WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment geothermal energy

  1. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  2. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP)

  5. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  6. Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  7. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  8. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article reviews the development of geothermal energy within the OECD countries. Topics covered include power generation, direct use, hot dry rocks and geothermal heat pumps. The limited exploitation in the UK is also described. (UK)

  9. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with p...

  10. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  11. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect ov

  12. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70oC is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50oC to 70oC, is high. The necessary total investment per MWth installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MWth (3 Mio $/MWth). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MWe. About 15 000 MWth of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  14. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  15. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  16. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To put it simply, geothermal power is the utilization of the earth's natural heat. At many locations around the world, heat from the earth's mantle approaches close to the surface, chiefly in volcanically and or seismically active zones. Magnificent examples include the Big Island of Hawaii, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, Yellowstone, and Mt. St. Helens. Commercially viable sources of geothermal energy exist when the heat is close to the surface, a source of water can act as a heat transfer medium, and a geologic setting exists that contains the heat so it concentrates and doesn't dissipate. In addition, the heat must be adequate to provide temperatures at least above 290 degrees F to take advantage of currently available energy conversion technologies. This paper is directed toward the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation. It describes the industry today, the author's view of the benefits of geothermal power, and some measures that could increase the beneficial use of this power source

  17. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  18. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  19. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Richard, Stephen [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey); Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  20. French low enthalpy geothermal energy, assessment of 10 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of geothermal energy saw a period of great expansion during the 1980's in a particularly favorable economic and energy environment. Some 50 projects were set up, delivering heat to more than 250,000 dwelling equivalents. The financial health of a geothermal project, however, is not immutable, and changes with the variations in a number of parameters such as the price of imported energy, inflation, the interest rate on loans, etc. The purpose of this article is to attempt to measure the consequences of variations in these parameters and to assess the present and foreseeable profitability of operating geothermal projects

  1. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  2. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report, Tasks 1, 3, and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, K.C.

    1996-07-25

    New York State`s geothermal energy potential was evaluated based on a new resource assessment performed by the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY-Buffalo) and currently commercial technologies, many of which have become available since New York`s potential was last evaluated. General background on geothermal energy and technologies was provided. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economics of using geothermal energy to generate electricity in upstate New York. A conventional rankine cycle, binary power system was selected for the economic evaluation, based on SUNY-Buffalo`s resource assessment. Binary power systems are the most technologically suitable for upstate New York`s resources and have the added advantage of being environmentally attractive. Many of the potential environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy are not an issue in binary systems because the geothermal fluids are contained in a closed-loop and used solely to heat a working fluid that is then used to generate the electricity Three power plant sizes were selected based on geologic data supplied by SUNY-Buffalo. The hypothetical power plants were designed as 5 MW modular units and sized at 5 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW. The life-cycle cost analysis suggested that geothermal electricity in upstate New York, using currently commercial technology, will probably cost between 14 and 18 cents per kilowatt-hour.

  3. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Noreddine Ghaffour; Hacene Mahmoudi; Mattheus Goosen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only...

  4. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, Michelle [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  5. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  6. Water desalination using geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. (authors)

  7. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  8. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 1500C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  9. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  10. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  11. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    for geothermal resources have been hindered. To increase the effective regional implementation of geothermal resources as an energy source for power production requires meeting several objectives. These include: 1) Expand (oil and gas as well as geothermal) industry awareness of an untapped source of geothermal energy within deep permeable strata of sedimentary basins; 2) Identify and target specific geographic areas within sedimentary basins where deeper heat sources can be developed; 3) Increase future geothermal field size from 10 km2 to many 100’s km2 or greater; and 4) Increase the productive depth range for economic geothermal energy extraction below the current 4 km limit by converting deep depleted and abandoned gas wells and fields into geothermal energy extraction wells. The first year of the proposed 3-year resource assessment covered an eight county region within the Delaware and Val Verde Basins of West Texas. This project has developed databases in Excel spreadsheet form that list over 8,000 temperature-depth recordings. These recordings come from header information listed on electric well logs recordings from various shallow to deep wells that were drilled for oil and gas exploration and production. The temperature-depth data is uncorrected and thus provides the lower temperature that is be expected to be encountered within the formation associated with the temperature-depth recording. Numerous graphs were developed from the data, all of which suggest that a log-normal solution for the thermal gradient is more descriptive of the data than a linear solution. A discussion of these plots and equations are presented within the narrative. Data was acquired that enable the determination of brine salinity versus brine density with the Permian Basin. A discussion on possible limestone and dolostone thermal conductivity parameters is presented with the purpose of assisting in determining heat flow and reservoir heat content for energy extraction. Subsurface

  12. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  14. Economics of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G.E.; Tester, J.W.; Graves, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    A selected summary is presented of the resource, technical, and financial considerations which influence the economics of geothermal energy in the US. Estimates of resource base and levelized busbar cost of base load power for several types of geothermal resources are compared with similar estimates for more conventional energy resources. Current geothermal electric power plants planned, under construction, and on-line in the US are noted.

  15. Geothermal energy in the United States; Part II, Assessment of resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Geothermal energy-from heat deep inside the Earth- is a vast potential source of power. This article is the second part of a series on geothermal energy, the first part of which was in volume 8, number 1, of the Earthquake Information Bulletin (January-February 1976). Part 1 of this series described the categories of the geothermal resource base. 

  16. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020.

  17. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  18. Geothermal industry assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced

  20. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  1. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  2. Description of Imperial Valley, California for the assessment of impacts of geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.; Ermak, D.

    1976-08-26

    Impending geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California has raised concern over the possible impacts of such development. As an initial step in impact assessment of geothermal projects, relevant features of the valley's physical and human environments are described. Particular attention is placed on features that may either influence development or be affected by it. Major areas of consideration include the valley's physical resources (i.e., land, air, water, and biological resources), economic, fiscal, and social characteristics of Imperial County, and geothermal laws.

  3. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  4. A Sustainability Assessment Protocol for Geothermal Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Shortall, Ruth, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for the use of sustainable energy systems. However, the way in which a geothermal resource is utilized will ultimately determine whether or not it is sustainable. Sustainable utilization of geothermal energy means that it is produced and used in such a way that is compatible with the well-being of future generations and the environment (UNDP, 2000). A measurement and assessment framework is needed for a sustainable energy development strategy, as it can prov...

  5. Geothermal energy program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  6. Geothermal energy in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is a varied discipline that challenges many separate scientific domains. Geological constraints limit access to thermal reservoirs, strength of materials limits the ability to drill into hot strata, mechanical constraints limit the extraction of energy from fluid at a small temperature difference and environmental concerns restrict the fluids production because of the gases released. These problems are all being investigated, and progress is constant and hopeful. The uses of geothermal energy are varied. They range from direct use in space heating to using geothermal steam to power turbines. Ground source heat pumps are a popular alternative to conventional air conditioning systems, and water source heat pumps are another proven alternative. Many other applications are on the horizon, including absorption chillers able to operate at a small temperature difference, higher tonnage ground source equipment and new approaches to hot dry rock power production

  7. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  8. Geothermal Energy Challenge Fund: the Guardbridge Geothermal Technology Project

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R.A.J.; Townsend, P; Steen, P.; Barron, H; Abesser, C.A.; Muschamp, H.; McGrath, I.; Todd, I.

    2016-01-01

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CHALLENGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This feasibility study investigates whether a geothermal district heating system, which accesses Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) resources underlying a brownfield site at Guardbridge in northeast Fife, can be developed in a cost-effective manner. This project’s scope is to assess the available geological information and estimate the hot saline aquifer heat supply, calculate the current heat demand at the Guardbridge site, Guardbrid...

  9. Geothermal energy - a world overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author looks at geothermal energy for district heating, electricity production and industrial processes;and provides data on installed capacity worldwide. He describes how present technology makes it possible to control satisfactorily the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation

  10. Geothermal energy and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal ground waters used for geothermal energy production contain natural radionuclides. The thereby required radiation protection measures during the operation of a geothermal plant and at the disposal of the resulting radioactive residues are described. (orig.)

  11. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  12. Development of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth is a large reservoir of natural heat energy, but the potential has not been explored satisfactorily. It is estimated that 7 km2 of crust contains enough energy to supply 6% of the world's total annual consumption. Geothermal energy production is environmentally safe and its development needs little investment as compared with other conventional energy sources. India has a vast potential for geothermal energy with more than 300 hot springs. There is scope for utilization of geoheat specially for the development of the backward regions of India. The technology has been developed and tested successfully in other countries and it is for India's scientists, technologists and planners to develop appropriate technology to suit local conditions and needs. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  13. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  14. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  15. Geothermal energy systems assessment. - A strategic assessment of technical, environmental, institutional and economic potentials in Central and Eastern European countries. Vol. 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite considerable effort, the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) still face serious environmental problems related to their heating sectors. This is mainly due to the fact that most CEECs continue to rely heavily on conventional and polluting energy sources such as lignite, coal and heavy fuel-oil. However, increasing awareness and interest in converting to renewable and non-traditional energy sources are emerging in the region, strongly encouraged by the international community. Within the CEECs, geothermal energy is considered to be one of the most promising local energy sources. Geothermal water is found in significant quantity underground in the CEECs aspiring to become an important future environmentally friendly energy source for heating purposes. In view of this, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) commissioned Kvistgaard Consult to prepare a strategic study of economic, environmental, technical and institutional potentials of geothermal energy systems in the CEECs. As part of the study, an international workshop was held. An important conclusion from the workshop as well as from the study, is that the CEECs possess highly promising environmental and technical potentials for further development of geothermal energy systems for heating purposes. The study recommends concrete action proposals to be considered by DEPA. Volume 1 is the main report presenting the results of the Geothermal Energy Systems Assessment Project (GESA). (BA)

  16. Geothermal energy – the global opportunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Charlotte; Auld, Alison; Gluyas, Jon; Hogg, Simon Ian

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of geothermal energy offers a consistent and secure low carbon energy supply. Geothermal energy resources are associated with a variety of geological settings, are available at temperatures ranging from a few tens of degrees to several hundred degrees and may be used for the provision of heat, power or both. Their exploration, assessment and exploitation draw from a wide range of techniques. Improvements in deep drilling and energy conversion technologies mean that many countries...

  17. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  18. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  19. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  20. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  1. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  2. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  3. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  4. Environment and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy for space heating, process heat or for the production of electricity is associated with the production of large quantities of hot water or steam from boreholes. Most of it is reinjected into the ground after heat extraction in surface heat exchangers. The demand for such huge water volumes includes the following fundamental environmental risks: - A disturbance of the underground water balance; - Cooling of the subsurface; -Emission of gases and solution of minerals; - Release of heat; - Variation of the landscape. (orig./BWI)

  5. Direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  6. Multipurpose Use of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.; Lund, John W. (eds.)

    1974-10-09

    The conference was organized to review the non-electric, multipurpose uses of geothermal energy in Hungary, Iceland, New Zealand, United States and the USSR. The international viewpoint was presented to provide an interchange of information from countries where non-electric use of geothermal energy has reached practical importance.

  7. Geothermal energy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As most of the alternative power sources, geothermal energy started being considered as a tentative one during the early 1970s. At that time the world's demand for energy was mostly fed by means of petroleum, coal, gas and other primary materials. The low prices of these raw materials at that time and the lack of general consciousness on the environmental contamination problems caused by the combustion processes did not forecast any significant changes for the coming years. However, as from 1973, a constant raise in prices, specially for liquid fuels, started to take place. A few years later, in the early 1980s, a growing interest for nature and for the delicate equilibrium of the ecological and for systems started to awaken. These facts led several countries to re-evaluate their power resources and to reconsider those showing less negative incidence upon the environment. Among such alternatives, geothermal energy introduces certain features that make it highly advisable for developing countries, in addition to the fact that the mean heat reservoirs are located within this group of nations

  8. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  9. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  10. Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of the 'Canton de Vaud', Switzerland; Evaluation du potentiel geothermique du canton de Vaud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J. [Jules Wilhelm, Pully (Switzerland); Bianchetti, G. [ALPGEO, Sierre (Switzerland); Vuataz, F.-D. [University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of the geothermal energy potential in the provincial state of Vaud in western Switzerland. According to the authors the prospect for the three current main technologies: low-temperature surface water, deep hot water springs and advanced geothermal systems, is good. In about 10 years it would be possible to extract some 3.6x10{sup 6} MJ per year from low-temperature surface water while the energy production from deep hot springs could be near to 2x10{sup 4} MJ. Finally, in the forthcoming 20 years the construction of 3 advanced geothermal power plants ('Deep Heat Mining', i.e. the extraction of deep-rock thermal energy by water circulation) could produce about 30 MW electricity in a cogeneration operation mode. Recommendations are given regarding measures needed at the political level to promote geothermal power plants.

  11. Update and assessment of geothermal economic models, geothermal fluid flow and heat distribution models, and geothermal data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    Numerical simulation models and data bases that were developed for DOE as part of a number of geothermal programs have been assessed with respect to their overall stage of development and usefulness. This report combines three separate studies that focus attention upon: (1) economic models related to geothermal energy; (2) physical geothermal system models pertaining to thermal energy and the fluid medium; and (3) geothermal energy data bases. Computerized numerical models pertaining to the economics of extracting and utilizing geothermal energy have been summarized and catalogued with respect to their availability, utility and function. The 19 models that are discussed in detail were developed for use by geothermal operators, public utilities, and lending institutions who require a means to estimate the value of a given resource, total project costs, and the sensitivity of these values to specific variables. A number of the models are capable of economically assessing engineering aspects of geothermal projects. Computerized simulations of heat distribution and fluid flow have been assessed and are presented for ten models. Five of the models are identified as wellbore simulators and five are described as reservoir simulators. Each model is described in terms of its operational characteristics, input, output, and other pertinent attributes. Geothermal energy data bases are reviewed with respect to their current usefulness and availability. Summaries of eight data bases are provided in catalogue format, and an overall comparison of the elements of each data base is included.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  13. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal energy in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, N.

    1984-09-01

    The inventory of geological potentialities for the utilization of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Belgium reveals the lower Cretaceous limestone as an interesting reservoir. This formation, karstic and fractured, is very pervious. The geometry, hydrodynamism, chemistry and water temperature of this formation have been determined for 2 different regions: the Hainaut and the ''Campine anversoise''. In the Hainaut, the first stage, namely urban heating is now under progress; the two other stages are greenhouse heating and sludge heating before biomethanisation. A utilization in series has been planned. In the Campine region, the first well of a demonstration doublet has just been drilled. It will be used for building and greenhouse heating. Another shallower reservoir, situated in a porous chalk formation, is also fairly interesting for an energetic application (swimming-pools, heat pumps heating and biomass).

  15. Opportunities and prospects geothermal energy utilization Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Рожко, Ю. В.; Лимаренко, А. Н.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the estimation of geothermal resources and technical capabilities of achieving energy potential of geothermal energy Ukraine with the release of the most suitable for the development heo-termalnoyi energy regions. Hover data on the use of geothermal energy in Europe for heating and cooling housing, agriculture, tourism, medical treatment. We describe the main characteristics of geothermal Ukraine. Main factors influencing the extraction of geothermal energy. Deals with investme...

  16. Radioactivity and deep geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to recent developments in energy politics renewable energies get more and more importance in Germany. This is especially true for geothermal energy representing a promising option for the environmentally sound and secure generation of heat and electricity. But there are a lot of very emotional discussions due to radioactive residues and wastes produced by a geothermal plant. Thus this paper compares radioactivity resulting from geothermal energy with radioactivity coming from other natural sources. In doing so it becomes obvious that naturally radioactive sources exist in all parts of the ecosphere (i.e. air, water, soil). The paper shows also that the specific activities of radioactive elements from geothermal energy in form of residues and waste emerge from radioactive decay of nuclides and that their radiation is not higher than the radiation of other naturally occurring radioactive elements. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of geothermal energy as a power source for US aluminum reduction plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderlin, W.I.; Blahnik, D.E.; Davis, A.E.; Jacobson, J.J.; Schilling, A.H.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using hydrothermal resources as a primary power source for both existing and future aluminum reduction plants in the United States is explored. Applicable hydrothermal resources that should be considered by the aluminum industry for this purpose were identified and evaluated. This work also identified the major institutional parameters to be considered in developing geothermal energy resources for aluminum industry use. Based on the findings of this study, it appears technically and economically feasible to power existing aluminum reduction plants in the Pacific Northwest using electricity generated at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. It may also be feasible to power existing plants located on the Gulf Coast from Roosevelt Hot Springs, depending on the cost of transmitting the power.

