rai-PI3K complex is recruited to the tyrosine-phosphorylated Ret receptor through the binding of the Rai PTB domain to tyrosine 1062 of Ret. In neurons treated with low concentrations of GDNF, the prosurvival effect of Rai depends on Rai phosphorylation and Ret activation. In the absence of Ret activation, the prosurvival effect of Rai is, instead, phosphorylation independent. Finally, we showed that overexpression of Rai, at variance with Shc, had no effects on the early peak of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, whereas it increased its activation at later time points. Phosphorylated Rai, however, was not found in complexes with Grb2. We propose that Rai potentiates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and regulates Ret-dependent and -independent survival signals. PMID:12242309

  8. Establishment of a seafood index to assess the seafood consumption in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild E. Graff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seafood (fish and shellfish is an excellent source of several essential nutrients for pregnant and lactating women. A short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that can be used to quantitatively estimate seafood consumption would be a valuable tool to assess seafood consumption in this group. Currently there is no such validated FFQ in Norway. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and validate a seafood index from a seafood FFQ against blood biomarkers (the omega-3 index, the omega-3 HUFA score, and serum 25OH vitamin D. Design: We assessed maternal seafood consumption during the 28th gestation week in healthy Norwegian women (n=54 with a seafood FFQ. A seafood index was developed to convert ordinal frequency data from the FFQ into numerical scale data. The following blood biomarkers were used as a validation method: omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and the serum 25OH vitamin D. Results: The reported frequency of seafood as dinner and as spread was strongly correlated with the estimated frequencies of seafood as dinner and as spread. This indicated that the seafood index is a valuable tool to aggregate reported frequencies from the seafood FFQ. The seafood index composed of the frequency of seafood consumption and intake of omega-3 supplements, termed the total seafood index, correlated positively with the omega-3 index, omega-3 HUFA score, and 25OH vitamin D. Conclusion: We established and validated a seafood index from a seafood FFQ. The developed seafood index can be used when studying health effects of seafood consumption in large populations. This seafood FFQ captures seafood consumption and omega-3 supplement intake considerably well in a group of pregnant women.

  9. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  10. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Jin Hwang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods.

  11. Water quality assessment in Qu River based on fuzzy water pollution index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ranran; Zou, Zhihong; An, Yan

    2016-12-01

    A fuzzy improved water pollution index was proposed based on fuzzy inference system and water pollution index. This method can not only give a comprehensive water quality rank, but also describe the water quality situation with a quantitative value, which is convenient for the water quality comparison between the same ranks. This proposed method is used to assess water quality of Qu River in Sichuan, China. Data used in the assessment were collected from four monitoring stations from 2006 to 2010. The assessment results show that Qu River water quality presents a downward trend and the overall water quality in 2010 is the worst. The spatial variation indicates that water quality of Nanbashequ section is the pessimal. For the sake of comparison, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and grey relational method were also employed to assess water quality of Qu River. The comparisons of these three approaches' assessment results show that the proposed method is reliable.

  12. The Shc family protein adaptor, Rai, negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment and activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Ferro

    Full Text Available Rai/ShcC is a member of the Shc family of protein adaptors expressed with the highest abundance in the central nervous system, where it exerts a protective function by coupling neurotrophic receptors to the PI3K/Akt survival pathway. Rai is also expressed, albeit at lower levels, in other cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. We have previously reported that in these cells Rai attenuates antigen receptor signaling, thereby impairing not only cell proliferation but also, opposite to neurons, cell survival. Here we have addressed the mechanism underlying the inhibitory activity of Rai on TCR signaling. We show that Rai interferes with the TCR signaling cascade one of the earliest steps--recruitment of the initiating kinase ZAP-70 to the phosphorylated subunit of the TCR/CD3 complex, which results in a generalized dampening of the downstream signaling events. The inhibitory activity of Rai is associated to its inducible recruitment to phosphorylated CD3, which occurs in the physiological signaling context of the immune synapse. Rai is moreover found as a pre-assembled complex with ZAP-70 and also constitutively interacts with the regulatory p85 subunit of PI3K, similar to neuronal cells, notwithstanding the opposite biological outcome, i.e. impairment of PI-3K/Akt activation. The data highlight the ability of Rai to establish interactions with the TCR and key signaling mediators which, either directly (e.g. by inhibiting ZAP-70 recruitment to the TCR or sequestering ZAP-70/PI3K in the cytosol or indirectly (e.g. by promoting the recruitment of effectors responsible for signal extinction prevent full triggering of the TCR signaling cascade.

  13. Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1) in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Blancato, Jan K; Cox, Gerald F; Deshpande, Charu; Introne, Wendy J; Gahl, William A; Smith, Ann C M; Huizing, Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1) is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion), were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS.

  14. Molecular analysis of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1 in patients with suspected Smith-Magenis syndrome without the 17p11.2 deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Vilboux

    Full Text Available Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS is a complex neurobehavioral disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies. The syndrome is primarily ascribed to a ∼3.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 17p11.2. Haploinsufficiency of multiple genes likely underlies the complex clinical phenotype. RAI1 (Retinoic Acid Induced 1 is recognized as a major gene involved in the SMS phenotype. Extensive genetic and clinical analyses of 36 patients with SMS-like features, but without the 17p11.2 microdeletion, yielded 10 patients with RAI1 variants, including 4 with de novo deleterious mutations, and 6 with novel missense variants, 5 of which were familial. Haplotype analysis showed two major RAI1 haplotypes in our primarily Caucasian cohort; the novel RAI1 variants did not occur in a preferred haplotype. RNA analysis revealed that RAI1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in cells of patients with the common 17p11.2 deletion, as well as in those with de novo RAI1 variants. Expression levels varied in patients with familial RAI1 variants and in non-17p11.2 deleted patients without identified RAI1 defects. No correlation between SNP haplotype and RAI1 expression was found. Two clinical features, ocular abnormalities and polyembolokoilomania (object insertion, were significantly correlated with decreased RAI1 expression. While not significantly correlated, the presence of hearing loss, seizures, hoarse voice, childhood onset of obesity and specific behavioral aspects and the absence of immunologic abnormalities and cardiovascular or renal structural anomalies, appeared to be specific for the de novo RAI1 subgroup. Recognition of the combination of these features will assist in referral for RAI1 analysis of patients with SMS-like features without detectable microdeletion of 17p11.2. Moreover, RAI1 expression emerged as a genetic target for development of therapeutic interventions for SMS.

  15. An Overview of the Peer Assessment Rating (par) Index for Primary Dental Care Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James Ij

    2016-11-01

    The Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index is a valid and reliable measure of orthodontic treatment outcome and is the most widely accepted such index. Assessing outcomes with the PAR index requires the examination of pre-treatment and post-treatment orthodontic study models. Beginning with the pre-treatment models, a score is given to each feature that deviates from an ideal occlusion (all anatomical contact points adjacent, good interdigitation between posterior teeth and non-excessive overjet/overbite), the scores are then added together to give a total that represents the severity of the malocclusion. The process is then repeated with the post-treatment models. The difference between the pre-treatment and the post-treatment scores reflects the improvement that has taken place during treatment. A score of zero represents an ideal occlusion and in general the higher the score, the more extensive the malocclusion. It is currently a condition of the NHS orthodontic contract for providers to monitor a proportion of their cases using the PAR index. This paper aims to provide primary dental care practitioners with an overview of the PAR index and should provide a useful guide for those wishing to seek calibration in the use of the index.

  16. Smith-Magenis syndrome: haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in altered gene regulation in neurological and metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsea, Sarah H; Williams, Stephen R

    2011-04-19

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex neurobehavioural disorder characterised by intellectual disability, self-injurious behaviours, sleep disturbance, obesity, and craniofacial and skeletal anomalies. Diagnostic strategies are focused towards identification of a 17p11.2 microdeletion encompassing the gene RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1) or a mutation of RAI1. Molecular evidence shows that most SMS features are due to RAI1 haploinsufficiency, whereas variability and severity are modified by other genes in the 17p11.2 region for 17p11.2 deletion cases. The functional role of RAI1 is not completely understood, but it is probably a transcription factor acting in several different biological pathways that are dysregulated in SMS. Functional studies based on the hypothesis that RAI1 acts through phenotype-specific pathways involving several downstream genes have shown that RAI1 gene dosage is crucial for normal regulation of circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and neurotransmitter function. Here, we review the clinical and molecular features of SMS and explore more recent studies supporting possible therapeutic strategies for behavioural management.

  17. RAIS: a real time strong-motion network in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marzorati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When compared to more seismically active regions, damaging earthquakes occur only occasionally in the central part of northern Italy. Nevertheless, the lack of a dense strong-motion network in this area was highlighted by the occurrence of the November 24, 2004, ML 5.2, Salò earthquake. In 2006, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV section of Milano-Pavia began the installation of new strong-motion stations in central-northern Italy. At present, the Strong-Motion Network of Northern Italy (RAIS; Rete Accelerometrica Italia Settentrionale includes 22 stations with an average inter-distance of about 20 km. All of the stations are equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T sensors coupled with 24-bit digital recorders. Starting from 2009, 14 strong-motion stations have been sending data to the INGV acquisition center in Milan, in real time using TCP/IP over wi-fi links. Another eight stations still work in dial-up mode and send data through GSM modems. The real-time connections allow the use of strong-motion data recorded by RAIS for the generation of shake maps for Italy, the implementation of which represents one of the main tasks of the last agreement between INGV and the Italian Civil Protection Department. The RAIS data is stored directly at the INGV section of Milano-Pavia, which was realized using the MiniSEED format: the data management and exchange are carried out by the SeisComP package with the SeedLink protocol. Metadata dissemination is achieved through the website http://rais.mi.ingv.it, where the strong-motion parameters related to each recorded and processed waveform are made available.

  18. Aspects of the grammar of Thulung Rai
    an endangered Himalayan language

    OpenAIRE

    Lahaussois, Aimée

    2002-01-01

    Thulung Rai is an endangered Tibeto-Burman language of eastern Nepal, currentlyspoken by approximately one thousand people. It is a member of the Kiranti group in theHimalayish branch of Tibeto-Burman, along with languages characterized principally by theircomplex pronominalizing verbal inflectional systems.This dissertation provides an overview of the grammar of the Thulung language, alongwith selected texts and a glossary. The aspects of the grammar which are discussed are thosewhich are pa...

  19. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for distantly metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in juvenile versus adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammori, Makoto; Fukumori, Tatsuya; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Masae; Shimizu, Kazuo; Yamada, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    In general, juvenile differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) demonstrate indolent characteristics and favorable prognosis are observed in comparison with many other carcinomas. However, recurrence is frequent, necessitating additional treatment, including radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In this report, the probability of recurrence, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcomes in both juvenile- and adult-onset DTC were analyzed and compared. At our institution, a total of 1552 DTC patients underwent thyroidectomy and/or lymph node dissection. The patients included 23 in their teens, 118 in their twenties, and 1412 in their thirties or older. The risk factors for distant metastases for DTC were male gender, follicular carcinoma, size of the PTC primary tumor, cervical lymph node metastases from PTC, and the presence of more than two distant metastatic foci. Patients with the highest risk underwent RAI ablation in line with institutional guidelines. Although the overall outcome in our juvenile patients was excellent, during follow-up, 4 (17.4%) of the 23 patients developed recurrent disease: 91.3% achieved complete remission, 4.35% partial remission, and 4.35% stable disease, with no disease-related deaths. Among the 118 patients in their twenties to thirties, 1 (0.8%) experienced progressive disease and disease-related death. A younger age at diagnosis and less radical primary surgery without subsequent RAI ablation are factors strongly predictive of distant metastases in patients with juvenile-onset DTC. To reduce the rate of relapse and improve surveillance for recurrent disease, total thyroidectomy followed by RAI appears to be the most beneficial initial treatment for patients with high- and intermediate-risk juvenile DTC.

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  1. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protiva Rani Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.

  2. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  3. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  4. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular Tei index in congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Sivanandam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of the Tei index has not been described to assess myocardial function before or after surgery in pediatric patients. This study was designed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV function using the Tei index pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with lesion that result in a volume loaded right ventricle (RV. Methods: Retrospective data on 55 patients who underwent repair of a cardiac defect were analyzed. Patients with volume overload RV (n = 15 were compared to patients without volume overload but with other cardiac defects (n = 40. We reviewed pre- and post-operative LV myocardial performance index (Tei index. Tei index was obtained from transesophageal Doppler echocardiogram. Results: Patients with right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei index was 0.6, with a postoperative mean decrease of 0.207 (P = 0.014. Patients without right heart volume overload, the mean preoperative Tei was 0.48 with no significant postoperative change (P = 0.82. Conclusion: Pre- and post-operative transesophageal echocardiogram assessment provides an easy and quick way of evaluating LV function intra-operatively using LV Tei index. Preoperative LV Tei index was greater in the RV volume overload defects indicating diminished LV global function. This normalized in the immediate postoperative period, implying an immediate improvement in LV function. In patients without right heart volume load, consist of other cardiac defects, demonstrated no changes in the pre- and post-operative LV Tei. This implies that LV function was similar after the surgery.

  5. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  6. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain...... the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important...... to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...

  7. Explicit Diversity Index (EDI): a novel measure for assessing the diversity of compound databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Akos; Gulyas-Forró, Anna; Gulyas, Zsolt; Dorman, György; Urge, Laszló; Darvas, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    A novel diversity assessment method, the Explicit Diversity Index (EDI), is introduced for druglike molecules. EDI combines structural and synthesis-related dissimilarity values and expresses them as a single number. As an easily interpretable measure, it facilitates the decision making in the design of combinatorial libraries, and it might assist in the comparison of compound sets provided by different manufacturers. Because of its rapid calculation algorithm, EDI enables the diversity assessment of in-house or commercial compound collections.

  8. Application of the health assessment questionnaire disability index to various rheumatic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, van Maaike M.; Klooster, ten Peter M.; Taal, Erik; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) can serve as a generic instrument for measuring disability across different rheumatic diseases and to propose a scoring method based on item response theory (IRT) modeling to support this goal. Me

  9. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among Secondary School Pupils in Northern England: Introducing the Outgroup Prejudice Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    The Outgroup Prejudice Index is a six-item scale that uses social distance to assess prejudice towards ethnic and religious out groups among Asians and whites. It was developed among a sample of 2,982 teenagers attending schools in northern England who indicated their religion as "Muslim", "Christian" or "No religion". The scale demonstrated…

  10. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  11. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  12. Using the H Index to Assess Impact of DOE National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Everett P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The most readily accessible elements of the Emerald Matrix by quantitative measures are the knowledge and economy related measures. In this paper, the H Index for an institution will be used to assess STE impact, which is in the knowledge generation element. The H Index was developed by Hirsch (2005) as a measure of an individual’s scientific impact. The H Index is defined as the number of publications that have been cited h or more times for a given author. It has been generalized to organizations. Doing so leads to a complication in that H index scales with the number of publications. Although this may not be problematic when comparing individual researchers, it systematically favors larger institutions. Molinari and Molinari (2008) proposed an alternative index (hm) designed to assess organizational impact. It transforms the H Index for an organization into an impact index by removing a factor dependent on the number of publications. The hm provides another approach to compare institutions provided that differences in the citation patterns associated with fields of study are addressed. Kinney (2007) used the Molinari and Molinari (2008) approach to compare various scientific institutions in nonbiomedical research areas. Kinney (2007) used the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) as the source and used publications in nonbiomedical research areas, which is very important because the research areas of universities are much broader than say a DOE national laboratory. Also there are differences in citation rates for the various research fields that make comparisons between individuals or organizations difficult. The results from Kinney (2007) are given in Table 1 and indicate that the DOE national laboratories compare favorably with the selected universities in terms of impact (hm) in the research areas used in Kinney’s analysis. This report will compare hm for DOE national laboratories using an approach similar to Kinney (2007) providing a measure of impact of

  13. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  14. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  15. The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI): a practical tool for assessing psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Chalmers, Robert J G

    2013-08-01

    The Simplified Psoriasis Index (SPI) is a summary measure of psoriasis with separate components for current severity (SPI-s), psychosocial impact (SPI-p), and past history and interventions (SPI-i). It derives from the Salford Psoriasis Index but replaces Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) with a composite weighted severity score designed to reflect the impact of psoriasis affecting functionally or psychosocially important body sites. Two complementary versions are available, differing only in that current severity (SPI-s) is either professionally (proSPI-s) or patient self-assessed (saSPI-s). This study examined the criterion and construct validity and response distribution of proSPI-s, saSPI-s, and SPI-p in 100 patients with plaque psoriasis. A further 50 patients were assessed for test-retest reliability of these three components. Interrater reliability of proSPI-s was assessed in 12 patients, each assessed by 12 assessors (144 assessments). There was close correlation between PASI and proSPI-s (r=0.91); SPI-p was closely correlated with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (r=0.89). Strong intrarater (proSPI-s, saSPI-s, SPI-p, and SPI-i) and interrater (proSPI-s) reliability was demonstrated (all intraclass correlation coefficients >0.75). There were wide response distributions for all three components. We believe that both professional (proSPI) and self-assessed (saSPI) versions can readily be introduced into routine clinical practice.

  16. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until

  17. A bacterial community-based index to assess the ecological status of estuarine and coastal environments

    KAUST Repository

    Aylagas, Eva

    2016-10-23

    Biotic indices for monitoring marine ecosystems are mostly based on the analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Due to their high sensitivity to pollution and fast response to environmental changes, bacterial assemblages could complement the information provided by benthic metazoan communities as indicators of human-induced impacts, but so far, this biological component has not been well explored for this purpose. Here we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyze the bacterial assemblage composition of 51 estuarine and coastal stations characterized by different environmental conditions and human-derived pressures. Using the relative abundance of putative indicator bacterial taxa, we developed a biotic index that is significantly correlated with a sediment quality index calculated on the basis of organic and inorganic compound concentrations. This new index based on bacterial assemblage composition can be a sensitive tool for providing a fast environmental assessment and allow a more comprehensive integrative ecosystem approach for environmental management. © 2016.

  18. [The smokers voice self assessment based on Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2009-01-01

    Complex voice assessment due to European Laryngeal Society proposals (2000) contains voice self estimation based on the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This study focuses on the relation between voice handicap and smoking in dysphonic patients, who are using voice professionally. Thirty outpatient (25 female and 5 male, aged 40 to 55 years) voice department attendees suffering from professional dysphonia took part in this study. All patients after phoniatric examination completed the Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The questions concern functional, emotional and physical complains due to dysphonia. Most of smokers did not complain of dysphonia related problems comparing to non smokers. Even the scores of functional and emotional scales of VHI in smokers shown better results (less handicap) than in nonsmokers. Smoking does not affect patients handicap due to dysphonia measured in the Voice Handicap Index.

  19. Assessment of the digital competence in Russian adolescents and parents: Digital Competence Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatova G.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption. The Digital Competence Index (DCI is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents, acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.

  20. Description of a Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) for the assessment of transitional waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, Chiara; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Socal, Giorgio; Ponis, Emanuele; Acri, Francesco; Bianchi, Franco; Giovanardi, Franco; Sfriso, Adriano

    2014-02-15

    A Multimetric Phytoplankton Index (MPI) is proposed to support management policies for the assessment of transitional ecosystems and the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The MPI incorporates Hulburt's dominance index, bloom frequency and Menhinick's diversity index, calculated on the basis of phytoplankton species composition. Chlorophyll a concentrations were also included, to provide biomass data and to guarantee continuity and comparison with past evaluations. The MPI was calculated by averaging the ratios of the resulting values of each metric to those of a reference site characterised by low anthropogenic impact. The MPI was set up using data from over a 10-year period in several stations in Venice Lagoon (North-western Adriatic region), a highly valuable and heterogeneous transitional environment, subject to significant anthropogenic pressures. The dataset included physico-chemical data, nutrient and contaminant concentrations. Statistical analyses allowed us to gauge the MPI's responses to anthropogenic pressures and to verify its reliability.

  1. OCRA: a concise index for the assessment of exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, E

    1998-09-01

    In the light of data and speculation contained in the literature, and based on procedures illustrated in a previous research project in which the author described and evaluated occupational risk factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs), this paper proposes a method for calculating a concise index of exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The proposal, which still has to be substantiated and validated by further studies and applications, is conceptually based on the procedure recommended by the NIOSH for calculating the Lifting Index in manual load handling activities. The concise exposure index (OCRA index) in this case is based on the relationship between the daily number of actions actually performed by the upper limbs in repetitive tasks, and the corresponding number of recommended actions. The latter are calculated on the basis of a constant (30 actions per minute), which represents the action frequency factor; it is valid--hypothetically--under so-called optimal conditions; the constant is diminished case by case (using appropriate factors) as a function of the presence and characteristics of the other risk factors (force, posture, additional elements, recovery periods). Although still experimental, the exposure index can be used to obtain an integrated and concise assessment of the various risk factors analysed and to classify occupational scenarios featuring significant and diversified exposure to such risk factors.

  2. Development of a new composite drought index for multivariate drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensibly considering all physical forms of agricultural, hydrological, and meteorological drought is essential to develop reliable monitoring and prediction indices for the proper assessment of drought. This consideration encouraged to develop and evaluate a multivariate composite drought index (CDI) that considers all possible variables related to individual types of drought. The proposed CDI was primarily based on the weighted similarity measure (entropy weighted Euclidian distance) and the anomaly from the possible wettest and driest conditions of the selected study region (sub basin of Han River, South Korea). The CDI time series identified 2008-2009 as the driest year, while May 2008 was the driest month within the selected period (2003-2011). The comparative analysis revealed that the CDI monthly time series had a significant correlation with the aggregate drought index (ADI). In addition, in comparison with the single variable-based indices i.e., the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the streamflow drought index (SDI), the CDI comprehensively responded to variability embedded in the individual drought attributes. Moreover, it was concluded that the developed CDI provided a physically sound, temporally flexible and unbiased index that can be directly associated with all possible variants and linked to the climate conditions of the study region without considering any feature extraction technique.

  3. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  4. Brain Symmetry Index in Healthy and Stroke Patients for Assessment and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Agius Anastasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quantitative neurophysiological signal parameters are of value in predicting motor recovery after stroke. The novel role of EEG-derived brain symmetry index for motor function prognostication in the subacute phase after stroke is explored. Methods. Ten male stroke patients and ten matched healthy controls were recruited. Motor function was first assessed clinically using the MRC score, its derivative Motricity Index, and the Fugl–Meyer assessment score. EEG was subsequently recorded first with subjects at rest and then during hand grasping motions, triggered by visual cues. Brain symmetry index (BSI was used to identify the differences in EEG-quantified interhemispheric cortical power asymmetry observable in healthy versus cortical and subcortical stroke patients. Subsequently, any correlation between BSI and motor function was explored. Results. BSI was found to be significantly higher in stroke subjects compared to healthy controls (p=0.023. The difference in BSI was more pronounced in the cortical stroke subgroup (p=0.016. BSI showed only a mild general decrease on repeated monthly recording. Notably, a statistically significant correlation was observed between early BSI and Fugl–Meyer score later in recovery (p<0.050. Conclusions. Brain symmetry index is increased in the subacute poststroke phase and correlates with motor function 1-2 months after stroke.

  5. Job level risk assessment using task level strain index scores: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Bloswick, Donald S; Sesek, Richard; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 2 methods of modifying the Strain Index (SI) to assess the ergonomic risk of multi-task jobs. Twenty-eight automotive jobs (15 cases and 13 controls) were studied. The first method is based on the maximum task SI score, and the second method is modeled on the NIOSH Composite Lifting Index (CLI) algorithm, named cumulative assessment of risk to the distal upper extremity (CARD). Significant odds ratios of 11 (CI 1.7-69) and 24 (CI 2.4-240) were obtained using the modified maximum task and CARD, respectively. This indicates that modification of the SI may be useful in determining the risk of distal upper extremity injury associated with a multi-task job.

  6. Environmental status assessment using DNA metabarcoding: towards a genetics based Marine Biotic Index (gAMBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylagas, Eva; Borja, Angel; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem protection and conservation initiatives rely on the assessment of ecological integrity and health status of marine environments. The AZTI's Marine Biotic Index (AMBI), which consists on using macroinvertebrate diversity as indicator of ecosystem health, is used worldwide for this purpose. Yet, this index requires taxonomic assignment of specimens, which typically involves a time and resource consuming visual identification of each sample. DNA barcoding or metabarcoding are potential harmonized, faster and cheaper alternatives for species identification, although the suitability of these methods for easing the implementation of the AMBI is yet to be evaluated. Here, we analyze the requirements for the implementation of a genetics based AMBI (gAMBI), and show, using available sequence data, that information about presence/absence of the most frequently occurring species provides accurate AMBI values. Our results set the basics for the implementation of the gAMBI, which has direct implications for a faster and cheaper marine monitoring and health status assessment.

  7. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  8. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI): The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Jenna M.S. Stoner; Wilson, Amanda J; Martina Beck; Jennifer L.M. Gee; Valerie A. Ethier; John P. Volpe

    2013-01-01

    “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI) is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the specie...

  9. Integrative-index method of assessment of the countries’ financial globalization level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Mozhovyi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relevant problems of the complex evaluation of the countries’ financial globalization level. There were investigated methodological principles and assessment tools of both the economic globalization in general and its financial component. It offers an integrative index of the countries’ financial globalization based on which calculations we analyzed characteristic features and dynamism of the globalization processes development in the sphere of finance of some countries.

  10. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index: assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Alberici Pastore; Silvana Paiva Orlandi; Maria Cristina Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the Inflammatory-Nutritional Index (INI) in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients. Methods: Longitudinal study, including patients from a chemotherapy service in Brazil, between July 2008 and May 2010. INI (Albumin/CRP) and nutritional status (by Subjective Global Assessment - SGA) were evaluated. Risk INI was defined as lower than 0.35. The mean follow-up of survival was 1.6 year. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 11.1™. Res...

  11. Causes of mortality among tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantipong P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacharee Kantipong,1 Kuniko Murakami,2 Saiyud Moolphate,3 Myo Nyein Aung,4,5 Norio Yamada21Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Thailand; 2Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; 3TB/HIV Research Project, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 4Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Public Health, Yangon, MyanmarBackground: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death.Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians.Results: The confirmed causes of death were TB (39%, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI (29%, and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI (16%. The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB

  12. Drought assessment using a multivariate drought index in the Huaihe River basin of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zeng, M.; Wang, H.; Li, P.; Wang, K.; Yu, M.

    2015-06-01

    The Huaihe River Basin having China's highest population density (662 persons per km2) lies in a transition zone between the climates of North and South China, and is thus prone to drought. Therefore, the paper aims to develop an appropriate drought assessment approach for drought assessment in the Huaihe River basin, China. Based on the Principal Component Analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and runoff, the three latter variables of which were obtained by use of the Xin'anjiang model, a new multivariate drought index (MDI) was formulated, and its thresholds were determined by use of cumulative distribution function. The MDI, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI) time series on a monthly scale were computed and compared during 1988, 1999/2000 and 2001 drought events. The results show that the MDI exhibited certain advantages over the sc-PDSI and the SPI in monitoring drought evolution. The MDI formulated by this paper could provide a scientific basis for drought mitigation and management, and references for drought assessment elsewhere in China.

  13. Assessment of capability index of processes revealing significant asymmetry with respect to tolerance limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bukowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of basic capability indices for production processes, Cp and Cpk, as well as the Cpm index for processes asymmetric with respect to tolerance limits. A method is presented for the estimation of process admissible asymmetry, when anappropriate PPM level of defective products is to be maintained. It is proved that an unbiased capability assessment for asymmetricprocesses is only feasible if the pair of indices Cp and Cpk is included in the assessment. An example is given of an analysis of data on the production of automotive bearings. The computations were performed with use of the KWSPP program.

  14. Rai1 haploinsufficiency causes reduced Bdnf expression resulting in hyperphagia, obesity and altered fat distribution in mice and humans with no evidence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brooke; Schmidt, Kristie; Williams, Stephen R; Kim, Sun; Girirajan, Santhosh; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-10-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of the retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene. In addition to intellectual disabilities, behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbances, a majority of children with SMS also have significant early-onset obesity. To study the role of RAI1 in obesity, we investigated the growth and obesity phenotype in a mouse model haploinsufficient for Rai1. Data show that Rai1(+/-) mice are hyperphagic, have an impaired satiety response and have altered abdominal and subcutaneous fat distribution, with Rai1(+/-) female mice having a higher proportion of abdominal fat when compared with wild-type female mice. Expression analyses revealed that Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a gene previously associated with hyperphagia and obesity, is downregulated in the Rai1(+/-) mouse hypothalamus, and reporter studies show that RAI1 directly regulates the expression of BDNF. Even though the Rai1(+/-) mice are significantly obese, serum analyses do not reveal any evidence of metabolic syndrome. Supporting these findings, a caregiver survey revealed that even though a high incidence of abdominal obesity is observed in females with SMS, they did not exhibit a higher incidence of indicators of metabolic syndrome above the general population. We conclude that Rai1 haploinsufficiency represents a single-gene model of obesity with hyperphagia, abnormal fat distribution and altered hypothalamic gene expression associated with satiety, food intake, behavior and obesity. Linking RAI1 and BDNF provides a more thorough understanding of the role of Rai1 in growth and obesity and insight into the complex pathogenicity of obesity, behavior and sex-specific differences in adiposity.

  15. Development and validation of an index to assess hospital quality management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C. A.; Klazinga, N. S.; Dersarkissian, M.; Arah, O. A.; Suñol, R.; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate an index to assess the implementation of quality management systems (QMSs) in European countries. Design Questionnaire development was facilitated through expert opinion, literature review and earlier empirical research. A cross-sectional online survey utilizing the questionnaire was undertaken between May 2011 and February 2012. We used psychometric methods to explore the factor structure, reliability and validity of the instrument. Setting and participants As part of the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) project, we invited a random sample of 188 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Main Outcome Measure The extent of implementation of QMSs. Results Factor analysis yielded nine scales, which were combined to build the Quality Management Systems Index. Cronbach's reliability coefficients were satisfactory (ranging from 0.72 to 0.82) for eight scales and low for one scale (0.48). Corrected item-total correlations provided adequate evidence of factor homogeneity. Inter-scale correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the index. Construct validity testing showed that the index was related to recent measures of quality. Participating hospitals attained a mean value of 19.7 (standard deviation of 4.7) on the index that theoretically ranged from 0 to 27. Conclusion Assessing QMSs across Europe has the potential to help policy-makers and other stakeholders to compare hospitals and focus on the most important areas for improvement. PMID:24618212

  16. Ergonomic issues in ewe cheese production: reliability of the Strain Index and OCRA Checklist risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rosecrance

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational ergonomists often use a variety of methods to identify jobs that are considered at high risk for the development of work-related musculoskeletal illnesses. The Strain Index (SI and the Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA Checklist are two popular upper limb risk assessment tools used in many industries, including the agro-food industry. Both methods are based on similar biomechanical, physiological and epidemiologic principles, but their approach to quantification and estimation of risk factor magnitude is quite different. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter-method reliability of SI and OCRA Checklist. Methods: Twenty-one jobs were video recorded in a Sardinian cheese manufacturing facility. Eight raters were recruited to assess job exposures to physical risk factors using the SI and OCRA Checklist. Inter-method reliability was characterized using proportion of overall agreement, Cohen’s kappa, and Spearman and Pearson correlations. Results: Strain Index and the OCRA Checklist assessments produced generally reliable results, classifying the risk of 35 of 42 (83% job exposures similarly. Conclusions: The OCRA Checklist and SI risk assessments are reliable upper limb measures of physical work exposures. Both measures appear useful for assessing risk of upper limb disorders of work tasks in the agro-food industry. However, the SI is specific to disorders of the distal upper limb and perhaps most useful for assessing risk in work primarily involving the wrist and fingers. Whereas the OCRA Checklist, which includes an assessment of the shoulder, may be more appropriate for evaluating jobs that also require extended periods of reaching and shoulder activity.

  17. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of a breast cancer susceptibility locus near RAI/PPPIRI3L/iASPP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Olsen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous results have suggested an association of the region of 19q13.3 with several forms of cancer. In the present study, we investigated 27 public markers within a previously identified 69 kb stretch of chromosome 19q for association with breast cancer by using linkage disequilibrium...... mapping. The study groups included 434 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and an identical number of individually matched controls. Methods and Results: Studying one marker at a time, we found a region spanning the gene RAI ( alias PPP1R13L or iASPP) and the 5' portion of XPD to be associated......, many of which were not in the public databases. We tested an additional 44 of these for association with disease and found a new tandem repeat marker, called RAI-3' d1, located downstream of the transcribed region of RAI, which was more strongly associated with breast cancer than any other marker we...

  18. Assessment of Postural Load Index Using LUBA Method and the Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Baroonyzade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : High prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentistry represents the importance of investigation of working conditions in this profession to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.The purpose of this study was to determine the postural load on the upper limb postural using macro LUBA technique and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: This study was conducted on 30 post graduate dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences . LUBA technique was used to evaluate the postural load. The Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders . The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 . Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was as follows neck( 63.3%, back ( 43.3%, back ( 30%, knee ( 20%, shoulder( 13%, wrist ( 10%, legs (10 %, elbows( 6.7% and thigh( 0%. The maximum postural load index was 23 for women and 21for men. In total, 50 % of dentists were in group 3 , 33 % of dentists in group 4 and 16.7 % in group 2 of the corrective measures . There was no significant association b etween demographic variables and presence of musculoskeletal disorders . Besides, there was no significant association between the presence of pain in upper limbs and the postural load index (Pvalue > 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of p ostural load index and musculoskeletal disorders among dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. High levels of p ostural load index indicate a high level of risk, which requires immediate corrective action and intervention.

  19. The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovac Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

  20. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis, E-mail: l.moreno@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; Losa, Almudena de la [Geological Survey of Spain, Environmental Geology Research Group, C/ Ríos Rosas 23, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Geodinámica Externa, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements — including metals and metalloids — , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index — the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) — was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3–53% for silver oxide batteries, 4–39% for alkaline, 20–28% for zinc-air and 12–26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells. - Highlights: • We compare the polluting potential of button cells using an energy-normalized index. • This battery index considers both chemical

  1. RAI1 point mutations, CAG repeat variation, and SNP analysis in non-deletion Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weimin; Saifi, G Mustafa; Girirajan, Santhosh; Shi, Xin; Szomju, Barbara; Firth, Helen; Magenis, R Ellen; Potocki, Lorraine; Elsea, Sarah H; Lupski, James R

    2006-11-15

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features and neurobehavioral abnormalities usually associated with an interstitial deletion in 17p11.2. Heterozygous point mutations in the retinoic acid induced 1 gene (RAI1) have been reported in nine SMS patients without a deletion detectable by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), implicating RAI1 haploinsufficiency as the cause of the major clinical features in SMS. All of the reported point mutations are unique and de novo. RAI1 contains a polymorphic CAG repeat and encodes a plant homeo domain (PHD) zinc finger-containing transcriptional regulator. We report a novel RAI1 frameshift mutation, c.3103delC, in a non-deletion patient with many SMS features. The deletion of a single cytosine occurs in a heptameric C-tract (CCCCCCC), the longest mononucleotide repeat in the RAI1 coding region. Interestingly, we had previously reported a frameshift mutation, c.3103insC, in the same mononucleotide repeat. Furthermore, all five single base frameshift mutations preferentially occurred in polyC but not polyG tracts. We also investigated the distribution of the polymorphic CAG repeats in both the normal population and the SMS patients as one potential molecular mechanism for variability of clinical expression. In this limited data set, there was no significant association between the length of CAG repeats and the SMS phenotype. However, we identified a 5-year-old girl with an apparent SMS phenotype who was a compound heterozygote for an RAI1 missense mutation inherited from her father and a polyglutamine repeat of 18 copies, representing the largest known CAG repeat in this gene, inherited from her mother.

  2. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  3. Assessing the physical vulnerability of check dams through an empirical damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dell'Agnese

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of flood risk in mountain streams has to include an assessment of the vulnerability of the protection systems, in addition to an assessment of the vulnerability of the constructed environment on alluvial fans and floodplains. Structures forming the protection systems are of a dual nature, i.e. they are designed to mitigate natural process-related hazards and, on the other hand, are prone to be damaged during their lifecycle by the same processes they should mitigate. Therefore, their effectiveness declines over time. Hence, the knowledge of how effectively control structures perform is essential for risk management. A procedure was developed to assess the physical vulnerability of check dams based on empirical evidence collected in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. A damage index defined on pre- and postevent comparisons of check dam conditions was evaluated for 362 structures in 18 mountain streams along with the relevant processes and the structural characteristics affecting it. Although the available dataset did not allow conclusive functional relationships between damage index and impact variables to be established, it was possible to assess the average expected residual functionality of check dams according to structure characteristics, and event type and intensity. These results may help plan appropriate check dam maintenance.

  4. Perceptual strain index for heat strain assessment in an experimental study: an application to construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Chan, Albert P C

    2015-02-01

    Although the physiological strain index (PhSI) is universal and comprehensive, its restrictions are recognized in terms of invasive on-site measurements and the requirement of accurate instruments. The perceptual strain index (PeSI) has been proposed as a user-friendly and practical indicator for heat strain. However, the application of this index in assessing the heat strain of construction workers has yet to be examined and documented. This study aims to ascertain the reliability and applicability of PeSI in an experimental setting that simulates a stressful working environment (i.e., environment, work uniform, and work pace) experienced by construction workers. Ten males and two females performed intermittent exercise on a treadmill while wearing a summer work uniform at 34.5 °C and 75% relative humidity in a climatic chamber. Physiological parameters (core temperature, heart rate) and perceptual variables (thermal sensation, perceived exertion) were collated synchronously at 3 min intervals. The results of two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (clothing×time) revealed that the PeSI was useful in differentiating the heat strain levels between different work uniforms. Not only did the PeSI change in the same general manner with the PhSI, but it was also powerful in reflecting different levels of physiological strain. Thus, the PeSI offers considerable promise for heat strain assessment under simulated working conditions.

  5. KUALITAS AIR MANGROVE DITINJAU DARI SIFAT FISIK-KIMIA DI HUTAN MANGROVE PATUNG NGURAH RAI TUBAN DENPASAR SELATAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Suriani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to find out of mangrove water quality at Patung Ngurah Rai Tuban Denpasar Selatan Baliregarding to physical-chemical . Values of some variables such as total disolved solid, Cromium (Cr, Cadmium (Cd, , Nitrit, and oilwas higher than that of standard quality.This is caused by organic and anorganic waste such as garment factory come from BadungRiver, domestic waste, Ngurah Rai iar Port waste, and car workshop. The inpact of this problem is that the species of mangrove forestis not good condition.

  6. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  7. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  8. Compressed Air Energy Storage System Control and Performance Assessment Using Energy Harvested Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif SedighNejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept for control and performance assessment of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems in a hybrid energy system is introduced. The proposed criterion, based on the concept of energy harvest index (HEI, measures the capability of a storage system to capture renewable energy. The overall efficiency of the CAES system and optimum control and design from the technical and economic point of view is presented. A possible application of this idea is an isolated community with significant wind energy resource. A case study reveals the usefulness of the proposed criterion in design, control and implementation of a small CAES system in a hybrid power system (HPM for an isolated community. Energy harvested index and its effectiveness in increasing the wind penetration rate in the total energy production is discussed.

  9. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  10. Regional drought assessment using a distributed hydrological model coupled with Standardized Runoff Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.; Yuan, F.; Ren, L.; Ma, M.; Kong, H.; Tong, R.

    2015-05-01

    Drought assessment is essential for coping with frequent droughts nowadays. Owing to the large spatio-temporal variations in hydrometeorology in most regions in China, it is very necessary to use a physically-based hydrological model to produce rational spatial and temporal distributions of hydro-meteorological variables for drought assessment. In this study, the large-scale distributed hydrological model Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) was coupled with a modified standardized runoff index (SRI) for drought assessment in the Weihe River basin, northwest China. The result indicates that the coupled model is capable of reasonably reproducing the spatial distribution of drought occurrence. It reflected the spatial heterogeneity of regional drought and improved the physical mechanism of SRI. This model also has potential for drought forecasting, early warning and mitigation, given that accurate meteorological forcing data are available.

  11. Registro Absorb Italiano (BVS-RAI): an investigators-owned and -directed, open, prospective registry of consecutive patients treated with the Absorb™ BVS: study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Bernardo, E-mail: bcortese@gmail.com [Azienda Ospedaliera Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milano (Italy); Ielasi, Alfonso [Azienda Ospedaliera Bolognini, Seriate (Italy); Varricchio, Attilio [Ospedale Monaldi, Napoli (Italy); Tarantini, Giuseppe [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Padova (Italy); LaVecchia, Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliera San Bortolo, Vicenza (Italy); Pisano, Francesco [Ospedale Regionale, Aosta (Italy); Facchin, Michela [Ospedale di Este (Italy); Gistri, Roberto [Ospedale S. Andrea, La Spezia (Italy); D’Urbano, Maurizio [Ospedale di Magenta (Italy); Lucci, Valerio [Ospedale di Avezzano (Italy); Loi, Bruno [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy); Tumminello, Gabriele [Ospedale Cardinal Massaia, Asti (Italy); Colombo, Alessandro [Ospedale Sacco, Milano (Italy); Limbruno, Ugo [Ospedale della Misericordia, Grosseto (Italy); Nicolino, Annamaria [Ospedale Santa Corona, Pietra Ligure (Italy); Calzolari, Diego [Azienda Ospedaliera Ca Foncello, Treviso (Italy); Tognoni, Gianni [Centro di Ricerche Farmacologiche e Biomediche ' Mario Negri' , Milano (Italy); Defilippi, Gianfranco [Ospedale Cardinal Massaia, Asti (Italy); Buccheri, Dario [Azienda Ospedaliera Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Milano (Italy); Tespili, Maurizio [Azienda Ospedaliera Bolognini, Seriate (Italy); and others

    2015-09-15

    Background: The Absorb™ BVS is a bioresorbable, everolimus-eluting scaffold approved and marketed for coronary use. Published data on long-term results after treatment are limited to a small number of patients, most of them with elective PCI of simple lesions. The importance of scaffold resorption is variably appreciated among cardiologists, and indications for use from health technology assessment bodies or guidelines are missing. Instruments are needed to collect, share and assess the experience being accumulated with this new device in several centres. Methods/Design: The BVS-RAI Registry is a spontaneous initiative of a group of Italian interventional cardiologists in cooperation with Centro di Ricerche Farmacologiche e Biomediche 'Mario Negri' Institute, and is not recipient of funding or benefits originating from the BVS manufacturer. It is a prospective registry with 5-year follow-up of all consecutive patients who have undergone successful implantation of 1 or more coronary BVS following the indications, techniques and protocols used in each of the participating institutions. Outcome measures are BVS target lesion failure within one year and device-oriented major adverse cardiac events within 5 years. The registry started in October 2012 and will extend enrolment throughout 2015, with the aim to include about 1000 patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is CT02298413. Conclusions: The BVS-RAI Registry will contribute observational knowledge on the long-term safety and efficacy of the Absorb™ BVS as used in a number of Italian interventional centres in a broad spectrum of settings. Unrewarded and undirected consecutive patient enrolments are key-features of this observation, which is therefore likely to reflect common clinical practice in those centres. - Highlights: • prospective data collection of successful Absorb implantation; • expert Italian centers; • no restrictions for enrollment/no exclusion criteria; • clinical follow up;

  12. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  13. Conventional digital cameras as a tool for assessing leaf area index and biomass for cereal breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaume Casadesús; Dolors Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Affordable and easy-to-use methods for assessing biomass and leaf area index (LAI) would be of interest in most breeding programs. Here, we describe the evaluation of a protocol for photographic sampling and image analysis aimed at providing low-labor yet robust indicators of biomass and LAI. In this trial, two genotypes of triticale, two of bread wheat, and four of tritordeum were studied. At six dates during the growing cycle, biomass and LAI were measured destructively, and digital photography was taken on the same dates. Several vegetation indices were calculated from each image. The results showed that repeatable and consistent values of the indices were obtained in consecutive photographic samplings on the same plots. The photographic indices were highly correlated with the destructive measure-ments, though the magnitude of the correlation was lower after anthesis. This work shows that photographic assess-ment of biomass and LAI can be fast, affordable, have good repeatability, and can be used under bright and overcast skies. A practical vegetation index derived from pictures is the fraction of green pixels over the total pixels of the image, and as it shows good correlations with all biomass variables, is the most robust to lighting conditions and has easy interpretation.

  14. Smith-Magenis syndrome results in disruption of CLOCK gene transcription and reveals an integral role for RAI1 in the maintenance of circadian rhythmicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen R; Zies, Deborah; Mullegama, Sureni V; Grotewiel, Michael S; Elsea, Sarah H

    2012-06-08

    Haploinsufficiency of RAI1 results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a disorder characterized by intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, obesity, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and a disrupted circadian sleep-wake pattern. An inverted melatonin rhythm (i.e., melatonin peaks during the day instead of at night) and associated sleep-phase disturbances in individuals with SMS, as well as a short-period circadian rhythm in mice with a chromosomal deletion of Rai1, support SMS as a circadian-rhythm-dysfunction disorder. However, the molecular cause of the circadian defect in SMS has not been described. The circadian oscillator temporally orchestrates metabolism, physiology, and behavior largely through transcriptional modulation. Data support RAI1 as a transcriptional regulator, but the genes it might regulate are largely unknown. Investigation into the role that RAI1 plays in the regulation of gene transcription and circadian maintenance revealed that RAI1 regulates the transcription of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), a key component of the mammalian circadian oscillator that transcriptionally regulates many critical circadian genes. Data further show that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and Rai1 in SMS fibroblasts and the mouse hypothalamus, respectively, results in the transcriptional dysregulation of the circadian clock and causes altered expression and regulation of multiple circadian genes, including PER2, PER3, CRY1, BMAL1, and others. These data suggest that heterozygous mutation of RAI1 and Rai1 leads to a disrupted circadian rhythm and thus results in an abnormal sleep-wake cycle, which can contribute to an abnormal feeding pattern and dependent cognitive performance. Finally, we conclude that RAI1 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CLOCK, pinpointing a novel and important role for this gene in the circadian oscillator.

  15. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed; F.Abdel; Ghany; Samer; M.Botros; Tamer; M.El-Raggal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relation between central retinal artery(CRA) resistive index(RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery(OA)with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress.RESULTS: There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma.CONCLUSION: Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment.

  16. The Improvement and Completion of Outcome index: A new assessment system for quality of orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system―the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index―to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or −1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Results Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Conclusions Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process. PMID:27478797

  17. Combined acoustic radiation force impulse, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and Forns index assessment for hepatic fibrosis grading in hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Feng; Dong; Jia; Xiao; Ling-Bo; Shan; Han-Ying; Li; Yong-Jia; Xiong; Gui-Lin; Yang; Jing; Liu; Si-Min; Yao; Sha-Xi; Li; Xiao-Hua; Le; Jing; Yuan; Bo-Ping; Zhou; George; L; Tipoe; Ying-Xia; Liu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse(ARFI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index(APRI) and Forns index for a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B(CHB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 206 patients had CHB with liver fibrosis stages F0-F4 classified by METAVIR and 40 were healthy volunteers were measured by ARFI, APRI and Forns index separately or combined as indicated. RESULTS: ARFI, APRI or Forns index demonstrated a significant correlation with the histological stage(all P < 0.001). According to the AUROC of ARFI and APRI for evaluating fibrotic stages more than F2, ARFI showed an enhanced diagnostic accuracy than APRI(P < 0.05). The combined measurement of ARFI and APRI exhibited better accuracy than ARFI alone when evaluating ≥ F2 fibrotic stage(Z = 2.77, P = 0.006). Combination of ARFI, APRI and Forns index did not obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy compared to the combination of ARFI and APRI(Z = 0.958, P = 0.338). CONCLUSION: ARFI + APRI showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI alone for significant liver fibrosis and ARFI + APRI + Forns index shows the same effect with ARFI + APRI.

  18. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  19. Assessing DMFT index in 12 years old students attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrabi M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Extensive studies on the epidemiology of teeth and oral diseases are an important part of health care programs specially for hearing impaired groups. For adequate programming in this field, proper situation analysis is mandatory. The aim of this study was to assess the DMFT (decayed missed filled teeth of 12 years old students attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran and exploring the relation between sex, hygiene and hearing threshold with the index. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was based on examining 12 years old (± 6 month students (117 cases attending hearing impaired schools in Tehran. A questionnaire was filled for each case. T, Chi-square and Kruskall-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean DMFT in these students was 3.07. Mean DMFT in students with very severe hearing loss was 2.99. Mean ranked DMFT in girls and boys was similar (56.09 in boys and 61.96 in girls. Mean ranked DMFT in students who didn’t use floss (66.40 was higher than those who used floss (46.71. Mean ranked DMFT in students who seldom brushed, was the highest (72.82 and in students who brushed once a day was the lowest (51.26. Conclusion: The DMFT index in hearing disabled children was 3.07. Regular brushing and flossing reduced the index.

  20. The assessment of frequency of iron deficiency in athletes from the transferrin receptor-ferritin index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczewska, J; Szczepańska, B; Stupnicki, R; Sendecki, W

    2001-03-01

    The transferrin receptor-ferritin index (sTfR/logFerr) was determined in 131 male and 121 female athletes in order to assess the frequency of iron deficiency (threshold value of that index taken as 1.8). Blood was drawn for determining morphological indices as well as sTfR, ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and haptoglobin. A significantly (p iron deficiency was observed in women (26%) than in men (11%). The iron deficiency was latent, since no subject was found to be anemic. The plasma iron was significantly lower and TIBC higher (p iron-deficient subgroups than in the non-deficient ones. This confirmed the latent character of iron deficiency. Some hematological indices (Hb, MCH, MCHC, MCV) were significantly lower in iron-deficient female athletes than in male athletes, which suggested a more profound iron deficiency in the former. The sTfR/logFerr index might thus be useful in detecting iron deficiency in athletes, especially in those with erythropoiesis disorders, since physical loads may affect the widely used ferritin levels.

  1. Possible Involvement of K+/Na+ in Assessing the Seed Vigor Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan CHENG; Guang-Hua ZHENG; Xiao-Feng WANG; Yan LIU; Yi-Tang YAN; Jian LIN

    2005-01-01

    More substances leaked from a higher-vigor seed sample than from a lower-vigor sample. This indicates that, in some cases, electric conductivity does not represent seed vigor level very well, especially for high-vigor seeds. Results from germination, germination index, leachate conductivity, and the ratio of K+/Na+ from three-seed lots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Louv.) Rupr) showed that K+/Na+correlated well with germination and germination index. The ability of K+/Na+ to indicate well changes in vigor was further supported by investigation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds and another cultivar of Chinese cabbage seeds. Thus, seed leakage of K+/Na+ can accurately indicate seed vigor, whereas the conductivity test failed to do so. Furthermore, K+/Na+ showed up bigger quantitative differences in vigor level than did the conductivity test. This findings provide a more sensitive and accurate index for the assessment of seed vigor. The mechanisms of Na+ and K+ ion transport are also discussed.

  2. Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of factors influencing levels of human losses from natural hazards at the global scale, for the period 1980–2000. This model was designed for the United Nations Development Programme as a building stone of the Disaster Risk Index (DRI, which aims at monitoring the evolution of risk. Assessing what countries are most at risk requires considering various types of hazards, such as droughts, floods, cyclones and earthquakes. Before assessing risk, these four hazards were modelled using GIS and overlaid with a model of population distribution in order to extract human exposure. Human vulnerability was measured by crossing exposure with selected socio-economic parameters. The model evaluates to what extent observed past losses are related to population exposure and vulnerability. Results reveal that human vulnerability is mostly linked with country development level and environmental quality. A classification of countries is provided, as well as recommendations on data improvement for future use of the model.

  3. Translation and validation of Hindi version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Pillai, Rajath

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to translate and validate the oral health-related quality of life assessment tool named Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) into Hindi language for use in the Indian population. METHODOLOGY: The 12-item GOHAI questionnaire was translated into Hindi......, back-translated and compared with the original English version. After pilot testing and appropriate changes, the Hindi version was administered to a group of 500 patients visiting the geriatric medicine clinic in All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The questionnaire was re...... edentulous participants. Age group was also found to be a significant factor for GOHAI scores. CONCLUSION: The Hindi version of GOHAI exhibits acceptable validity and reliability and can be used in the elderly Indian population as a measure of oral health-related quality of life....

  4. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Koji; Yoshio, Masaharu; Takata, Yuichi; Kozuka, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of our standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer (the hand-held dynamometer assessment index) in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 60 stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were evaluated employing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Criterion-related validity was evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the HHD assessment index and the functional balance scale. [Results] The intraclass correlation coefficient values obtained ranged from 0.91 to 0.98, and the correlation coefficient with the FBS was 0.83. [Conclusion] Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the hand-held dynamometer assessment index in stroke patients.

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  6. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafioti, Paraskevi; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vassilakos, Thomas N; Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  7. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Agrafioti

    Full Text Available We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L., the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high. Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement. Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  8. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15–60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery. PMID:26560316

  9. El Ra'i y su transmisión: la Seija Remiti Rizilaniya (1923-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Muñoz Zajara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo está centrado en el género musical conocido como el rai, considerado entre los más representativos de la música popular argelina y cuya transmisión fue posible gracias a la labor de divulgación realizada por los seij/seijas1 y el mensaje de compromiso con los cambios sociales, religiosos y culturales inmersos en los textos de las composiciones. No obstante, el carácter marginal que sufrió el rai durante décadas, unido a su difusión en Europa mediante los procesos migratorios y la posterior globalización, han contribuido a la incursión del género dentro de las músicas urbanas y a ser conocido, a nivel internacional, bajo la etiqueta de World Music. La popularidad de la que goza actualmente el rai al sintetizar y aunar diferentes tradiciones, lenguas, géneros poéticos e instrumentos tradicionales y occidentales, en general electrónicos, así como su divulgación en los medios de comunicación y la comercialización en la industria discográfica, no impide, sin embargo, que la esencia del rai siga vigente, así como su reivindicación y compromiso social con los más desfavorecidos.

  10. Relationship between periodontics and restorative procedures: surgical treatment of the restorative alveolar interface (rai)--case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A L P F; Esper, L A; Sbrana, M C; Cunha, M J S; Greghi, S L A; Carrilho, G P B; Pegoraro, L F

    2013-12-01

    Maintenance of a healthy periodontium is fundamental for the long term success of prosthetic restorations. Thus, prosthetic procedures with subgingival margins may affect the periodontal health if the distances between the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment aren't respected, or if there is insufficient space to maintain the health of the interproximal tissues, leading to gingival inflammation, connective tissue attachment loss and bone resorption. The restorative alveolar interface (RAI) technique was described as the portion of the root surface extending from the alveolar crest apically to the restorative margin coronally. RAI consists of modifying the restorative margin position into a healthier environment, respecting the biological width and therefore allowing effective plaque control. This paper describes four clinical cases with indication for the RAI technique for maintenance of periodontal health. The cases were associated with prostheses. All cases were evaluated at 90 days and exhibited a healthy periodontal tissue. Successful outcomes were observed in the different indications for the RAI technique.

  11. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  12. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Salinas-Rodriguez, Sergio G.

    2015-02-18

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) constant flux is a significant development with respect to assessing the fouling potential of RO feed water. This research investigates (1) the variables influencing the MFI-UF test at constant flux filtration (membrane pore size, membrane material, flux rate); and (2) the application of MFI-UF into pre-treatment assessment and RO fouling estimation. The dependency of MFI on flux, means that to assess accurately particulate fouling in RO systems, the MFI should be measured at a flux similar to a RO system (close to 20 L/m2/h) or extrapolated from higher fluxes. The two studied membrane materials showed reproducible results; 10% for PES membranes and 6.3% for RC membranes. Deposition factors (amount of particles that remain on the surface of membrane) were measured in a full-scale plant ranging between 0.2 and 0.5. The concept of “safe MFI” is presented as a guideline for assessing pre-treatment for RO systems.

  13. Delayed diagnosis in a house of correction: Smith-Magenis syndrome due to a de novo nonsense RAI1 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeetong, Patra; Vilboux, Thierry; Ciccone, Carla; Boulier, Kristin; Schnur, Rhonda E; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan; Laje, Gonzalo; Smith, Ann C M

    2016-09-01

    We report a 25-year-old female confirmed to have Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) due to a de novo RAI1 variant. Her past history is significant for developmental and intellectual delay, early and escalating maladaptive behaviors, and features consistent with significant sleep disturbance, the etiology of which was not confirmed for over two decades. The diagnosis of SMS was initially suspected in 1998 (at age 12 years), but that was 5 years before the initial report of RAI1 variants as causative of the SMS phenotype; cytogenetic fluorescence in situ hybridization studies failed to confirm an interstitial deletion of 17p11.2. Re-evaluation for suspected SMS was pursued with RAI1 sequencing analysis in response to urgent parental concerns of escalating behaviors and aggression with subsequent incarceration of the subject for assault of a health professional. Genetic analysis revealed a de novo RAI1 (NM_030665.3) nonsense variant, c.5536C>T; p.Q1846X. This case illustrates the importance of confirming the SMS diagnosis, which is associated with cognitive and functional impairment, as well as significant psychiatric co-morbidities and behavioral problems. The diagnosis was particularly relevant to the legal discussion and determination of her competence to stand trial. As other similar cases may exist, this report will help to increase awareness of the possibility of a very late diagnosis of SMS, with the need for re-evaluation of individuals suspected to have SMS who were initially evaluated prior to the identification of the RAI1 gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evidence for genetic regulation of mRNA expression of the dosage-sensitive gene retinoic acid induced-1 (RAI1) in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yu; Song, Fan; Yuan, Xi; Wang, Jian; Saffen, David

    2016-01-01

    RAI1 (retinoic acid induced-1) is a dosage-sensitive gene that causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) when mutated or deleted and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) when duplicated, with psychiatric features commonly observed in both syndromes. How common genetic variants regulate this gene, however, is unknown. In this study, we found that RAI1 mRNA expression in Chinese prefrontal and temporal cortex correlate with genotypes of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the RAI1 5′-upstream region. Using genotype imputation, “R2-Δ2” analysis, and data from the RegulomeDB database, we identified SNPs rs4925102 and rs9907986 as possible regulatory variants, accounting for approximately 30–40% of the variance in RAI1 mRNA expression in both brain regions. Specifically, rs4925102 and rs9907986 are predicted to disrupt the binding of retinoic acid RXR-RAR receptors and the transcription factor DEAF1 (Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1), respectively. Consistent with these predictions, we observed binding of RXRα and RARα to the predicted RAI1 target in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoic acid is crucial for early development of the central neural system, and DEAF1 is associated with intellectual disability. The observation that a significant portion of RAI1 mRNA expression is genetically controlled raises the possibility that common RAI1 5′-region regulatory variants contribute more generally to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26743651

  15. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  16. Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Gocentaitė, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Tema: Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai. Temos aktualumas. Homoseksualūs žmonės kenčia įvairią nelygybę, kurios pasekmė homoseksualus paverčia nematomais, dauguma jaunų gėjų ir lesbiečių gyvena lyg ir dvigubus gyvenimus. Jie pasirenka šią strategiją racionaliai, siekdami išvengti nuoskaudų ir didesnių problemų asmeninėje erdvėje, profesinėje-darbinėje aplinkoje ir viešojoje erdvėje. Homoseksualių žmonių yra visur, įvairaus amžiaus, skirtingų socialinių sluoksnių ir profesijų, ...

  17. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  18. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  19. Assessment of validity and reliability of Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI into the Hindi language and assess its validity and reliability for use among people in India. Materials and Methods: GOHAI was translated into the Hindi language and self-administered to 420 subjects aged 55 years or above. The measures for reliability, and concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity were assessed. The questionnaire sought information about sociodemographic details, habits related to tobacco, dental visits, tooth brushing, and self-reported perceptions of general and oral health. Results: Cronbach′s alpha (0.774 showed high internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Low GOHAI scores were associated with the perceptions of poor oral and general health, low satisfaction with oral health, and a perceived need for dental care. Respondents with high socioeconomic status were likely to have high GOHAI scores. Conclusion: The Hindi version of the GOHAI demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, and will be an important instrument to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL for people in this region.

  20. Comparative assessment of button cells using a normalized index for potential pollution by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Merino, Luis; Jiménez-Hernández, Maria Emilia; de la Losa, Almudena; Huerta-Muñoz, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Many household batteries worldwide still end up in landfills or are incinerated due to inefficient collection and recycling schemes. Toxic heavy metals from improperly discarded button cells pose a serious risk to human health and the environment, as they can pollute air, soil and water. This paper analyses a series of button cells selected from batteries available on the retail market, and compares their polluting potential. A total of 64 batteries were subjected to chemical analyses of 19 elements - including metals and metalloids - , and energy density measurements. The samples were from four different brands of each of the four most common button cell technologies (alkaline, zinc-air, silver oxide and lithium). An energy-normalized index - the Weighted Potential Pollution Index (WPPI) - was proposed to compare the polluting potential of the different batteries. The higher the battery WPPI score, the greater the content in toxic elements and the lower the energy output. The results of the chemical composition and energy density varied depending on the construction technology of the button cells. However, significant differences in both variables were also found when comparing different brands within the same technology. The differences in WPPI values confirmed the existence of a significant margin to reduce the environmental impact of discarded button cells simply by avoiding the most polluting options. The choice of the battery with the most favourable WPPI produced a reduction in potential pollution of 3-53% for silver oxide batteries, 4-39% for alkaline, 20-28% for zinc-air and 12-26% for lithium. Comparative potential pollution could be assessed when selecting batteries using an energy-normalized index such as WPPI to reduce the environmental impact of improperly disposed button cells.

  1. A fuzzy quality index for the environmental assessment of a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, E; Marsili-Libelli, S; Mattioli, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study for the restoration of agricultural land with a tendency to become waterlogged into a natural wetland, conceived to mitigate floods and to remove nutrients from the water drained from the cultivated plots. The wetland model, developed in aquatox, includes the nutrient dynamics both in the water and in the sediment, and the vegetation that is expected to develop as a consequence of flooding. The model inputs were synthesized from historical time series of rainfall and chemical data collected over the last decade. The model outputs are used to compute a synthetic fuzzy quality index (FQI) to assess the removal efficiency of the wetland. This FQI is based on three main variables describing the ecosystem quality: chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids. This index has the merit of being simple enough to be immediately grasped by non-technical people, like managers and stakeholders, to whom the restoration project is proposed. The simulations, performed under five differing loading scenarios demonstrate the feasibility of this solution, which is robust enough to accommodate a 50% increase in either nitrogen, phosphorous or organic matter.

  2. Environmental risk index: A tool to assess the safety of dams for leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. de Vicente Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: fcolomer@emc.uji.es; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, Av. de Vicente Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    Dams for leachate store very toxic substances that contain a large amount of organic material and, probably, heavy metals; they therefore constitute an important threat to the environment. Existing models of environmental risk assessment for landfills do not take into consideration the specific risk that leachate dams may represent for the environment. In this paper a methodology to improve the environmental safety is presented according to the parameters used in their construction and management. In order to do that, the following characteristics of the dam must be known: (1) geotechnical stability, (2) erosion of downstream slope, (3) type of sealing of the dam, (4) overtopping probability, (5) volume of leachate stored inside the dam and (6) pollution load of leachate. Once these parameters have been calculated, they are transformed by means of rating curves into homogeneous units, so as to make it possible to operate between them. From the study and analysis of these parameters an environmental risk index for a dam for leachate can be calculated. If the environmental risk index exceeds an established value then it involves a dam for leachate with high environmental risk, therefore preventive measures in its design, construction and management would be necessary.

  3. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  4. IWQ index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    The irrigation water quality and the associated hazards to soil characteristics and crop yield is often a complex phenomenon that involves the combined effect of many parameters. From a management point of view, it is sometimes necessary to analyze all related parameters as a combination rather than focusing on a single isolated parameter. With this objective in mind, a new GIS-integrated tool is proposed in this study to evaluate the quality of irrigation waters with regards to potential soil and crop problems. The proposed procedure is mainly an index method that utilizes five hazard groups: (a) salinity hazard, (b) infiltration and permeability hazard, (c) specific ion toxicity, (d) trace element toxicity; and, (e) miscellaneous impacts on sensitive crops. A linear combination of these groups is formulated to form the so-called IWQ index, which is a technique that could be used to classify irrigation waters with respect to three suitability classes. The proposed technique is applied to assess the irrigation water quality of the Simav Plain located in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Simav application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the plain. Based on the results of this application, the general groundwater quality in the surfacial aquifer is found to be fairly good and the aquifer waters are mostly suitable for irrigation purposes.

  5. The Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form: a questionnaire for job stress assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Davide; Giorgi, Ines; Vidotto, Giulio; Tringali, Salvatore; Imbriani, Marcello; Baiardi, Paola; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives A multidimensional self-report questionnaire to evaluate job-related stress factors is presented. The questionnaire, called Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form (MASI-R), aims to assess the impact of job strain on a team or on a single worker by considering four domains: wellness, resilience, perception of social support, and reactions to stressful situations. Material and methods The reliability of a first longer version (47 items) of the questionnaire was evaluated by an internal consistency analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. An item reduction procedure was implemented to obtain a short form of the instrument, and the psychometric properties of the resulting instrument were evaluated using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 14 items from the initial pool were deleted because they were not productive for measurement. The analysis of internal consistency led to the exclusion of eight items, while the analysis performed using structural equation models led to the exclusion of another six items. According to the Rasch model, item properties and the reliability of the instruments appear good, especially for the scales for wellness and resilience. In contrast, the scales for perception of social support and negative coping styles show a lower internal consistency. Conclusions The Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form provides a reliable and valid measure, useful for early identification of stress levels in workers or in a team along the eustress–vadistress continuum.

  6. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  7. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  8. Harmonization of automated hemolysis index assessment and use: Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro

    2014-05-15

    The major source of errors producing unreliable laboratory test results is the pre-analytical phase with hemolysis accounting for approximately half of them and being the leading cause of unsuitable blood specimens. Hemolysis may produce interference in many laboratory tests by a variety of biological and analytical mechanisms. Consequently, laboratories need to systematically detect and reliably quantify hemolysis in every collected sample by means of objective and consistent technical tools that assess sample integrity. This is currently done by automated estimation of hemolysis index (HI), available on almost all clinical chemistry platforms, making the hemolysis detection reliable and reportable patient test results more accurate. Despite these advantages, a degree of variability still affects the HI estimate and more efforts should be placed on harmonization of this index. The harmonization of HI results from different analytical systems should be the immediate goal, but the scope of harmonization should go beyond analytical steps to include other aspects, such as HI decision thresholds, criteria for result interpretation and application in clinical practice as well as report formats. With regard to this, relevant issues to overcome remain the objective definition of a maximum allowable bias for hemolysis interference based on the clinical application of the measurements and the management of unsuitable samples. Particularly, for the latter a recommended harmonized approach is required when not reporting numerical results of unsuitable samples with significantly increased HI and replacing the test result with a specific comment highlighting hemolysis of the sample.

  9. Sustainability assessment of roadway projects under uncertainty using Green Proforma: An index-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Umer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing environmental and socioeconomic concerns due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts have motivated decision-makers to incorporate sustainable best practices for transportation infrastructure development and management. A “sustainable” transportation infrastructure implies that all the sustainability objectives (i.e., mobility, safety, resource efficiency, economy, ecological protection, environmental quality are adequately met during the infrastructure life cycle. State-of-the-art sustainability rating tools contain the best practices for the sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects. Generally, the existing rating tools are not well equipped to handle uncertainties associated with data limitations and expert opinion and cannot effectively adapt to site specific constraints for reliable sustainability assessment. This paper presents the development of a customizable tool, called “Green Proforma” for the sustainability assessment of roadway projects under uncertainties. For evaluating how well the project meets sustainability objectives, a hierarchical framework is used to develop the sustainability objective indices by aggregating the selected indicators with the help of fuzzy synthetic evaluation technique. These indices are further aggregated to attain an overall sustainability index for a roadway project. To facilitate the decision makers, a “Roadway Project Sustainometer” has been developed to illustrate how well the roadway project is meeting its sustainability objectives. By linking the sustainability objectives to measurable indicators, the “Green Proforma” paves the way for a practical approach in sustainable planning and management of roadway projects.

  10. Consequences of neurologic lesions assessed by Barthel Index after Botox® injection may be underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionyssiotis Y

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Y Dionyssiotis,1,2 D Kiourtidis,3 A Karvouni,3 A Kaliontzoglou,3 I Kliafas31Medical Department, Rehabilitation Center Amyntaio, General Hospital of Florina, Amyntaio, Florina, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, 3Neurologic Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, Dodecanese, GreecePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consequences of neurologic lesions are underestimated when the Barthel Index (BI is used to assess the clinical outcome of botulinum toxin injection.Patients and methods: The records for all in- and outpatients with various neurologic lesions (stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and so forth who had been referred to the authors’ departments and who had received botulinum toxin type A (Botox® for spasticity within a 4-year period (2008–2011 were examined retrospectively. BI data were collected and analyzed.Results: The BI score was found to have increased in follow-up assessments (P = 0.048. No correlation was found between the degree of spasticity and the BI score.Conclusion: The specific injection of Botox in patients with neurologic lesions was not strongly correlated with a significant functional outcome according to the BI. The results of this study suggest that clinicians need to look at other measurement scales for the assessment of significant outcomes of Botox in the rehabilitation process after neurologic lesions.Keywords: botulinum toxin type A, spasticity, stroke, multiple sclerosis

  11. Area-Based COI-Referred Rotor Angle Index for Transient Stability Assessment and Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Izzri Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an index for judging the severity of transient events of power systems in simulation. The proposed transient stability index, known as the area-based COI-referred rotor angle index, is developed by considering the fact that a large-sized power system is divided into several areas according to the coherency of generators in a particular area. It can be assumed that an equivalent single large machine can represent all the generators in that area. Thus, the assessment of rotor angles for all generators can be simplified by only assessing the index of areas in a power system. The effectiveness of the proposed index in assessing the stability of power systems and its ability in pinpointing the weakest area in the power system is analyzed. Furthermore, this paper developed an emergency control scheme known as the combined UFLS and generator tripping in order to stabilize the system when unstable faults occurred in a power system. The proposed index is used to identify the generator to be tripped when the developed emergency control scheme operates. The performance of the proposed index and the combined UFLS and generator tripping scheme are evaluated on the IEEE 39-bus test system.

  12. Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI: The First Global Environmental Assessment of Marine Fish Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna M.S. Stoner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “Sustainable” is among the most sought after of all seafood product adjectives. Ironically it is also one of the most poorly defined and understood. The Global Aquaculture Performance Index (GAPI is the first tool to assess environmental performance of global marine aquaculture production, permitting direct comparison of disparate species, production methods and jurisdictions. Clear patterns emerge from this analysis; significant variation of environmental performance is driven by the species being farmed, significant room for improvement exists across the entire sector, the worst performing players are also the fastest growing, particularly within Asia, and perhaps most importantly, this work highlights the potential trap awaiting policy makers who focus too narrowly on farm production efficiency alone as a solution to diminishing seafood availability.

  13. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  15. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn. The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.

  16. An integrated approach to aquatic health assessment: water quality index and multibiomarker response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedeno-Diaz, J. E.; Lopez-Lopez, E.; Jimenez-Trujillo, P.; Tejeda-Vera, R.; Espainal Carrion, T.

    2009-07-01

    The pollution of water bodies reduces their quality and is stressful to their biota. In a river, water usually is of the high-est quality in its headwaters reaches, becoming dirtier along its length as it passes through different land uses. Therefore, the aquatic environment should be assessed using physicochemical and biological features in order to provide a full spectrum of aquatic ecosystem health. Water Quality Indexes can be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters and to translate this information into a single value. The use of bio markers as indicators of toxicity delineates the effects of xenobiotics before the appearance of diseases in aquatic organism. The use of a battery bio markers may be useful to evaluate the various response to mixtures of pollutants. (Author)

  17. Stimulus-response curve of human motor nerves: multicenter assessment of various indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boërio, D; Hogrel, J-Y; Lefaucheur, J-P; Wang, F C; Verschueren, A; Pouget, J; Carrera, E; Kuntzer, T

    2008-02-01

    The value of various indexes to characterize the stimulus-response curve of human motor nerves was assessed in 40 healthy subjects recruited from four European centers of investigation (Créteil, Lausanne, Liège, Marseille). Stimulus-response curves were established by stimulating the right median and ulnar motor nerves at the wrist, with stimulus durations of 0.05 and 0.5 ms. The following parameters were studied: the threshold intensity of stimulation to obtain 10% (I 10), 50% (I 50), and 90% (I 90) of the maximal compound muscle action potential, the ratios I 10/I 50, I 90/I 50, (I 90 - I 10)/I 10, (I 90-I 50)/I 50, and (I 50 - I 10)/I 10, and the slopes of the stimulus-response curves with or without normalization to I 50. For each parameter, within-center variability and reproducibility (in a test-retest study) were assessed and between-center comparisons were made. For most of the parameters, the results varied significantly within and between the centers. Within the centers, only the ratios I 10/I 50 and I 90/I 50 were found constant and reproducible. Between the centers, the absolute intensity thresholds (I 10, I 50, I 90) and the ratio I 90/I 50 did not show significant differences at stimulus duration of 0.5 ms, whatever the stimulated nerve. The reduced variability and good reproducibility of the ratios I 10/I 50 and I 90/I 50 open perspectives in neurophysiological practice for the use of these indexes of the stimulus-response curve, a rapid and noninvasive test.

  18. Remuneração de professores no Brasil: um olhar a partir da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS Teachers' pay in Brazil: an outlook from the Annual List of Social Information (RAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilnéia Espíndola Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    levels of secondary education teachers working in Brazilian state capitals and, at the same time, to reflect about the potential of this database for the analysis. The choice for an analytical approach related to secondary school teachers is due to the observation that, for the period between 1996 and 2008, the data about these jobs were better informed in the RAIS, despite the fact that its information about the public sector is somewhat irregular. The historical period selected is related to the hypothesis that the funding policy active between 1998 and 2006, which gave priority to fundamental education, could have had a negative effect upon the paying levels of secondary education teachers. In order to analyze the average paying levels, the minimum salary and the Index of Prices to the Consumer (IPC were used as indexes for comparing purchasing powers during the period. This exploratory study seems to confirm a negative relation, which was expected, between the priority given to fundamental education via funding policies and the paying levels of secondary education teachers. Additionally, it reveals the gap between the valuation of the national minimum salary and the valuation policy of the teaching profession; and, finally, it exposes weak points of the RAIS as a tool to work with data about paying levels of the public sector in a separate way. Nevertheless, the convergence between the results of the present work and studies that looked into other databases indicates the pertinence of continuing these analyses.