  18. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  19. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  20. Hidden resources - power from geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update of the status of geothermal energy is given. The article presents a case for an increase in the use of environmentally-friendly geothermal energy for generation of electric power: at present, less than 0.25% of the world potential is used. In addition, there is potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. The article explains what is meant by 'geothermal energy,' utilization and production, environmental considerations, and the worldwide potential for geothermal energy

  1. Geothermal energy applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper updates geothermal energy applications in China. To total energy consumption for electricity is 20.38 MWe, and for direct use is 41,222 TJ/yr, even though the beneficial heat was estimated to be 7,198 TJ/yr. The attached tables are the basic geothermal information mainly the years 1985-1989. Some of the tables are additions to the report or preceeding years

  2. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  3. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives

  4. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  5. Geothermal energy - availability - economy - prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat contained in the earth's crust represents an inexhaustible reservoir of energy on the technical scale, which is available at all times of day and at all seasons. In the volcanically active zones, the earth's heat is used industrially: Worldwide, the electrical power of geothermal powerstations is about 5000 MW; in addition, about 10,000 MW are used for direct thermal applications (heating) in regions with normal geothermal conditions. The geothermal power plants have been expanded at an annual rate of 12.2% since 1970. In many developing countries, the geothermal energy is the most important home source of energy for electricity generation. In Europe, in the Paris Basin, hot groundwater is pumped from a depth of about 2 km and is used for heating blocks of flats. In France as a whole, about 170,000 flats have been supplied with heat and hot water from underground for more than a decade. (orig./DG)

  6. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  7. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Geothermal Energy Congress 2012 from 13th to 16th November 2012, in Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Comparison of different methods for the design of geothermal probes on the example of the thermal utilization of smouldering fires at heaps (Sylvia Kuerten); (2) Determination of the thermo-physical features of loose rocks (Johannes Stegner); (3) Tools for the planning and operation of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (4) geo:build - System optimisation of the cooling mode of the ground-source heat and cooling supply (Franziska Bockelmann); (5) Successful and economic conception, planning and optimization of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (6) Treacer / Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir characterized by geological faults in the Upper Rhine Graben (I. Ghergut); (7) Determination of the porosity, thermal conductivity and particle size distribution in selected sections of the Meisenheim-1 drilling core (Saar-Nahe basin, Rheinland-Palatinate) under consideration of geothermally relevant formulation of questions (Gillian Inderwies); (8) Innovative technologies of exploration in the Jemez Geothermal project, New Mexico, USA (Michael Albrecht); (9) Geothermal energy, heat pump and TABS - optimization of planning, operational control and control (Franziska Bockelmann); (10) The impact of large-scale geothermal probes (storage probes) on the heat transfer and heat loss (Christopher Steins); (11) Numeric modelling of the permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben (L. Dohrer); (12) Engineering measurement solutions on quality assurance in the exploitation of geothermal fields (C. Lehr); (13) Evaluation and optimization of official buildings with the near-surface geothermal energy for heating and cooling (Franziska Bockelmann); (14) On-site filtration for a rapid and cost-effective quantification of the particle loading in the thermal water stream (Johannes Birner

  8. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  9. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  10. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  11. Geothermal energy in Denmark. The Committee for Geothermal Energy of the Danish Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish Energy Agency has prepared a report on the Danish geothermal resources and their contribution to the national energy potential.Environmental and socio-economic consequences of geothermal power systems implementation are reviewed. Organizational models and financing of geothermal-seismic research are discussed, and the Committee of the Energy Agency for Geothermal Energy recommends financing of a pilot plant as well as a prompt elucidation of concession/licensing problems. (EG)

  12. Assessment of New Approaches in Geothermal Exploration Decision Making; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, S.; Young, K. R.

    2015-05-11

    This poster describes the findings in a related paper and information gleaned from the project. The aim of the project is to develop a methodology for more objective geothermal decision making, including more solid go/no-go decisions at specific points in the process, and to reduce subjectivity and increase reproducibility in the future.

  13. World status of geothermal energy use: past and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past and potential development of geothermal energy is reviewed, and the use of geothermal energy for power generation and direct heat utilisation is examined. The energy savings that geothermal energy provides in terms of fuel oil and carbon savings are discussed. Worldwide development of geothermal electric power (1940-2000) and direct heat utilisation (1960 to 2000), regional geothermal use in 2000, the national geothermal contributions of geothermal energy, and the installed geothermal electric generating capacities in 2000 are tabulated

  14. Geothermal energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Glassley, William E; Nelson, Vaughn

    2010-01-01

    Historically, cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, use of geothermal energy has been limited to areas where obvious surface features pointed to the presence of a shallow local heat source, such as hot springs and volcanoes. However, recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as modular power generation, home heating, and other applications that can use heat directly. These recent developments have greatly expanded opportunities for utilizing geothermal energy. Reflecting cu

  15. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  16. POLLUTION CONTROL GUIDANCE FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pol...

  17. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  18. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  19. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  20. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  1. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  2. Geothermal energy in France. Market study for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the French national objectives for 2020 related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and given a brief overview of geothermal production in Europe, this report proposes a rather detailed overview of the geothermal market and production in France: evolution of the geothermal production stock, assessment of tonnes equivalent of oil and CO2 emissions, users, turnover, jobs. It addresses the three main geothermal sectors: high energy (boiling geothermal, the Soultz-sous-Forets power station), direct use of heat, and very low energy (heat demand in France, results and regional distribution, market structure, analysis of the price of an installation). The last part addresses the legal and financial framework: status of French law, quality issue, levers for development (purchase tariff, geologic risk, thermal regulation 2012, energy saving certificates, tax credits, and subsidies)

  3. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the

  4. Geothermal Energy in China: Status and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ke; Yang Deming

    2000-01-01

    The application of geothermal energy in China has a long history. From the 70's last century, the research and development of geothermal in the world has been greatly advanced, and the Chinese geologists have finished the fundmental work for geothermal prospecting. The application technology is much behind in china. With the fast growing of national economy, the public, as well as the government recognizes the importance of clean and renewable energy, large scale development of geothermal energy is on the gate in China. This paper gives an outline of the geothermal potentials in china, and points out the problems and technical needs in the research and development in the near future.

  5. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  6. Geothermal energy: a new perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government promoting policy of renewable energies and the recent sharp increase of oil prices may give an opportunity to geothermal energy to develop. A geothermal installation requires heavy investments (60 to 90 millions French francs) but the general energy price is still too low to lure public or private investors, that is why the French government has set a financial help of 400 Euros for each equivalent ton of carbon spared. A pilot plant concerning the thermal tapping of hot dry rocks is planned and will be tested till 2005. EDF has launched a program of promoting heat pumps operating with underground loops where cooling fluid flows in order to recover earth heat. This year about 50 heat pumps will be installed and tested in housing estates. (A.C.)

  7. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  8. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  9. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWth, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  10. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  11. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, R R; Bala Dutt

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the s...

  12. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  13. Geothermal energy. An old-new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy comes from the fusion of earth internal layers and the radioisotope decay. The geothermal zones are bound to tectonic plates and are to be found in volcano recent activity regions or where the earth's crust has become thinner. Geothermal heat sources have been widely used. It's not a renewable energy but a useful one. However geothermics use for electricity production has been only very limited. Present technologies are: direct use, electricity production. The seventies energy crisis promoted geothermal energy use which allows savings. Geothermal energy worldwide resources are extensive but the existing technologies must be improved. When geothermal energy is correctly used, it is renewable and generates no pollution, it is a clean energy because the recent reinjection technologies and the up-to-date geothermal systems exclude the toxic gas leaks towards atmosphere. Geothermal energy represents an important contribution in the developing countries which possess such resources

  14. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  15. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  16. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  17. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  18. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  19. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  20. Supplement to the technical assessment of geoscience-related research for geothermal energy technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    Detailed information (e.g., project title, sponsoring organization, research area, objective status, etc.) is presented for 338 geoscience/geothermal related projects. A summary of the projects conducted by sponsoring organization is presented and an easy reference to obtain detailed information on the number and type of efforts being sponsored is presented. The projects are summarized by research area (e.g., volcanology, fluid inclusions, etc.) and an additional project cross-reference mechanism is also provided. Subsequent to the collection of the project information, a geosciences classification system was developed to categorize each project by research area (e.g., isotope geochemistry, heat flow studies) and by type of research conducted (e.g., theoretical research, modeling/simulation). A series of matrices is included that summarize, on a project-by-project basis, the research area addressed and the type of R and D conducted. In addition, a summary of the total number of projects by research area and R and D type is given.

  1. Environmental Assessment -- Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. Construction-related impacts would be relatively minor. Construction of the facility will require the distance of about 1.7 ha (4.1 acres). No further disturbance is anticipated, unless it becomes necessary to replace the seepage pond with an injection well, because the production well is in service and adjacent roads and transmission lines are adequate. Disruption of competing land uses will be minimal, and loss of wildlife habitat will be acceptable. Noise should not significantly affect wildlife and local residents; the most noise activities (well drilling and flow testing) have been completed. Water use during construction will not be large, and impacts on competing uses are unlikely. Socio-economic impacts will be small because the project will not employ a large number of local residents and few construction workers will need to find local housing.

  2. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  3. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  4. The world situation of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant results in the utilization of geothermal energy can be attributed to the hydrothermal energy. Geothermal energy has been applied for electricity production in the last decade primarily, but also some direct conversion took place. According to the present growth rate of 4 % annually, the expected volume of geothermal power will be 16,000 MW by the year 2020. The direct utilization can be expected to amount to 13 Mtoe fuel saving by the year 2020. Tables showing direct geothermal energy utilization and its conversion to electricity broken down by 14 countries are presented. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  5. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  6. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  7. Geothermal energy - hydrothermal utilisation of geothermal energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this phase of developing and utilisation of geothermal potentials the hydrothermal sector plays a very important role due to its possibilities of supplying heat in the MW-range at any time of day or night or year. The heat is contained in thermal water extracted from depth between 2000 and 2500 m by means of deep drilling. In Germany there are hydrothermal potentials in the South (Rhine Valley) and North. The following article describes the geological, technological and economic aspects of thermal water utilisation for the generation of thermal energy. (orig.)

  8. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Agemar; Josef Weber; Rüdiger Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in souther...

  9. Geothermal energy in Italy and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal systems and fields are analysed giving particular evidence to the value of the geothermal source as an important natural source of energy. The paper analyses hydrothermal systems and describes the international experimental studies on the use of geothermal reservoirs in hot rocks with geopressured and magmatic systems. Experts are optimistic as far as the use of this innovative source of energy is possible in the medium-short term

  10. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  11. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  12. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  13. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  14. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  15. Geothermal energy : settlement and water chemistry in Cork, Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Detailed analysis of potential water chemistry and settlement issues associated with the installation of open-loop geothermal systems is infrequently carried out. This has led to the failure of several previously installed systems. Chemical analysis of water extracted from beneath the Cork docklands, Ireland has been performed by the authors in order to assess the suitability of the area for the exploitation of open-loop geothermal energy. The possibility of settlement induced by pum...

  16. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    Detailed site specific data regarding the commercialization potential of the proven, potential, and inferred geothermal resource areas in Idaho are presented. To assess the potential for geothermal resource development in Idaho, several kinds of data were obtained. These include information regarding institutional procedures for geothermal development, logistical procedures for utilization, energy needs and forecasted demands, and resource data. Area reports, data sheets, and scenarios were prepared that described possible geothermal development at individual sites. In preparing development projections, the objective was to base them on actual market potential, forecasted growth, and known or inferred resource conditions. To the extent possible, power-on-line dates and energy utilization estimates are realistic projections of the first events. Commercialization projections were based on the assumption that an aggressive development program will prove sufficient known and inferred resources to accomplish the projected event. This report is an estimate of probable energy developable under an aggressive exploration program and is considered extremely conservative. (MHR)

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  18. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  19. Geothermal energy - a clean, sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total geothermal resource is much larger than that contained in all the fossil and uranium reserves worldwide. The author explains how the enormous potential of this clean, reliable, energy source is just beginning to be realized with the construction of geothermally powered electrical generating stations, district heating systems, food processing plants and greenhouses throughout the world. (author)

  20. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  1. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Troppe, W. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  2. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  3. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting the decision on effectiveness of conversion of geothermal energy intoelectricity. Given are the review of the research necessary to establish the geothermal potential and assessment oftechnological and economic possibilities of installing geothermal power plants in Slovenia. The paper also describesthe state of knowledge of middle- and high temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia with initial conditions forconstructing geothermal power plants. In addition, we present theoretical calculations of the conversion efficiencyof geothermal energy into electricity with conventional turbines and present some problems for the exploitationof geothermal energy, which are associated with additional costs and further reduce the efficiency of investment.Described are the characteristics and performance of binary geothermal power plants and foreign experience inobtaining electricity from the EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System. We also address the overlapping of the oil andgas industry with the operation of the EGS and the possibility of exploiting oil and gas wells for producing thegeothermal electricity.

  6. Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J.W.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Reed, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.

  7. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  8. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  9. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  10. Geothermal Energy at Oslo Airport Gardermoen

    OpenAIRE

    Huuse, Karine Valle; Moxnes, Vilde

    2012-01-01

    Rock Energy is a Norwegian company with a patented solution for drilling deep geothermal wells, for exploitation of deep geothermal energy from Hot Dry Rocks. The concept involves a drilled sub-surface heat exchanger, referred to as cross wells. The concept is well suited for production of heat for direct heat applications. In this thesis an analysis of the existing district heating plant at Oslo Airport Gardermoen has been conducted, together with examining possibilities of implementing geot...

  11. Technical databook for geothermal energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Igbene, A.; Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H.; Tavana, M.

    1981-06-01

    A critical survey is made of selected basic data on those aqueous solutions needed to model geothermal energy utilization. The data are useful in the design and construction of power plants and for direct use. The result of the survey is given as a current status of data. More emphasis is placed on the viscosity, thermal conductivity and density of sodium chloride solutions up to 350/sup 0/C and 50 MPa. An ideal data book for geothermal energy is described.

  12. Assessment of geothermal development in Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamins, R.M.; Tinning, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed: the district of Puna prior to geothermal development, socioeconomic conditions, alternative modes of geothermal development, social benefits and costs of geothermal development, and geothermal development policy and its direction. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  14. Geothermal energy: option for energy deficient countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is one of the energy deficient countries. Our resources of fossil fuels are limited and cannot be depended upon, as these are not of good quality except natural gas. The latter can be better used for other purposes rather than burning it straightaway. To meet the energy shortfall Pakistan has to make use of alternate sources of energy and consequently the work in this direction needs to be emphasized in Pakistan. Geothermal energy is being utilized in many developed countries. An attempt has been made in this article to increase awareness, introduce the topic and draw attention of scientists and appropriate agencies of the country to probe the potential of this valuable source in Pakistan which lies on the seismic belt. (author)

  15. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  16. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  17. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal energy and heat storage in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewalts, W.P.G.; Geluk, M.C.; Heederik, J.P.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Mourik, G.J. van; Postma, A.D.; Snijders, A.L.; Walter, F.; Willemsen, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the first energy crisis in 1973 various research programmes to do with energy conservation and diversification of energy resources were set up in the Netherlands. A number of these were directed to the rest of the subsoil for the following purposes: - the extraction of geothermal energy from g

  19. Use of geothermal energy for heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    REZNICHENKO, ARTEM

    2014-01-01

    TFG en intercambio académico. Jade Hochschule (Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth) [en] This project makes a study of heat extraction from the soil in order to provide heat to a building. This energy is renewable and clean. Low temperature geothermal energy has very low levels of use. In the last decades, the use of renewable energy is growing exponentially. The biggest part of energy consumption goes to heating systems, that is why the use of geothermal energy can save lots of natural resou...

  20. Susanville geothermal energy project. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1976-08-27

    The follow up on the Susanville geothermal energy project workshop is described. A post-conference survey was conducted and pertinent reports collected. Copies of available pertinent letter reports are included in the appendices. A proposed preliminary draft of a local ordinance structured for the protection of the resource is included in an appendix. The City Council of Susanville adopted a preliminary city of Susanville Geothermal policy. A copy of the objectives, guidelines, and criteria are included.

  1. 2014 JRC Geothermal Energy Status Report

    OpenAIRE

    SIGFUSSON BERGUR; UIHLEIN ANDREAS

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal energy resources have been used by mankind in some form for thousands of years. Depending on the temperature of the resource, it may be used for power production, supply of heat or a combination of both. This report presents the current status of the major technologies to utilize the full temperature range of geothermal resources ranging from shallow and borehole ground source heat pump systems, direct use facilities to power plants deriving their fluids from volcanic systems. Powe...

  2. A landscape ecology approach to assessing development impacts in the tropics: A geothermal energy example in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Trettin, C.C.; O'Neill, R. V.

    2002-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being used in environmental impact assessments (EIA) because GIS is useful for analysing spatial impacts of various development scenarios. Spatially representing these impacts provides another tool for landscape ecology in environmental and geographical investigations by facilitating analysis of the effects of landscape patterns on ecological processes and examining change over time. Landscape ecological principles are applied in this study to a hypothetical geothermal development project on the Island of Hawaii. Some common landscape pattern metrics were used to analyse dispersed versus condensed development scenarios and their effect on landscape pattern. Indices of fragmentation and patch shape did not appreciably change with additional development. The amount of forest to open edge, however, greatly increased with the dispersed development scenario. In addition, landscape metrics showed that a human disturbance had a greater simplifying effect on patch shape and also increased fragmentation than a natural disturbance. The use of these landscape pattern metrics can advance the methodology of applying GIS to EIA.

  3. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Casie L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabe, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-20

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  4. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    . This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  5. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  6. Review of international geothermal activities and assessment of US industry opportunities: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This study was initiated to review and assess international developments in the geothermal energy field and to define business opportunities for the US geothermal industry. The report establishes data bases on the status of worldwide geothermal development and the competitiveness of US industry. Other factors identified include existing legislation, tax incentives, and government institutions or agencies and private sector organizations that promote geothermal exports. Based on the initial search of 177 countries and geographic entities, 71 countries and areas were selected as the most likely targets for the expansion of the geothermal industry internationally. The study then determined to what extent their geothermal resource had been developed, what countries had aided or participated in this development, and what plans existed for future development. Data on the energy, economic, and financial situations were gathered.

  7. Geothermal energy. Ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy can be harnessed in 2 different ways: electricity or heat generation. The combined net electrical geothermal power of the European Union countries reached 719.3 MWe in 2008 (4.8 MW up on 2007) for 868.1 MWe of installed capacity. Gross electrical production contracted slightly in 2008 (down 1% on the 2007 level) and stood at 5809.5 GWh in 2008. Italy has a overwhelming position with a production of 5520.3 GWh. Geothermal heat production concerning aquifers whose temperature is 30-150 C. degrees generally at a depth of 1-3 km is called low- and medium-enthalpy energy. 18 of the 27 EU members use low- and medium-enthalpy energy totaling 2560.0 MWth of installed capacity that yielded 689.2 ktoe in 2008 and 3 countries Hungary, Italy and France totaling 480.3 ktoe. Very low-enthalpy energy concerns the exploitation of shallow geothermal resources using geothermal heat pumps. In 2008, 114452 ground heat pumps were sold in Europe. At the end of 2008, the installed capacity was 8955.4 MWth (16.5% up on 2007 level, it represented 785206 pumps. Over one million ground heat pumps are expected to be operating in 2010 in Europe. (A.C.)

  8. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.

    1975-01-01

    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  9. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  10. A Snapshot of Geothermal Energy Potential and Utilization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Tur...

  11. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 2010C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO3 solutions at 100 to 3000C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  12. Heat pump-based geothermal energy. Technical and economic study. The costs of heat-pump-based geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at identifying the financial basis on which actors of a geothermal project for heating, cooling and hot water production can rely. It also aims at describing the three main technical solutions for very-low-energy geothermal: horizontal sensors, vertical probes, and geothermal doublets on aquifer. After a presentation of the adopted methodology and of the different economic, thermal and technical hypotheses, the respective costs of these technical solutions are assessed and a comparison between these systems and conventional energies is reported. The economic study is performed for different markets: individual housing, collective housing, and office building. Different aspects of each operation are studied: underground works (drilling) and surface equipment (heat pump and support). Investment, maintenance and operational costs are analysed

  13. Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, Bernie [CHSR,LLC Owner

    2013-05-31

    The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.

  14. Innovation versus monopoly: geothermal energy in the West. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, S.L.; Stover, D.F.; Nelson, P.A.; Lamont, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The following subjects are covered: geothermal energy and its use, electric utilities and the climate for geothermal development, the raw fuels industry and geothermal energy, and government and energy. The role of large petroleum companies and large public utilities is emphasized. (MHR)

  15. New energy technologies 3 - Geothermal and biomass energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to two energy sources today in strong development: geothermal energy and biomass fuels. It gives an exhaustive overview of the exploitation of both energy sources. Geothermal energy is presented under its most common aspects. First, the heat pumps which encounter a revival of interest in the present-day context, and the use of geothermal energy in collective space heating applications. Finally, the power generation of geothermal origin for which big projects exist today. The biomass energies are presented through their three complementary aspects which are: the biofuels, in the hypothesis of a substitutes to fossil fuels, the biogas, mainly produced in agricultural-type facilities, and finally the wood-fuel which is an essential part of biomass energy. Content: Forewords; geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy generation, heat pumps, direct heat generation, power generation. Biomass: 2 - biofuels: share of biofuels in the energy context, present and future industries, economic and environmental status of biofuel production industries; 3 - biogas: renewable natural gas, involuntary bio-gases, man-controlled biogas generation, history of methanation, anaerobic digestion facilities or biogas units, biogas uses, stakes of renewable natural gas; 4 - energy generation from wood: overview of wood fuels, principles of wood-energy conversion, wood-fueled thermal energy generators. (J.S.)

  16. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2011, the first geothermal field camp was hold on Java/Indonesia near the city Bandung south of the volcanic field Tangkuban Perahu. The course was organized by the Institut Teknologie Bandung (ITB) and International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR) of the German Centre of Geosciences (GFZ). The purpose of the Geothermal Field Camp is to combine both field based work and laboratory analysis to ultimately better understand the data collected in field and to integrate data gained by various disciplines. The training belongs to a capacity building program for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia and initially aims to train the trainers. In a later stage, the educational personal trained by the Geothermal Field Camp shall be able to hold their individual Geothermal Field Camp. This is of special interest for Indonesia where the multitude of islands hindered a broad uniform education in geothermal energy systems. However, Indonesia hold the largest geothermal potential worldwide and educated personal is necessary to successfully develop this huge potential scattered over region in future. The interdisciplinary and integrative approach combined with field based and laboratory methodologies is the guiding principle of the Geothermal Field Camp. Tangkuban Perahu was selected because this field allows the integration of field based structural geological analysis, observation and sampling of geothermal manifestations as hot springs and sinters and ultimately of structural geology and surface geochemistry. This innovative training introduces in methods used in exploration geology to study both, fault and fracture systems and fluid chemistry to better understand the selective fluid flow along certain fractures and faults. Field geology covered the systematic measurement of faults and fractures, fault plane and fracture population analysis. In addition, field hydro-geochemistry focused on sampling techniques and field measurements onsite. Subsequent data analysis

  17. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  18. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2010-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.

  19. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m2. Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  1. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  2. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  3. Assessment of geothermal development in the Imperial Valley of California. Volume 1. Environment, health, and socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D. (ed.)

    1980-07-01

    Utilization of the Imperial Valley's geothermal resources to support energy production could be hindered if environmental impacts prove to be unacceptable or if geothermal operations are incompatible with agriculture. To address these concerns, an integrated environmental and socioeconomic assessment of energy production in the valley was prepared. The most important impacts examined in the assessment involved air quality changes resulting from emissions of hydrogen sulfide, and increases in the salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waste waters for power plant cooling. The socioeconomics consequences of future geothermal development will generally be beneficial. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longyear, A.B. (ed.)

    1981-12-01

    The potential geothermal direct-use energy market and its application to projects in California are assessed. Project identification effort is to be focused on those that have the highest probability for near-term successful commercial operations. Near-term herein means 2 to 5 years for project implementation. Phase I has been focused on defining and assessing: (1) the geothermal direct-use resources that are suitable for near-term utilization; and (2) the generic applications (municipal heating districts, horticultural greenhouse firms, laundries, etc.) that are suitable for near-term projects. Five economic development regions in the state, containing recognized geothermal direct-use resources, have been defined. Thirty-eight direct use resources have been evaluated in these regions. After assessment against pre-selected criteria, twenty-seven have been rated with a priority of I, II or III, thereby qualifying them for further marketing effort. The five areas with a priority of I are summarized. These areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development. Twenty-nine generic categories of applications were assessed against previously selected criteria to determine their near term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Some twenty industry, commercial and institutional application categories were rated with a priority of I, II or III and warrant further marketing efforts. The seven categories with a priority of I are listed. These categories were found to have the least impediments to near-term application projects.

  5. Geothermal Energy and Biomass Integration in Urban Systems: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moret, Stefano; Gerber, Léda; Amblard, Frédéric; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    Heating, electricity and transportation are the three components of urban systems final energy consumption. Geothermal energy and biomass are two promising renewable energy resources that can be used for the production of heat, electricity and biofuels, thus allowing a reduction of fossil fuel consumption and of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of this paper is to assess the potential for the integration of geothermal energy combined with biomass in the energy system of a cit...

  6. Assessing innovation in emerging energy technologies: Socio-technical dynamics of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study applies a socio-technical systems perspective to explore innovation dynamics of two emerging energy technologies with potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electrical power generation in the United States: carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The goal of the study is to inform sustainability science theory and energy policy deliberations by examining how social and political dynamics are shaping the struggle for resources by these two emerging, not-yet-widely commercializable socio-technical systems. This characterization of socio-technical dynamics of CCS and EGS innovation includes examining the perceived technical, environmental, and financial risks and benefits of each system, as well as the discourses and actor networks through which the competition for resources - particularly public resources - is being waged. CCS and EGS were selected for the study because they vary considerably with respect to their social, technical, and environmental implications and risks, are unproven at scale and uncertain with respect to cost, feasibility, and life-cycle environmental impacts. By assessing the two technologies in parallel, the study highlights important social and political dimensions of energy technology innovation in order to inform theory and suggest new approaches to policy analysis.

  7. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  8. Geothermal energy and radiation protection; Geothermie und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Sven Gilbert; Tachlinski, Stefan [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Bruchsal (Germany). Betriebsstaette Bruchsal

    2013-08-01

    The thermal ground waters used for geothermal energy production contain natural radionuclides. The thereby required radiation protection measures during the operation of a geothermal plant and at the disposal of the resulting radioactive residues are described. (orig.)

  9. Survey and preliminary evaluation of potential geothermal energy applications for Riverside, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.; Schilling, A.H.; Lippek, H.E.

    1978-03-01

    A preliminary assessment of the potential applications for geothermal energy in Riverside, California, was made. This assessment includes both potential electrical and non-electrical applications, and focuses on the following factors: the location of nearby geothermal resources; characteristics of these resources; types of applications suited to each resource; technical and economic feasibility of these applications; the potential impact on the energy demand of each application, and potential deterrents to the utilization of geothermal energy for the most promising application. It is concluded that geothermal energy has a promising potential to supply electricity, space heating and cooling, and process heat to Riverside. There are sufficient geothermal resources within 200 miles to supply the electrical requirements of Riverside for thousands of years. Depending on the particular reservoir involved, this electricity can probably be generated at costs ranging from 1 to 3 times the cost of conventional electric power generation. Over this distance, the additional unit cost for energy transmission should be comparatively small. The geothermal resource at nearby Arrowhead Hot Springs has the potential to supply space heating and cooling and process heat to Riverside for a hundred years. The technology for these non-electric uses is available. The cost of using geothermal energy for these applications is estimated at 1 to 2 times the cost of conventional fuels, depending on the population density of the service area. The most difficult problems in the possible use of geothermal energy in Riverside appear to be institutional difficulties in electric applications.

  10. Potential for Geothermal Energy in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself from kilometers deep into the earth's crust in some places of world. It is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. It is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy originates from the heat retained within the Earth's core since the orginal formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Most high temperature geothermal heat is harvested in regions close to tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity rises up to the surface of the Earth. It is one of the best renewable sources of energy and is capable of maintaining its temperature. The heating cost is very low. It uses less electricity and 75 per cent more efficient than the oil furnace and 48 per cent more efficient than the gas furnace. The energy is not only used for heating a place but also for cooling down the site. It generates uniform energy and creates no sound pollution. Maintenance cost is very cheap. The life of the underground piping is more than 50 year.

  11. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  12. Value distribution assessment of geothermal development in Lake County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchman, C.W.; Nelson, H.G.; Eacret, K.

    1977-10-01

    A value distribution assessment is defined as the determination of the distribution of benefits and costs of a proposed or actual development, with the intent of comparing such a development with alternative plans. Included are not only the social and economic effects, but also people's perceptions of their roles and how they are affected by the proposed or actual development. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: on morality and ethics; the vanishing community; case study of pre-development planning--Lake County; methodology for research; Lake County geothermal energy resource; decision making; Planning Commission hearing; communication examples; benefit tracing; response to issues raised by the report of the State Geothermal Task Force; and, conclusions and recommendations. (JGB)

  13. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  14. State-coupled low temperature geothermal resource assessment program, fiscal year 1982. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, Larry

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from June 15, 1981 through September 30, 1983, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contract DE-AS07-78ID01717). The report is divided into four chapters which correspond to the tasks delineated in the contract. Chapter 5 is a brief summary of the tasks performed under this contract during the period October 1, 1978, through June 30, 1983. This work extends the knowledge of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications in New Mexico. The research effort focused on compiling basic geothermal data throughout selected areas in New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for use with New Mexico geothermal resources maps.

  15. Sustainable Design of Energy Systems - The Case of Geothermal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy resources with a vast potential. It is extended spatially in many areas, isolated from urban areas and direct uses, whereas its utilisation when it is not for electricity production is many times hampered due to lack of a proper development framework. In this work we present a design framework for sustainable geothermal systems incorporating modules covering the various aspects of exploration, utilisation, end-use and management. The overall fr...

  16. Proposal of a consistent framework to integrate geothermal potential classification with energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, G.

    2015-03-01

    The classification of geothermal resources is dependent on the estimate of their corresponding geothermal potential, so adopting a common assessment methodology would greatly benefit operators, investors, government regulators and consumers. Several geothermal classification schemes have been proposed, but, to date, no universally recognised standard exists. This is due to the difficulty in standardising fundamentally different geothermal source and product types. The situation is not helped by the accepted use of inconsistent jargon among the geothermal community. In fact, the term "geothermal potential" is often interpreted differently by different geothermal practitioners. This paper highlights the importance of integrating the classification of geothermal potential with that of geothermal energy extraction from well-defined development projects. A structured progression, from estimates of in situ quantities for a given prospect to actual production, is needed. Employing a unique, unambiguous framework would ensure that the same resource cannot exist simultaneously under different levels of maturity of the estimate (as in double bookings of resources), which would let stakeholders better assess the level of risk involved and the steps needed for a geothermal potential to achieve commercial extraction.

  17. Japan's geothermal energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    In March, 1988, Japan had nine geothermal power plants totaling 215 MW, ranking fifth in the world in terms of total power capacity. Long-term prospects for energy demand and supply show geothermal power supply will reach 2 million kiloliters(crude oil conversion) in fiscal 1995 and 4.4 million kiloliters in fiscal 2000. Although these figures are lower than those in the preceding plan, they mark a great increase from 0.4 million kiloliters in fiscal 1986. The amount of geothermal power available in Japan is about 30 GW(crude oil conversion:60 Glannually)even when limited to that available in a shallow portion to a depth of about 2,000 m below ground level. The projected power capacity is 740 MW in 1996 including the projected Hacchobaru Power Plant No.2 of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Kakkonda Power Plant No.2 of Tohoku Geothermal Energy Co., Ltd. By 1996,500 to 600 MW must be additionally obtained. (tabs 8)

  18. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Notice of the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy... the Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop. SUMMARY: The DOE Geothermal....geothermal.energy.gov . DATES: The Carbon Sequestration--Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop will...

  19. Energy analysis of geothermal-electric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herendeen, R.A.; Plant, R.

    1979-12-01

    Standard energy analysis was applied to 4 types of geothermal-electric technologies: liquid dominated, hot dry rock, geopressure, and vapor dominated. It was found that all are net energy producers. Expected uncertainties are not large enough to threaten this conclusion. Vapor dominated, the only technology in current commercial use to produce electricity in the US, has the highest energy ratio (13 +- 4). These results for energy ratio are equal to or less than some from other workers. In the case of liquid dominated, environmental control technology has a considerable energy requirement.

  20. Innovative approach for risk assessment in green field geothermal project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batini, F.; Wees, J.-D. van

    2010-01-01

    At present, the worldwide geothermal energy production provides less than 1% of the world's energy needs but the geothermal resources confined in the first 6 km of the earth's crust are estimated to be in the fairly above 200 GW of which 50-80 GW are located in Europe. Exploring and developing at la

  1. A study of geothermal drilling and the production of electricity from geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the production of electricity from geothermal energy with particular emphasis on the drilling of geothermal wells. A brief history of the industry, including the influence of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, is given. Demand and supply of electricity in the United States are touched briefly. The results of a number of recent analytical studies of the cost of producing electricity are discussed, as are comparisons of recent power purchase agreements in the state of Nevada. Both the costs of producing electricity from geothermal energy and the costs of drilling geothermal wells are analyzed. The major factors resulting in increased cost of geothermal drilling, when compared to oil and gas drilling, are discussed. A summary of a series of interviews with individuals representing many aspects of the production of electricity from geothermal energy is given in the appendices. Finally, the implications of these studies are given, conclusions are presented, and program recommendations are made.

  2. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  3. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  4. Economic and financial aspects of geothermal energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the historical development of geothermal energy in the Philippines, its present status and future possibilities. It also illustrates the average power generation and utilization from primary energy sources (hydro, oil, coal, and geothermal energy) in the country from 1981 to 1988. A comparison is made between electricity generating costs and results of operations from these power sources, showing that geothermal energy utilization is very competitive. Moreover, it also discusses the economic viability of geothermal energy utilization as a result of separate studies conducted by World Bank and an Italian energy consulting firm

  5. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  6. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  7. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  8. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  9. Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram: DOE Lafourche Crossing No. 1, Terrebonne Parish and Lafourche Parish, Louisiana: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geothermal fluid well for intermittent production testing of 284 days over a three year period. Two disposal wells will initially be drilled to provide disposal of lower volume fluids produced during initial testing. Two additional disposal wells will be drilled, logged, completed, tested, and operated prior to commencement of high volume fluid production. Construction of the proposed action will change the land-use of 2 ha (5 ac) for the test well and each of the injection wells from agriculture or wetlands to resource exploration. Lands will be cleared and erosion and runoff will result. During operation of the well test, the only expected impacts are from venting of gases or flaring of gases and noise. After the tests are completed, the area will be restored as much as possible to its natural condition by revegetation programs using nature species. All sources of pollutants will be collected and disposed in environmentally acceptable ways. Accidents may result from this proposed action.

  10. Geothermal energy environmental problems and control methods: review of recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, V.T.; Caskey, J.F.; Pfundstein, R.T.; Rifkin, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a literature review on the environmental concerns and associated control methods of geothermal energy utilization are presented. The document introduces the environmental problems associated with geothermal energy utilization; assesses the current status of control methods; references appropriate environmental documents; and identifies areas where additional environmental research is needed. The review attempts to consolidate current understanding of the environmental impact of geothermal energy development. Approximately 180 reports written by authors in industry, government and academia have been reviewed in the areas of air emissions, surface and subsurface liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, and induced seismicity.

  11. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  12. Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Younger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex. Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power. Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.