  19. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  20. Assessment of the Drought in Guangxi by Palmer Index and SPI Index%Palmer指数和SPI指数对广西干旱的评估分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨罗嫚; 赵华荣

    2015-01-01

    Based on daily temperature and precipitation data from 2009 to 2010 in Guangxi.The Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and standardized precipitation index (SPI) of the 20 stations were calculated by monthly.The spatial distribution of precipitation , temperature and two indexes were analysed by ANUSPLIN software , and analysed the effect of drought indexes by precipitation and temperature.The study shows that the drought process was effected by precipitation and tempera-ture , between the two kind of drought indexes , PDSI was more according to the practical of situation , and more suitable to assess the drought for the area.%利用广西地区2009-2010年20个气象站逐日气温和降水资料,计算逐月帕默尔指数( PDSI)和标准化降雨指数( SPI)。采用ANUSPLIN插值软件对降雨、气温和两种指数的空间分布进行差值分析,并分析了降雨量和温度对干旱指数的影响。研究表明,降雨量的大小和温度的高低影响着该地区干旱过程,在两种干旱指数中,PDSI指数更加符合广西的实际情况,更适合于广西地区的干旱评估。

  1. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-07-07

    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  2. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  3. Assessment of regional air quality by a concentration-dependent Pollution Permeation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Huan; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Although air quality monitoring networks have been greatly improved, interpreting their expanding data in both simple and efficient ways remains challenging. Therefore, needed are new analytical methods. We developed such a method based on the comparison of pollutant concentrations between target and circum areas (circum comparison for short), and tested its applications by assessing the air pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Cheng-Yu, China during 2015. We found the circum comparison can instantly judge whether a city is a pollution permeation donor or a pollution permeation receptor by a Pollution Permeation Index (PPI). Furthermore, a PPI-related estimated concentration (original concentration plus halved average concentration difference) can be used to identify some overestimations and underestimations. Besides, it can help explain pollution process (e.g., Beijing’s PM2.5 maybe largely promoted by non-local SO2) though not aiming at it. Moreover, it is applicable to any region, easy-to-handle, and able to boost more new analytical methods. These advantages, despite its disadvantages in considering the whole process jointly influenced by complex physical and chemical factors, demonstrate that the PPI based circum comparison can be efficiently used in assessing air pollution by yielding instructive results, without the absolute need for complex operations.

  4. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  5. Reproducibility and validity of a diet quality index for children assessed using a FFQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybrechts, I.; Vereecken, C.; Bacquer, De D.; Vandevijvere, S.; Oyen, van H.; Maes, L.; Vanhauwaert, E.; Temme, E.H.M.; Backer, De G.; Henauw, de S.

    2010-01-01

    The diet quality index (DQI) for preschool children is a new index developed to reflect compliance with four main food-based dietary guidelines for preschool children in Flanders. The present study investigates: (1) the validity of this index by comparing DQI scores for preschool children with nutri

  6. An empirical standardized soil moisture index for agricultural drought assessment from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrão, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre-Canto, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Empirical Standardized Soil Moisture Index (ESSMI) that is designed to classify soil moisture anomalies from harmonized multi-satellite surface data into categories of agricultural drought intensity. The ESSMI is computed by fitting a nonparametric empirical probability density function (ePDF) to historical time-series of soil moisture observations and then transforming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry soil conditions, whereas positive values indicate wet soil conditions. Drought intensity is defined as the number of negative standard deviations between the observed soil moisture value and the respective normal climatological conditions. To evaluate the performance of the ESSMI, we fitted the ePDF to the Essential Climate Variable Soil Moisture (ECV SM) v02.0 data values collected in the period between January 1981 and December 2010 at South-Central America, and compared the root-mean-square-errors (RMSE) of residuals with those of beta and normal probability density functions (bPDF and nPDF, respectively). Goodness-of-fit results attained with time-series of ECV SM values averaged at monthly, seasonal, half-yearly and yearly timescales suggest that the ePDF provides triggers of agricultural drought onset and intensity that are more accurate and precise than the bPDF and nPDF. Furthermore, by accurately mapping the occurrence of major drought events over the last three decades, the ESSMI proved to be spatio-temporal consistent and the ECV SM data to provide a well calibrated and homogenized soil moisture climatology for the region. Maize, soybean and wheat crop yields in the region are highly correlated (r > 0.82) with cumulative ESSMI values computed during the months of critical crop growing, indicating that the nonparametric index of soil moisture anomalies can be used for agricultural drought

  7. Assessing family resources: validation of the Swedish version of the Family Hardiness Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carina; Benzein, Eva; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-12-01

    All families face normative transitions. Some are perceived as stressful and calls for family resources to maintain or restore family well-being. In times of illness, families also need to develop strengths and capabilities to enhance family well-being. The way these are developed is related to family hardiness. Family hardiness is thus seen as a family resource, and the Family Hardiness Index (FHI) was developed to measure family stress resistance and adaptation resources. The index was not available in Swedish and no extensive international psychometric evaluation was found. Therefore, the aim was to translate and validate the Swedish version of the FHI. The study was approved by a Regional Ethical Review Board. Data from 174 Swedish participants, family members to persons with cognitive dysfunctions (n = 95) and nursing students (n = 79) were included. Family members were enrolled in outpatient clinics in primary care and rehabilitation, and nursing students at a nursing school. Psychometric properties were evaluated through calculations of missing data, distributions of item and scale scores, item correlations, Cronbach's alpha, confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with theoretically related constructs. Sample scores had acceptable data quality, internal consistency for the FHI total scale was satisfactory (α = 0.86), and construct validity was supported. Our findings cast some doubt on the intended interpretation since confirmatory factor analyses showed that a modified four-subscale version, excluding one subscale, showed best fit. The Control subscale lacked important psychometric properties in terms of homogeneity, internal consistency and construct validity. The sample size was probably sufficiently large for the factor analyses, but the subgroup analyses should be treated with caution. The conclusion is that the Swedish version of the FHI is a promising scale for assessing family hardiness, but more solid evidence for the factor structure in

  8. Vulnerability Index to Climate Change and its Application for Community-level Risk Assessment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the vulnerability-led approach, the Prevalent Community-level Vulnerability Index (PCVI was developed as a simple composite index used to represent community-level vulnerability to climate change in the socioeconomic and hazard contexts. The PCVI consists of three major components which are Exposure & hazard, Socioeconomic-ecological fragility and Coping capacity. All of these components are further comprised of different indicators, representing different aspects of biophysical and social vulnerability of grass-root communities. Based on the results analyzed in the provincial pilot sites, the PCVI could represent both spatial patterns and magnitudes of vulnerability of each community in consistence with the local economic-social-environmental contexts. It generally reflects the differences in the local contexts and factors that determine overall vulnerability of each community. For the ease in calculating the PCVI especially for the provincial operating staffs and general public, the PREvalent Community Climate Change Vulnerability Tool (RECCC was further developed as a user-friendly, Excel-based program. In conclusions, the outputs of this study that include the PCVI and its database as well as the RECCC program are useful not only for analyzing vulnerability and assessing risks of community to climate change, but also for supporting decision-making process in developing and implementing adaptation activities at provincial level. These outputs were also designed for further integrating as a supplementary part of Provincial�s Decision Supporting System (DSS, with the purpose of promoting the participation of local organizations and stakeholders in coping with the adverse impacts of climate change. However, additional development of ERCCC program, together with dissemination of the vulnerability framework as well as the use of ERCCC program to local organizations needs to be continued.

  9. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  10. Baleto pedagogo kompetencijų raiška profesionalių baleto artistų ugdymo procese

    OpenAIRE

    Čiškauskaitė, Živilė

    2012-01-01

    Šiame darbe yra nagrinėjama baleto pedagogo, siekiančio išugdyti profesionalų baleto artistą, kompetencijų raiška. Pastebima, kad tik nedidelė dalis baleto mokyklas baigusių mokinių yra puikūs vedantieji balete, sugebantys savo šokiu perteikti dvasines vertybes ir taip įprasminti šokį kaip meno kūrinį. Pagrindiniu tikslu mokymo procese dažniausiai tampa geras pačios išraiškos priemonės pažinimas (šiuo atveju šokio technika), pamirštant, koks svarbus yra ir asmenybės meninės brandos puoselėji...

  11. Detection of classical 17p11.2 deletions, an atypical deletion and RAI1 alterations in patients with features suggestive of Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gustavo H; Rodriguez, Jayson D; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Cao, Lei; Gamba, Bruno F; Carvalho, Daniel R; de Rezende Duarte, Andréa; Santos, Suely R; de Souza, Deise H; DuPont, Barbara R; Walz, Katherina; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Srivastava, Anand K

    2012-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder whose clinical features include mild to severe intellectual disability with speech delay, growth failure, brachycephaly, flat midface, short broad hands, and behavioral problems. SMS is typically caused by a large deletion on 17p11.2 that encompasses multiple genes including the retinoic acid induced 1, RAI1, gene or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. Here we have evaluated 30 patients with suspected SMS and identified SMS-associated classical 17p11.2 deletions in six patients, an atypical deletion of ~139 kb that partially deletes the RAI1 gene in one patient, and RAI1 gene nonsynonymous alterations of unknown significance in two unrelated patients. The RAI1 mutant proteins showed no significant alterations in molecular weight, subcellular localization and transcriptional activity. Clinical features of patients with or without 17p11.2 deletions and mutations involving the RAI1 gene were compared to identify phenotypes that may be useful in diagnosing patients with SMS.

  12. TINGKAT KEBISINGAN DAN TAJAM DENGAR PETUGAS GROUND HANDLING DI BANDARA NGURAH RAI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W Putra Yadnya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ngurah Rai Airport is an International Airport in Bali, this will increase the air traffic frequency and increase the number of aircraft types. This condition increases the noise risk factor which contributes to probable cause of health problem for airport workers. The objective of this study is to analyze the noise effect against hearing acurity of the ground handling staff in Ngurah Rai Airport.This cross sectional study design with 44 number of sample. The sample was taking by proportional random sampling method.The study results showed that noise level in the Administration Division was between 49.6 – 52 dBA. However, in the Technical Division at 08.00 – 16.00 was averagely between 88,3 – 90.9 dBA, at 16.00 – 24.00 was between 89.3 – 93.5 dBA and at 24.00 – 08.00 was between 69.9 – 73.2 dBA. Hearing acurity of ground handling staff in the administration division was 1 personnel (16.7 % experienced hearing acurity depreciation. However, in the technical division, 23 personnel (60.5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. The staff with ? 20 years working period numbering 6 personnel (37,5% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and staff with > 20 years working period numbering 17 personnel (77.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation. On the other hand, personnel that always wear hearing protective equipment numbering 7 personnel (33.3% experienced hearing acurity depreciation and personnel who where not wear hearing protective equipment numbering 16 personnel (94.1% experienced hearing acurity depreciation.The study concluded that noise level in the administration division was under threshold limit value, in technical division between 08.00 – 16.00 and 16.00 – 24.00 was upper threshold limit value but between 24.00 – 08.00 was under threshold limit value. There was a different hearing acurity between administration division staff and the technical division staff. The study also enlighten there was association

  13. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Charles D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information

  14. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintakham K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kanjanar Pintakham,1,2 Wattasit Siriwong1 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 2School of Health Science, Chiang Rai Rajabhat University, Chiang Rai, Thailand Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01. This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task. Keywords: repetitive movement, cognitive behavior therapy, stretching exercise, street sweepers

  15. Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchana Prathep

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in seagrass percentage cover and biomass at Koh Tha Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Gulf ofThailand, were investigated between July 2006 - July 2008 using SeagrassNet protocol. The SeagrassNet protocol is astandard method for monitoring seagrass worldwide, and Koh Tha Rai is among the first few places using such protocol inThailand. The standard protocol such as SeagrassNet allows comparisons of findings among various sites worldwide. Fivespecies of seagrass found at Koh Tha Rai : Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle, Cymodocea rotundata Asch. & Schweinf.,Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.Asch., Halophila ovalis (R.Br. Hook.f. and Halodule uninervis (Forssk. Asch. E. acoroidescovered the largest area, while C. rotundata covered only a small area. Most seagrass showed seasonal variations both inpercentage cover and biomass. There were also variations in above and below ground biomass as well as in the sediment.There was a decline of seagrass with increasing of sedimentation in a sheltered site. This study provides a systematic monitoringof seagrass in Thailand, which is still limited.

  16. First evidence of Smith-Magenis syndrome in mother and daughter due to a novel RAI mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Fabio; Sana, Maria Elena; Della Monica, Matteo; Pinelli, Michele; Postorivo, Diana; Fontana, Paolo; Falco, Maria Teresa; Nardone, Anna Maria; Lonardo, Fortunato; Iascone, Maria; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2017-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by interstitial 17p11.2 deletions encompassing multiple genes, including the retinoic acid induced 1 gene-RAI1-or mutations in RAI1 itself. The clinical spectrum includes developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities, with distinctive physical features that become more evident with age. No patients have been reported to have had offspring. We here describe a girl with developmental delay, mainly compromising the speech area, and her mother with mild intellectual disabilities and minor dysmorphic features. Both had sleep disturbance and attention deficit disorder, but no other atypical behaviors have been reported. In both, CGH-array analysis detected a 15q13.3 interstitial duplication, encompassing CHRNA7. However, the same duplication has been observed in several, apparently healthy, maternal relatives. We, thus, performed a whole exome sequencing analysis, which detected a frameshift mutation in RAI1, de novo in the mother, and transmitted to her daughter. No other family members carried this mutation. This is the first report of an SMS patient having offspring. Our experience confirms the importance of searching for alternative causative genetic mechanisms in case of confounding/inconclusive findings such as a CGH-array result of uncertain significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John N.; Berg, Katherine; Fries, Brant E.; Steel, Knight; Howard, Elizabeth P

    2013-01-01

    Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data...

  18. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products.

  19. STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC DISASTER PERCEPTION IN THE WESTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; LI Jing-yi; ZHAO Jing-bo

    2003-01-01

    The study on humanity response to global environment change is a new direction in the research of global change science, of which an important aspect is to study the adaptation strategies of human being to environ-mental changes in different regions. One reasonable and scientific adaptation strategy is based on not only scientific assessment of the impact of environmental change on society, but also correct estimation of the public perception of environmental change, whereas the research on the latter is terriibly weak. This paper intends to understand the per-sonality difference in public perception of environment in the western China primarily by establishing the assessment index system of nation environmental perception and analyzing the results of questionnaire survey in some regions of Shaanxi Province. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The state of public perception of disaster is one of the founda-tions of constituting and enforcing reasonable adaptation strategy to environmental change. 2) The personality differ-ences of public perception of disaster appear as follows: female disaster perception is stronger than male; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of age characteristics is 20-30, 0-20, 40-50, 30-40, 50-60,60 year old or over in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of educational char-acteristics is senior high school, college, illiterate, junior high school, primary school, in turns; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of occupation characteristics is student, farmer, teacher, worker and functionary, in tums; the order of disaster perception from strong to weak from the point of habitat characteristics is city, countryside, towns, and metropolis in turns.

  20. Application of Standardized Precipitation Index to assess meteorological drought in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anarul H. Mondol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable countries of the world for natural disasters. Drought is one of the common and severe calamities in Bangladesh that causes immense suffering to people in various ways. The present research has been carried out to examine the frequency of meteorological droughts in Bangladesh using the long-term rainfall data of 30 meteorological observatories covering the period of 1948–2011. The study uses the highly effective Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI for drought assessment in Bangladesh. By assessing the meteorological droughts and the history of meteorological droughts of Bangladesh, the spatial distributions of meteorological drought indices were also analysed. The spatial and temporal changes in meteorological drought and changes in different years based on different SPI month intervals were analysed. The results indicate that droughts were a normal and recurrent feature and it occurred more or less all over the country in virtually all climatic regions of the country. As meteorological drought depends on only rainfall received in an area, anomaly of rainfall is the main cause of drought. Bangladesh experienced drought in the years 1950, 1951, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967 and 1971 before independence and after independence Bangladesh has experienced droughts in the years 1972, 1973, 1975, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1992, 1994, 1995, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011 during the period 1948–2011. The study indicated that Rajshahi and its surroundings, in the northern regions and Jessore and its surroundings areas, the island Bhola and surrounding regions, in the south-west region, were vulnerable. In the Sylhet division, except Srimongal, the areas were not vulnerable but the eastern southern sides of the districts Chittagong, Rangamati, Khagrachhari, Bandarban and Teknaf were vulnerable. In the central regions, the districts of Mymensingh and Faridpur were more vulnerable

  1. High atherogenic index of plasma in subclinical hypothyroidism: Implications in assessment of cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen R.; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: A controversy exists regarding the association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and dyslipidemia. Moreover, studies on lipid ratios and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in SH are rare, particularly in the Indian scenario. Aim: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP in SH and attempted to correlate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AIP in SH. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective analysis of patient records of SH subjects and euthyroid subjects, age, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipid ratios, and AIP were compared between the two groups. The correlation of TSH and AIP in SH was studied. Spearman's correlation, Mann–Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: Triglyceride, triglyceride/HDL-C, and AIP were significantly higher in SH as compared to euthyroid group, but there was no correlation between TSH and AIP in SH. AIP emerged as the significant single factor associated with SH in multiple logistic regressions. Conclusion: The positive association of dyslipidemia and SH indicates a need for regular screening of these patients to enable early diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia. Even in patients who have a normal conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP have to be calculated for better assessment of atherogenic risk. PMID:27730076

  2. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects.

  3. High atherogenic index of plasma in subclinical hypothyroidism: Implications in assessment of cardiovascular disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R James

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A controversy exists regarding the association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SH and dyslipidemia. Moreover, studies on lipid ratios and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP in SH are rare, particularly in the Indian scenario. Aim: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP in SH and attempted to correlate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and AIP in SH. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective analysis of patient records of SH subjects and euthyroid subjects, age, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipid ratios, and AIP were compared between the two groups. The correlation of TSH and AIP in SH was studied. Spearman′s correlation, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: Triglyceride, triglyceride/HDL-C, and AIP were significantly higher in SH as compared to euthyroid group, but there was no correlation between TSH and AIP in SH. AIP emerged as the significant single factor associated with SH in multiple logistic regressions. Conclusion: The positive association of dyslipidemia and SH indicates a need for regular screening of these patients to enable early diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia. Even in patients who have a normal conventional lipid profile, lipid ratios, and AIP have to be calculated for better assessment of atherogenic risk.

  4. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllensiefen, Daniel; Gingras, Bruno; Musil, Jason; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636). Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  5. The musicality of non-musicians: an index for assessing musical sophistication in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    Full Text Available Musical skills and expertise vary greatly in Western societies. Individuals can differ in their repertoire of musical behaviours as well as in the level of skill they display for any single musical behaviour. The types of musical behaviours we refer to here are broad, ranging from performance on an instrument and listening expertise, to the ability to employ music in functional settings or to communicate about music. In this paper, we first describe the concept of 'musical sophistication' which can be used to describe the multi-faceted nature of musical expertise. Next, we develop a novel measurement instrument, the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI to assess self-reported musical skills and behaviours on multiple dimensions in the general population using a large Internet sample (n = 147,636. Thirdly, we report results from several lab studies, demonstrating that the Gold-MSI possesses good psychometric properties, and that self-reported musical sophistication is associated with performance on two listening tasks. Finally, we identify occupation, occupational status, age, gender, and wealth as the main socio-demographic factors associated with musical sophistication. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical accounts of implicit and statistical music learning and with regard to social conditions of sophisticated musical engagement.

  6. Assessment of Iranian Agroclimatological Zone Classification by Using TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Kouzehgaran, Saeedeh; Haghighat, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural zoning is an important tool for authorities to plan and decide about development of the agricultural sector, environmental sustainability issues and plan and provide irrigation and rural infrastructures. Previous different methods have suggested the definition of agroclimatological zones in big areas in Iran, but most of them are not easy to be validated or there are not clear criteria to evaluate whether the zones are correctly defined or not. The current {it Iranian Meteorological Organisation} classification is composed of six significant agroclimatological zones defined using the fundamental climate elements of temperature and precipitation obtained from 30 years data from 180 synoptic stations interpolated using regression kriging methods. Elevation was derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) digital elevation model of 90 m resolution. In this paper we assess the homogeneity of each of these conventionally defined agroclimatological zones using {bf TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)} values obtained from MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI operational products of the last three years between 2013 and 2015.

  7. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  8. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the automatic assessment of differences between Wild-Type mice and Crouzon mice based on high-resolution 3D Micro CT data. One factor used for the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome in humans is the cephalic index, which is the skull width/length ratio. This index has traditionally...... been computed by time-consuming manual measurements that prevent large-scale populational studies. In this study, an automatic method to estimate cephalic index for this mouse model of Crouzon syndrome is presented. The method is based on constructing a craniofacial atlas of Wild-type mice...... and then registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy...

  9. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN PAS BANDARA INTERNASIONAL NGURAH RAI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL SERVQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suska V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Permit to a person to enter the restricted area at Ngurah Rai Airport which is called Airport Pas can be given in accordance with the duties and activities of a person at the airport. On permit service, there are disappointments and complaints of the Pas applicant that can still be found in the Pas service like duration of Pas completion and officer service at the time of application. The different perception and expectation of Pas applicant must remain in the regulation corridors and prioritize security at airports. The purpose of this research is assesing the quality of Pas service in the Airport Authority Region IV by using a SERVQUAL (Service Quality model. The model is comparing the two main factors, namely real customer perception of the service that they received (Perceived Service with the actual services expected/desirable (Expected Service which consists of 5 (five dimensions, those are Tangibles (physical, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy (attention. By using these models, it is known that the quality of Pas service in the Airport Authority Region IV is still less than the expectations of the applicant and the most important dimension to enhance is Responsiveness. Gaps between perception and expectation as follows: Responsiveness (-0,2240, Assurance (-0,2171, Reliability (-0,2099, Tangibles (-0,1994, dan Empathy (-0,1373.

  10. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  11. Assessment of right ventricular function by myocardial performance index in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ahmed Abdelaziz

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Myocardial performance index is a useful noninvasive tool for the detection of early right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients, regardless of coexisting hypertension.

  12. The Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form: a questionnaire for job stress assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massidda D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Davide Massidda,1 Ines Giorgi,2 Giulio Vidotto,3 Salvatore Tringali,4 Marcello Imbriani,4,5 Paola Baiardi,6 Giorgio Bertolotti7 1Giunti O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali, Firenze, Italy; 2Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy; 3Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 4ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, UOOML, Pavia, Italy; 5Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 6Scientific Direction, ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy; 7Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, Tradate, Italy Introduction and objectives: A multidimensional self-report questionnaire to evaluate job-related stress factors is presented. The questionnaire, called Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form (MASI-R, aims to assess the impact of job strain on a team or on a single worker by considering four domains: wellness, resilience, perception of social support, and reactions to stressful situations. Material and methods: The reliability of a first longer version (47 items of the questionnaire was evaluated by an internal consistency analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. An item reduction procedure was implemented to obtain a short form of the instrument, and the psychometric properties of the resulting instrument were evaluated using the Rasch measurement model. Results: A total of 14 items from the initial pool were deleted because they were not productive for measurement. The analysis of internal consistency led to the exclusion of eight items, while the analysis performed using structural equation models led to the exclusion of another six items. According to the Rasch model, item properties and the reliability of the instruments appear good, especially for the scales for wellness and resilience. In contrast, the scales for perception of social support and negative coping styles show a lower internal consistency. Conclusions: The Maugeri Stress Index – reduced form provides a reliable and valid

  13. The "X-Factor" index: a new parameter for the assessment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu Qing; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Wong, Yat Wa; Luk, Keith D K

    2011-01-01

    The correction rate (CR) and fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI) based on the fulcrum bending radiograph (FBR) were parameters introduced to measure the curve correcting ability; however, such parameters do not account for contributions by various, potential extraneous "X-Factors" (e.g. surgical technique, type and power of the instrumentation, anesthetic technique, etc.) involved in curve correction. As such, the purpose of the following study was to propose the concept of the "X-Factor Index" (XFI) as a new parameter for the assessment of the correcting ability of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A historical cohort radiographic analysis of the FBR in the setting of hook systems in AIS patients (Luk et al. in Spine 23:2303-2307, 1998) was performed to illustrate the concept of XFI. Thirty-five patients with AIS of the thoracic spine undergoing surgical correction were involved in the analysis. Plain posteroanterior (PA) plain radiographs were utilized and Cobb angles were obtained for each patient. Pre- and postoperative PA angles on standing radiograph and preoperative fulcrum bending angles were obtained for each patient. The fulcrum flexibility, curve CR, and FBCI were determined for all patients. The difference between the preoperative fulcrum bending angle and postoperative PA angle was defined as Angle(XF), which accounted for the correction contributed by "X-Factors". The XFI, designed to measure the curve correcting ability, was calculated by dividing Angle(XF) by the fulcrum flexibility. The XFI was compared with the curve CR and FBCI by re-evaluating the original data in the original paper (Luk et al. in Spine 23:2303-2307, 1998). The mean standing PA and FBR alignments of the main thoracic curve were 58.3° and 24.5°, respectively. The mean fulcrum flexibility was 58.8%. The mean postoperative standing PA alignment was 24.7°. The mean curve CR was 58.0% and the mean FBCI was 101.1%. The mean XFI was noted as 1.03%. The CR was significantly

  14. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  15. Value of oxygenation index in assessment of outcome of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome treated by mechanical ventilator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the value of oxygenation index in assessing the outcome of mechanical ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS).Methods From September 2008 to September 2013,patients meeting the Berlin definition of ARDS were evaluated in this retrospective study.Data included oxygenation

  16. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan river in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aazami, J.; Esmaili Sari, A.; Abdoli, A.; Sohrabi, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obt

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhushan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the heterogeneity in land use distribution pattern on the traffic congestion in rapidly urbanizing Ranchi city, capital of Jharkhand state, India. Traditionally, researchers have used the landscape metrics to determine the heterogeneity in the land use and land cover distribution pattern in both urban and non-urban areas. In the present study, we have introduced a new index: Heterogeneity Index to quantify the distribution pattern of the land use categories present along the various road segments whereas traffic congestion was determined through the Congestion Index Value. Based on the dominant land use categories existing in the study area, four heterogeneity indices were developed such as Residential Heterogeneity Index, Commercial Heterogeneity Index, Industrial Heterogeneity Index and Urban Services Heterogeneity Index, respectively. Finally, a Cumulative Heterogeneity Index was developed to determine the aggregate effect of the heterogeneity of the various land use categories present in the individual roads. Analytical Hierarchical Processing and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. The results of the investigation showed positive relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and traffic congestion.

  18. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  19. Copula-based drought risk assessment combined with an integrated index in the Wei River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianxia; Li, Yunyun; Wang, Yimin; Yuan, Meng

    2016-09-01

    It is critical to assess drought risk based on a reliably integrated drought index incorporating comprehensive information of meteorology, hydrology and agriculture drought indices, which is of great value for further understanding the future drought tendency, prevention and mitigation. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to focus on constructing a multivariate integrated drought index (MIDI) by coupling four drought indices (i.e., Precipitation Anomaly Percentage (PAP), Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP), Standardized Precipitation Index with 6-month aggregation time step (SPI6) and Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI)) to objectively and comprehensively investigate drought risk. The variable fuzzy set theory and entropy weight method are used during the MIDI construction process. Based on the MIDI, a drought event including drought duration and severity is redefined using run theory. Then copula-based drought risk is fully assessed through the joint probability distribution of drought duration and severity. Results indicate the following: (1) the constructed MIDI is consistent with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Runoff Anomaly Percentage (RAP) series, and it is more sensitive and effective to capture historical drought events; (2) the drought characteristics present noticeable spatial variability among five subzones, and the entire basin has 49 droughts with the longest drought duration spanning 8.55 months; and (3) the mainstream, especially the middle and lower reaches, has higher occurrences of severe droughts for approximately every 10 years.

  20. Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in Moradabad city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anamika; Tiwari, P B; Mahima; Singh, Dharmveer

    2009-07-01

    To see the relative tolerance of the plant species, ten different plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Pongamia pinnata, Alstonia scholaris, Holoptelea integrifolia, Saraca indica, Pithecolobium dulcis, Cassia simea, Bauhinia variegata, Azadirachta indica and Grewelia robusta was taken from residential (SI), industrial (SII) and commercial (SIII) area of the city as this florais very much common to the Brass city and is planted on the roadside. The quality of air with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 has been also assessed on respective sites to see its effect on biochemical parameters of the leaves i.e. pH, total water content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid and evaluate the (air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of various plants. It was concluded that Pongamia pinnata 15.8, Pithecolobium dulcis 34.8, Holoptelea integrifolia 55.8 and Saraca indica 52.0 have very high APTI value over control so these are considered as high tolerant tree species, Ficus rumphii 35.7, Azadirachta indica 30.5 and Grewelia robusta 34.3 have slightlymoreAPTI value over control so these are considered as moderately tolerant tree species and Alstonia scholaris 21.5, Cassia simea 6.09 and Bauhinia variegata 18.22 have lessAPTI value than control, so these are sensitive species respectively. One way ANOVA finds the obtained values to be highly significant (p < 0.001) at the industrial site. Thus present findings show that Brass and allied industries are the prominent sources responsible for the elevated level of air pollutants at the industrial site.

  1. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems.

  2. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  3. Body Mass Index assessment of institutionalized aged people without cognitive impairment using clinical and nutritional factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Ruperto López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are recognized mortality risk factors in the general population. The aim of the study was to analyse the phenotypic distribution of body mass index (BMI, and to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and clinical and nutritional factors related to BMI in autonomous institutionalized elders. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study in 104 institutionalized aged people (73% female, mean of age 86.4 [±6.2] years and time on institutionalization 25.7 [±21.7] months. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA, anthropometric measures and laboratory parameters were used for nutritional assessment. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA-101; RJL-System was used for body composition analysis. The sample was classified into BMI tertiles (Tn: T1=<26.2kg/m2; T2=26.3-29.7kg/m2; and T3=≥29.8kg/m2. Results: The phenotypic distribution of BMI was: overweight 51% and, prevalence of obesity 29.8%. Mean of BMI: 28.3 (±4.6 kg/m2. Nutritional risk or malnutrition were 60.6% and 11.5%, respectively in the sample. The tertiles of BMI showed significant differences with: mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps-skinfold thickness, total body water (TBW (all, p<0.001. Subjects into T1 had significantly higher nutritional risk or malnutrition compared with T2 and T3 counterparts (p=0.015. Waist-circumference, calf-circumference (at least, p<0.01, and TBW (p<0.001 were independent predictors of BMI in the linear regression analysis (R2=0.52. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity measured by BMI is not an exclusion criterion of malnutrition in the geriatric population. Nutritional screening by MNA and the conjoint use of clinical-nutritional parameters are useful for identifying at nutritional risk or malnutrition. Further studies are needed to define the potential nutritional risk factors associated with BMI in autonomous institutionalized aged.

  4. [Assessment of chlorophyll content using a new vegetation index based on multi-angular hyperspectral image data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qin-hong; Zhang, Dong-yan; Wang, Ji-hua; Yang, Gui-jun; Yang, Hao; Coburn, Craig; Wong, Zhijie; Wang, Da-cheng

    2014-06-01

    The fast estimation of chlorophyll content is significant for understanding the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study gets the hyperspectral imagery data by using a self-developed multi-angular acquisition system during the different maize growth period, the reflectance of maize canopy was extracted accurately from the hyperspectral images under different view angles in the principal plane. The hot-dark-spot index (HDS) of red waveband was calculated through the analysis of simulated values by ACRM model and measured values, then this index was used to modify the vegetation index (TCARI), thus a new vegetation index (HD-TCARI) based on the multi-angular observation was proposed. Finally, the multi-angular hyperspectral imagery data was used to validate the vegetation indexes. The result showed that HD-TCARI could effectively reduce the LAI effects on the assessment of chlorophyll content. When the chlorophyll content was greater than 30 μg x cm(-2), the correlation (R2) between HD-TCARI and LAI was only 26.88%-28.72%. In addition, the HD-TCARI could resist the saturation of vegetation index during the assessment of high chlorophyll content. When the LAI varled from 1 to 6, the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content could be improved by 9% compared with TCARI. The ground validation of HD-TCARI by multi-angular hyperspectral image showed that the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content (R2 = 66.74%) was better than the TCARI (R2 = 39.92%), which indicated that HD-TCARI has good potentials for estimating the chlorophyll content.

  5. A Monotonic Degradation Assessment Index of Rolling Bearings Using Fuzzy Support Vector Data Description and Running Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation assessment based on condition monitoring plays an important role in ensuring reliable operation of equipment, reducing production downtime and saving maintenance costs, yet performance degradation has strong fuzziness, and the dynamic information is random and fuzzy, making it a challenge how to assess the fuzzy bearing performance degradation. This study proposes a monotonic degradation assessment index of rolling bearings using fuzzy support vector data description (FSVDD and running time. FSVDD constructs the fuzzy-monitoring coefficient  which is sensitive to the initial defect and stably increases as faults develop. Moreover, the parameter  describes the accelerating relationships between the damage development and running time. However, the index  with an oscillating trend disagrees with the irreversible damage development. The running time is introduced to form a monotonic index, namely damage severity index (DSI. DSI inherits all advantages of  and overcomes its disadvantage. A run-to-failure test is carried out to validate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that DSI reflects the growth of the damages with running time perfectly.

  6. Design and methods of the GLYNDIET study: assessing the role of glycemic index on weight loss and metabolic risk markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Juanola-Falgarona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycemic index and/or glycemic load have been explored as an alternative for the prevention and/or management of obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Objective: The purpose of the manuscript is to describe the design and methods used in the GLYNDIET Project, a study designed to simultaneously address the questions related to the exactly role of low glycaemic index carbohydrates has on weight loss. Methods: This study was designed as a 6-months randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of the dietary glycemic index on weight-loss, satiety, glucose and insulin metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation and other emergent metabolic risk markers. Eligible subjects were community-dwelling men and women aged between 30 and 60 years, with a body mass index between 27 and 35 kg/m². Subjects were randomly assigned to three different dietary intervention groups (low glycemic index diet, high glycemic index diet or low-fat diet, that were isocaloric, and did not differ in the amount of dietary fibre. Monthly, study subjects were scheduled for control visits where anthropometry, blood pressure, dietary habits, satiety and physical activity were assessed. Blood, urine and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the study to further molecular and biochemical measurements. Discussion: The GLYNDIET study was designed to determine if there is a greater effectiveness of a carbohydrate restricted diet with low glycemic index compared to an isocaloric diet with carbohydrates of high glycemic index or low-fat diet on weight loss in middle long-term.

  7. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hydrogen Index (HI), Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogen index (HI) is a parameter obtained from Rock-Eval data which reflects general hydrocarbon generation and maturation trends in petroleum systems. In the...

  8. Coastal Change Potential Index (CPI) Assessment for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (glba_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CPI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  9. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  10. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) Assessment for the National Park of American Samoa (npsa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within The National Park of American Samoa . The...

  11. Coastal Change Potential Index (CPI) Assessment for Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (glba_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CPI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in...

  12. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) Assessment for the National Park of American Samoa (npsa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within The National Park of American Samoa ....

  13. Evaluation of perfusion index as a tool for pain assessment in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanin, Ahmed; Mohamed, Sabah Abdel Raouf; El-Adawy, Akram

    2016-09-24

    Pain is a common and undertreated problem in critically ill patients. Pain assessment in critically ill patients is challenging and relies on complex scoring systems. The aim of this work was to find out the possible role of the perfusion index (PI) measured by a pulse oximeter (Masimo Radical 7; Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) in pain assessment in critically ill patients. A prospective observational study was carried out on 87 sedated non-intubated patients in a surgical intensive care unit. In addition to routine monitoring, a Masimo pulse oximeter probe was used for PI measurement. The sedation level of the patients was assessed by using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). The pain intensity was determined by applying the behavioral pain scale for non-intubated (BPS-NI) patients. The PI, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, RASS, and BPS-NI values before and after the application of a standard painful stimulus (changing the patient position) were reported. Correlation between the PI and other variables was carried out at the two measurements. Correlation between changes in the PI (delta PI) and in the hemodynamic variables, RASS, and BPS-NI was also done. Changing the patient position resulted in a significant increase in SBP (128 ± 20 vs 120.4 ± 20.6, P = 0.009), DBP (71.3 ± 11.2 vs 68.7 ± 11.3, P = 0.021), heart rate (99.5 ± 19 vs 92.7 ± 18.2, P = 0.013), and BPS-NI (7[6-8] vs 3[3-3], P < 0.001) values and a significant decrease in the PI (1[0.5-1.9] vs 2.2[0.97-3.6], P < 0.001) value compared to the baseline readings. There was no correlation between the values of the PI and the ABP, BPS-NI, and RASS at the two measurements. A good correlation was found between the delta PI and delta BPS-NI (r = -0.616, P < 0.001). A weak correlation was observed between the PI and heart rate after the patient positioning (r = -0.249, P < 0.02). In surgical critically ill non-intubated patients, the application of a painful

  14. [Assessment of the coronary circulation regulation by means of the so-called isometric contraction index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaszek, W; Löwe, H R; Rentsch, W; Pankau, H; Günther, K

    1976-08-01

    The index of isometric contraction formed from the quotient period of isometric contraction in the erect position by period of isometric contraction in lying position gives the possibility to separate between cardially sufficient and cardially insufficient patients with adequately disturbed regulation of the cardiac circulation. The recognition of early stages of the disturbed left-ventricular function is possible. The use of an adequate exact technique in gaining the primary data is to be presumed. Corrections of the frequency of the index of isometric contraction do not improve the evidence. In the borderline region of the index of isometric contraction with values between 1.03 and 1.1 in questionable cases a further differentiation into still normal or already latent insufficient will do by the analysis of the trend of the index of isometric contraction after the application of medicaments. The determination of the change of the direction of the index of isometric contraction after peroral application of nitroglycerin would be justifiable in routine work after the recognition of the initiaction increases in patients with latent heart insufficiency, in patients with a healthy heart it decreases. The clinical value of the index of isometric contraction as a simple test of the circulatory function is highly to be estimated.