  13. Geothermal energy resource: an alternative to energy source in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogala, J.S. [Nairobi Univ., Faculty of Science, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    Kenya energy potential lies in the use of geothermal resources. Currently the country relies heavily on imported petroleum fuels and biomass. Electricity is derived from hydropower which is currently 570 MW with an additional 30MW imported from Uganda; thermal 136MW and geothermal 45MW. Geothermal potential in Kenya currently stands at 2000MW. Other potential areas include Suswa, Longonot, Menengai, Korosi, Paka, Silai, Emurungogolak, Namarunu, Barrier and Homa Hill. Geothermal exploration is taking place at Olkaria, Eburru and L. Bogoria, all in the Kenya rift valley. Other potential areas include the Nyanza rift. Exploitation of this potential would meet the current and future electricity needs of the country. Geothermal resources is a relatively environmentally friendly source of energy. The technology of production is well developed to minimise gas and water vapour emissions into the atmosphere. For example, at Olkaria Geothermal Station, the production system has a cooling tower where hot water steam mixture is cooled. Only 5% of the water, representing 70% of the condensed steam is lost from the cooling tower through evaporation. The cooled water, at a temperature of 23degC is injected back into the well for the recharge of the steam reservoir. (Author)

  14. MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, W.L.; Pines, H.S.; Silvester, L.F.; Green, M.A.; Williams, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    Various standard geothermal power cycles are modeled and optimized with program GEOTHM. The results are displayed in 3-D isometric form. These graphical plots vividly display the sensitivity of energy cost and other performance criteria as a result of departures from the design operating point. For example, we will present the mutual interaction of energy cost, resource utilization efficiency, and resource temperature as an EC-RUE-RT surface for a range of temperatures between 100 C and 300 C. Calculation results will be presented for subcritical and supercritical binary cycles with several pure fluids, and on two stage flashed steam cycles for practical non-condensable gas levels.

  15. Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)

  16. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  17. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  19. Using Geothermal Energy for Raffine Heating in Copper Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arnar Freyr Sigmundsson 1985

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using geothermal energy for heating raffine (raffinate) solution in the process of copper production. Small-scale experiments have indicated that copper extraction levels can be improved significantly by adding heat to the solution. Two thermal energy sources were considered, namely the cooling water sourced from an adjacent geothermal power plant and low-temperature geothermal brine produced in the vicinity of the mine. These two alternati...

  20. Status in quo and future of geothermal energy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiuhua; Zhao Jun; Du Limeng

    2011-01-01

    Energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction are critical tasks currently, and great effort has been made by Chinese government. Renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions and reduction plan in China are introduced in this paper. Analysis is also made on present status and prospect of geothermal power generation and direct use in China respectively. Now, there is a new understanding of geothermal resources, and hot dry rock, considered as the future of geothermal resources, is likely used to generate electricity.

  1. Geothermal energy from theoretical models to exploration and development

    CERN Document Server

    Stober, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy. This form of energy, known as geothermal energy has been utilized throughout human history in the form of hot water from hot springs. Modern utilization of geothermal energy includes direct use of the heat and its conversion to other forms of energy, mainly electricity. Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy and its use is associated with very little or no CO2-emissions and its importance as an energy source has greatly increased as the effects of climate change become more prominent. Becaus

  2. Geothermal energy in the Dutch province Noord-Holland. Survey of sites for geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of North Holland, the Netherlands, commissioned an outlook on the opportunities for geothermal energy in North Holland. The outlook addresses both the opportunities offered underground and possible locations for heat sales that follow from the regional plans of the province.

  3. Computational methods for planning and evaluating geothermal energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In planning, designing and evaluating a geothermal energy project, a number of technical, economic, social and environmental parameters should be considered. The use of computational methods provides a rigorous analysis improving the decision-making process. This article demonstrates the application of decision-making methods developed in operational research for the optimum exploitation of geothermal resources. Two characteristic problems are considered: (1) the economic evaluation of a geothermal energy project under uncertain conditions using a stochastic analysis approach and (2) the evaluation of alternative exploitation schemes for optimum development of a low enthalpy geothermal field using a multicriteria decision-making procedure. (Author)

  4. Developing Geothermal Energy Research Capabilities at University College Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ireland has one of the highest energy dependencies in Europe and as such must adapt quickly to increase renewable energy exploitation levels in order to secure its energy future. A mix of renewable energy technology types (wind, solar, biomass, wave, tidal, geothermal) will be required in order to achieve Ireland’s national renewable energy generation targets. Geothermal (or ground source) energy can have a part to play in this mix. Over the last number of years the School of Civil, Structura...

  5. Current status and future prospects of geothermal energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is almost 85 years since the advent of geothermal power generation when the first experimental geothermal power plant at Larderello in Italy generated 0.5 kW electricity in 1904. Subsequently, the industrial use of geothermal energy started in 1913 through the development of a 250 kWe power plant also in Italy. Since then the geothermal power generation has been widely developed in the world. This paper reports that the direct use, or multi-purpose use, of geothermal energy as heat source has recorded total 4,500 MWt in 1984 excluding the use of balneology. The direct use is also growing with the growth rate of 8.5% in the period from 1975 to 1984. This growth rate is no so high as that of the geothermal power plant because the cost of the direct use of comparatively higher than other conventional heat sources

  6. Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment for the Geothermal Field Chachimbiro in Ecuador. A Case Comparison with Bjarnarflag Geothermal Field in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas, Mario A., 1979-

    2010-01-01

    The Chachimbiro geothermal area is located on the eastern flank of the Los Andes Western Mountain Range, in the province of Ibarra in Ecuador. This area is one of the many areas that had been investigated for the use of the geothermal steam, since Ecuador is the country with the most geothermal capacity among the countries that have not yet developed this energy. This study tries to determine the possible impacts of the exploration and production of this geothermal field and the implications ...

  7. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  8. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  9. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  10. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  11. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. A listing of the majority of the known hot springs is included. A discussion of present and projected demand is included. The results of the site specific studies are addressed within the state energy picture. Possible uses and process requirements of geothermal resources are discussed. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented according to relative importance. (MHR)

  12. Can you take the heat? – Geothermal energy in mining

    OpenAIRE

    Preene, M.; Younger, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, there are less than 20 documented examples of operational geothermal systems on mine sites worldwide. This is surprising, since on remote mine sites, where fuels may have to be shipped in over great distances, heating and cooling from low-enthalpy geothermal sources may have a significant advantage in operational cost over conventional energy sources. A review of factors affecting the feasibility of geothermal systems on mining projects has been undertaken, and has identified the ...

  13. Hill of Banchory Geothermal Energy Project Feasibility Study Report

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Guy; Wood, George; Younger, Paul; Feliks, Michael; Mccay, Alistair; Gillespie, Martin; Steen, Paul; McBeth, Neil; Townsend, David; Townsend, Phil; Stephenson, Randell; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study explored the potential for a deep geothermal heat project at Hill of Banchory, Aberdeenshire. The geology of the Hill of Fare, to the north of Banchory, gives cause to believe it has good geothermal potential, while the Hill of Banchory heat network, situated on the northern side of the town, offers a ready-made heat customer. The partners in the consortium consisted of academics and developers with relevant expertise in deep geothermal energy, heat networks, and fin...

  14. Geothermal energy and global environment. Chinetsu energy to chikyu kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-25

    The geothermal energy is explained together with the global environment. The global environment problem comprises ozonospheric destruction, acid rain and global warming. The important elements of measures against the global warming are rise in prediction accuracy (rise in accuracy of prediction model for which the reflection on the cloud, rainfall and evaporation, percentage of the ocean, and biosystem are taken into consideration) and technological development for the measures (high efficiency utilization of energy, reduction in CO2 production, CO2 removal, storage and recycling technology). A prediction example of the worldwide energy in 2050 indicates that the nuclear power, fossil fuel and geothermal energy occupy 50, 20 and 8%, respectively. Though poor in economical performance, the geothermal power generation will be competitive, if assumption is made of a future rise in fossil fuel cost. It is more practical than the photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation. Its CO2 emission per kWH is smaller than that of the hydraulic power generation and nuclear power generation. In the geothermal power generation, H2S largely influences the atmospheric environment. As measures against the H2S, stretford and other different processes are put in practical use. For the water quality environment, what is important is measures against the As. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The development of geothermal energy constraints and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No single resource can meet the world energy demand. What is under consideration is the possible contribution of geothermal energy in the future. According to World Energy Council (WEC) perspectives, by 2020 the new energy resources will contribute 170 to 365 MTOE, of which the share of hydropower will be very significant. This is a realistic view based on the actual state of the market. This paper reports on the competitive advantages and economics of geothermal energy development

  16. The future of geothermal energy in West Africa : enhanced geothermal systems solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibe, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, the energy situation in West Africa has received rather negative remarks in terms of output quality and environmental friendliness. The problems of in- termittent power supply and unavailability, especially in the rural areas, are on the rise as population increases and service quality drops. This study analyses geothermal energy for the sake of basic understanding in order to shed more light on Enhanced Geothermal Systems as a preferred option, reviewing the pos...

  17. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  18. Application of the geothermal energy in the industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the worldwide practice, the geothermal energy application, as an alternative energy resource, can be of great importance. This is especially case in the countries where exceptional natural geothermal potential exists. Despite using geothermal energy for both greenhouses heating and balneology, the one can be successfully implemented in the heat requiring industrial processes. This kind of use always provides greater annual heat loading factor, since the industrial processes are not seasonal (or not the greater part of them). The quality of the geothermal resources that are available in Europe, dictates the use within the low-temperature range technological processes. However, these processes are significantly engaged in different groups of processing industries. But, beside this fact the industrial application of geothermal energy is at the beginning in the Europe. (Original)

  19. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  20. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  1. Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    One of environmental friendly renewable energies with huge potential in Indonesia is geothermal. Indonesia has the largest geothermal potential in the world, reaching up to 40% of world reserves or about 27,000 MW to 29,000 MW. However the development of geothermal currently is only about 4.2% (1,226 MW) of the existing reserves. The government of Indonesia has issued both fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to encourage geothermal development including establishing Fast Track Program II in 2010...

  2. Geothermal energy statistics 2002-2003 for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, the Swiss geothermal energy production of the years 2002 and 2003 is statistically compiled. Again, an increase of the total geothermal-driven energy can be noted, reaching more than 1.1 TWh, with a geothermal energy share greater than 860 GWh. (The difference is the non-geothermal energy needed by the heat pump systems involved.) Since 2000 the installed capacity could be increased by 20%, i.e. 40 MW per year. Geothermal energy is mainly used in combination with heat pump- (HP-) systems for heating purposes (>700 GWh), of which >80% are produced by borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems. The remaining HP-utilization splits up into ground water utilization (about 15%), deep BHE, foundation pile systems and tunnel water. Non HP-dependent geothermal utilizations are mainly thermal-springs applications for balneological use. Their contribution is nearly constant over the year. Together with the HP sales figures, the BHE drilling meters are now included in the present statistics. Since 2003, the compilation of the drilled lengths also includes the specifications of BHE fields with more than 10 BHE each. Such BHE fields make up >10% of the total drilled length. More and more frequently, such fields are used for the cooling of buildings as well. In order to clearly display these geothermal applications in the future, such BHE fields should be systematically registered, as it is now done for foundation pile systems and BHE systems. Of great importance for the promotion of geothermal energy are the activities of the Center of Competence 'Geothermal energy' and its regional information centers. The currently available funding allows the financing of information and know-how dissemination as well as education. All of these activities are essential for a further increase in geothermal energy production. (author)

  3. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  4. Geothermal Energy-Heat from the Earth: Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General use fact sheet about geothermal energy in Idaho. Idaho holds enormous resources - among the largest in the United States - of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped

  5. Energy assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy industry initiatives during the 1970s and during the 1990s are compared. During the 1970s, the objective was to reduce energy consumption and to reduce dependency on foreign fuel. Today, the emphasis is on reducing energy costs and to improve net operating income. The challenges posed by the drive to reduce energy costs are discussed. As a tool in the drive to reduce energy cost, the energy assessment process was described. The process entails a detailed analysis of energy consumption, an investigation of energy rates and an assessment of site conditions and equipment, with a view towards an optimum combination that will lead to energy cost reductions

  6. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  7. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Concept for production of chemicals and power using geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a concept for conducting commercial chemical reactions and production of power using geothermal heat. The high pressures (Ps) and temperatures (Ts) that fluids attain in deep reservoirs can be used to manufacture chemicals or decontaminate wastes. High P reactions which can be expensive and/or unsafe to conduct above ground can be conducted in geothermal reservoirs using closed designs. We present examples of reactions that could benefit from Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) including production of ammonia (NH3), supercritical oxidation of wastewater contaminants, production of hydrogen (H2) by steam reforming of methanol (CH3OH) and partial oxidation of methane (CH4) to produce CH3OH. -- Highlights: • Co-production of power and chemicals using geothermal energy is discussed. • Process captures energy more efficiently as chemical, sensible and latent heat. • The co-production process can improve the economics of geothermal energy. • Novel designs are required for insure safety and guard against contamination

  9. Potential geothermal energy applications for Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Several potential applications of geothermal energy for the Idaho Elks Rehabilitation Hospital are outlined. A brief background on the resource and distribution system, is provided; which hospital heating systems should be considered for potential geothermal retrofit is discussed; and technical and economic feasibility are addressed.

  10. Seismic Assessment of Geothermal Potential - Concept and Application Case Study of the German Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB)

    OpenAIRE

    Szalaiova, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs can embody safe, accessible and stable sources of renewable and environmentally friendly energy. In order to access and extract this energy, drilling of deep wells connected with vast financial investments is unavoidable. Thorough predrilling exploration followed by simulations of heat extraction can help to assess the site’s geothermal energy potential and thus lower the risk of possible financial losses. Extraction of heat enclosed in the deep rock can be simulat...

  11. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  12. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: PROCEDURES FOR USING FAUNA AS BIOLOGICAL MONITORS OF POTENTIAL GEOTHERMAL POLLUTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first in a series of reports that covers the feasibility of utilizing wildlife and domestic animals to design a monitoring strategy for assessing the environmental impact of geothermal resource development. Animal tissues and animal products were collected in the vici...

  13. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  14. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  15. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration: An additional benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace conventional-energy for heating and cooling buildings (e.g., cogeneration units) with geothermal energy. A mixture of CO2 with cold return water injected into geothermal reservoirs can be the inte...

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 5. Social and economic impacts of geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canon, P.

    1980-06-01

    The overview statement of the socio-economic effects of developing geothermal energy in the State of Hawaii is presented. The following functions are presented: (1) identification of key social and economic issues, (2) inventory of all available pertinent data, (3) analysis and assessment of available data, and (4) identification of what additional information is required for adequate assessment.

  17. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE OPTIMIZATION IN THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of geothermal energy production process means the minimization of all energy losses from the reservoir conditions to the user. As the available energy is being utilized mostly in the wellbore and in the surface equipment, process optimization requires scientific access including the extraction technology parameters.Specific energy on the geothermal wellhead is calculated for two possible cases. The first embraces only geothermal water production, while the other takes into account the saturated steam production as well. Each of these working conditions defines unambiguously designed pressure on the wellhead.The steam and water energy ratio, in function of predicted sink temperature for reinjection of geothermal water, points out the possibilities for commercialization of reservoir Velika Ciglena.

  18. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal energy employment and requirements 1977-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    An assessment of the manpower needs of the geothermal industry is presented. The specific objectives were to: derive a base line estimate of the manpower involved in geothermal activities, determine if there is any current or impending likelihood of skill shortages, forecast future employment in the geothermal industry, conduct a technology assessment to ascertain the possibilities of some sudden breakthrough, and suggest alternatives commensurate with the findings. The methodology for fulfilling the objectives is described. Detailed results of these pursuits (objectives) are presented. Alternatives that are suggested, based upon the findings of the study, are summarized.

  20. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  1. Direct heat resource assessment and subsurface information systems for geothermal aquifers; the Dutch perspetive

    OpenAIRE

    Kramers, L.; Wees, van J.-D.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; A. Kronimus; Boxem, T.

    2012-01-01

    A resource assessment methodology has been developed to designate prospective high permeable clastic aquifers and to assess the amount of potential geothermal energy in the Netherlands. It builds from the wealth of deep subsurface data from oil and gas exploration and production which is publicly and digitally available. In the resource assessment various performance indicator maps have been produced for direct heat applications (greenhouse and spatial heating). These maps are based on detail...

  2. Environment - Geothermal, the energy to wake up - Stimulation rather than fracturing - Iceland, the Texas of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article comments the current efforts for the development of geothermal in France after a period during which it has been given up. It evokes the project of a geothermal plant near Paris (to supply Arcueil and Gentilly with energy), the increasing number of projects in different countries. It outlines the French delay in this sector, and that geothermal energy is as difficult to find as oil. It evokes the new actors of the sector and outlines the fierce competition in front of Icelander, Italian, US and Japanese actors, and the opportunities for the French ones. A second article comments the use of the hydraulic stimulation in geothermal energy exploration rather than hydraulic fracturing as in shale gas exploration, and outlines that according to geothermal energy actors this technique avoids the risk of micro-earthquake. A last article describes the activity of the geothermal sector in Iceland: geothermal energy supplies two thirds of primary energy consumption in this country. It exploits the Icelander volcanism. This development has been particularly noticeable since 2000, but some questions are raised regarding the production potential

  3. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  4. Harnessing geothermal energy with heat pumps : a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisi, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion emits large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Renewable fuel sources that do not have a negative impact on the environment are needed to reduce the risk of climatic change. This abstract discussed recent research related to geothermal energy. Two types of geothermal energy were investigated: (1) deep underground heat using turbines to produce electricity; and (2) shallow depth heat using heat pumps to provide space heating. A review of recent research on shallow depth heat harnessing was presented. The costs and GHG emission reductions related to the installation of a geothermal heat pump system for space heating were also discussed.