  15. Correlation of the American Urological Association symptom index with self-administered versions of the Madsen-Iversen, Boyarsky and Maine Medical Assessment Program symptom indexes. Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1992-11-01

    We correlated the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index with other indexes that have been used to measure symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compared their psychometric properties. A self-administered questionnaire that allowed derivation of AUA, Maine Medical Assessment Program, Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky symptom scores was completed by 76 men with clinically defined BPH, 59 younger control subjects, and 27 men before and after prostatectomy. The scores from the 4 indexes were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 0.93). All 4 indexes had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. All indexes were predictive of patient global ratings of the degree of bother from the urinary condition. The AUA index discriminated BPH patients from controls significantly better than the Maine Medical Assessment Program index, and equivalently to the Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky indexes (despite having fewer items). All 4 indexes were responsive when BPH patients underwent prostatectomy, although the AUA and Madsen-Iversen indexes were significantly more sensitive.

  16. The G Protein-Coupled Receptor RAI3 Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Pancreatic Cancer Survival and Regulates Proliferation via STAT3 Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahny, Elisabeth; Yang, Hai; Liu, Bin; Jahnke, Beatrix; Lademann, Franziska; Knösel, Thomas; Rümmele, Petra; Grützmann, Robert; Aust, Daniela E.; Denz, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest tumors worldwide. Understanding the function of gene expression alterations is a prerequisite for developing new strategies in diagnostic and therapy. GPRC5A (RAI3), coding for a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor is known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and might be an interesting candidate for therapeutic intervention. Expression levels of RAI3 were compared using a tissue microarray of 435 resected patients with pancreatic cancer as well as 209 samples from chronic pancreatitis (CP), intra-ductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and normal pancreatic tissue. To elucidate the function of RAI3 overexpression, siRNA based knock-down was used and transfected cells were analyzed using proliferation and migration assays. Pancreatic cancer patients showed a statistically significant overexpression of RAI3 in comparison to normal and chronic pancreatitis tissue. Especially the loss of apical RAI3 expression represents an independent prognostic parameter for overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. Suppression of GPRC5a results in decreased cell growth, proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer cell lines via a STAT3 modulated pathway, independent from ERK activation. PMID:28114355

  17. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmajd, Farhad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans) uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC) method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF) sound and low-frequency (LF) sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI) of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant's probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave bands exceed 65

  18. Assessment value of quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Xia Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of the quantitative indexes of pancreatic CT perfusion scanning for malignant degree of pancreatic cancer.Methods:A total of 58 patients with space-occupying pancreatic lesions were divided into 20 patients with pancreatic cancer and 38 patients with benign pancreatic lesions after pancreatic CT perfusion. Patients with pancreatic cancer received palliative surgery, and the cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected during operation. The differences in pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and serum tumor marker levels were compared between patients with pancreatic cancer and patients with benign pancreatic lesions, mRNA expression levels of malignant molecules in pancreatic cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were further determined, and the correlation between pancreatic CT perfusion scanning parameter values and malignant degree of pancreatic cancer was analyzed.Results:CT perfusion scanning BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were lower than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions; serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels were higher than those of patients with benign pancreatic lesions (P<0.05); mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL andsurvivin in pancreatic cancer tissue samples were higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples, and mRNA expression levels ofP53 andBax were lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue samples (P<0.05); CT perfusion scanning parameters BF, BV and Per values of patients with pancreatic cancer were negatively correlated with CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 levels in serum as well as mRNA expression levels ofBcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivinin pancreatic cancer tissue, and positively correlated with mRNA expression levels ofP53andBaxin pancreatic cancer tissue (P<0.05).Conclusions:Pancreatic CT perfusion scanning is a reliable way to judge the malignant degree of pancreatic cancer and plays a positive role in guiding clinical

  19. Contouring Variability of the Penile Bulb on CT Images: Quantitative Assessment Using a Generalized Concordance Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carillo, Viviana [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Perna, Lucia; Calandra, Mauro [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Gianolini, Stefano [Medical Software Solutions GmbH, Hagendorn (Switzerland); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Spinelli, Antonello Enrico [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy); Vavassori, Vittorio [Department of Radiotherapy, Cliniche Gavazzeni Humanitas, Bergamo (Italy); Villa, Sergio [Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Cancer Program, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy 1, IRCCS National Institute of Cancer, Milano (Italy); Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Within a multicenter study (DUE-01) focused on the search of predictors of erectile dysfunction and urinary toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, a dummy run exercise on penile bulb (PB) contouring on computed tomography (CT) images was carried out. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess interobserver contouring variability by the application of the generalized DICE index. Methods and Materials: Fifteen physicians from different Institutes drew the PB on CT images of 10 patients. The spread of DICE values was used to objectively select those observers who significantly disagreed with the others. The analyses were performed with a dedicated module in the VODCA software package. Results: DICE values were found to significantly change among observers and patients. The mean DICE value was 0.67, ranging between 0.43 and 0.80. The statistics of DICE coefficients identified 4 of 15 observers who systematically showed a value below the average (p value range, 0.013 - 0.059): Mean DICE values were 0.62 for the 4 'bad' observers compared to 0.69 of the 11 'good' observers. For all bad observers, the main cause of the disagreement was identified. Average DICE values were significantly worse from the average in 2 of 10 patients (0.60 vs. 0.70, p < 0.05) because of the limited visibility of the PB. Excluding the bad observers and the 'bad' patients,' the mean DICE value increased from 0.67 to 0.70; interobserver variability, expressed in terms of standard deviation of DICE spread, was also reduced. Conclusions: The obtained values of DICE around 0.7 shows an acceptable agreement, considered the small dimension of the PB. Additional strategies to improve this agreement are under consideration and include an additional tutorial of the so-called bad observers with a recontouring procedure, or the recontouring by a single observer of the PB for all patients included in the DUE-01 study.

  20. Estimating occupant satisfaction of HVAC system noise using quality assessment index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise may be defined as any unwanted sound. Sound becomes noise when it is too loud, unexpected, uncontrolled, happens at the wrong time, contains unwanted pure tones or unpleasant. In addition to being annoying, loud noise can cause hearing loss, and, depending on other factors, can affect stress level, sleep patterns and heart rate. The primary object for determining subjective estimations of loudness is to present sounds to a sample of listeners under controlled conditions. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems only the ventilation fan industry (e.g., bathroom exhaust and sidewall propeller fans uses loudness ratings. In order to find satisfaction, percent of exposure to noise is the valuable issue for the personnel who are working in these areas. The room criterion (RC method has been defined by ANSI standard S12.2, which is based on measured levels of in HVAC systems noise in spaces and is used primarily as a diagnostic tool. The RC method consists of a family of criteria curves and a rating procedure. RC measures background noise in the building over the frequency range of 16-4000 Hz. This rating system requires determination of the mid-frequency average level and determining the perceived balance between high-frequency (HF sound and low-frequency (LF sound. The arithmetic average of the sound levels in the 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz octave bands is 44.6 dB; therefore, the RC 45 curve is selected as the reference for spectrum quality evaluation. The spectral deviation factors in the LF, medium-frequency sound and HF regions are 2.9, 7.5 and -2.3, respectively, giving a Quality Assessment Index (QAI of 9.8. This concludes the QAI is useful in estimating an occupant′s probable reaction when the system design does not produce optimum sound quality. Thus, a QAI between 5 and 10 dB represents a marginal situation in which acceptance by an occupant is questionable. However, when sound pressure levels in the 16 or 31.5 Hz octave

  1. The relative teratogenic index and teratogenic potency: proposed components of developmental toxicity risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, S; Shull, G; Brown, N A

    1982-01-01

    Teratogenicity tests should provide answers to three questions: (1) Can the agent induce developmental defects? ("teratogenic potential"); (2) What are the effective doses? ("teratogenic potency"); and (3) Are effective doses below adult toxic doses? ("teratogenic hazard"). The answers to (2) and (3) should be quantitative in nature, but there are no accepted parameters to express these properties. In this paper we propose parameters for the description of teratogenic potency and hazard in quantitative terms. Derivation and calculation of the parameters are illustrated by the analysis of adult lethality and teratogenicity data of eight structurally related anhydrides and imides, following testing in the CD-1 mouse. Teratogenicity was evaluated following treatment on Days 8-10 of gestation, using an average of four dose groups per compound and at least 10 dams per group. Adult lethality was estimated following a similar 3-day dosage schedule with an average of 6 dose groups per compound and at least 8 animals per group. Dose-response relationships of teratogenicity were fitted to a probit model from which tD50 (median effective dose), and other effective doses were computed. It is proposed that tD05, as a minimum teratogenic dose, best represents teratogenic potency. In this study, potency ranged from 0.17 mmol/kg/day for phenytoin to 5.2 mmol/kg/day for ethosuximide. In order to measure teratogenic hazard a ratio between adult toxic (lethality was chosen as the most appropriate measure) and teratogenic responses was made. Since the dose-response slopes of lethality and teratogenicity were different, a simple ratio between median effective doses could not be used. It is shown that a ratio of LD01 to tD05 provides a "Relative Teratogenic Index" (RTI) which reflects the teratogenic hazard of a test agent. The following RTI values (LD01/tD05) were computed in this study: phthalic anhydride, 0.9; phensuximide, 1.0; succinic anhydride, 1.0; ethosuximide, 1.2; phenytoin

  2. The importance of tissue handling of surgically removed breast cancer for an accurate assessment of the Ki-67 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim Insufficient attention for the Ki-67 immunohistochemistry has been given to the importance of tissue handling for surgical breast cancer specimens. We sought to investigate the effect of fixation status on the Ki-67. Methods We examined the effect of fixative, time to and duration of fixation using surgical specimens, and finally, compared the paired Ki-67 index in the tumour between core needle and surgical specimen. Results The Ki-67 was significantly higher when 10% neutral buffered formalin was used (p=0.0276). Insufficient fixation caused a drastic reduction in the Ki-67 index (p=0.0177), but not significant in oestrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Sixteen hours delayed time to fixation also caused a reduction of the Ki-67 (p=0.0284), but not significant in ER. Prolonged fixation significantly led to a gradual reduction in the Ki-67 in a time-dependent manner, but not in both ER and HER2. Finally, cutting the tumour before fixation improved fixation status and consequently caused an increased level of the Ki-67 index (p=0.0181), which resulted in a strong correlation of the Ki-67 between core needle and surgical specimen (r=0.8595). Conclusions Tissue handling of surgical specimen is critical for assessing the Ki-67 compared with ER and HER2. We should pay more attention to tissue fixation status for the standard assessment of the Ki-67 index. PMID:26420767

  3. Assessing Leaf Area Index from High Resolution Satellite Datasets for Maize in Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomew Thiongo, Kuria; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank

    2016-08-01

    The Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the two band Enhanced vegetation Index (EVI2) derived from RapidEye and Landsat 8 satellite images were evaluated against the empirically derived terrestrial Leaf Area Index (LAI) acquired during the maize growth season April to November, 2015 and covering the phenological growth stages prescribed in the BBCH code. The results indicate a high correlation of the vegetation indices plotted over the entire maize season with R2 values of 88% and 83% for NDVI and EVI2 respectively. The maximum values were found to occur during the maize vegetative phase in the months of July and August. The correlation between the vegetation indices and the LAI had R2 values of 50% and 49% for NDVI and EVI2 respectively. Alternative methods of estimating and calculating the LAI values may improve the achieved results.

  4. Business risk assessment of the companies on the Mexican Stock Exchange’s sustainable index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Morales Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/10/27 - Accepted: 2014/12/15This work evaluated the business risk change of 20 companies included on the sustainable index of the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV. The unlevered beta coefficient was used for this analysis. Two periods were compared: the one before, and the one after including the companies on the index. For each of the 20 companies it was used financial information, stocks closing prices and the stock market index value, over a period of 234 weeks. Then, considering the two periods, the statistical difference between the unlevered beta coefficient averages was calculated. Finally, a hypothesis proof was made to evaluate the business risk change. It was found that for 12 out of the 20 companies, the unlevered beta coefficient suffered a reduction. The findings suggest that it is not enough for the companies to certify as sustainable in order to reduce its business risk.

  5. Jėzui Kristui skirtų katalikų liaudies pamaldumo praktikų raiška Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Motuzas, Alfonsas

    2013-01-01

    Straipsnyje nagrinėjamos Jėzui Kristui skirtos liaudies pamaldumo praktikos, jų atsiradimo Lietuvoje aplinkybės ir raiška. Tyrimas pagrindė darbo pradžioje išsikeltą prielaidą, kad Jėzui Kristui skirtos liaudies pamaldumo praktikos Lietuvoje atliekamos per gavėnią, birželines pamaldas, šermenis ir mirusiųjų minėjimus. Today the dominant religion in Lithuania is Catholicism. Communities of Orthodox, Evangelical Lutherans and Evangelical Reformats are also present in the country. Since the m...

  6. Melanin index in assessing the treatment efficacy of 1064 nm Q switched Nd-Yag laser in nevus of Ota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathy Sethuraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium-garnet (Q switched Nd-Yag laser has been used in the treatment of nevus of Ota in all skin types with variable success rate. Data with an objective assessment parameter to this laser treatment is lacking. Objective: To evaluate the utility of melanin index in assessing the treatment response and also determine the efficacy and safety of the Q-switched Nd-Yag laser (1064-nm in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients treated with Nd-Yag laser were studied. The objective improvement (pigment clearance was determined by melanin index from two fixed points: A1, 2 cm below the pupil at the mid pupillary line (when the gaze is fixed; A2, the most prominent part of zygoma. The melanin index in these two areas was recorded as M1 and M2, respectively. The subjective clinical improvement was determined by the physician and the patient global assessment score. Results: The mean baseline melanin indices M1 and M2 were 59.54 ± 9.72 and 59.02 ± 9.16, respectively. At the last visit the mean M1 and M2 decreased to 53.8 ± 8.55 (P 50% pigment clearance. Conclusion: The melanin index, a simple non-invasive parameter is useful in assessing the treatment response more objectively. The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd-Yag laser offers good improvement in patients with nevus of Ota in darker skin types IV/V.

  7. Melanin Index in Assessing the Treatment Efficacy of 1064 nm Q Switched Nd-Yag Laser in Nevus of Ota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Gomathy; Sharma, Vinod K; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Q-switched neodymium-yttrium aluminium-garnet (Q switched Nd-Yag) laser has been used in the treatment of nevus of Ota in all skin types with variable success rate. Data with an objective assessment parameter to this laser treatment is lacking. Objective: To evaluate the utility of melanin index in assessing the treatment response and also determine the efficacy and safety of the Q-switched Nd-Yag laser (1064-nm) in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Fitzpatrick skin types IV and V. Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients treated with Nd-Yag laser were studied. The objective improvement (pigment clearance) was determined by melanin index from two fixed points: A1, 2 cm below the pupil at the mid pupillary line (when the gaze is fixed); A2, the most prominent part of zygoma. The melanin index in these two areas was recorded as M1 and M2, respectively. The subjective clinical improvement was determined by the physician and the patient global assessment score. Results: The mean baseline melanin indices M1 and M2 were 59.54 ± 9.72 and 59.02 ± 9.16, respectively. At the last visit the mean M1 and M2 decreased to 53.8 ± 8.55 (P 50% pigment clearance. Conclusion: The melanin index, a simple non-invasive parameter is useful in assessing the treatment response more objectively. The 1064-nm Q-switched Nd-Yag laser offers good improvement in patients with nevus of Ota in darker skin types IV/V. PMID:24470713

  8. [Assessment of toxicity effects for cadmium contamination in soils by means of multi-indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lang; Song, Yu-fang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiu-ying; Wang, Lei; Ji, Pu-hui; Yang, Xiao-xia

    2008-09-01

    The genetic and eco-toxic effects of Cd (0-10 mg x kg(-1)) were studied with Vicia faba (broad bean) as the test species using meadow brown soil in pot experiments by means of several indexes, such as Vicia faba root tip micronucleus frequency (MCN), mitosis index (MI), and chromosomal aberrations frequency (CAF), antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidases (POD), catalase (CAT) and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and zeatin and zeatin riboside (Z&ZR). Results indicated the significant positive dose-response correlations were found between Cd2+ concentrations and the tested indexes (MI, MCN and CAF). Among of them, MCN is the most sensitive, and the MCN frequencies were 1.43-3.22 times higher in Cd treatment soils than that of in the controls. SOD and POD in seedling leaves of broad bean were response to the Cd stress, showing a trend of increase with Cd concentrations initially and then decreased. The CAT response to Cd in soils was opposite to that of SOD and POD. In addition, there were stimulation and inhabitation effects between Cd and ABA, GA3 and Z&ZR in lower and higher Cd concentrations. The highest contents of phytohormone (ABA, GA3 and Z&ZR) were found when Cd was at 2.5 mg x kg(-1), which was 6.6%, 4.0% and 12.6% higher than that in the control, respectively. Our study indicated that all indexes were response to the Cd stress in soils, but the sensitivity of each index was different from each other. All these indexes combined should be more efficiency in the diagnosis of geno-, and eco-toxicity of cadmium in soils.

  9. Assessment of contractility in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes using the dimensionless 'Frank-Starling Gain' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollensdorff, Christian; Lookin, Oleg; Kohl, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper briefly recapitulates the Frank-Starling law of the heart, reviews approaches to establishing diastolic and systolic force-length behaviour in intact isolated cardiomyocytes, and introduces a dimensionless index called 'Frank-Starling Gain', calculated as the ratio of slopes of end-systolic and end-diastolic force-length relations. The benefits and limitations of this index are illustrated on the example of regional differences in Guinea pig intact ventricular cardiomyocyte mechanics. Potential applicability of the Frank-Starling Gain for the comparison of cell contractility changes upon stretch will be discussed in the context of intra- and inter-individual variability of cardiomyocyte properties.

  10. [Bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI): an approach for assessing river ecosystem health in Dianchi watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Shu, Zhong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) has been widely applied to the health assessment of river ecosystems. However, the currently available IBI methods are lack of decomposer-based assessment. Based on the T-RFLP result of bacterioplankton, we developed the bacterioplankton index of biotic integrity (BP-IBI) after the screening of major environmental factors and candidate metrics to assess the health of the inflow rivers in Dianchi Watershed. The evaluation result indicated that the eco-health conditions of 11 reference sites were either level I (8 sites) or level II (3 sites), while the 27 damaged sites were level I (4 sites), level II (14 sites), level III (7 sites), and level IV (2 sites), and there was no level V site. Compared with the other IBI methods and the integrated pollution index, BP-IBI showed better effect in reflecting the influence of the key environmental factors, the land use types and the upstream water types in river ecosystems. Therefore, BP-IBI is a good method to characterize the health status of river ecosystems.

  11. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  12. Optical community index to assess spatial patchiness during the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinić, I.; Perry, M. J.; D'Asaro, E.; Briggs, N.; Poulton, N.; Sieracki, M. E.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-09-01

    The ratio of two in situ optical measurements, chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl F) and optical particulate backscattering (bbp), varied with changes in phytoplankton community composition during the North Atlantic Bloom experiment in the Iceland Basin in 2008. Using ship-based measurements of Chl F, bp, chlorophyll a (Chl), HPLC pigments, phytoplankton composition and carbon biomass, we found that oscillations in the ratio varied with changes in plankton community composition; hence we refer to Chl F/bp as an "optical community index". The index varied by more than a factor of two, with low values associated with pico- and nanophytoplankton and high values associated with diatom dominated phytoplankton communities. A Lagrangian mixed-layer float and four Seagliders, operating continuously for two months, made similar measurements of the optical community index and followed the evolution and later demise of the diatom spring bloom. Temporal changes in optical community index and, by implication the transition in community composition from diatom to post-diatom bloom communities, were not simultaneous over the spatial domain surveyed by the ship, float and gliders. Not only phytoplankton biomass, but also community composition was patchy at the submesoscale. The ratio of simple optical properties measured from autonomous platforms, when carefully validated, provides a tool for studying phytoplankton patchiness on extended temporal scales and ecological relevant spatial scales, and should offer new insights into the processes regulating patchiness.

  13. Towards a multimetric index for the assessment of Dutch streams using benthic macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the development of a macroinvertebrate based multimetric index for two stream types, fast and slow running streams, in the Netherlands within the AQEM project. Existing macroinvertebrate data (949 samples) were collected from these stream types from all over the Netherlands. All

  14. Assessing the Added Value of Dynamical Downscaling Using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to ascertain the added value of dynamical downscaling over the contiguous United States. WRF is used as a regional climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale reanalysis fields to compare values of SPI over drough...

  15. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  16. The Hierarchy Consistency Index: Evaluating Person Fit for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a person-fit statistic called the hierarchy consistency index (HCI) to help detect misfitting item response vectors for tests developed and analyzed based on a cognitive model. The HCI ranges from -1.0 to 1.0, with values close to -1.0 indicating that students respond unexpectedly or differently from the responses…

  17. Optical community index to assess spatial patchiness during the 2008 North Atlantic Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cetinić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of two in situ optical measurements, chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl F and optical particulate backscattering (bbp, varied with changes in phytoplankton community composition during the North Atlantic Bloom experiment in the Iceland Basin in 2008. Using ship-based measurements of Chl F, bp, chlorophyll a (Chl, HPLC pigments, phytoplankton composition and carbon biomass, we found that oscillations in the ratio varied with changes in plankton community composition; hence we refer to Chl F/bp as an "optical community index". The index varied by more than a factor of two, with low values associated with pico- and nanophytoplankton and high values associated with diatom dominated phytoplankton communities. A Lagrangian mixed-layer float and four Seagliders, operating continuously for two months, made similar measurements of the optical community index and followed the evolution and later demise of the diatom spring bloom. Temporal changes in optical community index and, by implication the transition in community composition from diatom to post-diatom bloom communities, were not simultaneous over the spatial domain surveyed by the ship, float and gliders. Not only phytoplankton biomass, but also community composition was patchy at the submesoscale. The ratio of simple optical properties measured from autonomous platforms, when carefully validated, provides a tool for studying phytoplankton patchiness on extended temporal scales and ecological relevant spatial scales, and should offer new insights into the processes regulating patchiness.

  18. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration constant flux for assessing particulate/colloidal fouling of RO systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S.G.; Amy, G.L.; Schippers, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for measuring and predicting the fouling potential of reverse osmosis (RO) feed water are important in preventing and diagnosing fouling at the design stage, and for monitoring pre-treatment performance during plant operation. The Modified Fouling Index Ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) cons

  19. Assessment of correlation between knee notch width index and the three-dimensional notch volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Lorenz, S.G.F.; Fu, F.H.; Smolinski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to determine whether there is a correlation between the notch volume and the notch width index (NWI) as measured on the three most frequently used radiographic views: the Holmblad 45A degrees, Holmblad 70A degrees, and Rosenberg view. The notch volume of 20 cadaveric knees was me

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Assessed Waters NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  1. EPA Office of Water (OW): 305(b) Waters as Assessed NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 305(b) program system provide assessed water data and assessed water features for river segments, lakes, and estuaries designated under Section 305(b) of the...

  2. Inter-rater reliability of the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 in the assessment of the paediatric foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Jill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability is an integral component of clinical assessment and necessary for establishing baseline data, monitoring treatment outcomes and providing robust research findings. In the podiatric literature traditional measures of foot assessment have been shown to be largely unreliable. The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 is a clinical tool used in the assessment of foot and to date, there is limited research published which evaluates the reliability of this tool in children and adolescents. Method Thirty participants aged 5 - 16 years were recruited for the research. Two raters independently recorded the FPI-6 score for each participant. Results Almost perfect agreement between the two raters was identified following weighted kappa analysis (Kw = 0.86. Conclusion The FPI-6 is a quick, simple and reliable clinical tool which has demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability when used in the assessment of the paediatric foot.

  3. Fire and explosion risk assessment in a process unit using Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Nezamodini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the process industries, especially industries with hydrocarbons uses, due to flammability and reactivity of materials, high temperature, operation pressure, volatility and evaporability of liquid, fire and explosion hazard always has a great significances.The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative fire safety using DOW’s fire and explosion index, in an oil extraction industry. .Material and Method: The required information for conducting this research was obtained from process documents, DOW’s fire and explosion guideline,the measured operational parameters and also interviews and consultation with the supervisors and experts. Following, the study was conducted in three phases: 1 determination of DOW index, the radius and area of contact, 2 determination of loss control credit factor and finally 3 loss estimation. .Result: Fire and explosion index in the understudy process unit was calculated 243.68 and thus severity of risk was extremely high and unacceptable. Radius of exposure and loss control credit factor wasobtained62.38 meters and 0.69, respectively. Finally,the most probable loss was estimated about 2863500 dollars. .Conclusion: DOW’s fire and explosion index is a suitable technique to measure the fire risk of whole plant or a part of it. Thus, this criterion can be used to propose the changes or amount of protective equipment according to their effect in reducing the losses.

  4. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  5. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, P; Darmoni, S J; Grabar, N; Douyère, M; Benichou, J

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF.

  6. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  7. Different methods for assessment of nutritional status in newborn infants based on physical and anthropometric indexes: a short review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several complications during childhood is associated with nutritional status of infants at birth. Therefore, nutritional status of newborns must be evaluated properly after birth. Assessment of the nutritional status of neonates based on anthropometric and physical indices is simple and inexpensive without the need for advanced medical equipment. However, no previous studies have focused on the assessment methods of the nutritional status of infants via anthropometric and physical indices. This study aimed to review some of the key methods used to determine the nutritional status of neonates using anthropometric and physical indices. To date, most studies have focused on the diagnosis of fetal malnutrition (FM and growth monitoring. In order to diagnose FM, researchers have used growth charts and Ponderal index (PI based on anthropometric indices, as well as Clinical Assessment of Nutritional (CAN Score based on physical features. Moreover, in order to assess the growth status of infants, growth charts were used. According to the findings of this study, standard intrauterine growth curves and the PI are common measurement tools in the diagnosis of FM. Furthermore, CAN score is widely used in the evaluation of the nutritional status of neonates. Given the differences in the physical features of term and preterm infants, this index should be adjusted for preterm neonates. Longitudinal growth charts are one of the most prominent methods used for monitoring of the growth patterns of infants.

  8. Proposing melasma severity index: A new, more practical, office-based scoring system for assessing the severity of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI, for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 l + 0.4 (a × p 2 r + 0.2 (a × p 2 n where "a" stands for area, "p" for pigmentation, "l" for left face, "r" for right face, and "n" for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6 th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955 as compared to MASI (0.816. Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman′s correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma.

  9. [Complex voice assessment--Polish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Wojnowski, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present own modification of Jacobson's The Voice Handicap Index, the self-estimation scale of the voice as a one part of the complex voice evaluation. The VHI contains three groups of questions of physical, emotional and functional subscales, which specify complaints during phonation scored in 4 points (0-4). The presented our own modification of the VHI may be useful in everyday clinical practice.

  10. A new empirical index for assessing the vulnerability of peri-urban mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Augusto de Oliveira Brunow; Lana, Paulo da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. The present study empirically evaluated the vulnerability of forest stands that make up the subtropical Perequê River mangrove (Paranaguá Bay, S Brazil) as the basis for a more appropriate management of its resources. This mangrove is located in the coastal municipality of Pontal do Paraná (Paraná, Brazil) and is part of the Perequê River Mangrove Natural Park, which is still not under a management plan. This study aimed to contribute to the future management plan of this conservation unit through an environmental diagnosis and an empirical evaluation of its vulnerability. The primary data, collected from 51 plots of 100 m(2) each, involved the evaluation of: 1) the exposure to solid waste, deforestation, trails, landfills, and constructions; 2) the degree of sensitivity according to the environmental conditions of each plot; and 3) the adaptive capacity according to the recovery and reproductive potential and structural complexity of the forests. These data were integrated to compose the empirical index of environmental vulnerability (VI) expressed as VI = (SI + EI) - ACI where SI is the sensitivity sub-index, EI is the exposure sub-index, and ACI is the adaptive capacity sub-index. Empirical indices calculated for local forests varied significantly due to differences in values of SI, EI and ACI. This variability defines the local mangrove as a mosaic of vulnerability conditions and suggests that the planning and implementation of local management actions consider such environmental heterogeneity. Applying or extending these actions should be based on local forest conditions at short spatial scales and should not be applied to the mangrove as a whole.

  11. [Google Scholar and the h-index in biomedicine: the popularization of bibliometric assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Clavijo, A; Delgado-López-Cózar, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the features, benefits and limitations of the new scientific evaluation products derived from Google Scholar, such as Google Scholar Metrics and Google Scholar Citations, as well as the h-index, which is the standard bibliometric indicator adopted by these services. The study also outlines the potential of this new database as a source for studies in Biomedicine, and compares the h-index obtained by the most relevant journals and researchers in the field of intensive care medicine, based on data extracted from the Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Results show that although the average h-index values in Google Scholar are almost 30% higher than those obtained in Web of Science, and about 15% higher than those collected by Scopus, there are no substantial changes in the rankings generated from one data source or the other. Despite some technical problems, it is concluded that Google Scholar is a valid tool for researchers in Health Sciences, both for purposes of information retrieval and for the computation of bibliometric indicators.

  12. Utility of comprehensive assessment of strain dyssynchrony index by speckle tracking imaging for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamawaki, Kouhei; Ryo, Keiko; Omar, Alaa Mabrouk Salem; Fukuda, Yuko; Norisada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Onishi, Tetsuari; Gorcsan, John; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2011-02-01

    The strain delay index is reportedly a marker of dyssynchrony and residual myocardial contractility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a relatively simple version of the strain dyssynchrony index (SDI) can predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and that combining assessment of radial, circumferential, and longitudinal SDI can further improve the prediction of responders. A total of 52 patients who underwent CRT were studied. The SDI was calculated as the average difference between peak and end-systolic strain from 6 segments for radial and circumferential SDI and 18 segments for longitudinal SDI. Conventional dyssynchrony measures were assessed by interventricular mechanical delay, the Yu index, and radial dyssynchrony by speckle tracking strain. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease in end-systolic volume after 3 months. Of the individual parameters, radial SDI ≥6.5% was the best predictor of response to CRT, with sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 81%, and an area under the curve of 0.87 (p SDIs was 100%. In contrast, rates in patients with either 1 or no positive SDIs were 42% and 22%, respectively (p SDIs). In conclusion, the SDI can successfully predict response to CRT, and the combined approach leads to more accurate prediction than using individual parameters.

  13. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Lucio

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI, Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI, and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000. Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000, with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010, CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000, and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000. Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.

  15. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  16. Assessment of lichen diversity by index of atmospheric purity (IAP), index of human impact (IHI) and other environmental factors in an urban area (Grenoble, southeast France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, S; Asta, J; Seaward, M R D

    2004-05-25

    An assessment of air quality in the Grenoble area was made using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). The survey area was divided into 198 units (0.7 x 1 km), in which 345 average lichen relevés were analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Each relevé station was characterized in the field by a subjective index of human impact (IHI) calculated according to four local environmental parameters influencing the epiphytic lichen flora: urbanization (urban, suburban or rural area), road traffic (low or high), local developments (stations located within crop fields, green areas, housing sites or car parks), and exposure (trees isolated, in rows or grouped). Eighty-three epiphytic lichen species and two algae were recorded and grouped into three ecological categories defined according to bark type and nutrient needs: nitrophytic, neutrophytic and acidophytic species. IAP values, varying from 5.9 to 71.7, were clustered into five categories in order to produce an air-quality map. The geographical pattern of the IAP map showed no clear connection with local sources of pollution, such as the vicinity of a road or an industrial plant, and was not correlated with annual mean values of SO(2), NO(2) and NO for the years 1994-1997. IAP appeared to be influenced by environmental artificiality as shown by a polynomial trend observed between IAP and IHI, even if IAP values were broadly scattered. Multivariate analysis (canonical correspondence) showed that high IAP values could be observed in stations of "natural" environments at high elevations and in stations of "artificial" environments at low elevations. It was also shown that IAP varied in relation to the relative proportion of ecological groups of lichen relevés: although a majority of neutrophytic species (>50%) with a much lower percentage of nitrophytic species generally characterized high IAP, a predominance of acidophytic or nitrophytic species led to a decrease in the IAP. A correlation between nitrophytic

  17. Application of the bentix index in assessing ecological quality of hard substrata: a case study from the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KALKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a biotic index (Bentix has been used for the assessment of ecological quality status of shallow water hard substrate benthic ecosystems affected by coastal sewage discharges in the Bosphorus Strait. A significant difference was observed between the control and the discharge stations with regard to Bentix values (Mann-Whitney U Test, p=0.002 and ecological quality status of the discharge stations was worse than that of controls. The index values revealed that sewage discharges caused serious disturbance in macrozoobenthic communities in the area investigated. Although so far it has been used for soft bottom communities, Bentix (with some species scoring modifications also appeared to work successfully in hard substrates, at least for the present study.

  18. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas.

  19. Assessing sexual problems in women at midlife using the short version of the female sexual function index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of sexual function is a complex process, especially in women, which requires in any individual case: time, appropriate training and experience. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is quite variable depending on the studied population, assessment methods, comorbid conditions and treatments, and age. A large number of screening methods have been developed over the last decades which range from tedious, exhaustive and boring tools to very simple standardized questionnaires. The 19-item female sexual function index (FSFI-19) is among the most used and useful- instrument designed to assess female sexual function in all types of circumstances, sexual orientation and perform the comparison of transcultural factors. A short 6-item- version of the FSFI-19 has been developed to provide a quick general approach to the six original domains (one item per domain). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations as it has been extensively demonstrated with the original tool.

  20. Multivariate drought index: An information theory based approach for integrated drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Singh, Vijay. P.; Mishra, Ashok. K.

    2015-07-01

    Most of the existing drought indices are based on a single variable (e.g. precipitation) or a combination of two variables (e.g., precipitation and streamflow). This may not be sufficient for reliable quantification of the existing drought condition. It is possible that a region might be experiencing only a single type of drought at times, but multiple drought types affecting a region is quite common too. To have a comprehensive representation, it is better to consider all the variables that lead to different physical forms of drought, such as meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural droughts. Therefore, we propose to develop a multivariate drought index (MDI) that will utilize information from hydroclimatic variables, including precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture as indicator variables, thus accounting for all the physical forms of drought. The entropy theory was utilized to develop this proposed index, that led to the smallest set of features maximally preserving the information of the input data set. MDI was then compared with the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) for all climate regions within Texas for the time period 1950-2012, with particular attention to the two major drought occurrences in Texas, viz. the droughts which occurred in 1950-1957, and 2010-2011. The proposed MDI was found to represent drought conditions well, due to its multivariate, multi scalar, and nonlinear properties. To help the user choose the right time scale for further analysis, entropy maps of MDI at different time scales were used as a guideline. The MDI time scale that has the highest entropy value may be chosen, since a higher entropy indicates a higher information content.

  1. A "continuity-index" for assessing ice-sheet dynamics from radar-sounded internal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Bingham, Robert G.;

    2012-01-01

    Radio-echo sounding (RES) of polar icesheets reveals extensive internal layering. The degree of continuity of internal layering holds critical information about the ice-flow field, but previous analyses of this parameter have been limited to qualitative classifications. Here we present a new...... quantitative method for analyzing internallayercontinuity—named the continuity-index. When applied to data from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, the new method clearly identifies a continuum of discontinuity of internallayers that corresponds with the current ice-velocity field. The analysis provides...

  2. Usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index in Daily Clinical Practice for Assessing Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lozano-Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outcome evaluation is an important aspect of the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. We evaluated the usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI in assessing people affected by degenerative lumbar disease in daily clinical practice. Methods. We evaluated 221 patients who had completed preoperatively and 2 years after surgery VAS pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and COMI. We calculated the change of scores and its sensitivity to change. The internal consistency of the COMI items and the correlation between the COMI scores and the scores of the other measurements were assessed. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean scores of the preoperative and 2 years questionnaires for nearly all measurements. COMI showed a good internal consistency, except for the preoperative pain subscale. The sensitivity to change was high for the total COMI and its pain and well-being subscales and moderate for the rest. The COMI demonstrated strong correlation with the other measurements. Conclusions. The COMI is a useful tool for assessing the patient-based outcome in the studied population. Given its simplicity, good correlation with the SF-36 and ODI and its good sensitivity to change, it could replace more cumbersome instruments in daily clinical practice.

  3. "RISK ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPING DISTAL UPPER EXTREMITY DISORDERS BY STRAIN INDEX METHOD IN AN ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC INDUSTRY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourmahabadian

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain index (SI is a substantial advancement and has been devised to analyze ergonomic risks for distal upper extremity (DUE disorders. This semi-quantitative tool allows for the measurement of hazards and does not require unduly lengthy training to begin to use it accurately. Uses of the strain index include analysis of a current job to assess whether it is safe or hazardous, quantification of the risks, and assistance in the initial design of a job or in the redesign of a job. The aim of this study was to assess and analyze risk of developing DUE disorders in different jobs as well as hazard classification in an assembling electronic industry through SI method. Also, DUE disorders prevalence, work-related absenteeism and turnover extracted from SI results were compared and assessed by those obtained by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ. The findings of this study showed that more than 50% of investigated jobs are categorized as "hazardous" and there is a significant difference between SI mean in hazardous and safe jobs (P < 0.0001. In addition, significant difference was found between prevalence of DUE disorders in "safe" and "hazardous" jobs (P < 0.049. But, no significant difference (P = 0.3 was obtained between mean absenteeism in "safe" and hazardous jobs. Also, no significant difference statistically was found between turnover in "safe" and hazardous jobs (X2 = 0.133, P = 1 and high prevalence of DUE disorders is due to low turnover rate of workers.

  4. ASSESSING GOING-CONCERN ASSUMPTION: EVIDENCE FROM BORSA ISTANBUL (BIST INDUSTRIAL INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan TERZİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable model for the Industrial Index of Borsa Istanbul (BIST to evaluate of going-concern. Variables consisting of financial statements and activity reports between the years 2009-2014 of firms that are publicly exchanged in BIST Industrial Index were used in the research. Among the variables selected a correlation analysis was conducted to test whether multi- collinearity existed or not. Based on the results of correlation analysis the paper formed four models by using logistic regression method. The results of logistic regression analysis put forward a statistically significant relationships among several variables namely; going-concern of the firm and the period between the balance sheet date and the date of audit report, firm’s size of assets, revenue of the firm, the risk of failure with respect to financial factors, financial leverage ratio, ratio of working capital to total assets and ratio of cash from operating activities to total assets. Moreover, 80% success rate for four models that were formed in the paper was obtained.

  5. Feasibility of a Healthy Trolley Index to assess dietary quality of the household food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Freya; Hendrie, Gilly A; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Noakes, Manny

    2015-12-28

    Supermarket receipts have the potential to provide prospective, objective information about the household food supply. The aim of this study was to develop an index to estimate population diet quality using food purchase data. Supermarket receipt data of 1 month were available for 836 adults from a corporate office of a large retail chain. Participants were aged 19-65 years (mean 37·6 (sd 9·3) years), 56 % were female and 63 % were overweight or obese. A scoring system (Healthy Trolley Index (HETI)) was developed to compare food expenditure with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Monthly expenditure per food group, as a proportion of total food expenditure, was compared with food group recommendations, and a HETI score was calculated to estimate overall compliance with guidelines. Participants spent the greatest proportion on discretionary foods, which are high in fat/sugar (34·8 %), followed by meat including beef and chicken (17·0 %), fresh and frozen vegetables (13·5 %) and dairy foods (11·3 %). The average HETI score ranged from 22·6 to 93·1 (out of 100, mean 58·8 (sd 10·9)). There was a stepwise decrease in expenditure on discretionary foods by increasing HETI quintile, whereas expenditure on fruit and vegetables increased with HETI quintile (Psupermarket purchasing patterns and quality of the household food supply with application for consumer feedback to assist improved quality of foods purchased.

  6. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  7. Estuarine trophic state assessment: New plankton index based on morphology of Keratella rotifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopko, Mikhail; Telesh, Irena V.

    2013-09-01

    A new estuarine trophic state index - Keratella-index (KIN), based on the relative abundance of two common rotifer species, Keratella cochlearis and Keratella tecta, was developed and tested for the Neva Estuary (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea). The morphological trait variation of these plankton species and their responses to different trophic conditions were investigated at three nearshore stations. The morphological data confirm that K. cochlearis and K. tecta are likely to be two distinct species (not two morphs) at our study site. The mean lorica length of K. cochlearis and K. tecta differ significantly and there were no K. cochlearis individuals with extremely short spines (spine length significantly decreases with an increase in trophic state (R2 = 0.71; p spined K. cochlearis may be explained by the "rare-enemy effect". There was a significant correlation (R2 = 0.76; p < 0.001; R2 = 0.68; p < 0.01) between KIN and the common trophic state indices (TSI and QB/T, respectively). The KIN values indicated meso-eutrophic to strongly eutrophic conditions at different nearshore sampling sites and hence indicated that the Neva Estuary is eutrophic.

  8. A Methodology for Assessing and Ranking Ballistic Missile Defense Technologies Using a System Performance Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    suggestions, and guidance concerning the technology assessment process. References 1. Using ACEIT for Total Ownership Cost Modeling and Analysis...2001 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC List of Acronyms ACEIT – Automated Cost Estimating Integrated

  9. Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score (RAPID3) correlates well with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity index (BASDAI) in the assessment of disease activity and monitoring progression of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danve, Abhijeet; Reddy, Anusha; Vakil-Gilani, Kiana; Garg, Neha; Dinno, Alexis; Deodhar, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a composite index, very useful for assessment of disease activity of various rheumatic diseases including RA. If RAPID3 can also reliably measure disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), it may prove to be a practical and effective quantitative assessment tool in busy practices. We studied the association of RAPID3 with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) seen from 2007 to 2012 were classified as having AS or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using modified New York criteria and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria, respectively. Patients with simultaneous BASDAI and RAPID3 scores were enrolled (N = 112; 105 with AS, seven with nr-axSpA). Multiple regression and nonparametric receiver operating characteristics were used. Baseline mean (SD) BASDAI and RAPID3 were 4.2 (2.5) and 3.8 (2.3), respectively. Multiple linear regressions modeled a quadratic relationship between BASDAI and RAPID3 for 321 observations in 112 patients with axSpA (1) cross-sectionally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.171; s.e. = 0.113, p < 0.001) and RAPID3(2) (β = -0.037; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.011) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.676; and (2) longitudinally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.196; s.e. = 0.111, p < 0.001), RAPID3(2) (β = -0.042; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.004), and visit number (β = -0.142; s.e. = 0.038, p < 0.001) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.689. RAPID3 (correctly classified) corresponded to BASDAI scores of 2, 4, and 6: 1.40 (85.8 %), 3.33 (81.9 %), and 5.43 (87.1 %), respectively. RAPID3 correlates well with BASDAI in monitoring axSpA patients (including AS) in cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up. Since it also correlates with measures of disease activity of other rheumatic diseases including RA, RAPID3 could be an attractive measure

  10. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p404

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no date restriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary) quality, diet (ary) patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranea...

  11. Assessment of the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on electroencephalography using connectivity indexes not affected by volume conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Francesc Alonso

    2015-04-01

    The fact that the considered indexes were not able to find significant differences in the beta band might indicate that phase-coupling changes induced by the drug are weak or too subtle to be detected, given that all measures are corrected by a baseline recording. This might discourage their use in psychopharmacological studies when assessing low doses, mild effects, or when working with a reduced number of participants. However, correlations with plasma concentrations remained high, indicating that PLI, WPLI and IC should not be totally discarded as means of evaluating pharmacological effects on the brain via EEG recordings.

  12. Assessing the Snow Advance Index as potential predictor of winter streamflow of the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Muñoz, José Manuel; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the ability of the Eurasian snow cover increase during the previous October as potential predictor of winter streamflow in the Iberian Peninsula Rivers. The streamflow data base used has been provided by the Center for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, CEDEX. Series from gauging stations and reservoirs with less than 10% of missing data (filled by regression with well correlated neighboring stations) have been considered. The homogeneity of these series has been evaluated through the Pettit test and degree of human alteration by the Common Area Index. The application of these criteria led to the selection of 382 streamflow time series homogeneously distributed over the Iberian Peninsula, covering the period 1975-2008. For this streamflow data, winter seasonal values were obtained by averaging the monthly values from January to March. The recently proposed Snow Advance Index (SAI) was employed to monitor the snow cover increase during previous October. The stability of the correlations was the criterion followed to establish if SAI could be considered as potential predictor of winter streamflow at each gauging station. Winter streamflow is predicted using a linear regression model. A leave-one-out cross validation approach was adopted to create calibration and validations subsets. The correlation coefficient (RHO), Root Mean Square Error Skill Score (RMSESS) and the Gerrity Skill Score (GSS) were used to evaluate the forecasting skill. From the 382 stations evaluated, significant and stable correlations with SAI were found in 238 stations, covering most of the IP (except for the Cantabrian and Mediterranean slopes). Some forecasting skill was found in 223 of them, being this skill moderate (RHO>0.44, RMSESS>10%, GSS>0.2) in 141 of them, and particularly good (RHO>0.5, RMSESS>20%, GSS>0.4) in 23. This study shows that the SAI of previous October is a reliable predictor of following winter streamflow for the Iberian Peninsula Rivers

  13. Identification of Nine New RAI1-Truncating Mutations in Smith-Magenis Syndrome Patients without 17p11.2 Deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F; Toutain, A; Mignot, C; Jacquette, A; Dieux, A; Gérard, M; Beaumont-Epinette, M-P; Julia, S; Isidor, B; Rossi, M; Odent, S; Bendavid, C; Barthélémy, C; Verloes, A; David, V

    2014-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is an intellectual disability syndrome with sleep disturbance, self-injurious behaviors and dysmorphic features. It is estimated to occur in 1/25,000 births, and in 90% of cases it is associated with interstitial deletions of chromosome 17p11.2. RAI1 (retinoic acid induced 1; OMIM 607642) mutations are the second most frequent molecular etiology, with this gene being located in the SMS locus at 17p11.2. Here, we report 9 new RAI1-truncating mutations in nonrelated individuals referred for molecular analysis due to a possible SMS diagnosis. None of these patients carried a 17p11.2 deletion. The 9 mutations include 2 nonsense mutations and 7 heterozygous frameshift mutations leading to protein truncation. All mutations map in exon 3 of RAI1 which codes for more than 98% of the protein. RAI1 regulates gene transcription, and its targets are themselves involved in transcriptional regulation, cell growth and cell cycle regulation, bone and skeletal development, lipid and glucide metabolisms, neurological development, behavioral functions, and circadian activity. We report the clinical features of the patients carrying these deleterious mutations in comparison with those of patients carrying 17p11.2 deletions.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGREE OF INTOXICATION AND THE FORECAST LEVEL OF THE INTEGRAL INDEX OF INTOXICATION UNDER CERTAIN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Marzhokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this research was to study indicators syndrome of endogenous intoxication in patients with erysipelas and herpes infection that can be used to predict relapse in these diseases.Based on the goal were examined in 54 patients with primary, erythematous form of erysipelas of different localization and 42 patients with the localized form of herpes infection in the dynamics of these diseases.Determined the level of substances of low and medium molecular weight (HV and SMM, and oligopeptides, as well as the Integral index of intoxication by the method of M. I. Malakhov (1994 and Lowry (1991. To assess the value of the Integral index of intoxication in the prediction of relapses were calculated odds ratio.Revealed the dependence of studied parameters of disease and completeness of recovery.Level measurement HV and SMM and oligopeptides allows us to calculate the Integral index of intoxication, which can be used as a prognostic criterion of recurrence as erysipelas, and herpes infection.

  15. Can gender differences during exercise-heat stress be assessed by the physiological strain index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S; Shapiro, Y; Laor, A; Izraeli, S; Pandolf, K B

    1999-06-01

    A physiological strain index (PSI) based on rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate (HR) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PSI for gender differences under various combinations of exercise intensity and climate. Two groups of eight men each were formed according to maximal rate of O2 consumption (VO2 max). The first group of men (M) was matched to a group of nine women (W) with similar (P > 0.001) VO2 max (46.1 +/- 2.0 and 43.6 +/- 2.9 ml. kg-1. min-1, respectively). The second group of men (MF) was significantly (P 0.05) were found between matched genders (M and W) at the same exposure for sweat rate, relative VO2 max (%VO2 max), and PSI. However, MF had significantly (P acceptance and application.

  16. A critical assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, F.P.; Chang, H.-C.; Keeley, J.E.; Pompa, J.; Woods, J.; Xu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Burning Index (BI) is commonly used as a predictor of wildfire activity. An examination of data on the BI and wildfires in Los Angeles County, California, from January 1976 to December 2000 reveals that although the BI is positively associated with wildfire occurrence, its predictive value is quite limited. Wind speed alone has a higher correlation with burn area than BI, for instance, and a simple alternative point process model using wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation and temperature well outperforms the BI in terms of predictive power. The BI is generally far too high in winter and too low in fall, and may exaggerate the impact of individual variables such as wind speed or temperature during times when other variables, such as precipitation or relative humidity, render the environment ill suited for wildfires. ?? IAWF 2007.

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  18. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  19. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  20. Using a lethality index to assess susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the knockdown effect caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults. Furthermore, for the same species and insecticides, we developed a “lethality index”, to assess knockdown p...

  1. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  2. Assessment Framework of Building Facade in Optimizing Indoor Thermal Comfort of Green Building Index (GBI Certified Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Tharim Asniza Hamimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the construction industry has seen a new trend in the development of “green” or “sustainable” construction concept around the world with vast support from prominent organization, together with the introduction of sustainable building codes. The establishment of green building certification systems worldwide is seen as one of the most efforts in the emerging green building movement. In order to support the development of the “green” and “sustainable” concept in Malaysia, Green Building Index (GBI was launched by the government on 21 May 2009 that created to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness of environmental issues. However, the construction industry seems to have focused only on findings the “right mechanism” for an environmentally sustainable “final result” in order for the building to be certified as green with the lacking of continuous assessment on the building performance after the certifications. This study is purposely conducted to investigate the performance of various rated Green Building Index (GBI Non-Residential New Construction office buildings and the influence on Indoor Thermal Comfort (ITC of the selected buildings. The aim is to develop an assessment framework for optimum green building architectural façade to be used for office buildings in Malaysia as well as to analyse the occupants’ perception, satisfaction and performance in the selected Green Building Index (GBI rated office indoor environment. This research is still in its infancy; therefore the paper is focused on research aims, research scope and methodology, and expected deliverables for the proposed research.

  3. Effectiveness of Fixed Dose Radioactive Iodine (RAI for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: Experience of a Teaching Hospital in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karounwi Omotayo Ogunjobi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using radioactive iodine (RAI as the first line therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism and as the treatment of choice for relapsed Graves’ disease is increasing in recent times. However, there has been little consensus on the most appropriate dose to use. So this study is to determine the response of hyperthyroidism to fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq RAI therapies and determine the incidence of hypothyroidism at 6 months post therapy. Methods: Hyperthyroid patients’ case records treated with radioiodine was retrospectively reviewed to determine the response rate of hyperthyroidism to the two fixed dose regimens. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 15.0 and the level of statistical significance was taken as p<0.05. Forty subjects, 6 males (15% and 34 females (85% received RAI therapy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism, mean age was 49.4 years (range, 25-75years. The thyroid function status at 6 months post therapy was available for all subjects. 24 patients (60% received 370 MBq while 16 patients (40% received 555 MBq. Results: The response for fixed doses of 370 MBq and 555 MBq were similar (100%. Also, the incidence of hypothyroidism in these subjects which was 66.6% with fixed dose of 370 MBq and 62.5% with fixed dose of 555 MBq within 6 months post RAI therapy were similar. Conclusion: SRAI is highly effective for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, with a cure rate of 100%. However, it has proved impossible to determine a fixed dose regimen for individual patients accurately to guarantee an euthyroid state. This is because hypothyroidism is a natural predictable sequel of RAI therapy.

  4. Nonrecurrent PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene deletions arise from replication-based mechanisms and result in Smith-Magenis syndrome with evident peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Neira, Juanita; Gu, Shen; Harel, Tamar; Liu, Pengfei; Briceño, Ignacio; Elsea, Sarah H; Gómez, Alberto; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are genomic disorders associated with deletion copy number variants involving chromosome 17p12 and 17p11.2, respectively. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated recurrent deletions are responsible for the majority of HNPP and SMS cases; the rearrangement products encompass the key dosage-sensitive genes PMP22 and RAI1, respectively, and result in haploinsufficiency for these genes. Less frequently, nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements occur at this locus. Contiguous gene duplications encompassing both PMP22 and RAI1, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 duplications, have been investigated, and replication-based mechanisms rather than NAHR have been proposed for these rearrangements. In the current study, we report molecular and clinical characterizations of six subjects with the reciprocal phenomenon of deletions spanning both genes, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 deletions. Molecular studies utilizing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint junction sequencing identified mutational signatures that were suggestive of replication-based mechanisms. Systematic clinical studies revealed features consistent with SMS, including features of intellectual disability, speech and gross motor delays, behavioral problems and ocular abnormalities. Five out of six subjects presented clinical signs and/or objective electrophysiologic studies of peripheral neuropathy. Clinical profiling may improve the clinical management of this unique group of subjects, as the peripheral neuropathy can be more severe or of earlier onset as compared to SMS patients having the common recurrent deletion. Moreover, the current study, in combination with the previous report of PMP22-RAI1 duplications, contributes to the understanding of rare complex phenotypes involving multiple dosage-sensitive genes from a genetic mechanistic standpoint.

  5. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  6. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  7. Assessing Land Degradation and Desertification Using Vegetation Index Data: Current Frameworks and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Higginbottom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation and desertification has been ranked as a major environmental and social issue for the coming decades. Thus, the observation and early detection of degradation is a primary objective for a number of scientific and policy organisations, with remote sensing methods being a candidate choice for the development of monitoring systems. This paper reviews the statistical and ecological frameworks of assessing land degradation and desertification using vegetation index data. The development of multi-temporal analysis as a desertification assessment technique is reviewed, with a focus on how current practice has been shaped by controversy and dispute within the literature. The statistical techniques commonly employed are examined from both a statistical as well as ecological point of view, and recommendations are made for future research directions. The scientific requirements for degradation and desertification monitoring systems identified here are: (I the validation of methodologies in a robust and comparable manner; and (II the detection of degradation at minor intensities and magnitudes. It is also established that the multi-temporal analysis of vegetation index data can provide a sophisticated measure of ecosystem health and variation, and that, over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in the respective research.

  8. The arctic water resource vulnerability index: An integrated assessment tool for community resilience and vulnerability with respect to freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessa, L.; Kliskey, A.; Lammers, R.; Arp, C.; White, D.; Hinzman, L.; Busey, R.

    2008-01-01

    People in the Arctic face uncertainty in their daily lives as they contend with environmental changes at a range of scales from local to global. Freshwater is a critical resource to people, and although water resource indicators have been developed that operate from regional to global scales and for midlatitude to equatorial environments, no appropriate index exists for assessing the vulnerability of Arctic communities to changing water resources at the local scale. The Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index (AWRVI) is proposed as a tool that Arctic communities can use to assess their relative vulnerability-resilience to changes in their water resources from a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic processes. The AWRVI is based on a social-ecological systems perspective that includes physical and social indicators of change and is demonstrated in three case study communities/watersheds in Alaska. These results highlight the value of communities engaging in the process of using the AWRVI and the diagnostic capability of examining the suite of constituent physical and social scores rather than the total AWRVI score alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Tajam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd (2.15±1.17 followed by Zn (1.12±0.09, Pb (0.44±0.32, and lastly, Co (0.36±0.04. Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

  10. Using the H-index to assess disease priorities for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G; Wardeh, Maya; McIntyre, K Marie

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic salmon's (Salmo salar) annual aquaculture production exceeds 2M tonnes globally, and for the UK forms the largest single food export. However, aquaculture production is negatively affected by a range of different diseases and parasites. Effort to control pathogens should be focused on those which are most "important" to aquaculture. It is difficult to specify what makes a pathogen important; this is particularly true in the aquatic sector where data capture systems are less developed than for human or terrestrial animal diseases. Mortality levels might be one indicator, but these can cause a range of different problems such as persistent endemic losses, occasional large epidemics or control/treatment costs. Economic and multi-criteria decision methods can incorporate this range of impacts, however these have not been consistently applied to aquaculture and the quantity and quality of data required is large, so their potential for comparing aquatic pathogens is currently limited. A method that has been developed and applied to both human and terrestrial animal diseases is the analysis of published scientific literature using the H-index method. We applied this method to salmon pathogens using Web of Science searches for 23 pathogens. The top 3 H-indices were obtained for: sea lice, furunculosis, and infectious salmon anaemia; post 2000, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) replaced furunculosis. The number of publications per year describing bacterial disease declined significantly, while those for viruses and sea lice increased significantly. This reflects effective bacterial control by vaccination, while problems related to viruses and sea lice have increased. H-indices by country reflected different national concerns (e.g. AGD ranked top for Australia). Averaged national H-indices for salmon diseases tend to increase with log of salmon production; countries with H-Indices significantly below the trend line have suffered particularly large disease losses. The H-index

  11. Clinical effectiveness of modified sequential organ failure assessment scoring system for predicting ICU indexing scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Babamohamadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to recognize the severity of the disease in those who their survival depend entirely on admission to the intensive care unit, is very valuable clinically. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of modified sequential organ failure assessment (MSOFA scale to predict mortality and length of stay in intensive care unit patients respectively. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on hospital records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients’ records who admitted to the intensive care unit of Kowsar Hospital, Semnan city (the capital of the province, Iran, in 2015 considered as the sample. Collecting data were done during 4 weeks in April and May 2016. The data collection tool was a demographic questionnaire and modified sequential organ failure assessment scale. Exclusion criteria included discharge in the first 24 hours after admission, the patient died a few hours after admission and incomplete information to complete the modified sequential organ failure assessment form. Results: The study of 105 patients' records of the intensive care unit showed that 45.7% of patients were died, 15.2% and 39% were discharged and moved to other wards respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve showed that this criterion had moderate sensitivity and specificity for prediction of mortality and length of stay in ICU patients (Area=0.635, CI= 0.527-0.743 and each unit increase in modified sequential organ failure assessment score is accompanied by increasing 32 percent chance of death (OR=1.325; 95% CI:1.129,1.555; P= 0.001(. Also each unit increase in modified sequential organ failure assessment (MSOFA score accompanied by increasing 19% length of stay in ICU (OR=1.191; 95% CI: 1.034, 1.371; P= 0.015(. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the modified sequential organ failure assessment scale is not

  12. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F.; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R.; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A. Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J.; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question ‘How threatened are plants?’ is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world’s plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed. PMID:26252495

  13. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Brummitt

    Full Text Available Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  14. Green Plants in the Red: A Baseline Global Assessment for the IUCN Sampled Red List Index for Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummitt, Neil A; Bachman, Steven P; Griffiths-Lee, Janine; Lutz, Maiko; Moat, Justin F; Farjon, Aljos; Donaldson, John S; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Meagher, Thomas R; Albuquerque, Sara; Aletrari, Elina; Andrews, A Kei; Atchison, Guy; Baloch, Elisabeth; Barlozzini, Barbara; Brunazzi, Alice; Carretero, Julia; Celesti, Marco; Chadburn, Helen; Cianfoni, Eduardo; Cockel, Chris; Coldwell, Vanessa; Concetti, Benedetta; Contu, Sara; Crook, Vicki; Dyson, Philippa; Gardiner, Lauren; Ghanim, Nadia; Greene, Hannah; Groom, Alice; Harker, Ruth; Hopkins, Della; Khela, Sonia; Lakeman-Fraser, Poppy; Lindon, Heather; Lockwood, Helen; Loftus, Christine; Lombrici, Debora; Lopez-Poveda, Lucia; Lyon, James; Malcolm-Tompkins, Patricia; McGregor, Kirsty; Moreno, Laura; Murray, Linda; Nazar, Keara; Power, Emily; Quiton Tuijtelaars, Mireya; Salter, Ruth; Segrott, Robert; Thacker, Hannah; Thomas, Leighton J; Tingvoll, Sarah; Watkinson, Gemma; Wojtaszekova, Katerina; Nic Lughadha, Eimear M

    2015-01-01

    Plants provide fundamental support systems for life on Earth and are the basis for all terrestrial ecosystems; a decline in plant diversity will be detrimental to all other groups of organisms including humans. Decline in plant diversity has been hard to quantify, due to the huge numbers of known and yet to be discovered species and the lack of an adequate baseline assessment of extinction risk against which to track changes. The biodiversity of many remote parts of the world remains poorly known, and the rate of new assessments of extinction risk for individual plant species approximates the rate at which new plant species are described. Thus the question 'How threatened are plants?' is still very difficult to answer accurately. While completing assessments for each species of plant remains a distant prospect, by assessing a randomly selected sample of species the Sampled Red List Index for Plants gives, for the first time, an accurate view of how threatened plants are across the world. It represents the first key phase of ongoing efforts to monitor the status of the world's plants. More than 20% of plant species assessed are threatened with extinction, and the habitat with the most threatened species is overwhelmingly tropical rain forest, where the greatest threat to plants is anthropogenic habitat conversion, for arable and livestock agriculture, and harvesting of natural resources. Gymnosperms (e.g. conifers and cycads) are the most threatened group, while a third of plant species included in this study have yet to receive an assessment or are so poorly known that we cannot yet ascertain whether they are threatened or not. This study provides a baseline assessment from which trends in the status of plant biodiversity can be measured and periodically reassessed.

  15. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintakham, Kanjanar; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI) model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01). This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task.

  16. Hibridinių baltymų gamybos, panaudojant Saccharomyces cerevisiae raiškos sistemą, tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolendaitė, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mielės yra vienas plačiausiai rekombinantinių baltymų gamybai, todėl šio darbo metu buvo kuriamos mielių S. cerevisiae raiškos sistemos, skirtos sintetinti tioredoksino geną arba gliukozės dehidrogenazės geną sujungtą su Abeta peptidu. Atrinkus stabilius hibridinių baltymų producentus, jie buvo auginami įvairiose kultyvavimo terpėse, keičiant temperatūrą bei indukcijos laiką. Tokiu būdu parenkamos optimalios kultūrų auginimo sąlygos, užtikrinančios didžiausias gaminam...

  17. Šiuolaikinės Lietuvos architektūros meninės raiškos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Mačiulis, Algimantas

    2014-01-01

    Apibendrinantis ir holistinis tyrimas atskleidžia ir įvardina iki šiol Lietuvos architektūrologijoje netyrinėtas XX a. antros pusės architektūros kryptys atspindinčias nagrinėjamo laikmečio sociokultūrinius ir politinius procesus. Tyrimo medžiaga nustato Lietuvos architektūros meninės raiškos vietą pasauliniame kontekste,tuo pačiu išryškina vietinės architektūros savitumus. Naujai įvardintos kryptys ir tendencijos sukuria teorinį pagrindą tolesniems Lietuvos architektūros meninių procesų aišk...

  18. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediments from Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia): an index analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilgor, Sinem; Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Ozel, Erdeniz

    2012-09-01

    Metals, organic carbon contents were determined in surficial and core sediment samples from Lake Bafa, Western Anatolia in 2010. The ranges of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Hg contents of sediments from the Bafa Lake were 9.4-35 g kg(-1), 250-780, 2.3-20, 5.8-55, 1.2-480, 63-278, 26.6-79.9 and 0.013-0.273 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean metal concentrations in surficial sediments obtained in this study decreased in the following order; Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Hg for Bafa lake. Total organic carbon concentrations of the bottom sediments from the Bafa Lake varied between 0.35% and 3.58%. The mean concentrations of metal were lower than the background levels in earth crust except Cr and Ni in the core sediments. The metal levels were evaluated according to the New Geo-accumulation Index, enrichment and contamination factors. The results confirmed that the Bafa Lake is not facing serious environmental pollution risk due to metal contamination except Hg. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn generally appear to be uniformly distributed with depth except Hg and Pb due to anthropogenic sources in the core sediments.

  19. Reproductive effects on fecal nitrogen as an index of diet quality: an experimental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kyle B.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Leslie,, David M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of fecal nitrogen has been used widely as an indicator of dietary quality for free-ranging ruminants. Differences in digestive function between species of dimorphic ungulates render interspecific comparisons of fecal nitrogen unreliable; however, whether intraspecific sexual differences in digestive function also bias this nutritional index is unknown. Our objective was to compare sex-specific variation in concentration of fecal nitrogen using male, nonlactating female, and lactating female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on high- and low-quality diets. During weekly trials over spring and summer (2008-2009), we monitored intake rates, collected feces twice daily, and used micro-Kjeldahl procedures to determine percent fecal nitrogen. We also determined nitrogen content of feces following a neutral detergent fiber (NDF) rinse during pre-, peak, and postlactation. Fecal nitrogen reflected general differences in dietary quality between diets; however, fecal nitrogen of lactating females in both dietary groups was lower than for males or nonlactating females throughout lactation. Nitrogen concentration following an NDF rinse also was lower for lactating females during peak lactation. We hypothesize that the remodeling of the digestive tract and increased rumination by lactating females may enhance their ability to extract nitrogen from their forage. These adjustments may expand the foraging options of lactating females by increasing their ability to process low-quality foods, but also affects the interpretation of fecal nitrogen during the season of lactation.

  20. Methodology for Calculating a Complex Index for Assessing the Pressure of Regional Indicators on Public Administration

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    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the correlations between regional employment in public administration and several major phenomena, starting from the case of Romania’s regions trying to find a territorial statistical solution for measuring the process itself. In this article, especially in its own methodology and methods, the territorial index is estimated as a result of the pressure of other major regional factors, synthesized by specific indicators and indices. The first section describes some conceptual and legal aspects of the regional employment level in public administration and contemporary statistical delimitation of regions in Romania. The second section underlines the originality of the methods and methodology, and the third section defines the three characteristics of the new solutions: the relative temporal, spatial and structural proportionality, the relative trends of an adequate econometric model, and the limits of regional concentration and diversification using the Gini-Struck coefficient in an ABC curve. The analysis of the complexity and impact of the new statistical instruments on regional employment in public administration, its characteristic Romanian limits and the final conclusion show that only an original methodology, some innovative methods and new statistical instruments lead to a better and adequate solution for an optimum level of employment.

  1. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  2. Assessment of sexual function in patients undergoing vasectomy using the international index of erectile function

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    Eduardo Bertero

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aims to prospectively compare the sexual function in males before and after vasectomy surgery using the international index of erectile function (IIEF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October to December 2002, sixty-four patients who were candidates for male sterilization in the vasectomy program of the Urology Section at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo were included. The same investigator applied the IIEF before and 90 days after the surgery. The mean scores obtained on pre and postoperative visits for all domains of sexual function were analyzed and compared with the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 35 years (range from 25 to 48 years and the mean number of children per man was 3. The total mean score of the IIEF was 64.06 before surgery and 65.64 after the procedure, with this difference considered statistically significant (p < 0.001. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients improved their scores, versus 17% and 16% who showed worsening or no change at all in IIEF scores following surgery, respectively. Of the 5 sexual function domains, desire and sexual satisfaction presented statistically significant improvement. CONCLUSION: This study showed that vasectomy caused a positive impact on sexual function, especially on desire and sexual satisfaction, in the majority of men undergoing surgery. There was no case of surgery-related erectile dysfunction.

  3. Risk Level Assessment in Construction Projects Using the Schedule Performance Index

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    Roberto Barbosa dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are risky in both physical implementation and management. The characteristics of the risk reinforce the necessity of efficient management to increase the chances of success without commitment to its goals. This study explores the correlation of delay and the schedule performance index (SPI to evaluate the risk of a construction project completed with time overruns. The hypothesis that the SPI of projects with a delay is distinct from those projects without a delay is assumed. A database with 19 elements was used to test this hypothesis and to calculate limit values to the SPI. Therefore, the risk of delay will be small when the observed SPI is greater than the superior limit and large when the SPI is below the inferior limit. The simplicity involved in the calculation of these values showed an advantage in comparison with other methods of risk evaluation. Another strong point observed is that any company can determine the value of risk by considering its own history and support decisions like doing corrective actions.

  4. Assessment of network traffic congestion through Traffic Congestability Value (TCV: a new index

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    Patel Nilanchal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major and growing problem in urban areas across the globe. It reduces the effective spatial interaction between different locations. To mitigate traffic congestion, not only the actual status of different routes needs to be known but also it is imperative to determine network congestion in different spatial zones associated with distinct land use classes. In the present paper, a new formula is proposed to quantify traffic congestion in the different spatial zones of a study area characterized by distinct land use classes. The proposed formula is termed the Traffic Congestability Value (TCV. The formula considers three major influencing factors: congestion index value, pedestrian movement and road surface conditions; since these parameters are significantly related to land use in a region. The different traffic congestion parameters, i.e. travel time, average speed and the proportion of time stopped, were collected in real time. Lower values of TCV correspond to a higher degree of congestion in the respective spatial zones and vice-versa and the results were validated in the field. TCV differs from the previous approaches to quantifying traffic congestion since it focuses on the causes of network congestion while in previous works the focus was generally on link flow congestion.

  5. Geostatistics for Mapping Leaf Area Index over a Cropland Landscape: Efficiency Sampling Assessment

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    Javier Garcia-Haro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of spatial methods to estimate leaf area index (LAI fields from ground-based measurements at high-spatial resolution over a cropland landscape. Three geostatistical model variants of the kriging technique, the ordinary kriging (OK, the collocated cokriging (CKC and kriging with an external drift (KED are used. The study focused on the influence of the spatial sampling protocol, auxiliary information, and spatial resolution in the estimates. The main advantage of these models lies in the possibility of considering the spatial dependence of the data and, in the case of the KED and CKC, the auxiliary information for each location used for prediction purposes. A high-resolution NDVI image computed from SPOT TOA reflectance data is used as an auxiliary variable in LAI predictions. The CKC and KED predictions have proven the relevance of the auxiliary information to reproduce the spatial pattern at local scales, proving the KED model to be the best estimator when a non-stationary trend is observed. Advantages and limitations of the methods in LAI field predictions for two systematic and two stratified spatial samplings are discussed for high (20 m, medium (300 m and coarse (1 km spatial scales. The KED has exhibited the best observed local accuracy for all the spatial samplings. Meanwhile, the OK model provides comparable results when a well stratified sampling scheme is considered by land cover.

  6. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

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    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  7. Augmentation index assessed by applanation tonometry is elevated in Marfan Syndrome

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    Maxwell Simon R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether augmentation index (AIx is increased in Marfan syndrome (MFS and associated with increased aortic root size, and whether a peripheral-to-central generalised transfer function (GTF can be applied usefully in MFS. Methods 10 MFS patients and 10 healthy controls (matched for sex, age and height were studied before and after 400 μg sub-lingual GTN. Arterial waveforms were recorded using applanation tonometry. AIx and pulse pressure (PP were determined for the radial and carotid arteries. Pulse wave velocity (PWV was measured between carotid and femoral arteries. GTFs were generated to examine the relationship between radial and carotid waveforms. Results AIx was greater in MFS compared to controls at radial (mean -31.4 (SD 14.3% v -50.2(15.6%, p = 0.003 and carotid (-7.6(11.2% v -23.7(12.7%, p = 0.004 sites. Baseline PP at all measurement sites, and PWV, did not differ between subject groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PWV and carotid AIx were positively correlated with aortic root size (p Conclusion AIx is sensitive to the vascular abnormalities present in MFS, and may have a role as an adjunct to measurement of central PP and PWV. Differences between MFS and controls in the nature of the peripheral-to-central GTF are present, although have little effect on the pulse contour.

  8. Integrated biomarker response index using a Neotropical fish to assess the water quality in agricultural areas

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    Carlos Eduardo Delfino Vieira

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems in areas with intense agricultural activity are subject to pesticide contamination, which may compromise the health of the fish. In order to verify the quality of the water and the possible effects of pesticides on fish, a method that combines different biomarker responses into an index named "integrated biomarker response" (IBR was applied using the biological alterations in the Neotropical fish Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were maintained in situ at five sites along a stream that runs in an agricultural area and in a stream within a forest fragment, considered a reference site. After seven days of exposure the following alterations were observed in fish confined at experimental sites: increased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT and increase in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in liver and gills, reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain and muscle, increase in the occurrence of DNA strand breaks and in the frequency of micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormalities (ENA in erythrocytes. The IBR highlighted three sites as the most affected, as the animals confined at these sites showed greater variations in biological responses. The biomarkers most important for the IBR results were GST, AChE, DNA breaks and ENA.

  9. An assessment of aquatic ecosystem health in a temperate watershed using the index of biological integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kwang-Guk; Choi, Shin-Sok

    2003-06-01

    The health effect of an aquatic ecosystem on habitat modifications were evaluated in the Keum river watershed, Korea during 1977-1996 using the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages. Values of IBI, based on overall sites, averaged 35 (range: 26-45, n = 38) before dam construction, indicating a "fair health condition" based on the modified criteria of Karr and Chu (Karr, J.R.; Chu, E.W. Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring; Inland Press: Washington, DC, 1999; 206 pp.), while the values averaged 33 (range: 18-48, n = 15) after dam construction, indicating a similar ecosystem health condition in the IBI between the two periods. Marked modifications in the IBI, however, were partially observed along the longitudinal gradients from the headwaters to downstream along with variations of trophic compositions and habitat guilds. Annual mean of IBI showed significant decreases (p 20% decreases of insectivores and >25% increases of omnivores. Comparisons of habitat guilds indicated that the proportion of riffle benthic species declined linearly from 1977 to 1996 and had inverse relations (r = -0.78, p health was mainly affected by the habitat modifications.

  10. Accuracy of Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing legal adulthood on Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelic, Ksenija; Galic, Ivan; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Jakovljevic, Aleksandar; Milosevic, Olga; Djuric, Marija; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    At the moment, a large number of asylum seekers from the Middle East are passing through Serbia. Most of them do not have identification documents. Also, the past wars in the Balkan region have left many unidentified victims and missing persons. From a legal point of view, it is crucial to determine whether a person is a minor or an adult (≥18 years of age). In recent years, methods based on the third molar development have been used for this purpose. The present article aims to verify the third molar maturity index (I3M) based on the correlation between the chronological age and normalized measures of the open apices and height of the third mandibular molar. The sample consisted of 598 panoramic radiographs (290 males and 299 females) from 13 to 24 years of age. The cut-off value of I3M=0.08 was used to discriminate adults and minors. The results demonstrated high sensitivity (0.96, 0.86) and specificity (0.94, 0.98) in males and females, respectively. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 0.95 in males and 0.91 in females. In conclusion, the suggested value of I3M=0.08 can be used on Serbian population with high accuracy.