  5. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  6. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  7. An in-depth assessment of hybrid solar–geothermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model hybrid solar thermal and geothermal energy conversion system in the Australian context. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits are realised. • Hybrid system overcomes adverse effects of diurnal temperature change on power generation. • Cost of electricity of an Enhanced Geothermal System can drop by more than 20% if hybridised with solar energy. - Abstract: A major problem faced by many standalone geothermal power plants, particularly in hot and arid climates such as Australia, is the adverse effects of diurnal temperature change on the operation of air-cooled condensers which typically leads to fluctuation in the power output and degradation of thermal efficiency. This study is concerned with the assessment of hybrid solar–geothermal power plants as a means of boosting the power output and where possible moderating the impact of diurnal temperature change. The ultimate goal is to explore the potential benefits from the synergies between the solar and geothermal energy sources. For this purpose the performances of the hybrid systems in terms of power output and the cost of electricity were compared with that of stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. Moreover, the influence of various controlling parameters including the ambient temperature, solar irradiance, geographical location, resource quality, and the operating mode of the power cycle on the performance of the hybrid system were investigated under steady-state conditions. Unsteady-state case studies were also performed to examine the dynamic behaviour of hybrid systems. These case studies were carried out for three different Australian geographic locations using raw hourly meteorological data of a typical year. The process simulation package Aspen-HYSYS was used to simulate plant configurations of interest. Thermodynamic analyses carried out for a reservoir temperature of 120 °C and a fixed

  8. Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia: Progress, Challenges and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of environmental friendly renewable energies with huge potential in Indonesia is geothermal. Indonesia has the largest geothermal potential in the world, reaching up to 40% of world reserves or about 27,000 MW to 29,000 MW. However the development of geothermal currently is only about 4.2% (1,226 MW of the existing reserves. The government of Indonesia has issued both fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to encourage geothermal development including establishing Fast Track Program II in 2010 to procure 17,918 MW of which 28% of them are geothermal. But apparently the amount of electricity that can be supplied from geothermal is only about 2.7% of total installed generations in Indonesia. This paper presents the progress of geothermal development in Indonesia and the role of the government including the policy, regulatory framework, and government incentives. It also identifies the challenges of the geothermal development, as well as its prospects in the future. Methodology used in this research is qualitative-descriptive method focused on literature review to obtain literature or secondary data.

  9. Geothermal energy prospects for the next 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Three facets of geothermal energy--resource base, electric power potential, and potential nonelectric uses--are considered, using information derived from three sources: (1) analytic computations based on gross geologic and geophysical features of the earth's crust, (2) the literature, and (3) a worldwide questionnaire. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: geothermal resources; electric energy conversion; nonelectric uses; recent international developments; environmental considerations, and bibliography. (JGB)

  10. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  11. Energy conversion processes for the use of geothermal heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R. [Minder Energy Consulting, Oberlunkhofen (Switzerland); Koedel, J.; Schaedle, K.-H.; Ramsel, K. [Gruneko AG, Basel (Switzerland); Girardin, L.; Marechal, F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory for industrial energy systems (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on energy conversion processes that can be used when geothermal heat is to be used. The study deals with both theoretical and practical aspects of the conversion of geothermal heat to electricity. The report is divided into several parts and covers general study, practical experience, planning and operation of geothermal power plants as well as methodology for the optimal integration of energy conversion systems in geothermal power plants. In the first part, the specific properties and characteristics of geothermal resources are discussed. Also, a general survey of conversion processes is presented with special emphasis on thermo-electric conversion. The second part deals with practical aspects related to planning, construction and operation of geothermal power plant. Technical basics, such as relevant site-specific conditions, drilling techniques, thermal water or brine quality and materials requirements. Further, planning procedures are discussed. Also, operation and maintenance aspects are examined and some basic information on costs is presented. The third part of the report presents the methodology and results for the optimal valorisation of the thermodynamic potential of deep geothermal systems.

  12. Gulf Coast Programmatic Environmental Assessment Geothermal Well Testing: The Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 711, environmental assessments are being prepared for significant activities and individual projects of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). This environmental assessment of geopressure well testing addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environments, and possible impacts in a broad sense. The specific part of the program addressed by this environmental assessment is geothermal well testing by the take-over of one or more unsuccessful oil wells before the drilling rig is removed and completion of drilling into the geopressured zone. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. In the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource. The project addressed by this environmental assessment is the performance of a geothermal well test in high potential geothermal areas. Well tests involve four major actions each of which may or may not be required for each of the well tests. The four major actions are: site preparation, drilling a salt-water disposal well, actual flow testing, and abandonment of the well.

  13. GEOTHERM programme supports geothermal energy world-wide. Geothermal energy, a chance for East African countries; GEOTHERM: BGR foerdert weltweit Nutzung geothermischer Energie. Geothermie - eine Chance fuer ostafrikanische Laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Ochmann, N.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The high geothermal potential of East Africa, especially of the Eastern Rift, is known for a long time. Since these pioneer studies, geothermal plants have been constructed at three sites in East Africa. Nevertheless, up to now geothermal has been a success story only in Kenya. The steam power plant Olkaria I in Kenya is running reliability since 25 years. Today, the country produces more than 12% of its electricity from geothermal. Now, Eritrea, Djibouti, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia which are also situated along the East African Rift, are planning similar projects. The countries need to develop new energy sources because oil prices have reached a critical level. In the past, hydro power was regarded to be a reliable source of energy, but increased droughts changed the situation. Thus, the african states are searching for alternatives to be able to stabilise their energy supply and to cover the growing energy demand. There is much hope that the success of the Kenyan geothermal power plants will be repeated in the neighbouring countries. The East African countries have joined their forces to give impetus to the use of the regional geothermal resources. On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources supports the countries in realising their plans as part of the GEOTHERM Programme. Together with further donors (Iceland, France, USA, Global Environment Facility) the path will be paved for geothermal power plants in the above mentioned six East African countries. The following main steps are necessary: - Awareness raising of political decision makers about the advantages of including geothermal into the national power plans - Improvement of knowledge about potentials geothermal sites - Development of a regional equipment pool including the necessary geophysical equipment, laboratories, etc. - Training in geothermal exploration and plant maintenance, to minimise risks of site

  14. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  16. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  17. Exploring public engagement with geothermal energy in southern Italy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of public views on eventual geothermal energy development in Sicily. The research was carried out under a much wider research project, VIGOR, with the aim to explore the feasibility of geothermal energy utilization in southern Italy. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to explore the views and opinions of local communities regarding the potential of geothermal energy applications; (2) to contribute to the growing literature on public engagement with energy issues. In order to explore public views towards geothermal technologies, we conducted a case study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Although Italy has enormous geological potential for geothermal energy production, levels of knowledge of this energy source amongst the public are low. The results indicate that the issue is shrouded in uncertainty and that the Sicilian public expresses a diffused lack of trust in decision-making processes. Taken together, these factors are likely to strongly impact eventual further developments in this sector. The results clearly show the need for further societal dialogue supported by a sound communication action strategy as the first stage in a public participation

  18. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  19. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  20. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  1. 2012 geothermal energy congress. Proceedings; Der Geothermiekongress 2012. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-16

    Within the Geothermal Energy Congress 2012 from 13th to 16th November 2012, in Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Comparison of different methods for the design of geothermal probes on the example of the thermal utilization of smouldering fires at heaps (Sylvia Kuerten); (2) Determination of the thermo-physical features of loose rocks (Johannes Stegner); (3) Tools for the planning and operation of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (4) geo:build - System optimisation of the cooling mode of the ground-source heat and cooling supply (Franziska Bockelmann); (5) Successful and economic conception, planning and optimization of district heating grids (Werner Seichter); (6) Treacer / Heat transfer decoupling in a heterogeneous hydrothermal reservoir characterized by geological faults in the Upper Rhine Graben (I. Ghergut); (7) Determination of the porosity, thermal conductivity and particle size distribution in selected sections of the Meisenheim-1 drilling core (Saar-Nahe basin, Rheinland-Palatinate) under consideration of geothermally relevant formulation of questions (Gillian Inderwies); (8) Innovative technologies of exploration in the Jemez Geothermal project, New Mexico, USA (Michael Albrecht); (9) Geothermal energy, heat pump and TABS - optimization of planning, operational control and control (Franziska Bockelmann); (10) The impact of large-scale geothermal probes (storage probes) on the heat transfer and heat loss (Christopher Steins); (11) Numeric modelling of the permocarbon in the northern Upper Rhine Graben (L. Dohrer); (12) Engineering measurement solutions on quality assurance in the exploitation of geothermal fields (C. Lehr); (13) Evaluation and optimization of official buildings with the near-surface geothermal energy for heating and cooling (Franziska Bockelmann); (14) On-site filtration for a rapid and cost-effective quantification of the particle loading in the thermal water stream (Johannes Birner

  2. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment program: A new DOE geothermal initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Fiscal Year 1991, Congress appropriated money for the Department of Energy to begin a new program in the evaluation and use of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources. The objective of this program is to promote accelerated development of these resources to offset fossil-fuel use and help improve the environment. The program will consist of several components, including: (1) compilation of all available information on resource location and characteristics, with emphasis on resources located within 5 miles of population centers; (2) development and testing of techniques to discover and evaluate low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; (3) technical assistance to potential developers of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources; and (4) evaluation of the use of geothermal heat pumps in domestic and commercial applications. Program participants will include the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology, the University of Utah Research Institute, the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute and agencies of state governments in most of the western states

  3. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  4. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  5. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a preliminary engineering and economic assessment of five direct use projects using low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. Each project site and end-use application was selected because each has a high potential for successful, near-term (2 to 5 years) commercial development. The report also includes an extensive bibliography, and reference and contact lists. The five projects are: Wendel Agricultural Complex, East Mesa Livestock Complex, East Mesa Vegetable Dehydration Facility, Calapatria Heating District and Bridgeport Heating District. The projects involve actual investors, resource owners, and operators with varying financial commitments for project development. For each project, an implementation plan is defined which identifies major barriers to development and methods to overcome them. All projects were determined to be potentially feasible. Three of the projects cascade heat from a small-scale electric generator to direct use applications. Small-scale electric generation technology (especially in the 0.5 to 3 MW range) has recently evolved to such a degree as to warrant serious consideration. These systems provide a year-round heating load and substantially improve the economic feasibility of most direct use energy projects using geothermal resources above 200/sup 0/F.

  6. Proposal of a consistent framework to integrate geothermal potential classification with energy extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of geothermal resources is dependent on the estimate of their corresponding geothermal potential, so adopting a common assessment methodology would greatly benefit operators, investors, government regulators and consumers. Several geothermal classification schemes have been proposed, but, to date, no universally recognised standard exists. This is due to the difficulty in standardising fundamentally different geothermal source and product types. The...

  7. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.C.; Smith, K.C.

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  8. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    California's geographic and end-use markets which could directly use low and moderate temperature geothermal resources are ranked and described, as well as those which have the highest potential for near-term commercial development of these resources. Building on previous market surveys, the assessment determined that out of 38 geothermal resource areas with characteristics for direct use development, five areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development: Susanville, Litchfield, Ontario Hot Springs, Lake Elsinore, and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Twenty-nine applications were compared with previously selected criteria to determine their near-term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Seven categories were found to have the least impediments to development; agriculture and district heating applications are considered the highest. Ten-year projections were conducted for fossil fuel displacement from the higher rated applications. It is concluded that greenhouses have the greatest displacement of 18 x 10/sup 6/ therms per year.

  9. Geothermal energy in Washington: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1979-04-01

    This is an attempt to identify the factors which have affected and will continue to affect geothermal assessment and development in the state. The eight potential sites chosen for detailed analysis include: Indian Heaven KGRA, Mount St. Helens KGRA, Kennedy Hot Springs KGRA, Mount Adams PGRA (Potential Geothermal Resource Area), Mount Rainier PGRA, Mount Baker PGRA, Olympic-Sol Duc Hot Springs, and Yakima. The following information is included for each site: site data, site location and physical description, geological/geophysical description, reservoir characteristics, land ownership and leasing, geothermal development status, institutional characteristics, environmental factors, transportation and utilities, and population. A number of serious impediments to geothermal development were identified which can be solved only by legislative action at the state or federal level and/or changes in attitudes by regulatory agencies. (MHR)

  10. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Indiana based on existing geologic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaught, T.L.

    1980-12-01

    The general geology of Indiana is presented including the following: physiography, stratigraphy, and structural features. The following indicators of geothermal energy are discussed: heat flow and thermal gradient, geothermal occurrences, seismic activity, geochemistry, and deep sedimentary basins. (MHR)

  11. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: AN APPROACH TO GROUNDWATER IMPACTS FROM DEVELOPMENT, CONVERSION, AND WASTE DISPOSAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater monitoring for the impacts of geothermal energy development, conversion and waste disposal is similar to groundwater monitoring for other purposes except that additional information is needed concerning the geothermal reservoir. The research described here developed a...

  12. Oregon Trail Mushrooms geothermal loan guaranty application, Malheur County, Oregon: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance the construction and operation of a mushroom-growing facility that will use geothermal (hot) water for process and space heat. The project consists of two separate facilities: a growing facility located just outside of the eastern limit of the city of Vale, Oregon (Malheur County, Oregon) and a composting facility located about 6.4 km (4 miles) southwest of the city limits (also in Malheur County, Oregon). Five test wells have been drilled into the geothermal resource at the growing site. Either well No. 4 or well No. 5 will serve as a production well. All geothermal fluids will be reinjected into the geothermal aquifer, so either well No. 3 will be used for this purpose, wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be deepened, or a new well will be drilled on the site. A cold-water well will be drilled at the growing site, and another will be drilled at the composting site. The environmental effects of the proposed project are not expected to be significant.

  13. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  14. Hydrothermal Geothermal Subprogram, Hawaii Geothermal Research Station, Hawaii County, Hawaii: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This environmental impact assessment addresses the design, construction, and operation of an electric generating plant (3 to 4 MWe) and research station (Hawaii Geothermal Research Station (HGRS)) in the Puna district on the Island of Hawaii. The facility will include control and support buildings, parking lots, cooling towers, settling and seepage ponds, the generating plant, and a visitors center. Research activities at the facility will evaluate the ability of a successfully flow-tested well (42-day flow test) to provide steam for power generation over an extended period of time (two years). In future expansion, research activities may include direct heat applications such as aquaculture and the effects of geothermal fluids on various plant components and specially designed equipment on test modules. 54 refs., 7 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Klamath County YMCA geothermal heating project environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreve, J.H. (ed.)

    1979-07-10

    The YMCA Geothermal Heating project proposes to obtain approximately 57% of the total facility energy usage through direct application of the Klamath Falls KGRA. This will be accomplished through the design and construction of a retrofit and injection system for the utilization of an existing 110/sup 0/F geothermal energy source at the project site. The existing 2016 foot well will be outfitted with a turbine pump with variable speed drive. The well head will be enclosed by a 10' x 10' building. The geothermal fluid, pumped at a peak rate of 350 gpm will be transported to the YMCA Facility through 5'' diameter schedule 40 black iron pipe fitted with victaulic couplings for expansion. All underground supply pipes will be equipped with magnesium anodes for galvaic protection and will be insulted with 1'' thick calcium silicate insulation, with two layers of 45 number roofing felt applied with asphaltic compound. All supply lines within the building will be insulated with 1'' fiberglass insulation material with a cloth jacket. The fluids will pass through a heating coil and heat exchanger system to provide heat for the 30,000 square foot YMCA facility as well as for the 90,000 gallon swimming pool. The spent geothermal fluids will then be conveyed through a 4'' black iron return pipe to be returned to an acceptable aquifer through the 1500 foot injection well.

  16. DEVELOPING DIRECT USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN ORADEA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASIU I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal energy demand for district heating in the city of Oradea is supplied at present, almost at whole, by the Cogeneration Thermal Power Plant, based on classical fuels, mainly consisting of low grade coal and natural gas, with a small contribution of the geothermal energy. Geothermal resource at low enthalpy, located within the city area of Oradea, available at an estimated level of 250 GWh/year, exploited at present by 12 production wells, can provide a share of 55 GWh/year for district heating, representing at present about 7 % from the overall thermal demand at the end users inlet. Geothermal energy is delivered by means of 3 main thermal stations, in order to prepare, especially household warm water, but sometimes also secondary agent for space heating, using additionally heat, based on natural gas. At present, in the city area of Oradea, more than 7,000 dwellings are supplied by geothermal stations with warm water and in addition for about 3,400 dwellings is assured simultaneously warm water and space heating. Even if the geothermal energy provides at present only a small part of the overall heating requirement at the city level, nevertheless by increased financial support, in the near future is expected its much more contribution, as an alternative to polluting energy of coal and natural gas.