  11. Agricultural Drought Assessment In Latin America Based On A Standardized Soil Moisture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    We propose a relatively simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSMI) that is designed to estimate drought conditions from satellite imagery data. The SSMI is based on soil moisture content alone and is defined as the number of standard deviations that the observed moisture at a given location and timescale deviates from the long- term normal conditions. Specifically, the SSMI is computed by fitting a non-parametric probability distribution function to historical soil moisture records and then trans- forming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry conditions and positive values indicate wet conditions. To evaluate the applicability of the SSMI, we fitted empirical and normal cumulative distribution functions (ECDF and nCDF) to 32-years of averaged soil moisture amounts derived from the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) Soil Moisture (SM) dataset, and compared the root-mean-squared errors of residuals. SM climatology was calculated on a 0.25° grid over Latin America at timescales of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months for the long-term period of 1979-2010. Results show that the ECDF fits better the soil moisture data than the nCDF at all timescales and that the negative SSMI values computed with the non-parametric estimator accurately identified the temporal and geographic distribution of major drought events that occurred in the study area.

  12. Analyses and Standard-Index Assessment of Writing Motion Using Haptic Pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuhito; Katsura, Seiichiro

    In recent times, the decrease in the number of experienced engineers has become a serious problem. One of the solutions for this problem is to develop a training system which robots assist people to acquire the necessary skills. For developing training system, the extraction and quantitative assessment of information on an engineer's motion is required. In particular, force information is important, especially for a contact motion. Thus, quantitative assessment of the force information is necessary. In this study, a “haptic pen” is used to obtain the exerted writing pressures as force information. Next, the most universal motion from among a number of motions of the engineer is selected and the degree of coincidence of the motion with the most universal motion is determined. The concept of “eigen-universality” is introduced to assess motion, which is of the same type and performed by the same person. To quantitatively evaluate the eigen-universality, graph theory and the coefficient of correlation are used. Moreover, using the coefficient of correlation to obtain “universality” helps us to analyze the degree of coincidence between the most general motion and another motion. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments.

  13. Benefit evaluation of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration by an assessment index model based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-hui; GAN Lian-jun

    2007-01-01

    An assessment index model was established to evaulate the benefit of the Three-Gorges Reservoir migration through the analytical hierarchy process. Totally 43 indicators were selected to assess the impact of migration on the economic, social and ecological environmental aspects of the migration communities, with the data of the indicators of the years 1992, 1998, 2002 which represented the period of premigration, the end of the first phase migration and the end of the second phase migration, respectively. The evaluation matrix is sufficiently consistent, with a consistency ratio CR equal to 0.086 3. The assessment turned out a benefit value for the economic subsystem in the year 2004 larger than triple the value in the year 1992, indicating a remarkable economic growth in the Reservoir area. The constantly increasing value for the social subsystem reflects the stable social situations. There is a slight decline in the assessment outcome of the ecological subsystem for the year 1998, which implies enviromental conservation was given insufficient importance during that period. On the whole, the implementation of the migration project is favorable to the Reservoir region, as confirmed by the stably increasing overall evaluation value from 42.22% in 1992 to 68.81% in 2002. However, there is still much room to improve from the status quo to the target criteria.

  14. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

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    Denise Güthlin

    Full Text Available Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations. The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result.

  15. Early-season agricultural drought: detection, assessment and monitoring using Shortwave Angle and Slope Index (SASI) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prabir Kumar; Murthy, Srirama C; Seshasai, M V R

    2013-12-01

    Early season or crop-planting-period (ES/CPP) drought conditions have become a recurrent phenomenon in tropical countries like India, due to fluctuations in the time of onset and progression of monsoon rains. ES/CPP agricultural drought assessment is a major challenge because of the difficulties in the generation of operational products on soil moisture at larger scales. The present study analyzed the Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI) derived from Near Infrared and Shortwave Infrared data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, for tracking surface moisture changes and assessing the agricultural drought conditions during ES/CPP, over Andhra Pradesh state, India. It was found that in-season progression of SASI was well correlated with rainfall and crop planting patterns in different districts of the study area state in both drought and normal years. Rainfall occurrence, increase in crop planted area, and decrease in SASI were in chronological synchronization in the season. Change in SASI from positive to negative values is a unique indication of dryness to wetness shift in the season. Duration of positive SASI values indicated the persistence of agricultural drought in the crop planting period. Mean SASI values were able to discriminate an area which was planted in normal year and unplanted in drought year. SASI thresholds provide an approximate and rapid estimate of the crop planting favorable area in a region which is useful to assess the impact of drought. Thus, SASI is a potential index to strengthen the existing operational drought monitoring systems. Further work needs to be on the integration of multiple parameters-SASI, soil texture, soil depth, rainfall and cropping pattern, to evolve a geospatial product on crop planting favorable areas. Such products pave the way for quantification of drought impact on agriculture in the early part of the season, which is a major inadequacy in the current drought monitoring system.

  16. A drought hazard assessment index based on the VIC-PDSI model and its application on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Wu, Pute; Zhao, Xining; Wang, Yubao; Gao, Xiaodong; Cao, Xinchun

    2013-10-01

    Drought is a complex natural hazard that is poorly understood and difficult to assess. This paper describes a VIC-PDSI model approach to understanding drought in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model was combined with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Simulated results obtained using the VIC model were used to replace the output of the more conventional two-layer bucket-type model for hydrological accounting, and a two-class-based procedure for calibrating the characteristic climate coefficient ( K j ) was introduced to allow for a more reliable computation of the PDSI. The VIC-PDSI model was used in conjunction with GIS technology to create a new drought assessment index (DAI) that provides a comprehensive overview of drought duration, intensity, frequency, and spatial extent. This new index was applied to drought hazard assessment across six subregions of the whole Loess Plateau. The results show that the DAI over the whole Loess Plateau ranged between 11 and 26 (the greater value of the DAI means the more severe of the drought hazard level). The drought hazards in the upper reaches of Yellow River were more severe than that in the middle reaches. The drought prone regions over the study area were mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolian small rivers, Zuli and Qingshui Rivers basin, while the drought hazards in the drainage area between Hekouzhen-Longmen and Weihe River basin were relatively mild during 1971-2010. The most serious drought vulnerabilities were associated with the area around Lanzhou, Zhongning, and Yinchuan, where the development of water-saving irrigation is the most direct and effective way to defend against and reduce losses from drought. For the relatively humid regions, it will be necessary to establish the rainwater harvesting systems, which could help to relieve the risk of water shortage and guarantee regional food security. Due to the DAI considers the multiple characteristic of drought duration, intensity, frequency

  17. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  18. Subjective Voice Assessment after Endoscopic Surgery for an Obstructive Reinke Edema Using Voice Handicap Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Hallak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice disorders exert a dramatic influence on patients’ quality of life (QOL. The physical, functional, and emotional impact can be accurately assessed using the conventional questionnaire of “voice handicap index” (VHI or its shorter version, the VHI-10. We evaluated the VHI scores of patients suffering from obstructive Reinke’s edema, a benign laryngeal disorder, before and after endoscopic treatment. Comparison of pre- and postoperative VHI scores showed the treatment efficacy. The scores achieved were similar to asymptomatic individuals (control group, thus improving their quality of life. Furthermore, both VHI and VHI-10 tests yielded similar scores. We suggest routine systematic incorporation of the VHI-10 test for pre- and postoperative routine evaluation of patients with Reinke’s edema. The results are faster and reliable.

  19. CT finding is an index in assessment of outcome in patients with diffuse traumatic brain swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the prognosis of the patients with diffuse traumatic brain swelling (DTBS) and the changes of the ventricles and the cisterns in CT scans. Methods: The outcome of the patients with DTBS and the changes of the ventricles and the cisterns in CT scans were studied and analyzed in a group of 268 cases.We focused on the changes of the third ventricle and the basal cistern, age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Results: Of 268 cases, there were changes of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern in 124, 65 died. In 18 cases, the third ventricle and the basal cistern were both absent and 16 died (88.9%). The third ventricle changed significantly in 59 cases, 33 died (55.9%), while the basal cistern changed in 47 cases and 16 died (34%). Of the 124 patients with changes of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern, 26 were children, 8 died; 98 adults, 57 died. Conclusions: For patients with DTBS, the outcome was in direct correlation with the change of the third ventricle and/or the basal cistern, the change of the third ventricle was much more important in assessment of the outcome than that of basal cisterns. There is no significant difference in, the incidence of DTBS between children and adults while the outcome of children is much better than that of adults. The patients with the changes of the third ventricle and the basal cistern accompanied with lower GCS scores have poor outcome.

  20. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations.

  1. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronio, Annamaria; Di Filippo, Annalisa R; Mariani, Paola; Vestri, Annarita; Montesani, Chiara; Boirivant, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC). To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI). However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use of modified-PDAI (mPDAI) with exclusion of histologic subscore has been proposed. We tested the ability of calprotectin measurement in the pouch endoluminal content to mimic the histologic score as defined in the PDAI, the index that we adopted as gold standard for pouchitis diagnosis. Calprotectin was measured by ELISA in the pouch endoluminal content collected during endoscopy in 40 consecutive patients with J-pouch. In each patient PDAI and mPDAI were calculated and 15% of patients were erroneously classified by mPDAI. ROC analysis of calprotectin values vs. acute histological subscore ≥ 3 identified different calprotectin cut-off values with corresponding sensitivity and specificity allowing the definition and scoring of different range of calprotectin subscores. We incorporated the calprotectin score in the mPDAI obtaining a new score that shows the same specificity as PDAI for diagnosis of pouchitis and higher sensitivity when compared with mPDAI. The use of the proposed new score, once validated in a larger series of patients, might be useful in the early management of patients with symptoms of pouchitis.

  2. Endoluminal calprotectin measurement in assessment of pouchitis and a new index of disease activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Pronio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouchitis is the most common complication following proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC. To provide a standardized definition of pouchitis clinical, endoscopic and histological markers were grouped and weighted in the pouch disease activity index (PDAI. However, the delay in the assessment of the final score due to the time requested for histological analysis remains the main obstacle to the index implementation in clinical practice so that the use of modified-PDAI (mPDAI with exclusion of histologic subscore has been proposed. We tested the ability of calprotectin measurement in the pouch endoluminal content to mimic the histologic score as defined in the PDAI, the index that we adopted as gold standard for pouchitis diagnosis. Calprotectin was measured by ELISA in the pouch endoluminal content collected during endoscopy in 40 consecutive patients with J-pouch. In each patient PDAI and mPDAI were calculated and 15% of patients were erroneously classified by mPDAI. ROC analysis of calprotectin values vs. acute histological subscore ≥ 3 identified different calprotectin cut-off values with corresponding sensitivity and specificity allowing the definition and scoring of different range of calprotectin subscores. We incorporated the calprotectin score in the mPDAI obtaining a new score that shows the same specificity as PDAI for diagnosis of pouchitis and higher sensitivity when compared with mPDAI. The use of the proposed new score, once validated in a larger series of patients, might be useful in the early management of patients with symptoms of pouchitis.

  3. PBT assessment and prioritization by PBT Index and consensus modeling: comparison of screening results from structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of comprehensive data for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (PBT) of chemicals is a serious hindrance to the assignment of compounds to the categories of PBT and vPvB; REACH regulation requires authorization for the use of such chemicals, and additionally plans for safer alternatives. In the context of screening and priority-setting tools for PBT-assessment, the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-INSUBRIA), new software tool for the development and validation of multiple linear regression QSAR models, offers a new holistic approach for the identification of chemicals with cumulative PBT properties directly from their molecular structure. In this study the Insubria PBT Index in QSARINS is applied to the screening and prioritization of various data sets, containing a large variety of chemicals of heterogeneous molecular structure, previously screened by various authors by different methods, for their potential PBT behavior. Particular attention is devoted to the model Applicability Domain, using different approaches such as Descriptor Range, Leverage, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the modeling molecular descriptors, in order to discriminate between interpolated and extrapolated predictions. The results of this screening, which is based only on the molecular structure features and is not dependent on single threshold values for P, B and T, are compared with those obtained by the on-line US-EPA PBT Profiler. Good agreement between the various approaches is found, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in priority-setting studies. The main discrepancies are highlighted and commented on. Moreover, a priority list containing the most hazardous compounds identified in agreement between the two tools is drafted. The PBT Index, implemented in QSARINS, which was demonstrated to be a practical, precautionary and reliable screening tool for PBT-behavior directly from the molecular structure, can be

  4. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security. Because the rela-tionships among short-term rainfall, soil moisture, and crop growth are complex, accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult. In this study, using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction, we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region, Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. To quantify drought, we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipita-tion Index (SPI), the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index (CMI), as well as the Normalized Difference Vegeta-tion Index (NDVI). Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season (May-September) and final yield, according to data collection from 2000 to 2010. The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July, but no correlation with SPI. Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad, particularly in July. To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale, a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years. The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area. Therefore, the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  5. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effah Kwabena Antwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  6. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-08

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  7. Assessing the Influence of Different Comorbidities Indexes on the Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Developing Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Machado Teixeira

    Full Text Available Although the application of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI has enabled better prediction of transplant-related mortality (TRM in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (AHSCT, data from developing countries are scarce. This study prospectively evaluated the HCT-CI and the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation (ACE-27, in its original and in a modified version, as predictors of post-transplant complications in adults undergoing a first related or unrelated AHSCT in Brazil. Both bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC as graft sources were included. We analyzed the cumulative incidence of granulocyte and platelet recovery, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse and transplant-related mortality, and rates of event-free survival and overall survival. Ninety-nine patients were assessed. Median age was 38 years (18-65 years; HCT-CI ≥ 3 accounted for only 8% of cases; hematologic malignancies comprised 75.8% of the indications for AHSCT. There was no association between the HCT-CI or the original or modified ACE-27 with TRM or any other studied outcomes after AHSCT. These results show that, in the population studied, none of the comorbidity indexes seem to be associated with AHSCT outcomes. A significantly low frequency of high-risk (HCT-CI ≥ 3 in this Brazilian population might justify these results.

  8. Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móslem SAMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and energy of wheat and maize production systems in two farms in Khuzestan province of Iran was assessed. The results showed that totally wheat farming is more efficient than maize farming in terms of energy and CO2-eq indexes. The total energy requirement for maize and wheat farming was 92560.24 MJ ha-1 and 39624.15 MJ ha-1, which caused the emission of 20191.47 and 7541.04 kg CO2-equivalent per hectare in maize and wheat farms respectively. Electricity, fertilizers and fuel were the most important pollutants of environment in terms of energy and gas emission in both farms. Theses inputs consumed 55.52, 22.62 and 6.44 % of total energy of maize and 47.32, 21.19 and 9.01 % of total energy of wheat farm and were responsible for the 88.60, 8.79 and 2.03 % of CO2-equivalent in maize and 86.54, 9.54 and 3.24 % of CO2-equivalent in wheat farms respectively. The results of this study also showed that the enhancement of 60.74 and 27.02 % in energy ratio and 46.06 and 27.87 % in CO2-eq index in maize and wheat farming can be expected using simple improving scenarios.

  9. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Calculation of Its Pollution Index for Uglješnica River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojević, Jelena; Krstić, Dragana; Šmit, Biljana; Djekić, Vera

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the water pollution in terms of total content of heavy metals by parameter called Heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The water samples were collected from four different locations along the course of the river during spring and the autumn seasons. The concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data were used to evaluate HPI of the river water. The mean value of HPI was 67.487 for the spring season, and 80.676 for the autumn season. The average for both seasons and all sampling sites is 74.082. The maximum value of 112.722 found at one sampling site is above the critical index limit of 100. Also, from the values of mean HPI for each sampling site could be concluded that the pollution load at sampling site-4 is the most significant (HPI 89.575).

  10. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  11. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qian

    Full Text Available Land carrying capacity (LCC explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA and the index system method (ISM. EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world.

  12. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  13. Assessing the soil quality of alpine grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using a modified soil quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Dong, Shikui; Wen, Lu; Wang, Xuexia; Wu, Yu

    2013-10-01

    Soil degradation has caused various problems on the planet. Human disturbance and land use changes always negatively affect soil quality. In this study, we used a modified soil quality index (SQI) to assess soil quality under differing degrees of human disturbance and land use. The alpine grasslands were studied at different levels of degradation [i.e., severely degraded grassland, heavily degraded grassland, moderately degraded grassland, and non-degraded grassland (NDG)] in a case study conducted in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) to test the feasibility of using the SQI. Fifteen chemical, physical, and biological soil parameters were measured in each type of grassland. Significant variations in SQI were found across the different types of grasslands according to severity of human disturbance and changes in land use. Urease, the ratio of microbial biomass nitrogen to total nitrogen, proteinase, and soil organic carbon were found to be the most important indicators for assessing soil quality. NDG had a higher SQI than the other three types of grasslands. It was concluded that SQI is effective for assessing the soil quality of alpine grasslands in the QTP. The intensity of human disturbance had a negative effect on soil quality in the QTP.

  14. Global Motor Unit Number Index sum score for assessing the loss of lower motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Stephan; Duprat, Lauréline; Grapperon, Aude-Marie; Verschueren, Annie; Delmont, Emilien; Attarian, Shahram

    2017-02-06

    Introduction Our objective was to propose a motor unit number index (MUNIX) global sum score in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to estimate the loss of functional motor units. Methods MUNIX was assessed for 18 ALS patients and 17 healthy controls in seven muscles: the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), tibialis anterior (TA), deltoid, trapezius, submental complex (SMC) and orbicularis oris. Results MUNIX was significantly lower in ALS patients than in healthy controls for the APB, ADM, TA and the trapezius muscles. The MUNIX sum score of 4 muscles (ADM + APB + Trapezius + TA) was lower in ALS patients (P = 0.01) and was correlated with clinical scores. Discussion The global MUNIX sum score proposed in this study estimates the loss of lower motor neurons in several body regions including the trapezius, and is correlated with clinical impairment in ALS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Water Quality Index Assessment ofGroundwater in Todaraisingh Tehsil of Rajasthan State, India-A Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the statistical analysis and study of water quality index to assess hardness of groundwater in Todaraisingh tehsil of Tonk district of Rajasthan state. The study has been carried out to examine its suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purpose. The presence of problematic salts contains in groundwater due to local pollutants and affected the groundwater quality adversely. The estimated values were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by B.I.S. It was found that drinking water is severely polluted with hardness causing salts. This study reveals that people dependent on water sources of the study area are prone to health hazards of contaminated water and quality managements to hardness urgently needed.

  16. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  17. Comparison of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Scale and Effort Index in a Dementia Sample†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kathryn J.; Shadi, Sarah; Sofko, Channing A.; Denney, Robert L.; Calloway, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare two embedded measures of effort for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Sensitivity and specificity of the Effort Index (EI) and Effort Scale (ES) were compared in a sample of individuals with genuine memory impairment (MI) and individuals coached to simulate MI. Overall, the EI yielded a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.41, while the ES yielded a sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.81. When those in the MI group were separated by level of impairment, the EI was more specific when RBANS Total Scores were in the average or mildly impaired range, and the ES had greater specificity when RBANS Total Scores were in the severely impaired range. These results suggest that the embedded measure should be selected based on the level of impairment on the RBANS. PMID:25236719

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat in an Obese Patient Population Using Non-contrast CT Fat Percent Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Ali F.; Cheema, Ahmad R.; Khan, Atif N.; Raptopoulos, V.; Hauser, T.; Nasser, I.; Welty, F.K.; Karellas, A.; Clouse, Melvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a simplified method to quantify liver fat using CT fat % index (CTFPI) compared to liver spleen method (CTL/S, CTL-S) Methods Non-contrast CT of the liver was performed in 89 patients (overweight, obese, severely obese) to quantify fat, using: CTFPI= [(65-patient HU)/65] ×100, normal liver =65 HU. Results There was strong linear correlation between CTFPI and the standard method of assessing liver fat using CTL/S (r = −0.901), CTL-S (r = −0.911). Hepatic HU and CTFPI were significantly different in the severely obese group compared to other two groups(p<0.05). Conclusion Significant correlation indicates equal diagnostic accuracy of the two methods in appropriately calibrated scanners. PMID:24559751

  19. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  20. Behavioral regulation assessment in exercise: exploring an autonomous and controlled motivation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Moutão, João; Leitão, José; Alves, José

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) and to test the hypothesis that the different types of behavioral regulation can be combined on a single factor to assess autonomous and controlled motivation. Data were collected from 550 members of private fitness centres who ranged in age from 14 to 69 years. The analysis supported an 18-item, 5-factor model after excluding one item (S-B chi2 = 221.7, df = 125, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 1.77; SRMR = .06; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .04, 90% CI = .03-.05). However, the analysis also revealed a lack of internal consistency. The results of a hierarchical model based on 2 second-order factors that reflected controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation) and autonomous motivation (identified and intrinsic regulation) provided an acceptable fit to the data (S-B chi2 = 172.6, df = 74, p = .000, S-B chi2/df = 2.33; SRMR = .07; NNFI = .90; CFI = .92; RMSEA = .05, 90% CI = .04-.06), with reliability coefficients of .75 for controlled motivation and .76 for autonomous motivation. The study findings indicated that when item 17 was excluded, the Portuguese BREQ-2 was an appropriate measure of the controlled and autonomous motivation in exercise.

  1. The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppe, P

    1999-10-01

    With considerably increased coverage of weather information in the news media in recent years in many countries, there is also more demand for data that are applicable and useful for everyday life. Both the perception of the thermal component of weather as well as the appropriate clothing for thermal comfort result from the integral effects of all meteorological parameters relevant for heat exchange between the body and its environment. Regulatory physiological processes can affect the relative importance of meteorological parameters, e.g. wind velocity becomes more important when the body is sweating. In order to take into account all these factors, it is necessary to use a heat-balance model of the human body. The physiological equivalent temperature (PET) is based on the Munich Energy-balance Model for Individuals (MEMI), which models the thermal conditions of the human body in a physiologically relevant way. PET is defined as the air temperature at which, in a typical indoor setting (without wind and solar radiation), the heat budget of the human body is balanced with the same core and skin temperature as under the complex outdoor conditions to be assessed. This way PET enables a layperson to compare the integral effects of complex thermal conditions outside with his or her own experience indoors. On hot summer days, for example, with direct solar irradiation the PET value may be more than 20 K higher than the air temperature, on a windy day in winter up to 15 K lower.

  2. Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, R. [Halton OY, Kausala (Finland); Tan, F. [CapitaLand Commercial Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This theoretical study reports on the assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned office buildings using the PMV approach and makes use of Wyon's reviews [D.P. Wyon, P.O. Fanger, B.W. Olesen, C.J.K. Pedersen, The mental performance of subjects clothed for comfort at two different air temperatures, Ergonomics 18 (1975) 358-374; D.P. Wyon, Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility, in: Proceedings of Indoor Air '96, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 1996; D.P. Wyon, Indoor environmental effects on productivity. IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/Keynote address. Y. Kevin. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp. 5-15] as the basis to compare and to relate how the productivity loss could be minimised through improved thermal comfort design criteria. The finding shows that task-related performance is significantly correlated with the human perception of thermal environment that in turn is dependent on temperatures. Different combinations of thermal criteria (air velocity, clo, metabolic, etc.) can lead to similar PMV value and the PMV equation is useful to predict productivity loss that is due to the rate of change in thermal conditions. The study also highlights the issues that remain to be resolved in future research. (author)

  3. THE EFFECT OF SERVICE QUALITY IN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT I GUSTI NGURAH RAI ON SATISFACTION, IMAGE, AND TOURISTS LOYALTY WHO VISITED BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroha Manulang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Airport are the first and the last contact point for tourists when they arrive at their holiday destination. Therefore, the airport facilities are a source of first impression that effect the quality expectations of the tourists on holiday activities. Bali as a world class tourism destination to develop and renovate the Ngurah Rai International Airport in order to improve quality of service in order to give higher satisfaction for tourists visiting Bali. Based on this study aims to determine (1 the effect of quality of service to tourists' satisfaction and the image of Bali tourism; (2 the effect of the image of tourism and the quality of service to the loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (3 the effect of the satisfaction of tourists to the tourism image and loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (4 the effect of indirect tourism image of the traveler loyalty through satisfaction of tourists; (5 service quality indirectly traveler loyalty through tourism image; and (6 to determine the rating opinion on the quality of service Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport. Population of this research was all foreign tourists visiting Bali through Ngurah Rai Airport at the time of the research. The research samples included 348 respondents were chosen with nonprobability sampling. accidental sampling technique. Data collected through questionnaires, interviews and observations. The collected data were analyzed with SERVQUAL, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM for hypothesis testing. The results showed (1 the quality of service Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport is a positive effect on tourist satisfaction and the image of Bali tourism; (2 the image of tourism and service quality Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport is a positive effect on loyalty rating; (3 The traveler satisfaction positive effect on tourism image and loyalty of tourists visiting Bali; (4 Tourism image positive effect on loyalty through

  4. A Novel Index Using Ankle Hemodynamic Parameters to Assess the Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Jun; Gatate, Yodo; Kasai, Takatoshi; Nakano, Shintaro; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Sato, Osamu; Ichioka, Shigeru; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower extremities, the presence of flow-limiting stenoses can be objectively detected by the ankle-brachial index (ABI). However, the severity of ischemic symptoms is not necessarily associated with the ABI value. Atherosclerotic plaque in lower extremity PAD induces ankle arterial stiffness and reduces ankle vascular resistance, which may decrease ankle blood flow and cause ischemic symptoms. We hypothesized that the ankle hemodynamic index (AHI), defined as the ratio of ankle arterial stiffness to ankle vascular resistance, could be used to assess the blood supply deficiency in a diseased lower limb in patients with PAD. The 85 consecutive patients with PAD who were retrospectively analyzed in this study had Rutherford grade 1 to grade 6 ischemia diagnosed as PAD and significant stenotic lesions (>50% diameter stenosis) of the lower extremity on contrast angiography. The AHI was calculated as the product of the ankle pulse pressure and the ratio of heart rate to ankle mean arterial pressure (ankle pulse pressure × heart rate/ankle mean arterial pressure). The Rutherford grade was significantly correlated with the AHI (r = 0.50, P < 0.001), but not with the ABI (r = 0.07, P = 0.52). Multiple ordinal regression analysis showed that anemia (odds ratio 0.66, P = 0.002) and AHI (odds ratio 1.04, P = 0.02) were independently associated with Rutherford grade. Our study shows that AHI, a novel parameter based on the ABI measurement, is well correlated with ischemic symptoms, and may be a useful means to assess the arterial blood supply of the lower extremities of patients with PAD. PMID:27760183

  5. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts

  6. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on estuarine fish nurseries along the Portuguese coast: a multi-metric index and conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R P; Reis-Santos, P; Fonseca, V; Maia, A; Ruano, M; França, S; Vinagre, C; Costa, M J; Cabral, H

    2007-03-15

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems and simultaneously among the most threatened by conflicting human activities which damage their ecological functions, namely their nursery role for many fish species. A thorough assessment of the anthropogenic pressures in Portuguese estuarine systems (Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) was made applying an aggregating multi-metric index, which quantitatively evaluates influences from key components: dams, population and industry, port activities and resource exploitation. Estuaries were ranked from most (Tejo) to least pressured (Mira), and the most influential types of pressure identified. In most estuaries overall pressure was generated by a dominant group of pressure components, with several systems being afflicted by similar problematic sources. An evaluation of the influence of anthropogenic pressures on the most important sparidae, soleidae, pleuronectidae, moronidae and clupeidae species that use these estuaries as nurseries was also performed. To consolidate information and promote management an ecological conceptual model was built to identify potential problems for the nursery function played by these estuaries, identifying pressure agents, ecological impacts and endpoints for the anthropogenic sources quantified in the assessment. This will be important baseline information to safeguard these vital areas, articulating information and forecasting the potential efficacy of future management options.

  7. Multidimensional Geriatric Prognostic Index, Based on a Geriatric Assessment, for Long-Term Survival in Older Adults in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Won Jung

    Full Text Available The patient´s survival estimate is important for clinical decision-making, especially in frail patients with multimorbidities. We aimed to develop a multidimensional geriatric prognosis index (GPI for 3- and 5-year mortality in community-dwelling elderly and to validate the GPI in a separate hospital-based population. The GPI was constructed using data for 988 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA and cross-validated with 1109 patients who underwent a geriatric assessment at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH. The GPI, with a total possible score of 8, included age, gender, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, comorbidities, mood, cognitive function, and nutritional status. During the 5-year observation period, 179 KLoSHA participants (18.1% and 340 SNUBH patients (30.7% died. The c-indices for 3- and 5-year mortality were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively, in the KLoSHA group and 0.73 and 0.80, respectively, in the SNUBH group. Positive linear trends were observed for GPI scores and both 3- and 5-year mortality in both groups. In conclusions, using common components of a geriatric assessment, the GPI can stratify the risk of 3- and 5-year mortality in Korean elderly people both in the community and hospital.

  8. Accuracy of the third molar index for assessing the legal majority of 18 years in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsahi, Ayse; De Luca, Stefano; Cehreli, S Burcak; Tirali, R Ebru; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    In the last few years, forced and unregistered child marriage has widely increased into Turkey. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years. Digital panoramic images of 293 Turkish children and young adults (165 girls and 128 boys), aged between 14 and 22 years, were analysed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity was 85.9% (95% CI 77.1-92.8%) and specificity was 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 92.7%. For boys, the sensitivity was 94.6% (95% CI 88.1-99.8%) and specificity was 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 97.6%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is a useful method to assess if a subject is older than 18 years of age or not.

  9. A Modified Soil Quality Index to Assess the Influence of Soil Degradation Processes on Desertification Risk: The Apulia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ancona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Apulia is one of the most prone Italian regions to soil alteration phenomena, due to geographical and climatic conditions and also to human activities’ impact. In this study, in order to investigate regional soil degradation processes, following the “European Directive for Soil Protection”, the ESA’s method has been adopted. It is based on the use of an indicator’s set to assess the desertification risk. This approach simplifies the diagnosis and monitoring of soil degradation processes, defining their status and trend. Special attention has been given to Soil Quality Index (SQI determined by six predisposing indicators (parent material, soil texture, rock fragment, soil depth, drainage and slope grade. The integration in the SQI calculation of two additional soil parameters (organic matter content and soil salinity has been considered particularly significant. In fact, through the evaluation of a so “modified SQI” and the Apulia land use too, it could be possible to assess the role of agriculture management on soil degradation processes, which predisposing regional area to desertification threat. Moreover this approach provides short, but accurate, information thanks to GIS integration, which defines phenomena in detail, offering helpful planning tools.

  10. RDW value for assessment of the severity of acute coronary syndrome and its correlation with serum indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the RDW value for assessment of the severity of acute coronary syndrome and its correlation with serum indexes.Methods: A total of 80 cases of patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Department of Cardiology of our hospital as well as 80 cases of healthy subjects receiving physical examination in Physical Examination Center of our hospital were selected for study, and serum was collected to detect RDW levels as well as the contents of inflammatory factors, myocardial ischemia molecules and endothelial protection molecules in serum.Results:RDW of ACS patients was significantly higher than that of healthy subjects, RDW of NSTEMI patients and STEMI patients were higher than that of UAP patients, and RDW of STEMI patients was higher than that of NSTEMI patients; the higher the RDW levels, the lower the serum IL-37, CTRP9, Ghrelin, AMPK, AdipoR1, eNOS and NO contents, showing the trend of Q1>Q2>Q3>Q4; the higher the serum sTWEAK, sCD40L, CCR7, CCL21, CK-MB, cTnT, IMA, GDF-15, ox-LDL and LOX-1 contents, showing the trend of Q1assess the severity of acute coronary syndrome and is associated with the degree of inflammatory response, myocardial ischemia and endothelial protection.

  11. The ASAS Health Index (ASAS HI) - a new tool to assess the health status of patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; van der Heijde, D; Boonen, A; Braun, J

    2014-01-01

    Within the variable course of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and involvement of other organs can add to the burden of the disease. The primary complaints of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) are pain, stiffness, fatigue, and limitation in activities and social participation. Instruments currently available for the assessment of patients with SpA focus predominantly on specific aspects of health such as pain, disease activity, and physical function and measure specific concepts like physical function and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). However, the overall picture of impairments, limitations and restrictions in activities or social participation of patients with AS is not adequately assessed in SpA-specific questionnaires. Most of the existing questionnaires are not conceptualised with regard to their underlying construct. The International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) Core Set for AS may serve as an appropriate model and underlying construct to develop a health index, since the whole range of functioning and disability of patients with AS is captured. Based on these assumptions, ASAS developed for patients with SpA an instrument assessing health as operationalised by the ICF. The questionnaire was developed by preparing an item pool, linkage of the items to the comprehensive ICF core set for AS and test of the item pool in two cross-sectional studies. The analysis of the questionnaire and the response scale were done with Rasch analysis. Emphasis was on optimal targeting, the capacity of items to differentiate between different levels of health, and optimal coverage of items to the spectrum of ICF categories, so that the final questionnaire could represent as much of the entire range of difficulty levels as possible. The ASAS HI is a linear composite measure and includes 17 items which cover most of the ICF core set. Preliminary validity has been confirmed in a field test in 4 English

  12. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at “risk of fall.” This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1). FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation. Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1–1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1–1 patients as neurological, “very old” (86% in age-group 75–84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months’ follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores. The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher

  13. Oferta ir akceptas kaip šalių valios sudaryti sutartį išraiška – teoriniai ir praktiniai aspektai

    OpenAIRE

    Karpickis, Kazimieras

    2011-01-01

    Šiame magistro baigiamajame darbe atskleidžiama ofertos ir akcepto, kaip asmens valios išraiškos aktų, teisinė prigimtis. Kadangi teisės doktrinoje ir teismų praktikoje oferta ir akceptas yra prilyginami vienašaliams sandoriams, darbe oferta ir akceptas yra analizuojami sandorių ir vienos iš jų rūšies, t. y. vienašalių sandorių, atžvilgiu. Pirmajame darbo skyriuje analizuojama asmens valia ir jos išraiška bei prieinama išvados, jog bendrąja prasme, nevertinant ofertos ir akcepto teisinės prig...

  14. The use of a global index of acoustic assessment for predicting noise in industrial rooms and optimizing the location of machinery and workstations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleban, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at developing a tool for optimizing the location of machinery and workstations. A global index of acoustic assessment of machines was developed for this purpose. This index and a genetic algorithm were used in a computer tool for predicting noise emission of machines as well as optimizing the location of machines and workstations in industrial rooms. The results of laboratory and simulation tests demonstrate that the developed global index and the genetic algorithm support measures aimed at noise reduction at workstations.

  15. Penetrance of craniofacial anomalies in mouse models of Smith-Magenis syndrome is modified by genomic sequence surrounding Rai1: not all null alleles are alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiong; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R

    2007-03-01

    Craniofacial abnormality is one of the major clinical manifestations of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Previous analyses in a mixed genetic background of several SMS mouse models--including Df(11)17/+ and Df(11)17-1/+, which have 2-Mb and 590-kb deletions, respectively, and Rai1(-/+)--revealed that the penetrance of the craniofacial phenotype appears to be influenced by deletion size and genetic background. We generated an additional strain with a 1-Mb deletion intermediate in size between the two described above. Remarkably, the penetrance of its craniofacial anomalies in the mixed background was between those of Df(11)17 and Df(11)17-1. We further analyzed the deletion mutations and the Rai1(-/+) allele in a pure C57BL/6 background, to control for nonlinked modifier loci. The penetrance of the craniofacial anomalies was markedly increased for all the strains in comparison with the mixed background. Mice with Df(11)17 and Df(11)17-1 deletions had a similar penetrance, suggesting that penetrance may be less influenced by deletion size, whereas that of Rai1(-/+) mice was significantly lower than that of the deletion strains. We hypothesize that potential trans-regulatory sequence(s) or gene(s) that reside within the 590-kb genomic interval surrounding Rai1 are the major modifying genetic element(s) affecting the craniofacial penetrance. Moreover, we confirmed the influence of genetic background and different deletion sizes on the phenotype. The complicated control of the penetrance for one phenotype in SMS mouse models provides tools to elucidate molecular mechanisms for penetrance and clearly shows that a null allele caused by chromosomal deletion can have different phenotypic consequences than one caused by gene inactivation.