  17. Integrating life cycle assessment and emergy synthesis for the evaluation of a dry steam geothermal power plant in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and the rising energy demand are currently seen as most crucial environmental concerns. With the exploration of renewable energy sources to meet the challenges of energy security and climate change, geothermal energy is expected to play an important role. In this study a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and an EMA (Emergy Assessment) of a 20 MW dry steam geothermal power plant located in the Tuscany Region (Italy) are performed and discussed. The plant is able to produce electricity by utilizing locally available renewable resources together with a moderate support by non-renewable resources. This makes the geothermal source eligible to produce renewable electricity. However, the direct utilization of the geothermal fluid generates the release into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, arsenic and other chemicals that highly contribute to climate change, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, human toxicity and photochemical oxidation. The study aims to understand to what extent the geothermal power plant is environmentally sound, in spite of claims by local populations, and if there are steps and/or components that require further attention. The application of the Emergy Synthesis method provides a complementary perspective to LCA, by highlighting the direct and indirect contribution in terms of natural capital and ecosystem services to the power plant construction and operation. The environmental impacts of the geothermal power plant are also compared to those of renewable and fossil-based power plants. The release of CO2-eq calculated for the investigated geothermal plant (248 g kWh−1) is lower than fossil fuel based power plants but still higher than renewable technologies like solar photovoltaic and hydropower plant. Moreover, the SO2-eq release associated to the geothermal power plant (3.37 g kWh−1) is comparable with fossil fuel based power plants. Results suggest the need for

  18. Environmental advantages to the utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is a technically-proven, cost effective source of electrical and thermal energy that has been utilized for many decades. recent estimates indicate that over 6700 MWe and 8200 MWt are currently developed throughout the world. This paper discusses the specific environmental advantages to the development of geothermal electrical power and direct use projects and demonstrates how environmental impacts can be easily mitigated using existing technologies. In the areas of CO2, NOx, and SO2 emissions, land disturbance per MWe and disposal of waste products, geothermal energy has significantly fewer impacts than most other energy sources, particularly conventional fossil and nuclear fuels. Examples are sited where goethermal developments have occurred in pristine areas with no significant impacts and even offering the opportunity for improving environmental conditions. (author)

  19. Direct application of geothermal energy in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy for balneology purposes has a history of many centuries. There is also a more than 30 years tradition for heating greenhouses. So called energy crisis of 70-ties and 80-ties provoked geology investigations in order to find possible energy sources, and development of systems for application of low-temperature geothermal water. Tere are a list of projects with direct application of geothermal energy for heating greenhouses, drying agricultural products. heating of public buildings and industrial projects, swimming pools , sanitary warm water preparation, industrial uses, etc. The essential energetic characteristics of different projects are presented in the paper. For the main projects a technical description of characteristics of the heating systems is given, and good technical solutions are underlined. Also the mistakes presented in some projects are listed. (Original)

  20. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geothermal heat can be used directly in many applications (agro-industrial processes, sanitary hot water production, heating/cooling systems, etc.). These applications respond to energetic and environmental sustainability criteria, ensuring substantial energy savings with low environmental impacts. In particular, in Mediterranean cultural landscapes the exploitation of geothermal energy offers a valuable alternative compared to other exploitation systems more land-consuming and visual-impact. However, low enthalpy geothermal energy applications at regional scale, require careful design and planning to fully exploit benefits and reduce drawbacks. We propose a first example of application of a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for the modeling of geothermal potential in the Apulia Region (South Italy) by integrating hydrological (e.g. depth to water table, water speed and temperature), geological-geotechnical (e.g. lithology, thermal conductivity) parameters and land-use indicators. The GWR model can effectively cope with data quality, spatial anisotropy, lack of stationarity and presence of discontinuities in the underlying data maps. The geothermal potential assessment required a good knowledge of the space-time variation of the numerous parameters related to the status of geothermal resource, a contextual analysis of spatial and environmental features, as well as the presence and nature of regulations or infrastructures constraints. We create an ad hoc geodatabase within ArcGIS 10 collecting relevant data and performing a quality assessment. Cross-validation shows high level of consistency of the spatial local models, as well as error maps can depict areas of lower reliability. Based on low enthalpy geothermal potential map created, a first zoning of the study area is proposed, considering four level of possible exploitation. Such zoning is linked and refined by the actual legal constraints acting at regional or province level as enforced by the regional

  1. Environmental assessment for Kelley Hot Spring geothermal project: Kelley Hot Spring Agricultural Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    The environmental impacts of an integrated swine production unit are analyzed together with necessary ancillary operations deriving its primary energy from a known geothermal reservoir in accordance with policies established by the National Energy Conservation Act. This environmental assessment covers 6 areas designated as potentially feasible project sites, using as the basic criteria for selection ground, surface and geothermal water supplies. The six areas, comprising +- 150 acres each, are within a 2 mile radius of Kelley Hot Springs, a known geothermal resource of many centuries standing, located 16 miles west of Alturas, the county seat of Modoc County, California. The project consists of the construction and operation of a 1360 sow confined pork production complex expandable to 5440 sows. The farrow to finish system for 1360 sows consists of 2 breeding barns, 2 gestation barns, 1 farrowing and 1 nursery barn, 3 growing and 3 finishing barns, a feed mill, a methane generator for waste disposal and water storage ponds. Supporting this are one geothermal well and 1 or 2 cold water wells, all occupying approximately 12 acres. Environmental reconnaissance involving geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation, fauna, air and water quality, socioeconomic, archaelogical and historical, and land use aspects were carefully carried out, impacts assessed and mitigations evaluated.

  2. International Programs and Agreements in Geothermal Energy. An Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Fein, E.; Bye, J.

    1978-06-01

    This report contains the interim results of a study for the Division of Geothermal Energy on the Division's international programs and activities. The complete research program, which is scheduled to be finished i November 1978, will have the following elements: (1) an assessment of objectives that have motivated the formulation of international programs and an explanation of any changes in the evolution of those programs. These objectives will be assessed for their internal consistency, degree of governmental consensus, their practicality, the current status of their accomplishments, and the implications of their accomplishments for the role of DGE. (2) An assessment of organizational structures and teams, including the identity of key decisionmakers, the nature of the interagency process, procedures for generating nongovernmental support for international programs and the success of these procedures, and the effectiveness of the interface with foreign partners. (3) Assessment of results of international cooperative programs, which involve the development of an overall balance sheet of benefits and disbenefits attributed to each international program. (4) The formulation of future international cooperative programs based on the assessments described. These programs may involve the development of new exchanges, alteration or elimination of existing exchanges, and revisions in the management of exchanges by US government agencies.

  3. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.

    2011-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.

  4. Assessment of the potential of the Mainfranken region, northern Bavaria, for underground storage of geothermal energy; Erkundung des regionalen Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (UTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, R.; Heinrichs, G.; Udluft, P. [Lehr- und Forschungsbereich Hydrogeologie und Umwelt, Inst. fuer Geologie, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Ebert, H.P.; Fricke, J. [Abt. Waermedaemmung/Waermetransport, Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V., Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The following paper presents a research project that is planned as a cooperation of the Geological Institute, University of Wuerzburg and the Bavarian Center of Applied Energy Research. In this project the potentials for underground thermal energy storage will be investigated in the region of Mainfranken, Northern Bavaria (Main = the river `Main`, Franken = Franconia). All aspects of underground storage will be studied with respect to the specific geographical and geological situation of the area. The study will provide a detailed map of possible storage sites, from which several case studies and at least one demonstration projects will result. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Forschungsprojekt vorgestellt, das gemeinsam vom Institut fuer Geologie der Universitaet Wuerzburg und dem Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung in Bayern geplant wird. Ziel des Projekts ist die Erkundung des Potentials fuer die Untergrundspeicherung thermischer Energie in Mainfranken (Nordbayern). Alle Aspekte der Untergrundspeicherung werden regionalspezifisch betrachtet. Neben der Erstellung differenzierter Karten geeigneter Standorte sind Fallstudien und Demonstrationsprojekte in Planung. (orig.)

  5. Status of geothermal energy in world and Turkey and studies in ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After roughly 100 years of the first electricity generation, installed capacity of geothermal power plants have grown to 8900 MW in 25 countries, producing 56830 GWh/year. An estimate of the installed thermal power in the world for direct utilization at the end of 2004 is 27825 MWt. Thermal energy used is 261418 TJ/yr. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 33% for geothermal heat pumps, 29% for bathing and swimming, 20% for space heating (of which 77% for district heating), 7.5% for greenhouse heating and open ground heating, 4% for industrial process heat, 4% for aquaculture and 2% for others uses. A conventional steam cycle power plant with 17.8 MWe capacity was installed in Kizildere geothermal field and has been generating an average gross power of 10 MWe since 1984. An air cooled binary cycle power plant with gross capacity of 8.5 MWe is being built in Aydin-Salavatli has been in operation for two months. A decision was made to install another power plant with a capacity of 45 MWe in Aydin-Germencik that reservoir assessment studies are being conducted Direct utilization of geothermal resources in Turkey are about 500 MWt of which 250 MWt is used by district heating,140 MWt utilized by greenhouse heating and 100 MWt belong to bathing Turkeys geothermal potential as geothermal resource base was estimated as 3.1x1023 J. Later information on the geothermal potential was provided by Serpen and Turkeys geothermal resource base was found 2.85x1023 J. Recent studies by Serpen revealed Turkeys convertible energy from geothermal resources in 3 categories as 1.2E22 J for direct use (in two categories) and 1.3E18 J for indirect use. Stochastic studies conducted on economics of geothermal resources in Turkey by Serpen revealed that power generation looks profitable with the electricity selling prices of around 4.5-5 cents/kWh. The payout time for this type of investments reaches 7 to 8 years. District heating systems do not seem to be

  6. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  7. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  8. Saskatchewan's deep geothermal energy potential : its application and feasibility : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunskill, B.; Vigrass, L. [Helix Geological Consultants Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Deep geothermal energy relates to the heat-energy stored in the earth's crust. The earth becomes progressively hotter at greater depths and, depending upon the location, the rocks in the crust may contain aquifers filled with water. This water can be pumped to the service where the heat is extracted and utilized in direct heating applications. This document provided a summary of a report completed for the Saskatchewan Ministry of Environment's Go Green Fund. The document provided a summary of the technical and financial information that would be helpful in the development and utilization of Saskatchewan's deep geothermal energy resource. Topics that were discussed included the benefits of deep geothermal energy as a great resource; the utilization of geothermal heating systems in Saskatchewan; storage of deep geothermal energy; the geothermal loop concept; using a geothermal source; the amount of energy provided by a geothermal source; and the economic value of using a geothermal energy source. The report also discussed benefits of geothermal energy in terms of avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions. Other topics included the future price of natural gas; the major risks associated with geothermal heating systems; and sites where deep geothermal energy is being used. It was concluded that geothermal systems can provide a relatively stable, predictable return on investment for many decades. tabs., figs.

  9. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  10. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  11. Geothermal energy in the world and its use for heating and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the geothermal energy for energy production is reviewed for different countries. The basic schemes for a geothermal power plant are given. A system with combined cycle (ORMAT GCCU) is described. In Bulgaria, two sources of thermal waters are identified as suitable for geothermal energy production

  12. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  13. Correlation between the seismic activities and geothermal energy in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manifestation of of contemporary seismicity and geothermal energy is a consequence of the effect of the geo tectonic processes within the most recent, neotectonic stage of evolution. The terrains within Macedonia during the Neogene-Quatemary period were subjected to the effect of extensive regime of stresses causing gravity faulting with zonation of the territory into morpho-structures of uplifting and subsidence. The destructive neotectonic processes act, basically, diametrically within two units: Western-Macedonian region of Iongitudal, stretching direction structures and the region of Central and Eastern macedonia, where structures have transversal and diagonal stretching direction. Both the seismicity and the geothermal energy can be incorporated in the stated scheme, i.e. the longitudal and the transversal zones of seismicity and geothermal energy are defined, whereby the zones mostly follow the fault dislocations along the boundary lined of the neotectonic uplifting and sinking. The fault structures represent the prevailing factor since displacement of blocks and accumulation of seismic energy occur along them and at the same time the fault inter spaces serve as supply channels for circulation of thermal waters from the deeper parts towards the ground surface. In addition to the global correlation, there are specific relations in the effect of the former or the later phenomenon, i.e., the earthquake can cause modifications in the geothermal regime, and vice versa, the geothermal disturbances can serve a precursory of an earthquake. Apart from exerting seismic activity areas with distribution of dominant structure elements particularly fault structures may represent a favorable environment for discovering of profitable geothermal energy. (Original)

  14. Environmental Assessment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Well Flow Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project, a coordinated research effort of the University of Hawaii, funded by the County and State of Hawaii, and ERDA, was initiated in 1973 in an effort to identify, generate, and use geothermal energy on the Big Island of Hawaii. A number of stages are involved in developing geothermal power resources: exploration, test drilling, production testing, field development, power plant and powerline construction, and full-scale production. Phase I of the Project, which began in the summer of 1973, involved conducting exploratory surveys, developing analytical models for interpretation of geophysical results, conducting studies on energy recovery from hot brine, and examining the legal and economic implications of developing geothermal resources in the state. Phase II of the Project, initiated in the summer of 1975, centers on drilling an exploratory research well on the Island of Hawaii, but also continues operational support for the geophysical, engineering, and socioeconomic activities delineated above. The project to date is between the test drilling and production testing phase. The purpose of this assessment is to describe the activities and potential impacts associated with extensive well flow testing to be completed during Phase II.

  15. Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Jacobson, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  16. Neutron Radiography of Fluid Flow for Geothermal Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, P.; Polsky, Y.; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, J.; Bilheux, H.; Jacobsen, D.; Hussey, D.

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the "particles" and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  17. Strategic aspects of exploiting geothermal energy for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy is widely used in Iceland for space heating swimming pools and snow melting systems as well as for greenhouses and soil heating and aquaculture. Its contribution to the standard of living in Iceland is very substantial. The industrial applications are, however, fewer today than anticipated twenty years ago. This paper considers some of the socio-economic reasons for that. Although geothermal energy is generally a cost competitive source of energy, it is site limited and does not by itself provide sufficient economic incentive to attract manufacturing or process industries. This generally requires another, locally available production factor offering further competitive advantage to justify greenfield investments. World economic slow-downs, and structural problems in many process industries after the energy crisis of the seventies have reduced interest for investments in energy intensify industries world wide. While public sector initiative motivated by technological possibilities was instrumental for developing geothermal resources in the past, time has now come for private sector initiative, led by market interest, to identify and exploit opportunities for using geothermal energy for industrial purposes. National and local governments must, however, provide the appropriate incentives to stimulate such developments

  18. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H.L. [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  19. Hawaii Geothermal Resource Assessment Program: western state cooperative direct heat resource assessment, Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A regional geothermal resource assessment has been conducted for the major islands in the Hawaiian chain. The assessment was made through the compilation and evaluation of the readily accessible geological, geochemical, and geophysical data for the Hawaiian archipelago which has been acquired during the last two decades. The geologic criteria used in the identification of possible geothermal reservoirs were: age and location of most recent volcanism on the island and the geologic structure of each island. The geochemical anomalies used as traces for geothermally altered ground water were: elevated silica concentrations and elevated chloride/magnesium ion ratios. Geophysical data used to identify subsurface structure which may have geothermal potential were: aeromagnetic anomalies, gravity anomalies, and higher than normal well and basal spring discharge temperatures. Geophysical and geochemical anomalies which may be the result of subsurface thermal effects have been identified on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai and Oahu.

  20. ENERGY, EXERGY AND THERMOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAHENDONG BINARY ??? CYCLE GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT AT NORTH SULAWESI INDONESIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaya, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    : Indonesia is blessed with relatively abundant potential renewable energy, geothermal potential is about 27,000 MW, it is equal to 40 % of the world potential. However the utilization of geothermal energy in Indonesia is still very low compare to its huge potential. In 2010, total installed capacity of geothermal power plant was only 1200 MW or 4% of total installed capacity of geothermal energy in Indonesia. In order to minimize the global warming as a result of the increase ...

  1. The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nemanja Tomić; Rastislav Stojsavljević; Igor Stamenković; Dejan Berić

    2013-01-01

    Exploitation of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is still at an unjustly low level taking into account the abundance of resource locations, some of which are ranked among the most affluent in Europe. Moreover, development of geothermal exploitation started in Serbia at about the same time as in other countries whose geothermal energy facilities are now at the highest technological level and which are leaders in this field. The largest use of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is present in the non-...

  2. Geothermal energy: sustainability and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal resources can be considered renewable on the time-scales of technological/societal systems and do not require the geological times of fossil fuel reserves such as coal, oil, and gas. The recovery of high-enthalpy reservoirs is accomplished at the same site from which the fluid or heat is extracted. Moreover, truly sustainable production can be achieved in doublet and heat pump systems. Generally the environmental impacts of geothermal power generation and direct use are minor, controllable, or negligible. There must be full compliance with environmental regulations, which may vary from country to country. In any case the effects must be monitored and documented (often over long periods), rated and, if necessary, reduced. (author)

  3. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  4. Geothermics - energy for the future. Proceedings; Geothermie - Energie der Zukunft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The proceedings volume of the 4th Geothermal Congress, held in Constance in 1996, comprises 74 papers on the following subjects: 1. Practical applications of hydrogeothermal resources; 2. Hot dry rock; 3. Geothermal heat pumps; 4; Economic aspects of geothermal energy. (AKF) [Deutsch] Der Tagungsband zur 4. Geothermischen Fachtagung 1996 in Konstanz enthaelt 74 Beitraege, die sich mit den folgenden Schwerpunkten befassen: 1. Praktische Anwendungen der Hydrogeothermie; 2. Hot-dry-rock; 3. Oberflaechennahe/untiefe Geothermie; 4. Geothermie und wirtschaftliche Fragen. (AKF)

  5. Geothermal energy systems plan for Boise City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This is a plan for development of a downtown Boise geothermal district space heating system incorporating legal, engineering, organizational, geological, and economic requirements. Topics covered include: resource characteristics, system design and feasibility, economic feasibility, legal overview, organizational alternatives, and conservation. Included in appendices are: property ownership patterns on the Boise Front, existing hot well data, legal briefs, environmental data, decision point communications, typical building heating system retrofit schematics, and background assumptions and data for cost summary. (MHR)

  6. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  7. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  8. Building a regulatory framework for geothermal energy development in the NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holroyd, Peggy; Dagg, Jennifer [Pembina Institute (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    There is a high potential in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) for using geothermal energy, the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth, and this could help the NWT meet their greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The Pembina Institute was engaged by the government of the NWT to perform a jurisdictional analysis of geothermal energy legislation and policy around the world; this report presents its findings. The jurisdictional review was carried out in 9 countries and interviews were conducted with various geothermal energy experts. Following this research, the Pembina Institute made recommendations to the NWT government on the development of a geothermal energy regulatory framework which would cover the need to define geothermal energy legislation and resource ownership as well as a plan and vision for geothermal energy use. This report highlighted that with an effective government policy in place, the use of geothermal energy in the NWT could provide the territories with a stable and secure energy supply.