  16. Whole Exome Sequencing Reveals Homozygous Mutations in RAI1, OTOF, and SLC26A4 Genes Associated with Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in Altaian Families (South Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafet, Tatiana M.; Morozov, Igor V.; Mikhalskaia, Valeriia Yu.; Zytsar, Marina V.; Bondar, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common sensorineural disorders and several dozen genes contribute to its pathogenesis. Establishing a genetic diagnosis of HL is of great importance for clinical evaluation of deaf patients and for estimating recurrence risks for their families. Efforts to identify genes responsible for HL have been challenged by high genetic heterogeneity and different ethnic-specific prevalence of inherited deafness. Here we present the utility of whole exome sequencing (WES) for identifying candidate causal variants for previously unexplained nonsyndromic HL of seven patients from four unrelated Altaian families (the Altai Republic, South Siberia). The WES analysis revealed homozygous missense mutations in three genes associated with HL. Mutation c.2168A>G (SLC26A4) was found in one family, a novel mutation c.1111G>C (OTOF) was revealed in another family, and mutation c.5254G>A (RAI1) was found in two families. Sanger sequencing was applied for screening of identified variants in an ethnically diverse cohort of other patients with HL (n = 116) and in Altaian controls (n = 120). Identified variants were found only in patients of Altaian ethnicity (n = 93). Several lines of evidences support the association of homozygosity for discovered variants c.5254G>A (RAI1), c.1111C>G (OTOF), and c.2168A>G (SLC26A4) with HL in Altaian patients. Local prevalence of identified variants implies possible founder effect in significant number of HL cases in indigenous population of the Altai region. Notably, this is the first reported instance of patients with RAI1 missense mutation whose HL is not accompanied by specific traits typical for Smith-Magenis syndrome. Presumed association of RAI1 gene variant c.5254G>A with isolated HL needs to be proved by further experimental studies. PMID:27082237

  17. Development and assessment of a landscape-scale ecological threat index for the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, Craig P.; Pitts, K.L.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Olden, Julian D.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances impact freshwater biota but are rarely incorporated into conservation planning due to the difficulties in quantifying threats. There is currently no widely accepted method to quantify disturbances, and determining how to measure threats to upstream catchments using disturbance metrics can be time consuming and subjective. We compared four watershed-scale ecological threat indices for the Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB) using landscape-level threats of land use (e.g., agricultural and urban lands), waterway development and diversions (e.g., number of canals, dams), and human development (e.g., road and railroads density, pollution sites). The LCRB is an ideal region to assess ecological threat indices because of the increasing need for conservation to ensure the persistence of native fishes in highly altered habitat. Each threat was measured for severity (i.e., level of influence on the upstream watershed) and frequency throughout each watershed; both severity and frequency were measured using two different methods. Severity values were based either on peer-reviewed literature and weighted in accordance to their published ecological impact, or assumed equal severity across stressors. Threat frequency was calculated according to either the presence/absence of each stressor, or on the relative density of each stressor in the watershed. Each measure of severity was combined with a measure of frequency, creating four ecological threat indices, and transformed to a 0–100 scale. Threat indices were highly correlated (slopes of 0.94–1.63; R2 of 0.82–0.98), and were highest for watersheds close to urban centers, including Phoenix, Tucson, and Flagstaff, Arizona, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Road crossings and density appeared to be the most influential stressors in the index, but the removal of any individual stressor only changed the index by planning for the Lower Colorado River Basin.

  18. [HYGIENIC JUSTIFICATION OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER ACCORDING TO THE WATER QUALITY INDEX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovskiy, G N; Rakhmanin, Yu; Egorova, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.

  19. A review on indexes and dietary assessment methods for determining the quality of diets - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p404

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pinheiro Volp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the different indexes most frequently used to evaluate the quality of diets, as well as the dietary assessment methods used for scoring, pointing out their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We performed a literature search, with no date restriction, on primary indexed sources and in the databases SciELO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, Dedalus and ILSI Web of Knowledge. The keywords used were diet (ary quality, diet (ary patterns, diet quality index, Mediterranean diet and nutrition. Then, the cited references were reviewed, classifying the information by index. Results: The most widely indexes used are Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Mediterranean Diet Score, using the food frequency questionnaire or a combination of the 24-hour recall and food (s record (s. Conclusion: The determination of feeding patterns through indices is a relatively easy process; however, to have confidence in the results is necessary to know the biases that each index and instrument has, as well as its construction and punctuation.

  20. Development of AHPDST Vulnerability Indexing Model for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Hydrogeophysical Derived Parameters and GIS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Producing a bias-free vulnerability assessment map model is significantly needed for planning a scheme of groundwater quality protection. This study developed a GIS-based AHPDST vulnerability index model for producing groundwater vulnerability model map in the hard rock terrain, Nigeria by exploiting the potentials of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) data mining models. The acquired borehole and geophysical data in the study area were processed to derive five groundwater vulnerability conditioning factors (GVCFs), namely recharge rate, aquifer transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, transverse resistance and longitudinal conductance. The produced GVCFs' thematic maps were multi-criterially analyzed by employing the mechanisms of AHP and DST models to determine the normalized weight (W) parameter for the GVCFs and mass function factors (MFFs) parameter for the GVCFs' thematic maps' class boundaries, respectively. Based on the application of the weighted linear average technique, the determined W and MFFs parameters were synthesized to develop groundwater vulnerability potential index (GVPI)-based AHPDST model algorithm. The developed model was applied to establish four GVPI mass/belief function indices. The estimates based on the applied GVPI belief function indices were processed in GIS environment to create prospective groundwater vulnerability potential index maps. The most representative of the resulting vulnerability maps (the GVPIBel map) was considered for producing the groundwater vulnerability potential zones (GVPZ) map for the area. The produced GVPZ map established 48 and 52% of the areal extent to be covered by the lows/moderate and highs vulnerable zones, respectively. The success and the prediction rates of the produced GVPZ map were determined using the relative operating characteristics technique to give 82.3 and 77.7%, respectively. The analyzed results reveal that the developed GVPI-based AHPDST model algorithm is

  1. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration.

  2. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  3. A fuzzy-based model to implement the global safety buildings index assessment for agri-food buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barreca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to ensuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the outmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements as well as to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of workers’ safety and welfare in their working environment. Workers’ safety has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as workers’ safety and welfare. Hence, this paper proposes an assessment model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows assessing the global safety level of an agri-food building by means of a global safety buildings index. The model here presented is original since it uses fuzzy logic to evaluate the performances of both the technical and environmental systems of an agri-food building in terms of health and hygiene safety of the manufacturing process as well as of workers’ health and safety. The result of the assessment is expressed through a triangular fuzzy membership function which allows carrying out comparative analyses of different buildings. A specific procedure was developed to apply the model to a case study which tested its operational simplicity and the validity of its results. The proposed model allows obtaining a synthetic and global value of the building performance of

  4. Is transition zone index useful in assessing bladder outflow obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia?: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S L Sailo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic enlargement (BPE is the commonest cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men above 50 years of age. Though pressure-flow study is the gold standard in establishing outlet obstruction, it is associated with definite morbidity. Several noninvasive parameters are described to diagnose outlet obstruction due to BPE and evaluate treatment efficacy. AIM: We studied the role of transitional zone index (TZI in assessing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO due to BPE. SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective hospital-based cross-sectional diagnostic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five men aged between 50 and 77 years with untreated lower urinary tract symptoms due to BPE were studied. Patients with prostate cancer, prostatitis, active UTI urethral stricture, neurovesical dysfunction and diabetes mellitus were excluded. All patients underwent a standard assessment using the American Urological Association (AUA symptom score, uroflow, pressure-flow (PF study and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS estimation of TZI. Investigators undertaking PF studies and TRUS were blinded to the investigation of others. From the PF studies, Abrams Griffith (AG number was calculated. Based on this, patients were grouped into obstructed (AG>40 and unobstructed (AG< 40 groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: TZI was calculated and compared with PF studies using Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression analysis and receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.2 years (SD. The mean AUA scores and peak flow rate were 16.7 and 7.5 ml/sec, respectively. Of the 35 men, 21 were obstructed and 14 were unobstructed. TZI was not significantly different between the two groups, while the differences in age, AUA symptom score, prostate volume and TZ volume were statistically significant. Logistic regression model did not show any independent effect of TZI in predicting obstruction. ROC curve showed a poor overall accuracy in diagnosing obstruction due

  5. Universal Index Formulae for Eco-Environment Quality Assessment Based on Normalized Index Transformation%基于指标规范变换的生态环境质量评价普适指数公式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正健; 李祚泳; 余春雪

    2011-01-01

    为了建立科学合理、计算简便和实用性强的生态环境质量评价普适指数公式,在确定典型区域的生态环境评价指标体系及其分级标准的基础上,适当设定各项生态环境指标的参照值和指标值的(规范)变换式,使不同指标同级标准值的变换值差异较小,而变换值的对数值差异更小,从而可以认为用变换值表示的不同指标皆“等效”于某个指标.因此,用变换值表示的不同指标的某种类型的生态环境质量评价指数公式都可以用该“等效”指标的生态环境质量评价指数公式代替.在满足一定优化目标准则的条件下,用免疫进化粒子群混洗蛙跳算法对公式中的普适参数进行优化,分别得到优化后对23项生态环境指标皆适用的对数型幂函数、韦伯-费希纳定律、T型分布函数、污染危害S型函数和加权加和型幂函数5种形式的生态环质量评价普适指数公式,并对公式的可靠性进行了理论分析,对其实用效果进行了检验.%In order to establish universal index formulae, which should be scientific, reasonable, simple and practical in application to eco-environment quality assessment, based on determination of the eco-environment assessment index systems and grading standards for typical regions, proper reference values and transformation formulae were set for each eco-environment index, separately, so as to minimize differences of the transformation values, especially logarithmic values of the transformation values from the standard values of different indexes of the same grade. Thus, the various indexes expressed by transformation values can be held to be equivalent to a certain index. Therefore, various types of eco-environment quality assessment index formulae with transformation values expressing various indices can all be replaced by eco-environment quality assessment index formulae of corresponding " equivalent" indices. Meanwhile universal parameters

  6. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2017-02-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI 80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  7. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index applied to sediment samples from the Guarapiranga reservoir, Brazil, for metal and trace element assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Favaro, Deborah I., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.b [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (EAAI/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica e Radioatividade

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to assess sediment contamination by metals and other trace elements in five sampling points of the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Two collection campaigns were undertaken and the samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in order to determine the following elements: major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb , Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu). Soil samples were collected in the Guarapiranga Park, located next to the reservoir. Composite top soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in lines across the park at every 30m and were also analyzed by INAA. EF values was calculated using Sc as the conservative element for normalization purposes and soil from Guarapiranga region was used as background levels for the elements analyzed. EF > 1.5 were obtained for the elements As, Sb and Zn, with highest values for Zn (1.6Index was calculated using soil values as background or pristine values as well. For Zn, Igeo values (1.0

  8. Assessment of actual transpiration rate in olive tree field combining sap-flow, leaf area index and scintillometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, C.; Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

    2009-09-01

    Models to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (ET) in sparse vegetation area can be fundamental for agricultural water managements, especially when water availability is a limiting factor. Models validation must be carried out by considering in situ measurements referred to the field scale, which is the relevant scale of the modelled variables. Moreover, a particular relevance assumes to consider separately the components of plant transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (E), because only the first is actually related to the crop stress conditions. Objective of the paper was to assess a procedure aimed to estimate olive trees actual transpiration by combining sap flow measurements with the scintillometer technique at field scale. The study area, located in Western Sicily (Italy), is mainly cultivated with olive crop and is characterized by typical Mediterranean semi-arid climate. Measurements of sap flow and crop actual evapotranspiration rate were carried out during 2008 irrigation season. Crop transpiration fluxes, measured on some plants by means of sap flow sensors, were upscaled considering the leaf area index (LAI). The comparison between evapotranspiration values, derived by displaced-beam small-aperture scintillometer (DBSAS-SLS20, Scintec AG), with the transpiration fluxes obtained by the sap flow sensors, also allowed to evaluate the contribute of soil evaporation in an area characterized by low vegetation coverage.

  9. On Index System and Quantitative Assessment of Eco-cities:A Case Study on Urban Agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yali; Jiang Dahe; Wang Dan

    2007-01-01

    Urban agglomeration of the Yangtze Delta(UAYD),one of the most developed regions of China,has witnessed an increasing prevalence in building ecological cities when the ecological cities are pursued by many modem cities,and great achievements have been made in this regard.It is inevitable,however,that certain problems exist during the construction of ecological city,which include but not limited to non-harmonious development of urban complex ecosystem,and the difficulty in quantifying eco-city construction or incomplete quantification in assessing the construction of present and future eco-city.Based on the analysis on social-economic conditions and regional conditions of the UAYD,this paper attempts to set up an index system of eco-cities combining with local characteristics,and to adopt the indices of eco-city,urban harmony,and eco-city colligate to evaluate the ecological level,urban harmonious development and eco-city construction of cities within the UAYD.Results indicate that among 15 cities in UAYD,Suzhou City ranks the highest in terms of eco-city construction,whereas Nantong ranks relatively lower;sustainable eco-city construction is possible only when cities are developed in every respect of harmony.

  10. Brief Report: The Temporal Stability of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Index in Geriatric Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahar, Kerry M.; Duff, Kevin; Scott, James G.; Linck, John F.; Adams, Russell L.; Mold, James W.

    2012-01-01

    The Effort Index (EI) of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was developed to identify inadequate effort. Although researchers have examined its validity, the reliability of the EI has not been evaluated. The current study examined the temporal stability of the EI across 1 year in two independent samples of older adults. One sample consisted of 445 cognitively intact older adults (mean age = 72.89; 59% having 12–15 years of education) and the second sample consisted of 51 individuals diagnosed with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (mean age = 82.41; 41% having 12–15 years of education). For both samples, the EI was found to have low stability (Spearman's ρ = .32–.36). When participants were divided into those whose EI stayed stable or improved versus those whose EI worsened (i.e., declining effort) on retesting, it was observed that individuals with lower baseline RBANS Total scores tended to worsen on the EI across time. Overall, the findings suggest low temporal stability of the EI in two geriatric samples. In particular, individuals with poorer cognition at baseline could present with poorer effort across time. These findings also suggest the need to further examine the temporal stability of other effort measures. PMID:22075575

  11. Application of geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors on the assessment of heavy metal pollution in the sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nur Aliaa; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Haris, Hazzeman; Lim, Wan Ying; Isa, Noorain Mohd

    2013-01-01

    An investigative study was carried out in Langat River to determine the heavy metal pollution in the sediment with 22 sampling stations selected for the collection of sediment samples. The sediment samples were digested and analyzed for extractable metal ((48)Cd, (29)Cu, (30)Zn, (33)As, (82)Pb) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parameters, such as pH, Eh, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and loss on ignition (LOI) were also determined. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was derived using the enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)). This study revealed that the sediment is predominantly by As > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. As recorded the highest EF value at 187.45 followed by Cd (100.59), Pb (20.32), Zn (12.42) and Cu (3.46). This is similar to the I(geo), which indicates that the highest level goes to As (2.2), exhibits moderately polluted. Meanwhile, Cd recorded 1.8 and Pb (0.23), which illustrates that both of these elements vary from unpolluted to moderately polluted. The Cu and Zn levels are below 0, which demonstrates background concentrations. The findings are expected to update the current status of the heavy metal pollution as well as creating awareness concerning the security of the river water as a drinking water source.

  12. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-05-27

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30-39 (men) and 40-49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations' sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved.

  13. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  14. Índices dietéticos na avaliação da qualidade global da dieta Dietetic indexes for the assessment of overall diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação pode atuar tanto na prevenção de certas doenças como no tratamento de outras. A análise do consumo alimentar fornece subsídios para avaliação das necessidades nutricionais e para promoção de programas de educação nutricional. Poucos estudos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de se fazer a avaliação global da dieta. Os índices dietéticos estão sendo estudados como uma alternativa para realizar esta avaliação. Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os seguintes índices dietéticos: Índice de Nutrientes, Escore de Variedade da Dieta, Escore de Diversidade da Dieta, Índice de Qualidade da Dieta, Índice de Alimentação Saudável e Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado. Observou-se que os índices possuem fundamental importância ao refletir a situação de diversos componentes da dieta em uma única variável.Feeding can act in the prevention of some diseases as well as in the treatment of others. The analysis of food consumption provides information to assess nutritional needs and improve nutrition education programs. Few studies have been carried out in order to perform a global dietary assessment. The dietary indexes have been studied as an alternative to perform this assessment. The objective of this paper is to show some dietary indexes: Nutrient Index, Diet Variety Score, Diet Diversity Score, Diet Quality Index, Healthy Eating Index and Diet Quality Index Revised. These indexes have fundamental importance in the summarization of distinct dietary components in a single variable.

  15. Usefulness of myocardial performance index for assessing right ventricular function after percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingdong Ding; Genshan Ma; Yaoyao Huang; Xiaoli Zhang; Jian Zhu; Rong Yang; Fengxiang Lu

    2007-01-01

    Objective Assessment of right ventricular function in patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) is difficult. The Doppler myocardial performance index (MPI) may provide a method of assessing function in these patients. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the right ventricular function and its changes in patients with ASD after transcatheter closure of ASD. Methods MPI, defined as the sum of isovolumic relaxation time and isovolumic contraction time derived by ejection time, was measured from tricuspid inflow and right ventricular outflow; Doppler velocity profiles recorded during routine echocardiography. Twenty nine patients ( 13 men, 16 women;mean age 25.28 ± 12.69, range 6 to 57 years) were diagnosed to secundum ASD [the stretched diameters of ASD were from 9 To 36 (24.91 ±7.98) mm], and had a successfully placed Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) (the sizes of ASO were from 11 to 40 mm ); there were 81 sex-matched, age-matched healthy people (control group 41men, 40 women; mean age 29.02 ± 14.22, range 4 to 45 years).MPI was measured again on 3 days and 1 month after closure of ASD. Change in the study group was assessed and compared to the control subjects with structurally normal hearts. A complete 2- dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed in all study groups. Results 1) The isovolumic relaxation and isovolumic contraction times [respectively(77.59 ± 14.39)ms vs (60.93 ± 12.94)ms, P<0.0001; (28.28 ± 10.88)ms vs (23.64 ± 9.01)ms, P=0.027] were prolonged, and ejection time [(260.65 ± 21.86 )ms vs (271.85 ± 21.92)ms, P=0.033] was shortened in patients with ASD compared with that in control subjects, resulting in a marked increase in the MPI(0.40 ± 0.07 vs 0.31 ± 0.05, P<0.0001) from normal values; 2) by Pearson's correlations, the MPI had no correlation with heart rate and blood pressure in control subjects and patients with ASD, but it correlated positively with age in patients with ASD; 3) by Pearson

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Barthel Index for Measuring Activities of Daily Living Outcome After Ischemic Hemispheric Stroke Does Early Poststroke Timing of Assessment Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Harmeling-van der Wel, Barbara C.; van Wegen, Erwin; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Harmeling-van der Wel, BC

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of the Barthel Index (BI) in 206 stroke patients, measured within 72 hours, for activities of daily living at 6 months and determined whether the timing of BI assessment during the first days affects the accuracy of predicting ac

  17. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) . Methods Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group) and 30 healthy people(control group) underwent pulmonary

  18. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  19. Assessing agricultural drought in summer over Oklahoma Mesonet sites using the water-related vegetation index from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgain, Rajen; Xiao, Xiangming; Basara, Jeffrey; Wagle, Pradeep; Zhou, Yuting; Zhang, Yao; Mahan, Hayden

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural drought, a common phenomenon in most parts of the world, is one of the most challenging natural hazards to monitor effectively. Land surface water index (LSWI), calculated as a normalized ratio between near infrared (NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR), is sensitive to vegetation and soil water content. This study examined the potential of a LSWI-based, drought-monitoring algorithm to assess summer drought over 113 Oklahoma Mesonet stations comprising various land cover and soil types in Oklahoma. Drought duration in a year was determined by the number of days with LSWI drought years (2001, 2006, 2011, and 2012). The DNLSWI tracked the east-west gradient of summer rainfall in Oklahoma. Drought intensity increased with increasing duration of DNLSWI, and the intensity increased rapidly when DNLSWI was more than 48 days. The comparison between LSWI and the US Drought Monitor (USDM) showed a strong linear negative relationship; i.e., higher drought intensity tends to have lower LSWI values and vice versa. However, the agreement between LSWI-based algorithm and USDM indicators varied substantially from 32 % (D 2 class, moderate drought) to 77 % (0 and D 0 class, no drought) for different drought intensity classes and varied from ˜30 % (western Oklahoma) to >80 % (eastern Oklahoma) across regions. Our results illustrated that drought intensity thresholds can be established by counting DNLSWI (in days) and used as a simple complementary tool in several drought applications for semi-arid and semi-humid regions of Oklahoma. However, larger discrepancies between USDM and the LSWI-based algorithm in arid regions of western Oklahoma suggest the requirement of further adjustment in the algorithm for its application in arid regions.

  20. The construct validity of the health utilities index mark 3 in assessing health status in lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuk Dalyce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess the cross-sectional construct validity of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 in lung transplantation. Methods Two hundred and thirteen patients (103 pre-transplant and 110 post-transplant with mean age 53 years old (SD 13 were recruited during a randomized controlled clinical trial at the out-patient clinic in a tertiary institution. At baseline, patients self-completed measures that included the HUI3, EuroQol EQ-5D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and socio-demographic questionnaire. Six-minute walk test scores and forced expiratory volume in 1 second data were collected from patient's medical records. A priori hypotheses were formulated by members of the transplant team about the expected degree of association between the measures. Correlation coefficients of Results Of the ninety predictions made, forty three were correct but in 31 the correlation was slightly lower than predicted and in 7 the correlations were much higher than predicted. In 48% of the cases, predicted and observed associations were in agreement. Predictions of associations were off by one category in 42% of the cases; in 10% of the cases the predictions were off by two categories. Conclusions This is the first study providing evidence of cross-sectional construct validity of HUI3 in lung transplantation. Results indicate that the HUI3 was able to capture the burden of lung disease before transplantation and that post-transplant patients enjoyed higher health-related quality of life than pre-transplant patients.

  1. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  2. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  3. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J Starling

    Full Text Available Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.

  4. The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-toplatelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods: This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results: Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement &gt;5.9 kPa Fibroscan were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (&gt;5.9 kPa. In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875 presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion: APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

  5. Assessment of whey protein nitrogen index as an indicator of heat treatment for UHT milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Natália Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During heat treatment of dairy products it is possible to occur several chemical modifications which whey protein denaturation is quite evident and studied. This phenomenon can cause gelation in UHT milk and some problems in reconstitution of milk powder, two major dairy products widely used in dairy foods and by consumer. The whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI can be an useful tool to assess the degree of severity that milk was submitted, and therefore inferred from the occurrence of possible defects associated with protein denaturation. This study presents theevaluation of the non-denaturated whey protein contents as a heat treatment indicator for ultrapasteurization and drying milk processing. Commercial samples of UHT milk and milk powdershowed WPNI confidence interval of (2.39 ± 1.41 mgWPN.mL-1 and (2.63 ± 1.38 mgWPN.mL-1, respectively. According to the statistical analysis of variance, all samples differed with a p-value < 0.001; and 90% of UHT milk and 67% milk powder samples were classified as medium heat treatment. It was possible to infer the severity of the heat treatment associated with each kind of product analyzed.The results were able to demonstrate the lack of standardization of heat treatment processes on the samples studied, a fact that may result in the growth of undesirablecharacteristics in the products during the storage or commercia lization.

  6. MTA index: a simple 2D-method for assessing atrophy of the medial temporal lobe using clinically available neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMenéndez-González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Despite a strong correlation between severity of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA, its measurement has not been widely used in daily clinical practice as a criterion in the diagnosis of prodromal and probable AD. This is mainly because the methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In this pilot study we aim to describe a novel, simple and objective method for measuring the rate of MTA in relation to the global atrophy using clinically available neuroimaging and describe the rationale behind this method.Description: This method consists of calculating a ratio of 3 regions traced manually on one single coronal MRI slide at the level of the interpeduncular fossa: i the medial temporal lobe region (A; ii the parenchyma within the medial temporal region, that includes the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus -the fimbriae taenia and choroid plexus are excluded- (B; and iii the body of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle (C. Therefore we can compute the ratio Medial Temporal Atrophy index at both sides as follows: MTAi = (A-B x10/C.Conclusions: The MTAi is a simple 2D-method for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. This method can be useful for a more accurate diagnosis of AD in routine clinical practice. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of MTAi in the diagnosis of early AD, in tracking the progression of AD and in the differential diagnosis of AD with other dementias.

  7. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  8. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Li Fu; Jian-Mei Peng; Ya-Mei Shen; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Yu-Zeng Ding

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes.Methods:A total of 152 patients first diagnosed with coronary heart disease were the observation group of the study and 117 healthy subjects were the control group. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) was used to evaluate the left ventricular function parameters of two groups, the serum content of endothelial function indexes and platelet function indexes were detected, and the correlation between left ventricular function parameters under 3D-STI and serum indexes was further analyzed.Results: Absolute values of left ventricular function parameters LVGLS, LVGRS, LVGCS and LVGAS from 3D-STI of observation group were significantly less than those of control group while Ptw and Torsion levels were greater than those of control group; endothelial function indexes vWF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and ET-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group while vWF-cp and NO content were significantly lower than those of control group; platelet function indexes CD62P, GMP-140, CD63, sP-selectin, sCD40L and PAC-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group. The levels of left ventricular function parameters from 3D-STI in patients with coronary heart disease were directly correlated with serum indexes.Conclusion:3D-STI can accurately assess the left ventricular function and the overall disease severity in patients with coronary heart disease, and it is expected to become an effective method for early diagnosis of diseases and guidance of clinical treatment.

  9. BODE-index, modified BODE-index and ADO-score in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: relationship with COPD phenotypes and CT lung density changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Cestelli, Lucia; Paoletti, Matteo; Diciotti, Stefano; Cavigli, Edoardo; Magni, Chiara; Buonasera, Luigi; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    COPD is a heterogeneous disorder whose assessment is going to be increasingly multidimensional. Grading systems such as BODE (Body-Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise), mBODE (BODE modified in grading of walked distance), ADO (Age, Dyspnea, Obstruction) are proposed to assess COPD severity and outcome. Computed tomography (CT) is deemed to reflect COPD lung pathologic changes. We studied the relationship of multidimensional grading systems (MGS) with clinically determined COPD phenotypes and CT lung density. Seventy-two patients underwent clinical and chest x-ray evaluation, pulmonary function tests (PFT), 6-minute walking test (6MWT) to derive: predominant COPD clinical phenotype, BODE, mBODE, ADO. Inspiratory and expiratory CT was performed to calculate mean lung attenuation (MLA), relative area with density below-950 HU at inspiration (RAI(-950)), and below -910 HU at expiration (RAE(-910)). MGS, PFT, and CT data were compared between bronchial versus emphysematous COPD phenotype. MGS were correlated with CT data. The prediction of CT density by means of MGS was investigated by direct and stepwise multivariate regression. MGS did not differ in clinically determined COPD phenotypes. BODE was more closely related and better predicted CT findings than mBODE and ADO; the better predictive model was obtained for CT expiratory data; stepwise regression models of CT data did not include 6MWT distance; the dyspnea score MRC was included only to predict RA-950 and RA-910 which quantify emphysema extent. BODE reflect COPD severity better than other MGS, but not its clinical heterogeneity. 6MWT does not significantly increase BODE predictivity of CT lung density changes.

  10. Assessing regulatory violations of disinfection by-products in water distribution networks using a non-compliance potential index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nilufar; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Legay, Christelle

    2016-05-01

    Inactivating pathogens is essential to eradicate waterborne diseases. However, disinfection forms undesirable disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of natural organic matter. Many regulations and guidelines exist to limit DBP exposure for eliminating possible health impacts such as bladder cancer, reproductive effects, and child development effects. In this paper, an index named non-compliance potential (NCP) index is proposed to evaluate regulatory violations by DBPs. The index can serve to evaluate water quality in distribution networks using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). BBN is a graphical model to represent contributing variables and their probabilistic relationships. Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids (HAA5), and free residual chlorine (FRC) are selected as the variables to predict the NCP index. A methodology has been proposed to implement the index using either monitored data, empirical model results (e.g., multiple linear regression), and disinfectant kinetics through EPANET simulations. The index's usefulness is demonstrated through two case studies on municipal distribution systems using both full-scale monitoring and modeled data. The proposed approach can be implemented for data-sparse conditions, making it especially useful for smaller municipal drinking water systems.

  11. Diagnosing Smith-Magenis syndrome and duplication 17p11.2 syndrome by RAI1 gene copy number variation using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoa T; Solaymani-Kohal, Sara; Baker, Kevin R; Girirajan, Santhosh; Williams, Stephen R; Vlangos, Christopher N; Smith, Ann C M; Bunyan, David J; Roffey, Paul E; Blanchard, Christopher L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2008-03-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and duplication 17p11.2 (dup17p11.2) syndrome are multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation disorders resulting from either a deletion or duplication of the 17p11.2 region, respectively. The retinoic acid induced 1 (RAI1) gene is the causative gene for SMS and is included in the 17p11.2 region of dup17p11.2 syndrome. Currently SMS and dup17p11.2 syndrome are diagnosed using a combination of clinically recognized phenotypes and molecular cytogenetic analyses such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). However, these methods have proven to be highly expensive, time consuming, and dependent upon the low resolving capabilities of the assay. To address the need for improved diagnostic methods for SMS and dup17p11.2 syndrome, we designed a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay that measures RAI1 copy number using the comparative C(t) method, DeltaDeltaC(t). We tested our assay with samples blinded to their previous SMS or dup17p11.2 syndrome status. In all cases, we were able to determine RAI1 copy number status and render a correct diagnosis accordingly. We validated these results by both FISH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). We conclude that Q-PCR is an accurate, reproducible, low-cost, and reliable assay that can be employed for routine use in SMS and dup17p11.2 diagnosis.

  12. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  13. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  14. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  15. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-a or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  16. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... carriers of RAI-intron1-1 or CD3EAP G-21A had the longest OS. Among patients treated with INF-α or thalidomide, no effect was seen in relation to genotype. Our results indicate that polymorphism in RAI and CD3EAP are associated with outcome of myeloma patients treated with HDT. Combination analyses...

  17. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  18. A novel index based on fractional calculus to assess the dynamics of heart rate variability: changes due to chi or yoga meditations

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Miguel Ángel; Ramos Castro, Juan José; Fernández Chimeno, Mireya

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to present and interpret a novel index based on fractional calculus ( αc) and to assess differences in RR time series dynamics in subjects during meditation. Fractional differintegration (FDI) of a RR time series provides a new time series.αc is defined as the order of the FDI operator that provides the time series with minimum variance. Analyzed time series were obtained from the Exaggerated Heart Rate Oscillations During Two Meditation Techniques database. This da...

  19. Generalization of Youden index for multiple-class classification problems applied to the assessment of externally validated cognition in Parkinson disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakas, Christos T; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Anderson, Tim J; Alonzo, Todd A

    2013-03-15

    Routine cognitive screening in Parkinson disease (PD) has become essential for management, to track progression and to assess clinical status in therapeutic trials. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) are more likely to progress to dementia and therefore need to be distinguished from patients with normal cognition and those with dementia. A three-class Youden index has been recently proposed to select cut-off points in three-class classification problems. In this article, we examine properties of a modification of the three-class Youden index and propose a generalization to k-class classification problems. Geometric and theoretical properties of the modified index J(k) are examined. It is shown that J(k) is equivalent to the sum of the k - 1 two-class Youden indices for the adjacent classes of the ordered alternative problem given that the ordering holds. Methods are applied in the assessment of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test when screening cognition in PD.

  20. Superior assessment of CVD death by MACD index compared with the framingham score is highly associated with predisposition to diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie

    investigated the relation between mortality and biological aspects of plaque dynamics such as of number, size, morphology and distribution in the lumbar aorta of postmenopausal women. We compared the MACD index to the Framingham AC24 score and correlated those to baseline demographic and biochemical risk...

  1. Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Yan Lai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease and its correlation with left heart function and serum indexes. Methods:A total of 89 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into angina pectoris group 42 cases and myocardial infarction group 47 cases according to the illness, and 58 cases of healthy subjects were included in control group. Values of mitral annular displacement (MAD) parameters, left heart function indexes and serum illness-related indexes of three groups were detected, and the correlation between values of MAD parameters and values of cardiac function indexes and serum illness-related indexes were further analyzed.Results:MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values, heart function LVEF values and serum CysC level of myocardial infarction group and angina pectoris group were lower than those of control group, and cardiac function LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as serum H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); MAD parameters TMAD1, TMAD2 and TMADmid values of patients with coronary heart disease were negatively correlated with LVEDD, LVESD and A/E values as well as H-FABP, ICTP, Hcy and vWF levels, and were positively correlated with LVEF value and CysC level (P<0.05). Conclusions:Ultrasound assessment of mitral annular displacement in patients with coronary heart disease can early diagnose coronary heart disease and judge the disease severity, and it plays a positive role in optimizing disease prognosis.

  2. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  3. Global assessment of Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP and Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS version 3 products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marshall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation based long-term global vegetation index products are used by scientists from a wide range of disciplines concerned with global change. Inter-comparison studies are commonly performed to keep the user community informed on the consistency and accuracy of such records as they evolve. In this study, we compared two new records: (1 Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Version 3 (NDVI3g and (2 Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIP Version 3 NDVI (NDVI3v and Enhanced Vegetation Index 2 (EVI3v. We evaluated the two records via three experiments that addressed the primary use of such records in global change research: (1 prediction of the Leaf Area Index (LAI used in light-use efficiency modeling, (2 estimation of vegetation climatology in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer models, and (3 trend analysis of the magnitude and phenology of vegetation productivity. Experiment one, unlike previous inter-comparison studies, was performed with a unique Landsat 30 m spatial resolution and in situ LAI database for major crop types on five continents. Overall, the two records showed a high level of agreement both in direction and magnitude on a monthly basis, though VIP values were higher and more variable and showed lower correlations and higher error with in situ LAI. The records were most consistent at northern latitudes during the primary growing season and southern latitudes and the tropics throughout much of the year, while the records were less consistent at northern latitudes during green-up and senescence and in the great deserts of the world throughout much of the year. The two records were also highly consistent in terms of trend direction/magnitude, showing a 30+ year increase (decrease in NDVI over much of the globe (tropical rainforests. The two records were less consistent in terms of timing due to the poor correlation of the records during start and end of growing season.

  4. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme climate event characterized by a temporary deficit of precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow, or any combination of the three taking place at the same time. The immediate consequences of short-term (i.e. a few weeks duration) droughts are, for example, a fall in crop production, poor pasture growth and a decline in fodder supplies from crop residues, whereas prolonged water shortages (e.g. of several months or years duration) may, amongst others, lead to a reduction in hydro-electrical power production and an increase of forest fires. As a result, comprehensive drought risk management is nowadays critical for many regions in the world. Examples are many African and South-and Central American countries that strongly depend on rain-fed agriculture for economic development with hydroelectricity and biomass as main sources of energy. Drought risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between drought hazard, i.e. the physical nature of droughts, and the degree to which a population or activity is vulnerable to its effects. As vulnerability to drought is increasing globally and certain tasks, such as distributive policies (e.g. relief aid, regulatory exemptions, or preparedness investments), require information on drought severity that is comparable across different climatic regions, greater attention has recently been directed to the development of methods for a standardized quantification of drought hazard. In this study we, therefore, concentrate on a methodology for assessing the severity of historical droughts and on mapping the frequency of their occurrence. To achieve these goals, we use a new Meteorological Drought Severity Index (MDSI). The motivation is twofold: 1) the observation that primitive indices of drought severity directly measure local precipitation shortages and cannot be compared geographically; and that 2) standardized indices of drought do not take into account

  5. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  6. Assessing consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index among 5-6 years old school children in an urban Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a major chronic noncommunicable disease affecting whole of mankind. Nontreatment of caries can have severe consequences such as pain, abscess formation, space infection, etc., which leads to loss of function, working hours or absence from school in children. These consequences are equally important, while planning dental care program for a community. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and severity of consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index that is, pulpal involvement, and ulcer due to root fragments, fistula, and abscess index among 5-6 year old school children in an urban Indian population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 603 school going children of 5-6 year age group in mainly an urban Indian population. Children from 12 randomly selected schools were examined for pufa and decayed extracted filled indices. Results and Conclusions: Overall mean pufa value was 0.9 ± 1.93 and prevalence was 38.6% with major contribution from P component of index. Untreated caries ratio was 35%, suggesting that more than one-third of the developed carious lesions cause adverse events in a population. This study emphasis the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage to avoid severe consequences. The pufa index can be used as tool to highlight these adverse consequences to dental professionals and health authorities.

  7. [Evaluating the Significance of Odor Gas Released During the Directly Drying Process of Sludge: Based on the Multi-index Integrated Assessment Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-jie; Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-02-15

    Co-processing of sewage sludge using the cement kiln can realize sludge harmless treatment, quantity reduction, stabilization and reutilization. The moisture content should be reduced to below 30% to meet the requirement of combustion. Thermal drying is an effective way for sludge desiccation. Odors and volatile organic compounds are generated and released during the sludge drying process, which could lead to odor pollution. The main odor pollutants were selected by the multi-index integrated assessment method. The concentration, olfactory threshold, threshold limit value, smell security level and saturated vapor pressure were considered as indexes based on the related regulations in China and foreign countries. Taking the pollution potential as the evaluation target, and the risk index and odor emission intensity as evaluation indexes, the odor pollution potential rated evaluation model of the pollutants was built according to the Weber-Fechner law. The aim of the present study is to form the rating evaluation method of odor potential pollution capacity suitable for the directly drying process of sludge.

  8. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  9. Foaming Scum Index (FSI)--a new tool for the assessment and characterisation of biological mediated activated sludge foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Martin; Gray, N F

    2012-11-15

    The formation of thick stable brown foams within the activated sludge process has become a familiar operational problem. Despite much research having already been carried out into establishing the causes of activated sludge foaming there is still no general consensus on the mechanisms involved. Historically investigation into activated sludge foaming has involved either measuring, under aeration conditions, the propensity of mixed liquor samples to foam, or evaluating different physico-chemical properties of the sludge which have previously been linked to activated sludge foaming. Both approaches do not present a means to quantify the risk posed to the treatment plants once foams have started to develop on the surface of aeration basins and final clarifiers. The Foaming Scum Index (FSI) is designed to offer a means to quantify risk on the basis of different foam characteristics which can easily be measured. For example, foam stability, foam coverage, foam suspended solids content and biological composition. The FSI was developed by measuring foam samples taken from several different domestic and municipal wastewater treatment sites located in Greater Dublin area (South-East Ireland). Path analysis was used to predict co-dependencies among the different sets of variables following a number of separate hypotheses. The standardized beta coefficients (β) produced from the multivariate correlation analysis (providing a measure of the contribution of each variable in the structural equation model) was used to finalise the weighting of each parameter in the index accordingly. According to this principal, foam coverage exerted the greatest influence on the overall FSI (β = 0.33), whilst the filamentous bacterial composition in terms of the filament index of foam, provided the least (β = 0.03). From this work it is proposed that the index can be readily applied as a standard tool in the coordination of research into the phenomenon of activated sludge foaming.

  10. Drought Assessment by a Short-/Long-Term Composited Drought Index in the Upper Huaihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a multiscale composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The newly built short-term/long-term CDI comprehensively considered three natural forms of drought (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural by selection of different variables that are related to each drought type. The short-term/long-term CDI was developed using the Principle Component Analysis of related drought components. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDI was investigated against the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index, and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, and persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition and the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  11. Development of a benthic diatom index of biotic integrity (BD-IBI) for ecosystem health assessment of human dominant subtropical rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiang; Ma, Peiming; Bunn, Stuart E; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-03-15

    As efforts intensify to address the issues of declining water quality and biodiversity losses in freshwater ecosystems, there have been great demands for effective methods of evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. In this study, benthic algae assemblages and water quality variables were analyzed to develop a benthic diatom-based index of biotic integrity (BD-IBI) for assessment of the aquatic environment in the upper Han River (China). Through the use of multivariate and multimetric approaches, four metrics - % prostrate individuals, % Amphora individuals, % polysaprob species, and diatom-based eutrophication/pollution index (EPI-D) - were identified from 98 candidate metrics to develop a BD-IBI. Application of the index revealed that water quality in 11% of the 31 sampled sites could be described as excellent condition, in 43% of the sites it could be described as good condition, in 25% as moderate condition, and in 21% as poor condition. The assessment further revealed that the main reason for degradation of the Han river ecosystem was nutrient enrichment through agricultural land use.

  12. Assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound on effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.Methods:A total of 78 cases of ovarian cancer patients receiving treatment in our hospital from September 2012 to May 2014 were included for study, all patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and before and after treatment, transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound (TVCDU) was used to record resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI), the expression levels of serum tumor markers, illness-related indicators and apoptosis-related factors in circulating blood were detected, and the correlation between TVCDU monitoring indexes and ovarian cancer-related indicators was further analyzed.Results: PI value (1.13±0.12) and RI value (0.65±0.05) of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were significantly higher than PI value (0.72±0.06) and RI value (0.32±0.03) of ovarian cancer patients before treatment; serum HE4, CA153, CA125 and毬-HCG levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; serum MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL and Hpa levels of ovarian cancer patients after treatment were lower than those before treatment; after ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2 gene expression levels were lower than those before treatment; RI and PI values of ovarian cancer patients were inversely proportional to the expression levels of HE4, CA153, CA125,毬-HCG, MSLN, CCL-18, FS, CL, Hpa, ADM, HIF-1毩, PCNA and bcl-2. Conclusion:Blood flow velocity and resistance index detection by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound can be used as a highly efficient means to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and it has positive significance in judging disease severity, guiding treatment and other aspects.

  13. Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don; Chang, Nam Ik; An, Kwang-Guk

    2007-09-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests and ecosystem health assessments, based on test guidelines of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and index of biological integrity (IBI), were conducted on various streams located in Youngsan River watershed, Korea. The WET tests showed that about 33 and 82% of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exhibited significant toxicity to Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum, respectively. Small WWTPs with low discharge volumes contributed less than 1% to the total stream toxicity. Fish community compositions and trophic guild analysis showed that the diversity index was greater in the control than in impacted streams, and the proportion of omnivore species was less in the control. Also, ecosystem health assessments, based on the IBI, showed distinct differences between the control and impacted sites of WWTPs. Model values of the IBI, based on 12 stream data sets, averaged 28, which is judged as a fair to poor condition according to the U.S. EPA criteria. The mean IBI in the control sites was 42, indicating good stream condition, whereas the impacted sites was scored 21, indicating poor condition. Overall, WET tests and ecosystem health assessments suggested the WWTP effluents had evident toxic effects on the biota, and impacted the species compositions and trophic guilds, resulting in degradation of the stream ecosystem health.

  14. Workplace stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors among female physicians: assessment using the Occupational Stress Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Nedic, Olesja

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between work stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors (LRCRF): smoking, obesity, sedentariness and alcohol consumption, among 112 female physicians in Novi Sad, a region of high LRCRF prevalence. The participation rate was 92.6%. Participants completed the physician-specific version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI). Self-reported data concerning LRCRF and working conditions were cross-validated with medical records, as well as with worksite measurements and expert observations. A total of 35 (31.3%) of the physicians were current smokers and 10 (8.9%) were heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day); 23 (20.5%) had a body mass index (BMI) of 28 or more, and 11 (9.8%) were obese (BMI> or =30). Only 27 (24.1%) regularly engaged in recreational physical activity (PA). Slightly over 5% consumed alcohol daily. Altogether 15 (13.4%) had a low lifestyle-related cancer risk profile (not a current smoker, BMIobesity and/or sedentariness) and problems hampering patient care (smoking). There is an urgent need to lower the LRCRF among female physicians in this high risk region. Our findings suggest that diminishing the work stressor burden should be considered when developing intervention strategies aimed at these risk factors.

  15. Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

  16. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D. L.; Wilson, J. G.; Harris, C. R.; Jeffrey, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    Most estuaries receive a high heavy-metal input from industries. This is reflected in the relatively high levels found in numerous estuarine organisms and in sediments. Many indicators have been suggested for facilitating the detection of heavy-metal pollution, but the problems in using these indicators to evaluate the metal loading of estuaries are considerable. Variations in species composition, and conditions at different sites, differences in season of sampling, and age of organism, as well as different metal levels in different parts of the organism, make the interpretation of results difficult. The levels reported here, similar to those in other unpolluted estuaries, have been used to suggest a baseline concentration for heavy metals in estuaries. The concept of a baseline is fundamental to the formation of a “Biological Quality Index” and “Pollution Load Index,” and a formula for such an index is suggested and tested at a preliminary level against published data for an English and a European estuary.

  17. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  18. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Comment on ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Thomas; Magee, Darrin

    2017-03-01

    In their article ‘An index-based framework for assessing patterns and trends in river fragmentation and flow regulation by global dams at multiple scales’ (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 015001), Grill et al utilized a graph-based river routing model to simultaneously assess flow regulation and fragmentation by dams at multiple scales. Using global dam data they developed the river fragmentation index and the river regulation index, both based on river volume. Their results indicate that, on a global basis, 48% of river volume is moderately to severely impacted by either flow regulation, fragmentation, or both. Assuming completion of all dams planned and under construction in their future scenario, Grill et al find this number would rise to 93%, an effect they attribute largely to dam construction in the Amazon Basin. They also provide evidence for the importance of considering small- to medium-sized dams. We find this approach interesting and the analysis straightforward, but in this response note some limitations to the Asia-specific data on which the analysis is based. China and India are not only the two most populous countries, but are home to the vast majority of the world’s largest dams and reservoirs, numbers which will rapidly increase in the future. Grill et al however, limit their modeling and subsequent basin assessment (flow regulation and river fragmentation) to less than ten percent of existing and forthcoming dams in those two countries. While we suspect this is due to data limitations, it results in what we feel are significant misinterpretations of the future of dams and rivers across much of Asia.

  20. 海堤安全评价指标体系的构建及应用%Establishment and application of index system for seawall safety assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婕; 龚政; 陈永平; 陆倩; 李江夏

    2016-01-01

    针对海堤破坏的特点,从漫堤、溃堤两方面入手,归纳各破坏形式下海堤安全的主要影响因素,运用层次分析法建立海堤安全风险评估指标体系。结合我国海堤工程的设计特点,依据SL 435—2008《海堤工程设计规范》,采用模糊数学中求解隶属度的方法对指标进行量化,并将海堤安全风险评估指标体系应用于浙江台州某海堤堤段,对该堤段的漫堤、溃堤风险分别作出评价。结果表明:研究堤段满足50年一遇的设计标准;所构建海堤安全评价指标体系可用于海堤的漫堤及溃堤风险评估。%Based on the characteristics of seawall failure, main factors threatening seawall safety are summarized in terms of the two forms of failure, overtopping and breaches. An index system for seawall safety assessment was established based on the analytic hierarchy process ( AHP) . Based on features of seawall design in China, the membership degree method from fuzzy mathematics was used to quantify every index according to the Code for Design of Sea Dike Project (SL 435—2008). The index system for seawall safety assessment was applied to a seawall in Taizhou, in Zhejiang Province, in order to assess the risks of overtopping and breaches. The results show that this seawall meets the design requirements for a return period of 50 years. The established index system for seawall safety assessment can be used to investigate the risks of overtopping and breaches of other seawalls.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THYROID FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH BETA - THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND ITS CORRELATION WITH SERUM FERRITIN AND TRANSFUSION INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Beta - thalassemia syndromes are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by reduced or absent beta globin chain synthesis , resulting in transfusion dependent severe anemia , leading to iron overload , resulting in hypothyroidism as the most common endocrine problem. OBJECTIVE : There is lack of information about frequency of hypothyroidism in thalassemic patients in ce ntral part of India , so this was undertaken to determine the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients suffering from homozygous ß - thalassemia and to study its correlation with serum ferritin and transfusion index. METHOD : This descriptive study included 60 diagnosed thalassemia major patients aged 2 - 18 years. Demographic data as well as history of blood transfusion , from which transfusion index was estimated , was taken. Serum total T3 , T4 and TSH by sandwich ELISA method using Eliscan kit , serum ferritin lev el by sandwich ELISA method using Accu - bind kit were measured from fasting blood sample. Hypothyroidism was defined by a TSH level >6.4μIU/ml. RESULTS: Study of the thyroid panel among all 60 patients showed a mean TSH level of 4.65±2.41 μIU/ml. Mean total T3 and total T4 levels were 1.35±0.48 ng/ml and 7.4±1.93 μg/dl respectively. Mean serum ferritin level was 557.25±198.66 ng/dl. Hypothyroidism was detected in 14 (23.33% out of 60 β thalassemia patients. Out of these , compensated hypothyroid (normal T3 a nd T4 with raised TSH was seen in 9 patients (15% and decompensated hypothyroid (Decrease T3 or T4 and Raised TSH was seen in 5 patients (8.33%. There was significant positive correlation of TSH levels with serum ferritin levels , age and transfusion in dex. However total T3 and total T4 did not show any correlation with serum ferritin levels , age or transfusion index. CONCLUSION : Hypothyroidism , are more common in second decade of life. Early recognition and hence prevention of these complications will d efinitely help to

  2. Assessing the heat stress of brick-manufacturing units’ workers based on WBGT index in Qom city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hajizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat stress is considered as a serious risk factor to the health and safety of workers in most working environments, especially in outdoor works and jobs that workers are exposed to heat due to the working process. This study aimed to evaluate heat stress among workers of brick-manufacturing units in Qom city based on WBGT index as well as the relationship between WBGT and physiological indicators. .Material and Method: The present study was conducted in 40 brick-manufacturing units in Qom city. WBGT measurements were performed according to ISO7243 standard. Physiological responses of 184 workers (up to 5 people per unit and also atmospheric parameters were measured. The physiological responses included oral temperature, skin temperature, and temperature for the carotid artery of the ear, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 16. .Result: Mean WBGT index for various brick-manufacturing jobs including firing, manual material handling, working with conveyors, molding, and tempering were 30.8 °C, 26.74 °C 26.58 °C and 24.25 °C, respectively and the average WBGT was estimated 27.98 °C. WBGT levels measured in all units exceeded the level provided in ISO7243 standard. The highest mean WBGT was belonged to kiln section (30.8 °C. The mean WBGT at three heights of head, abdomen and legs were not statistically different (using t-test. The correlation coefficients between mean WBGT and mean oral, skin and ears temperatures were 0.203, 0.319, and 0.490, respectively, with the highest correlation belonged to the carotid arteries of ears. Moreover, WBGT showed no significant association with the mean heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (P-value>0.05. Indoor and outdoor WBGT index was significantly different (P-value<0.05. .Conclusion: The level of heat stress in all brick-manufacturing units was higher than the recommended limits, and the workers in kiln

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  4. Distribution of the h-index in radiation oncology conforms to a variation of power law: implications for assessing academic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Matthew R; Holliday, Emma B; Fuller, Clifton D; Choi, Mehee; Thomas, Charles R

    2012-06-01

    Leaders of academic institutions evaluate academic productivity when deciding to hire, promote, or award resources. This study examined the distribution of the h-index, an assessment of academic standing, among radiation oncologists. The authors collected h-indices for 826 US academic radiation oncologists from a commercial bibliographic database (SCOPUS, Elsevier B.V., NL). Then, logarithmic transformation was performed on h-indices and ranked h-indices, and results were compared to estimates of a power law distribution. The h-index frequency distribution conformed to both the log-linear variation of a power law (r (2) = .99) and the beta distribution with the same fitting exponents as previously described in a power law analysis of the productivity of neurosurgeons. Within radiation oncology, as in neurosurgery, there are exceedingly more faculty with an h-index of 1-2. The distribution fitting the same variation of a power law within two fields suggests applicability to other areas of academia.

  5. Applicability of Community Periodontal Index Teeth and Random Half-mouth Examination to Gingival Bleeding Assessment in Untreated Adult Population in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether Community Periodontal Index (CPI) teeth and random half-mouth methods are representative of full-mouth method in gingival bleeding examination.Methods Data from 1000 untreated adults (age > 18) collected in Beijing from January 2000 to January 2001 were utilized in the analysis.Half of the subjects were examined by Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and the other half by Sulcus Bleeding Index (SBI).The data were sorted out and calculated according to CPI teeth and random half-mouth teeth methods.The results of the 2 methods were separately compared with those of full-mouth examination.Results There was a significant difference between CPI teeth method and full-mouth examination (P<0.05) in both GBI and SBI.In contrast,compared with full-mouth examination,significant difference was not observed in diagonal or ipsilateral half-mouth results in SBI (P>0.05),nor in diagonal half-mouth results in GBI (P>0.05)Conclusions The results of CPI teeth method on gingival bleeding could not reflect the full-mouth situation.Ipsilateral and diagonal half-mouth results can serve as a substitute for full-mouth results in SBI,while diagonal half-mouth results in GBI.

  6. Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs from Farm to Slaughter - Based on Expert Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S;

    2017-01-01

    by aggregating 25 primarily animal-based measurements based on 38 experts opinion on inter-measurement and inter-stage weights. AWIs were calculated on animal level as the weighted sums of prevalence of the measurements, and were calculated for each of the six stages: pick-up pen, loading, transport, unloading......, lairage and race (AWIStage) and across the stages (AWIOverall). The AWIs were tested in 5 farms including a total of 45 fattening pigs delivered to two Danish abattoirs. Possible inter-relations between the AWI and heart rate measurements were examined. For each welfare measurement within stage......, this work has suggested a potential model for the aggregation of animal welfare measurements into animal welfare indexes for slaughter pigs on the day of slaughter. Further validation may allow simple comparison of the level of welfare between lorries, days, abattoirs etc. and may be used for future...

  7. Labels Impact Index (LII: an Italian version of a tool to assess the impact of advertisement on tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Labels Impact Index (LII score is a tool to evaluate the impact of health warnings of tobacco products. This score was tested in France, Germany, the Netherlands and UK to measure the effectiveness of the text-only health warnings. The present study aims to propose an Italian version of this tool to support future researches on the health warning and to facilitate the comparison using the same questions. Four items are translated in Italian: salience, harm, quitting and forgo. The questionnaire includes one question for each item and a multiple-choice answer, to correspond a four/five-point scales, is available for each question. The LII score can vary from 0 to 28. An international standardized tool, as the LII score, is fundamental to compare the impact of health warnings in different countries and to enforce policies to oppose the tobacco epidemic.

  8. Oxidative stress index (OSi) as a new tool to assess redox status in dairy cattle during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a key role in the initiation or progression of numerous diseases, and dairy cows undergo OS at the transition period. However, discrepancies between methodologies make it difficult to make comparisons between studies, and therefore research on this topic may not be implemented in farms. This study aims to test under field conditions the use of an oxidative stress index (OSi) as a combined measurement through a ratio between pro-oxidants and antioxidants throughout the transition period in dairy farms. Serum samples of high-yielding dairy cows were taken, and markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) late lactation (LL; -2 to -1 months); (ii) prepartum (PrP; -1 month until parturition); (iii) postpartum (PsP; delivery to +1 month); and (iv) peak of lactation (PkL; +1 to +2.5 months). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (CTR, 4th to 5th month of gestation). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature that discusses the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers (and the OS index) for cows with low metabolic demands, as to date most research in this area has focused on the transition period. With the joint evaluation through the OSi, differences were found that were not present with the separate evaluation of pro-oxidants or antioxidants, thus supporting our hypothesis that the OSi indicates more accurately the oxidative status of the animals. It was also confirmed that dairy cows undergo OS after parturition, and that antioxidant supplementation from 1 month before parturition until the peak of lactation may be needed to reduce the risk of OS.

  9. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  10. Index-Based Assessment of Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow Phenomena in a Distribution Feeder Under High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Salehi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    -based methodology for assessing the impact of high solar PV generation, considering the reverse power flow and voltage rise phenomena. Indices are defined that link these two phenomena and their impact on the voltage profile across the feeder. This assessment relies on detailed modeling of the network and the solar...... modified and assessed for voltage rise due to reverse power flow and compared before and after applying the proposed methodology....... are used to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed indices. This paper derives the acceptable range of the proposed indices and safe margin, which have been compared with the basic active power curtailment method with no constraint, in order to avoid voltage rise. The IEEE 69-bus network is also...

  11. Application of the soil-ecological multiplicative index to assess suitability of Cis-Ural chernozems for cultivation with due account for economic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levykin, S. V.; Chibilev, A. A.; Kazachkov, G. V.; Petrishchev, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of Russian concepts concerning the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in relation to several campaigns on large-scale plowing of virgin steppe soils is examined. The major problems of agricultural land use in steppe areas—preservation of rainfed farming in the regions with increasing climatic risks, underestimation of the potential of arable lands in land cadaster assessments, and much lower factual yields in comparison with potential yields—are considered. It is suggested that the assessments of arable lands should be performed on the basis of the soil-ecological index (SEI) developed by I. Karmanov with further conversion of SEI values into nominal monetary values. Under conditions of land reforms and economic reforms, it is important to determine suitability of steppe chernozems for plowing and economic feasibility of their use for crop growing in dependence on macroeconomic parameters. This should support decisions on optimization of land use in the steppe zone on the basis of the principles suggested by V. Dokuchaev. The developed approach for assessing soil suitability for cultivation was tested in the subzone of herbaceous-fescue-feather grass steppes in the Cis-Ural part of Orenburg oblast and used for the assessment of soil suitability for cultivation in the southern and southeastern regions of Orenburg oblast.

  12. Analysis and assessment of the nutrients, biochemical indexes and heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Li, Yi; Cheng, Qingyuan; Yu, Mingxia; Hu, Bo; Wang, Zhigang; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir, the world's largest hydropower project, has operated stably for more than five years. To understand its water quality status, the nutrient and biochemical indexes, the total nitrogen (TN), the total phosphorus (TP), the potassium permanganate index (CODMn), the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and fecal coliform (F. coli), as well as the heavy metals (Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Zn and Pb) of samples collected from 10 sites during the time period of 2008-2013 were studied via using multiple analysis approaches. For each parameter, pictures of the spatial and temporal distributions were presented, and the reasons behind their variation trends were elaborated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the types of pollution. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI) was calculated to concisely mark the water quality. In addition, a human health risk assessment of the heavy metals in a representative site was conducted. The results showed that the water quality state in the Three Gorges Reservoir was intricate but stable and acceptable from 2008 to 2013. The TN, TP and Pb were considered to be the key pollution indexes. Enforcements to alleviate industrial and urban pollution, along with ship management, have worked. The decrease in heavy metal concentrations from upstream to downstream was associated with the self-purification of the reservoir. However, rural pollution became worse in those years. Improper agricultural activity was an important reason for this trend. For local residents, drinking water was generally safe, but cancer caused by As and Pb is a potential issue.

  13. Gaze behavior nonlinear dynamics assessed in virtual immersion as a diagnostic index of sexual deviancy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Bradford

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results about the use of virtual characters, penile plethysmography and gaze behaviour dynamics to assess deviant sexual preferences. Pedophile patients' responses are compared to those of non-deviant subjects while they were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features.

  14. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; P<0.00001; I²=61%, 95% CI 20% to 81%), cardiovascular disease (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81; P<0.00001; I²=45%, 95% CI 13% to 66%), cancer (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88; P<0.00001; I²=77%, 95% CI 68% to 84%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.00001; I²=74%, 95% CI 52% to 86%). Differences observed for neurodegenerative diseases were not significant. Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias. Diets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance.

  15. Mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment characteristics and the index system%矿山遥感监测评估特点与指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周进生; 牛建英; 张旭; 于艳蕊

    2014-01-01

    矿山遥感监测评估是通过遥感监测手段获得对矿产资源开发利用状况、矿山环境和矿产资源规划执行情况的评判,为改进矿产资源规划、整顿矿业秩序、治理矿山环境等提供依据。根据矿山遥感监测实施效果评估的对象多、内容多、应用面广及难度大等特点,提出了矿产资源监管效果、效率和效益3个一级指标,9个二级指标的评估体系,并根据实验性评估结论提出简化指标体系、侧重连续监测区动态评估等建议。%Remote sensing monitoring is used by mine remote sensing monitoring and assessment so as to understand the situation of mineral resources development, mining environment and evaluate mineral resource planning implementation, thus providing the basis for mineral resources planning, mining order rectifying and mine environment governing. The authors analyzed the situation of evaluating the implementation effect of the mine remote sensing monitoring, which is characterized by numerous objects and contents, wide applications and considerable difficulties. In view of such a complex situation, this paper puts forward the index evaluation system for the mineral resources monitoring result, benefit and efficiency, which consists of three primary and nine secondary indexes. According to the experimental evaluation conclusion, some constructive suggestions, such as simplification of the index system and emphasis on the dynamic assessment of continuous monitoring area, have been put forward in this paper.

  16. 大型油罐区火灾风险严重度指数评价%Fire risk severity index assessment of large oil tank farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任常兴; 李晋; 王婕; 毛星; 张欣; 王璐

    2012-01-01

    Against the high fire risk and extinguishing difficulty of large oil tank farm, the typical fire accident scenarios and accident frequency were analyzed and identified, and fire risk severity index was introduced to assess the relative fire risk level and rank. Moreover, estimation methods of specific risk severity index for pool-fire, tank-fire and VCE (vapor cloud explosion) were illustrated and described, and the example was assessed. This research provided a basis for oil storage tank area planning, management, accident prevention and emergency rescue.%针对大型油罐区火灾风险高、扑救难度大的特点,分析典型火灾事故场景及发生频率,引入火灾风险严重度指数来评价罐区火灾风险的相对影响水平和等级,给出池火、油罐火和蒸气云爆炸场景的火灾风险严重度指数评价方法,并以实例剖析.该研究可为大型油罐区火灾风险防范、消防规划和应急救援提供依据.

  17. Fire disaster assessment index system of city public building%城市公共建筑物火灾评估指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆路; 李霖; 李萍

    2012-01-01

    针对城市公共建筑的特点,确定影响因素的判别原则,给出城市公共建筑物火灾发生的影响因素,基于系统评价的方法,运用解释结构模型,对城市公共建筑物火灾发生的影响因素进行分层处理,构建立城市公共建筑物火灾评估指标体系,并简要分析其指标体系,旨在为城市公共建筑物火灾的定量化评估奠定基础.%Relying on the characteristics of urban public buildings, determine discrimination principle of the influencing factors, give the fire risk factors of the city's public buildings. Based on the systematic reviews methods, and use the Interpretive Structural Model, stratify the fire disaster risk factors of the city's public buildings, initially establish a Fire Disaster Assessment Index System of City Public Building, and make a brief analysis of the index system, in order to lay the foundation for the quantitative assessment of city public building's fire disaster.

  18. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  19. Speech Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, R.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Blanken, H.M.; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the automatic extraction of information from the speech in multimedia documents. This approach is often referred to as speech indexing and it can be regarded as a subfield of audio indexing that also incorporates for example the analysis of music and sounds. If the objecti

  20. A provisional fish index of biotic integrity for assessing Ouachita Mountains streams in Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, Daniel C; Jackson, John R

    2004-02-01

    Multimetric indices are often used to monitor aquatic-resource conditions. We used existing fish-collection data from streams to develop an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), which is a multimetric index, for the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion in Arkansas, U.S.A. Each fish-collection site was categorized as reference or non-reference. We examined 62 candidate IBI metrics, and selected 12 non-redundant metrics that differentiated best between reference and non-reference sites. The selected metrics were: Percent (of individuals) as Black Bass; Percent as Benthic Feeders; Percent as Centrarchids; Percent as Cyprinids; Percent as Ictalurids; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep Spawners; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Percent as Simple, Mineral Substrate Spawners; Percent as Miscellaneous, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Total Number of Centrarchid Species; Total Number of Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Ouachita Mountains Indicator Species; and Total Number of ADEQ Ouachita Mountains Key Species. We standardized each metric to score from 0 to 10 by using linear equations and threshold limits. Some selected IBI metrics had their scoring criteria adjusted to account for watershed size (i.e., stream size). We standardized the IBI to score from 0 to 100. In addition, we determined that our Percent as Black Bass and Percent as Benthic Feeders metrics contributed most to IBI scores in reference conditions, but their contributions decreased with decreasing stream conditions. Reproductive metrics contributed most in degraded stream conditions. Furthermore, we identified relations between IBI metrics and water-quality and land-use variables; some relations were counterintuitive. Unexpected relations may be random observations explained by limited ranges of land-use and water-quality variables. When select water-quality and land-use variables were included in a principal component analysis, a composite Land Use Intensity variable explained

  1. Microcirculatory significance of periprocedural myocardial necrosis after percutaneous coronary intervention assessed by the index of microcirculatory resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiming; Ye, Fei; You, Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Xie, Dujiang; Chen, Shaoliang

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and periprocedural myocardial necrosis in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Fifty-seven UAP patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a single lesion were recruited. A pressure-temperature sensor wire was used to measure IMR immediately after PCI. Total creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I (TNI) were measured every 8 h after PCI until they began to decline. Of the 57 patients studied, 22 had periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) according to TNI. Post-PCI IMR >31 U had 86% sensitivity and 91% specificity for predicting periprocedural MI. There are a strong positive correlation between IMR and peak TNI (r = 0.805, p = 0.001), and a moderate positive correlation between IMR and peak CK-MB (r = 0.608, p = 0.003). Periprocedural myocardial injury, even in small area, during reperfusion is associated with impaired microcirculatory integrity as evaluated by IMR. Post-PCI IMR is independent predictive of developing periprocedural MI in patients with UAP, and, therefore, potentially enables a triage of higher risk patients to more intensive therapy.

  2. The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Shane; Nowell, Cameron J; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Perry, Trent; Batterham, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Toxicological assays measuring mortality are routinely used to describe insecticide response, but sub-lethal exposures to insecticides can select for resistance and yield additional biological information describing the ways in which an insecticide impacts the insect. Here we present the Wiggle Index (WI), a high-throughput method to quantify insecticide response by measuring the reduction in motility during sub-lethal exposures in larvae of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. A susceptible wild type strain was exposed to the insecticides chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, spinosad, and ivermectin. Each insecticide reduced larval motility, but response times and profiles differed among insecticides. Two sets of target site mutants previously identified in mortality studies on the basis of imidacloprid or spinosad resistance phenotypes were tested. In each case the resistant mutant responded significantly less than the control. The WI was also able to detect a spinosad response in the absence of the primary spinosad target site. This response was not detected in mortality assays suggesting that spinosad, like many other insecticides, may have secondary targets affecting behaviour. The ability of the WI to detect changes in insecticide metabolism was confirmed by overexpressing the imidacloprid metabolizing Cyp6g1 gene in digestive tissues or the central nervous system. The data presented here validate the WI as an inexpensive, generic, sub-lethal assay that can complement information gained from mortality assays, extending our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide response in D. melanogaster.

  3. The Wiggle Index: An Open Source Bioassay to Assess Sub-Lethal Insecticide Response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Denecke

    Full Text Available Toxicological assays measuring mortality are routinely used to describe insecticide response, but sub-lethal exposures to insecticides can select for resistance and yield additional biological information describing the ways in which an insecticide impacts the insect. Here we present the Wiggle Index (WI, a high-throughput method to quantify insecticide response by measuring the reduction in motility during sub-lethal exposures in larvae of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. A susceptible wild type strain was exposed to the insecticides chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, spinosad, and ivermectin. Each insecticide reduced larval motility, but response times and profiles differed among insecticides. Two sets of target site mutants previously identified in mortality studies on the basis of imidacloprid or spinosad resistance phenotypes were tested. In each case the resistant mutant responded significantly less than the control. The WI was also able to detect a spinosad response in the absence of the primary spinosad target site. This response was not detected in mortality assays suggesting that spinosad, like many other insecticides, may have secondary targets affecting behaviour. The ability of the WI to detect changes in insecticide metabolism was confirmed by overexpressing the imidacloprid metabolizing Cyp6g1 gene in digestive tissues or the central nervous system. The data presented here validate the WI as an inexpensive, generic, sub-lethal assay that can complement information gained from mortality assays, extending our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide response in D. melanogaster.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF WORKLOAD MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF MILKERS IN MECHANICAL MILKING THROUGH THE USE OF JOB STRAIN INDEX METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KU TA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, as a result of the technological development, farming started to include new solution like a machinery or other devices. However, it has also led to the emergence of new risk factors for which agricultural workers are not often well prepared. In fact, moreover to common occupational hazards, farmers can now face specific risk connected with many various tasks performed in farms. Workers in the agricultural sector are exposed to various risk factors such as manual lifting and handling loads, milking or tractor driving. Based on these circumstances the studies were conducted where the main objective was to investigate a workload during milking. The analysis was conducted on 20 farmers in their own farms during the morning and evening milking with the herringbone and carousel milking systems. The analysis of muscle load was conducted with Job Strain Index method. The JSI is a tool used to evaluate the risk level of a job for developing a disorder of the hand, wrist, forearm or elbow. The highest values of muscle tension and force were observed in the forearm muscles during the attachment of teat cups to the udder. The research shows that the milking work in the herringbone parlour generates a higher risk of problems to the musculoskeletal system of the milker.

  5. Assessment of Soil Water Content in Field with Antecedent Precipitation Index and Groundwater Depth in the Yangtze River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-ping; YANG Jing-song

    2013-01-01

    To better understand soil moisture dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and predict its variation in a simple way, a field monitoring experiment was carried out along the north branch of the Yangtze River, where seawater intrusion was strong and salt-water variation is one of the limiting factors of local agriculture. In present paper, relation between antecedent precipitation index (API) and soil water content is studied, and effects of groundwater depth on soil water content was analyzed. A relatively accurate prediction result of soil water content was reached using a neural network model. The impact analysis result showed that the variation of the API was consistent with soil water content and it displayed significant correlations with soil water content in both 20 and 50 cm soil layer, and higher correlation was observed in the layer of 20 cm. Groundwater impact analysis suggested that soil moisture was affected by the depth of groundwater, and was affected more greatly by groundwater at depth of 50 cm than that at 20 cm layer. By introducing API, groundwater depth and temperature together, a BP artificial network model was established to predict soil water content and an acceptable agreement was achieved. The model can be used for supplementing monitoring data of soil water content and predicting soil water content in shallow groundwater areas, and can provide favorable support for the research of water and salt transport in estuary area.

  6. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  7. Assessment of anatomic parameters on lateral cephalogram and body mass index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Mokhtari Amir Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious and life threatening disorder caused by various anatomic and physio-pathologic factors. This study was conducted to clarify some anatomic etiologic factors of OSAS and the role of body mass index (BMI in expression of its symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 127 patients were included. Sixty patients had OSAS symptoms and 67 patients were considered as controls. Cephalometric parameters from lateral skull view of CT scan and BMI of patients were statistically analyzed and compared between two groups. Results: The position of hyoid bone was significantly lower and soft palate was significantly larger in patients with OSAS symptoms than control group. Moreover, mean BMI measurement was significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in addition to apparent role of BMI in OSAS symptoms, increased soft tissue compartment of pharyngeal area and position of hyoid bone are significant etiologic factors in this syndrome.    

  8. Development of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Iwasa PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the health of older people and changes in their lifestyles necessitate a scale that can better measure their competence at a higher level. This study describes the development process of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (JST-IC by (a refining conceptual definitions and developing preliminary items and (b examining the basic properties of the items. Participants were 1,253 septuagenarians (539 men and 714 women living in communities, who were asked to judge whether they were independent via 88 items. To examine the basic properties of the preliminary items, five different analyses were conducted. Thirty-four items were considered as inappropriate (6 overlapped between the analyses: (a 9 due to very high or low ratios of responders who answered “yes,” (b 4 due to gender or regional differences, (c 5 due to their weak association with health status, (d 9 due to low communalities in factor analysis, and (e 13 due to redundancy of meaning with other items. Conceptual definitions and preliminary items were developed, and the basic properties of the items were examined to create the JST-IC. The next step would be to screen the remaining 54 items to create the final version of the scale.

  9. Developing a quantitative index system for assessing sustainable forestry management in Heilongjiang Province, China:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan Yang; Feng-you Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a comprehensive index system for forestry sustainability of Heilongjiang Province, which includes forest resources sustainability, sustainable economic development, sustainable social development and sustainable advancement in science and technology. Based on this system and the regional forest development, we further evaluated the sustainability of Heilongjiang Province for year 2008–2013. The results show that even though the regional forestry has been pre-liminarily on the track of sustainable development, it is fragile. Four indicators, e.g. soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of national investment and the annual carbon sequestration have important impact on the sustainability, with a weight of 39.0%in all the indicators. We also analyzed the factors hindering the sustainable development. It turns out that soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of science and technology funds, per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry production are the main factors hindering regional sustainable devel-opment, which accounts for 50.94% of the total obstacle degrees in the system. At last, we discussed how to pro-mote the regional sustainable development from the perspectives of forest resources sustainability, economic development sustainability, society development sustain-ability and the sustainable advancement of science and technology.

  10. Association between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index and the Level of Personality Organization interview assessment in depressive and anxiety disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Harri; Lindfors, Olavi; Knekt, Paul

    2012-12-30

    The level of personality functioning, relevant for treatment planning, can be evaluated by the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Ego Impairment Index-2 (EII-2) and by interview assessment of the severity of personality pathology. However, few studies on the association between these assessment methods have been reported. This study examines the strength of association between the EII-2 and its subcomponents with the interview-based Level of Personality Organization (LPO) assessment scale, and investigates their mutual associations with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses, and history. Altogether, 315 mood or anxiety disorder outpatients without severe personality pathology were assessed with the LPO and tested with the CS, on which the EII-2 and its subcomponents (FQ-, WSum6, Critical contents, M-, PHR, GHR, and R) were calculated. Significant, but weak association between the EII-2 and the LPO was found. The WSum6, a measure of thought disorder, was the only EII-2 subcomponent significantly associated with the LPO. Both measures were consistently associated with psychiatric symptoms, diagnoses and history. The findings partially support the EII-2 and the LPO as consistently associated, relatively independent measures of the severity of personality pathology. More research on the incremental benefits of the measures is needed in clinical populations, covering non-severe and complex psychopathology.

  11. The assessment of cardiac functions by tissue Doppler-derived myocardial performance index in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavil, Yusuf; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Sen, Nihat; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Hizal, Fatma; Poyraz, Fatih; Turfan, Murat; Onder, Meltem; Gurer, Mehmet Ali; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-03-01

    Vascular involvement is one of the major characteristics of Behcet's disease (BD). However, there are controversial findings regarding cardiac involvement in BD. Although early reports demonstrated that there is diastolic dysfunction in BD, conflicting results were found in the following trials. Hence, a new method for more objectively estimating the cardiac functions is needed. For this aim, we used high-usefulness tissue Doppler echocardiography for detailed analysis of cardiac changes in BD patients because this method was superior to other conventional echocardiographic techniques. The study population included 42 patients with BD (19 men, 23 women; mean age, 35 +/- 10 years, mean disease duration, 2.7 +/- 1.6 years) and 30 healthy subjects (14 men, 16 women; mean age, 38 +/- 7 years). Cardiac functions were determined using echocardiography, comprising standard two-dimensional and conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Peak systolic myocardial velocity at mitral annulus, early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em), late diastolic mitral annular velocity (Am), Em/Am, and myocardial performance index (MPI) were calculated by TDI. The conventional echocardiographic parameters and tissue Doppler measurements were similar between the groups. Tissue Doppler derived mitral relaxation time was longer (75 +/- 13 vs 63 +/- 16 msn, p = 0.021) in patients with BD. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding left ventricular MPI (0.458 +/- 0.072 vs 0.416 +/- 0.068%, p = 0.016), which were calculated from tissue Doppler systolic time intervals. There was also significant correlation between the disease duration and MPI (r = 0.38, p = 0.017). We have demonstrated that tissue Doppler-derived myocardial left ventricular relaxation time and MPI were impaired in BD patients, although systolic and diastolic function parameters were comparable in the patients and controls.

  12. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandrasekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to address the early season agricultur