  9. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  10. Economic value of geothermal resource assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, M.B.; Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of decision analysis for the evaluation of resource assessment expenditures is discussed. Calculations are shown for the expected value of information - both perfect and imperfect information. (MHR)

  11. The huge geothermal energy potential in the Danish subsurface - challenges and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars H.; Mathiesen, A.; Kristensen, Lars; Weibel, R.; Olivarius, M.; Bidstrup, T.; Nielsen, Carsten M.; Laier, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.

    2011-05-15

    The Danish subsurface contains huge geothermal resources that may contribute to a safe, sustainable and reliable supply of energy. Geothermal energy may thus play an important role in the energy strategy in Denmark. The exploitation of the resources is especially attractive in urban areas where it can be combined with district heating systems. The challenge is to find areas where the adequate geological conditions in the subsurface coincide with the presence of essential infrastructure on the surface. The most promising geothermal reservoirs occur within the thick Triassic-Lower Cretaceous successions in the Danish and North German Basins. The potential resource is determined by a number of geological parameters of which the burial depth, thickness, net/gross ratio, continuity (presence of faults or lateral lithological changes) and porosity and permeability of the reservoir sandstones, and the chemistry and temperature of the formation water are the most important. These parameters are all dependent on geological processes and can be investigated by geological and geophysical methods. In most places a preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential can be carried out based on interpretations of data and samples from existing wells, seismic surveys and temperature measurements from the local area. Subsequently the initial assessment, if promising, may be followed by acquisition of new data and further investigations following a stepwise maturation method with a number of decision gates proposed in this paper. (Author)

  12. Present situation and future of utilization of geothermal energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 1970s, the Chinese government increased investment in the development of geothermal resources and other new energy, and some experimental geothermal power stations have been built successfully. In the late 1980s, the exploration of high temperature geothermal resources was increased. Geothermal fluid with temperatures over 200 C was measured in several boreholes. In ZK4002 well, Yangbajing, the temperature is even as high as 329.8 C. By the year 2010, several geothermal power plants with high temperatures and great capacity will be built, so that great advances will be made in the development of geothermal energy in China

  13. Geothermal assessment of a portion of the Escalante Valley, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.; Gourley, C.

    1983-12-01

    In February 1981, the Utah geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS) contracted with the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the geothermal potential of an area proposed for a possible Missile Experimental (MX) operations base in the Escalante Valley region of Utah. Exploration techniques employed included a temperature survey, chemical analysis of springs and wells, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. The highest water temperatures recorded in the area, with the exceptions of a 60/sup 0/C (140/sup 0/F) geothermal exploration hole and Thermo Hot Springs (42 to 78/sup 0/C or 108 to 172/sup 0/F), were 27 and 28/sup 0/C (81 and 82/sup 0/F) at two wells located northwest of Zane, Utah.

  14. Economic viability of geothermal energy usage in comparison to renewable and conventional energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive lecture given by Prof. Dr. Gunter Schaumann in Bad Duerkheim, Germany, discusses the use of geothermal energy in relationship to other forms of renewable energy sources and conventional energy technologies used to provide heat, power and motive force. The characteristics of geothermal energy from various sources and examples of its possible use are discussed. In particular, the paper deals with deep geothermal energy, which can provide heating energy for district heating schemes, if necessary with the help of heat pumps. The prospects of such a use of geothermal energy in the next 50 years in various suitable regions in Germany is discussed and the associated prerequisites are listed. The present situation concerning the use of geothermal energy in Germany is examined. An example of a geothermal heating power station that also features a gas-fired combined heat and power installation, a heat pump and a peak-load boiler is given. Also, the generation of electrical power using the Organic Rankine Cycle is discussed. The factors influencing the economic viability of geothermal power stations are discussed in detail and the resulting energy prices are compared with conventional plants. The paper gives details of the calculation of investment and energy costs for heat and power generation and presents figures based on exemplary installations

  15. Geothermal energy from the tunnels in the Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an inventory of the tunnels and underground galleries in Switzerland which are, or could potentially be used as geothermal energy sources. Ground water temperature and flow rate as well as the estimated thermal power are listed for the main 15 sites. The situation at the Furka tunnel, which is in operation, is described with more details, including the thermal energy consumption structure and an economic analysis. In the case of space heating, geothermal energy plants deliver heat at a cost similar to fossil fuel-fired plants if the crude-oil barrel price is close to 30 Euro. Various recommendations are given about technical matters like water temperature and flow rate evaluation, and about the management of future projects. The authors insist on the crucial relevance of as early as possible collaboration between tunnel construction and geothermal energy projects. The article ends with some additional information regarding the geothermal potential of the two major railway tunnels under the Loetschberg and St. Gothard mountains (34.6 and 57 km respectively), which are currently being drilled

  16. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  17. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  18. BRGM and geothermal power: research at the service of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putting the finishing touches to a low cost geothermal System for use in buildings, linking geothermal energy with solar panels, seeking new viable sources in France and overseas... moving from very low intensity geothermal energy to high intensity, these are a few examples of research currently being undertaken at BRGM (France's national Bureau for Geological and Mining Research). (author)

  19. Geothermal energy: state-of-the-art and perspectives in the Republic of Macedonia. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The papers deal with the evaluation of geothermal resources in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as justification use and development of the geothermal energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: GROUND WATER MONITORING GUIDELINES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses potential ground water pollution from geothermal resource development, conversion, and waste disposal, and proposes guidelines for developing a ground water monitoring plan for any such development. Geothermal processes, borehole logging, and injection well ...

  1. Geothermal energy. Robust and reliable; Geothermie. Robuust en betrouwbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauwen, A. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable technique that uses heat from the earth to heat buildings or greenhouses. The heat originates from deep hot water sources (60C and higher) two kilometers below surface. Production facilities are not required because the energy in the hot water can be converted relatively easily. The technique is robust and reliable. Unlike other renewable energy technologies weather conditions do not have an impact on the supply of energy from a geothermal source [Dutch] Geothermie is een duurzame techniek die warmte uit de aarde gebruikt om gebouwen of kassen te verwarmen. De warmte is afkomstig uit diepe warmwaterbronnen (60C en hoger) die zich twee kilometer onder de oppervlakte bevinden. Productiefaciliteiten zijn overbodig omdat de in het warme water aanwezige energie relatief eenvoudig kan worden omgezet. De techniek is robuust en betrouwbaar. In tegenstelling tot andere duurzame technieken beinvloeden weersomstandigheden de energielevering uit een geothermische bron niet.

  2. Developing advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little public advocacy for geothermal energy in the United States outside of the geothermal community itself. Yet, broad-based advocacy is needed to provide impetus for a nourishing economic, regulatory and R and D environment. If such an environment could be created, the prosperity of the geothermal industry would improve and positive environmental effects compared to most other energy sources would be realized. We need an organized sustained effort to provide information and education to all segments of our society, including market-makers and end users, administrators, legislators, regulators, educators, special-interest groups and the public. This effort could be provided by an organization of three main components, a network to gather and disseminate pertinent information on marketing, educational and lobbying opportunities to action committees, a repository of current information on geothermal energy, and action committees each responsible for certain parts of the total marketing, education and lobbying task. In this paper, the author suggests a mechanism for forming such an organization and making it work. The author proposes an informal organization staffed largely by volunteered labor in which no one person would have to devote more than a few percent of his or her work time

  3. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  4. Geothermal. Possibilities of use of the geothermal energy in the Colombian Atlantic Coast and general aspects on this energy type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With base in the compilation and prosecution of the geologic information and available geophysics in the Departments of Cordoba, Sucre, Bolivar, Atlantic and Magdalena and of the analysis of the results obtained for samples of thermal waters, the possible existence of attractive reas; geothermically was evaluated by the light of the main constituent elements of a geothermal field: Source of heat. Reservoir. Waterproof covering. Recharge area. The absence of recent volcanic manifestations as much in surface as to shallow depths, the nonexistence of a source of heat of economic interest is suggested. The presence of thermal manifestations in 3 towns of the Atlantic Costa shows results of the chemical analyses characterized by the drop silica concentration (92 ppm) and high concentration of bicarbonates (504 ppm) that which identifies to waters of low temperature, what reinforces the nonexistence of a source of significant heat. With the current information it is but attractiveness to focus the investigations in the Atlantic Costa toward the use in other such energy ways as the lot, eolic, biomass, Ph; that toward the use of endogenous fluids. It is included information related with the exploration and exploitation of a geothermal field and with the economic evaluation for geothermal plants of several capacities. Additionally specific examples of four countries in the world that you/they generate electricity with base in geothermal vapor

  5. Cascaded Use of Geothermal Energy and the Thermal Energy Production with Low Costs at the University of Oradea

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea, Cristian; GORDAN Mircea; POP Florica; BITTENBINDER Maria

    2014-01-01

    The development of heat pump technology has led to new opportunities of approaching issues about geothermalism and in particular the use of low and very low enthalpy geothermal resources. Regarding the use of geothermal energy, a special place have the research aimed to ensure the indoor thermal comfort using this form of energy. There have been made a series of research on the best option to use geothermal energy cascade, accompanied by the heat pump technology in the existing thermal statio...

  6. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m-3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  7. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  8. Environmental Assessment: geothermal direct heat project, Marlin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Federal action addressed by this Environmental Assessment (EA) is joint funding the retrofitting of a heating and hot water system in a hospital at Marlin, Texas, with a geothermal preheat system. The project will be located within the existing hospital boiler room. One supply well was drilled in an existing adjacent parking lot. It was necessary to drill the well prior to completion of this environmental assessment in order to confirm the reservoir and to obtain fluids for analysis in order to assess the environmental effects of fluid disposal. Fluid from operation will be disposed of by discharging it directly into existing street drains, which will carry the fluid to Park Lake and eventually the Brazos River. Fluid disposal activities are regulated by the Texas Railroad Commission. The local geology is determined by past displacements in the East Texas Basin. Boundaries are marked by the Balcones and the Mexia-Talco fault systems. All important water-bearing formations are in the cretaceous sedimentary rocks and are slightly to highly saline. Geothermal fluids are produced from the Trinity Group; they range from approximately 3600 to 4000 ppM TDS. Temperatures are expected to be above 64/sup 0/C (147/sup 0/F). Surface water flows southeastward as a part of the Brazos River Basin. The nearest perennial stream is the Brazos River 5.6 km (3.5 miles) away, to which surface fluids will eventually discharge. Environmental impacts of construction were small because of the existing structures and paved areas. Construction run-off and geothermal flow-test fluid passed through a small pond in the city park, lowering its water quality, at least temporarily. Construction noise was not out of character with existing noises around the hospital.

  9. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the

  10. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  11. Geothermal resource assessment in Honduras: How we got to Platanares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, A.W.; Frank, J.A.; Flores, W.

    1988-01-01

    The initial phase of a geothermal resource assessment of Honduras is essentially complete. Reconnaissance scale geological and geochemical investigations were performed at six previously identified sites to determine relative potentials for electricity generation or direct heat use. Two of the six sites were eliminated because of low potential for the production of electricity and detailed geological and geochemical work was concentrated at the remaining four sites. After an evaluation of new data, two sites (Platanares and San Ignacio) were selected for detailed geophysical surveys and one (Platanares) for gradient drilling. Very encouraging results were obtained from the drilling and it is apparent that a feasibility phase investigation is warranted at Platanares.

  12. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  13. Overview of prospects and potential for development of geothermal energy for direct use in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, F.; Larson, T.; Racine, C.; Gratt, L.; Irving, D.

    1979-06-01

    Estimates of the quantity of geothermal energy that could be developed for direct use and of the associated capital costs were prepared. To rank the prospective areas for a direct use resource exploration program, a simple scoring system was used. Areas in California were assigned points on the basis of the presence of surface evidence of resources and potential users. The energy use levels that could be achieved in the near-term by exploiting geothermal energy to supply heating demands for both space conditioning and industrial process heating were assessed. Major applications for space conditioning and industrial process heating were determined and then co-located in the prospective resource zones. Energy requirements for each application were analyzed and the amount of fossil energy potentially displaced by using geothermal energy was determined. (MHR)

  14. International legal status of the use of shallow geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnlein, Stefanie [University of Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Sigwartstrasse 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Bayer, Peter [ETH Zuerich, Engineering Geology, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Blum, Philipp [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Geosciences (AGW), Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Shallow geothermal energy (<400 m depth) is used in many countries worldwide, with a rising number of installations over the last decades. The use of ground source heat pump (GSHP) and groundwater heat pump (GWHP) systems results in local temperature anomalies (cold or heat plumes). Since groundwater is used in many countries as source for drinking water a balance between its use and protection has to be found. Therefore, to avoid detrimental environmental impacts it is necessary to define groundwater temperature limits for heating and cooling and minimum distances between such geothermal systems. The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current international legal status for the use of shallow geothermal energy. Therefore, an international survey was performed using a questionnaire, which was sent to more than 60 countries worldwide. The questionnaire requested information on the corresponding national legislation, temperature limits and minimum distances for GSHP and GWHP systems. The answers to the inquiry showed an extremely heterogeneous outcome. Until now national and legally binding regulations only exist in few countries such as Denmark or Sweden. However, all existing regulations show a wide range for minimum distances (5-300 m) and temperature limits for groundwater. The highest inconsistency was observed for the acceptable temperature change with 3 K in Switzerland to 11 K in France. However, most countries have no legally binding regulations or even guidelines, which highlight the urgent need for further research on the environmental impact and legal management of shallow geothermal installations. (author)

  15. Geothermal energy; L'energie geothermique. Un grand potentiel et de nombreuses applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-07-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW{sub el}. Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW{sub th}. The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power.

  16. Environomic optimal configurations of geothermal energy conversion systems: application to the future construction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Léda; Maréchal, François

    2012-01-01

    The development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) for the cogeneration of electricity and district heating is expected to be important in the future. The criteria to be accounted for in the energy conversion system design are the economic profitability, the thermodynamic efficiency in the usage of the resource, and the generated life-cycle environmental impacts, which are as well a key point for the public acceptance of geothermal energy. This paper presents a systematic methodology for th...

  17. Environomic optimal configurations of geothermal energy conversion systems: Application to the future construction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) for the cogeneration of electricity and district heating is expected to be important in the future. The criteria to be accounted for in the energy conversion system design are the economic profitability, the thermodynamic efficiency in the usage of the resource, and the generated life-cycle environmental impacts, which are as well a key point for the public acceptance of geothermal energy. This paper presents a systematic methodology for the optimal design and configuration of geothermal systems considering environomic criteria. Process design and process integration techniques are used in combination with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and multi-objective optimization techniques, using a multi-period strategy to account for the seasonal variations in the district heating demand. It is illustrated by an application to the future EGS construction for cogeneration in the context of Switzerland. Different conversion cycles are considered: single and double-flash systems, organic Rankine cycles (ORC), and Kalina cycles. The optimal configuration is determined at each construction depth for the EGS from 3000 down to 10,000 m and at each district heating network installed capacity from 0 to 60 MWth. Results show that in the shallowest range of depths (3500–6000 m), the optimal configurations for all considered performance indicators are EGS between 5500 and 6000 m with a Kalina cycle for cogeneration, and a district heating network with an installed capacity between 20 and 35 MWth. In the deepest range (7500–9500 m), when compared with the single electricity production, the cogeneration of district heating is less favorable from an economic and exergetic perspective (11% and 17% of relative penalty, respectively, for a district heating network with an installed capacity of 60 MWth) but more favorable in terms of environmental performance (37% of relative improvement for avoided CO2 emissions). -- Highlights:

  18. Geothermic Potential Assessment of hydrothermal vents of Township Barranca De Upia - Meta - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal vents have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where hydrothermal vents occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 ° C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the hydrothermal vents.

  19. Mathematical models for the use of low and medium temperature geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Donà, Mirco

    2013-01-01

    This thesis looks at the geothermal energy, that is, energy emitted continuously in the form of heat from our planet, that from the deepest areas propagates towards the surface. The research activities have been carried out for evaluating different aspects related to geothermal energy and more specifically the way in which this energy can be extracted. The present work has tried to deal with all the different levels of temperature in which the geothermal energy is classified, i.e. low tempera...

  20. Economic impact of corrosion and scaling problems in geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    's geothermal plant which is presently reducing plant output by about 10%. This is equivalent to over $3 million per year in increased oil consumption to replace the power. In the course of assessing the cost implications of corrosion and scaling problems, a number of areas of technological uncertainty were identified which should be considered in R and D planning in support of geothermal energy. Materials development with both laboratory and field testing will be necessary. The economic analysis on which this report is based was done in support of an AEC Division of Applied Technology program to assess the factors affecting geothermal plant economics. The results of this report are to be used to develop computer models of overall plant economics, of which corrosion and scaling problems are only a part. The translation of the economic analysis to the report which appears here, was done on AEC Special Studies Funds.

  1. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  2. Exploitation of geothermal energy as a priority of sustainable energetic development in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual global economic crisis, including all other well-known problems of sustainable development, reflects the direction of development of all countries in the world. Serbia, as a European country in its early stage of development, is trying to synchronize its progress with experience of other countries from the field of sustainable development and in accordance with rules in the field of energetic and energetic efficiency, and, as well as to promote and develop the sector of use of renewable sources of energy. On the other hand, Serbia is a country which largely depends on import of all forms of energy, which to a great extent affects its economic stability. Therefore, in Serbia the strategy for development of energetic was imposed and it considers all the aspects of development of energetic until 2015 and it also defines the priorities which can be mostly seen in the choice of forms of alternative sources of energy. These sources, based on some criteria, can be considered the most convenient for a gradual substitution of energy which is gotten from the conventional sources. Taking into account strategically defined goals and domestic potentials which are at disposal, as well as economic parameters, an alternative source of energy of basic importance for the future exploitation on the territory of Serbia geothermal energy, was chosen. The research points to the fact that Serbia will be capable to respond adequately to Kyoto protocol demands and to the European rules regarding the substitution of a certain amounts of fossil fuels by the fuel origin from the raw biological materials. The research defines the existent and non-existent capacities and the assessment of positive effects of usage of geothermal energy. At the moment, 160 long holes are being exploited whose water temperature is around 60 C (140 F) and their heat power reach 160 MJ/s. It was stated that adequate exploitation of existing and new geothermal sources a yearly would save about 500,000 tons

  3. Possibilities for electricity production from geothermal energy in Slovenia in the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Rajver; Andrej Lapanje; Nina Rman

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the public, with the aim that anyone can judge reality and accuracyof records that appear in the media on the exploitation of geothermal energy. It provides a comprehensive overviewof geothermal systems, potential of hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems, of mechanisms and characteristicsof middle and high enthalpy geothermal resources. It also deals with a mode of their conversion into electricity.Featured are the main factors affecting t...

  4. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  5. Work for the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) in 2006; Arbeiten fuer das IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) 2006 - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses work done in 2006 within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA). Information exchange with representatives of countries where geothermal energy is used is discussed as are the contributions made in this area by Swiss representatives. In particular, comprehensive appendices to the report present the Swiss Country Report, a basic paper on geothermal sustainability, comments on the environmental impact of geothermal energy development and risks posed by fluid injection in enhanced geothermal systems.

  6. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  7. Direct use geothermal energy utilization for ethanol production and commercial mushroom growing at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Technical feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The report is concerned with the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating two geothermally cascaded facilities, a bio-mass fuel ethanol production facility and a mushroom growing facility, where Geothermal Food Processors presently operates the world's largest direct-use geothermal vegetable dehydration facility. A review and analysis of the data generated from the various project tasks indicates that existing, state-of-the-art, ethanol production and mushroom growing technologies can be successfully adapted to include the use of geothermal energy. Additionally, a carefully performed assessment of the geothermal reservoir indicates that this resource is capable of supporting the yearly production of 10 million gallons of fuel ethanol and 1.5 million pounds of mushrooms, in addition to the demands of the dehydration plant. Further, data indicates that the two facilities can be logistically supported from existing agricultural and commerce sources located within economical distances from the geothermal source.

  8. Heat flow, depth–temperature variations and stored thermal energy for enhanced geothermal systems in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to help assessment of enhanced geothermal energy potential in Canada, we constructed a new series of heatflow and depth–temperature distribution maps (down to 10 km). We focus on high-temperature resources (>150 °C) capable of electrical production. Maps presented show large temperature variability, related mainly to heat flow patterns. The highest temperatures occur in western and northern Canada. Here temperatures greater than 150 °C, required for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), can be reached at reasonable drilling depths of <5 km. Heat flow, by itself however, is not a sufficient tool to predict areas of high energy content. A combination of thick low thermal conductivity sedimentary blankets and moderate to high heat flow areas can generate targets that are as favorable as regions with high conductivity and high heat flow. Some moderate heat flow areas in the deeper parts of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin have heat content comparable to high heat flow zones of the the Canadian Cordillera. The magnitude of in-place thermal energy available for future heat 'mining/farming' was esitmated throughout Canada by calculating heat released through cooling a defined rock volume through a fixed temperature change. These estimates show the first-order appoximation of available geothermal heat content. The fraction of true heat energy available will be as low as 0.02 of these values. However, even this more limited energy production could be large enough to be a considerable future renewable energy resource for Canada

  9. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  10. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  11. Geothermal energy: an important but disregarded form of renewable energy; geological situation, projects and economy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the topic geothermal energy. Although geothermal energy is an important energy sector within the area of the renewable energies, the European policy downgraded this important, promising energy sector in 1999. Normally, geothermal energy cannot be regarded as a renewable energy source because the heat content of the Earth, the gravitational heat, the source heat, frictional heat and the decay of radioactive isotopes in the further process of geologic history will eventually be exhausted. However, we are referring here to many millions of years. At the present time, geothermal energy can thus be regarded as an inexhaustible renewable energy source. This work is focused on the geothermal situation in Austria. For many people, the term 'geothermal energy' is associated with countries such as Iceland, Italy (Larderello) and New Zealand. However, in Austria there are also innovative projects in the geothermal energy sector that only very few people know about. Some of these trend-setting projects are presented here. Regarding the total situation in Austria, the geothermal potential is described specifically for the Calcareous Alpine nappe and the Vienna Basin. Furthermore, the first results concerning successful injection in Upper Austria and up to now unconsidered locations for geothermal energy plants are presented. This work attempts to present the attractiveness of geothermal energy projects to the public, thus emphasizing the importance of discussing it again on the political level. (author)

  12. Technology assessment of geothermal pumping equipment. final report, July 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.E.; Malgieri, A.J.

    1978-09-01

    Twenty-eight separate interviews were conducted with DOE personnel, DOE contractors doing geothermal research, persons associated with geothermal installations, companies engaged in the drilling and completion of geothermal well, and pump manufactures. The reports of these interviews are presented and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  13. Geothermal energy sources and possibilities of their exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geothermal energy is everywhere beneath the surface of the earth. The earth's interior is enormous thermal reservoir of energy, which can be utilized if favorable geological conditions exist. The electricity generation in 1942 at Larderello was a commercial success. The installed geo-thermoelectric capacity had reached 127 650 kWe. Several countries were soon to follow the example set by Italy. In 1919, first geothermal wells were drilled at Beppu in Japan, followed in 1921 by wells drilled at The Geysers, California, USA. In 1958 a small geothermal power plant began operating in New Zealand; in 1959 another one in Mexico, in 1960 in the USA, followed by many other countries in the years to come. The heat source can be either a very high temperature (> 600 grad C) magmatic intrusion reaching relatively shallow depths (5-10 km) or, as in certain low-temperature systems at the Earth's normal temperature, which increases with depth. The reservoir is a volume of hot permeable rocks from which circulating fluids extract the heat. The reservoir is generally overlain by a cover of impermeable rocks and connected to a superficial recharge area through which the meteoric waters can replace or partly replace the fluids that escape from the reservoir through springs or are extracted by boreholes. The geothermal fluid is water, in majority of cases the meteoric water, in the liquid or vapour phase, depending on its temperature and pressure. This water often carries chemicals and gases such as CO2, H2S, etc. Another source of underground heat is so called the hot dry rock. The mater is to extract heat by creating a subsurface fracture system to which water can be added through injection wells. A creation of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal system requires improving the natural permeability of rock. Rocks are permeable due to minute fractures and pore spaces between mineral grains. The injected water is heated by a contact with the rock and returns to the surface through

  14. Radiation protection in selected deep geothermal energy facilities. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special situation of radiation protection in the case of natural radioactivity with increased specific activities (TENORM) results from the fact that the legislative body has restricted the regulations of the radiation protection regulations (StrlSchV, attachment XI, part B) to explicit fields of work with increased radioactivity levels by uranium, thorium and their daughter products without radon. Actually the deep geothermal energy has not been included into the working fields of the radiation protection regulations, so that there is no requirement to estimate the radiation exposure for the staff. A similar situation exists for the operational waste from deep geothermal energy facilities that are not included in the radiation protection regulations for residues to be considered. The authors are convinced that even without legal requirement it is necessary to estimate radiation exposure of the personnel based on the specific activities for selected deep geothermal energy facilities for the sites Nordddeutsches Becken and Oberrheingraben and to provide an appropriate removal of the operational waste based on the radiation protection regulations.

  15. Role of royalties in sustainable geothermal energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with geothermal development for electricity production has shown that use is not sustainable if heat from the reservoir is extracted too rapidly. Examples of unsustainable development are given. Policy aimed at achieving sustainable development at the very least should encompass conditions governing access to reservoirs, the rate at which thermal energy is extracted, monitoring, and re-injection of fluids. An economic model illustrates the application of fiscal instruments to geothermal development for electricity generation. Ad valorem royalties are shown to encourage utilisation of the resource in a more sustainable manner. A variable ad valorem royalty, based on the ratio of the current and original temperature shows a significant change in investment planning, with slower depletion, compared to the application of a non-variable ad valorem royalty. -- Highlights: •Geothermal reservoirs can provide a sustainable flow of energy. •Policy design is critical for renewable supply of energy. •Sustainable use depends on property rights, access and use rates. •Fiscal policy impacts use and provides revenue for government

  16. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  17. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program - Geothermal Energy: Putting Creative Ideas to Work (Green Jobs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    Rapid expansion of U.S. geothermal capacity is opening new job opportunities across the nation. With more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) already installed, the United States leads the world in existing geothermal capacity.

  19. EPRI geothermal energy R and D 5-year program plan (1975 to 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F.

    1974-10-17

    The recommended EPRI Geothermal Research and Development 5-Year Program Plan has been defined to complement and provide focus for federally sponsored geothermal energy R and D efforts. The scope of the program includes: verification of hydrothermal reservoir capability and low salinity brine heat transfer characteristics at a potential demonstration site followed by design, development and construction of a low salinity hydrothermal demonstration plant in conjunction with an electric utility or utility consortium. Development of a comprehensive set of Guidelines Manuals for use by utility management and engineers spanning the full range of geothermal resource utilization from exploration through plant startup, including not only technical, but environmental, institutional and regulatory factors. A subprogram to define the potential and requirements for Geothermal Systems. A supporting research and technology subprogram oriented toward minimizing the risk associated with utilization of low and high salinity hydrothermal sources. An Advanced Research and Technology subprogram to assess the potential of geopressure resources in conjunction with the Federal government and limited R and D on advanced concepts for utilization of hydrothermal fluids. (MHR)

  20. U.S. Department of Energy support of growth in industrial use of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Strategy of the U.S. is designed to expand through federal policies the fuel and technology choices available to industry, utilities, and other energy users. It also promotes policies to encourage balanced integration of energy, economic, and environmental options in the selection of technologies for application in the marketplace. Consideration of each of these factors, separately and together, favors geothermal energy in many industrial applications. It is the policy of the Department of Energy to support growth in all uses of geothermal energy through focused R and D to improve technologies for its economic exploitation

  1. Use of slim holes for geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment: A preliminary report on Japanese experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S.K. [S-Cubed, La Jolla, CA (United States); Combs, J. [Geo Hills Associates, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The publicly available Japanese data on the use of slim holes in geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment are reviewed in this report. Slim holes have been used for (1) obtaining core for geological studies, (2) delineating the stratigraphic structure, (3) characterizing reservoir fluid state (pressure, temperature, etc.), and (4) defining the permeability structure for reservoir assessment. Examples of these uses of slim hole data are presented from the Hohi Geothermal Area and the Sumikawa Geothermal Field. Discharge data from slim holes and production wells from the Oguni Geothermal Field indicate that it may be possible to infer the discharge rate of production wells based on slim hole measurements. The Japanese experience suggests that slim holes can provide useful data for cost-effective geothermal reservoir assessment. Therefore, plans for a full scale evaluation of Japanese slim hole data are outlined.

  2. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  3. Hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in both subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar and geothermal energy conversion system was modelled using subcritical and supercritical ORCs. • Solar thermal and geothermal energy can be effectively hybridised. • Greater thermodynamic advantages and economic benefits can be achieved using the supercritical hybrid plant. • Hybrid plants can produce up to 19% more annual electricity than the two stand-alone plants. • Solar-to-electricity cost in the supercritical hybrid plant is about 4–19% less than in the subcritical plant. - Abstract: A supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is renowned for higher conversion efficiency than the conventional ORC due to a better thermal match (i.e. reduced irreversibility) presented in the heat exchanger unit. This improved thermal match is a result of the obscured liquid-to-vapor boundary of the organic working fluid at supercritical states. Stand-alone solar thermal power generation and stand-alone geothermal power generation using a supercritical ORC have been widely investigated. However, the power generation capability of a single supercritical ORC using combined solar and geothermal energy has not been examined. This paper thus investigates the hybridisation of solar and geothermal energy in a supercritical ORC to explore the benefit from the potential synergies of such a hybrid platform. Its performances were also compared with those of a subcritical hybrid plant, stand-alone solar and geothermal plants. All simulations and modelling of the power cycles were carried out using process simulation package Aspen HYSYS. The performances of the hybrid plant were then assessed using technical analysis, economic analysis, and the figure of merit analysis. The results of the technical analysis show that thermodynamically, the hybrid plant using a supercritical ORC outperforms the hybrid plant using a subcritical ORC if at least 66% of its exergy input is met by solar energy (i.e. a solar exergy fraction of >66%), namely producing 4–17

  4. Assessment and evaluation of geothermal potential in Switzerland; Atlas des ressources geothermiques suisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andenmatten-Berthoud, N. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohl, T. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut de Geophysique, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the first part of a project that aims at assessing the geothermal energy potential of Switzerland's underground. Due to the presence of the Alps the Swiss underground is highly heterogeneous with numerous geologic faults. Geothermal energy assessment has to be carried out region after region. The first steps consisted in collecting existing geological and hydrogeological data and finding out the best appropriate methodology. Analysis was restricted to the Northwest of Switzerland (Basle-Zurich area), which has a dense population - an important factor for future applications - and is better known than others, thanks to previous studies performed in conjunction with site pre-selection for future radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this area, sandstones and limestones are found on the crystalline bottom rock. Mathematical models and computer codes were developed for interpolation and extrapolation of local and regional data. Three dimensional finite-element techniques were used. The results are presented in diagrams and maps.

  5. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O' Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  6. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  7. An optimisation model of geothermal-energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of the behaviour of a geothermal-energy source, based on the theoretical water well of different quality parameters has been presented. Heat energy magnification produced by the well by increasing the stream of pumping water is analysed. Optimisation analyses are conducted assuming different types of source: constant or dynamic parameters. The technical optimisation model maximises the net power of the source, which is the difference between the heat source power and the power of pumping. The optimisation model maximises the value of heat energy produced by the source minus the value of the electrical energy used for pumping. The technical and economic optimisation gives different results because the unit cost of heat energy is lower than that of electrical energy. (Author)

  8. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  9. Prospecting for geothermal energy through satellite based thermal data: Review and the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    F. Howari

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal investors need to be confident with the methods and results of exploration programs. Also cutting the upfront cost of geothermal exploration will further encourage investors to consider investment in this emerging clean energy field. Hence, it is of paramount importance to improve prospecting techniques in order to explore where economic concentrations of geothermal energy are to be expected.  The current study evaluates different approaches for downscaling thermal data from remote...

  10. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  11. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  12. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    One of the foremost areas of sustainability is society's need for energy. The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world with most of this energy coming from fossil fuels. With its link to climate change coupled with declining resources, renewable alternatives are being pursued. Given the high demand for energy, it is not a question of if these alternatives will be utilized but when and where. One of the "greenest" of the green technologies is geothermal energy. It is a renewable resource with a small environmental footprint. To educate advanced undergraduate and graduate students from across STEM disciplines in geothermal energy, a series of three distinct but linked and related courses are being developed and taught. Courses are focused on one of the STEM disciplines to provide students with essential discipline-specific knowledge and taught by different faculty members in the departments of geology, petroleum engineering and mathematics. These courses provide the foundation necessary for interdisciplinary research projects. The first course on Geologic Properties and Processes of Geothermal Energy was developed and taught in 2012. The class had an enrollment of 27 students including: 5 undergraduates and 4 graduate students in Geology, 12 undergraduates and two graduate students in Petroleum Engineering, and 4 non-matriculated undergraduate students. The course began with the essentials of heat and mass transfer, a common deficiency for all students, then progressed to the geologic materials of these systems: minerals, rocks and fluids. To provide students with first hand experience, two short research projects were embedded into the course. The first project involved analyses of cuttings from a well-studied geothermal system (Salton Sea, CA). Students were in teams consisting of both engineers and geologists. The first assignment was to identify minerals in the cuttings. They were then provided with XRD patterns for their cuttings to

  13. The use of Geothermal Energy Resources in the Tourism Industry of Vojvodina (Northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Tomić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is still at an unjustly low level taking into account the abundance of resource locations, some of which are ranked among the most affluent in Europe. Moreover, development of geothermal exploitation started in Serbia at about the same time as in other countries whose geothermal energy facilities are now at the highest technological level and which are leaders in this field. The largest use of geothermal energy in Vojvodina is present in the non-energetic area, especially in spas and sports–recreational centers. Other, seasonal consumers of geothermal energy are from the field of industry and agricultural production where the energy is used for heating of cattle and poultry farms, greenhouses and other facilities. However these consumers use only a small portion of available geothermal resources. The main users are those from the tourism industry. The goal of this paper is to give an overview and an analysis of the use of geothermal energy resources, mainly geothermal waters, in the tourism industry of Vojvodina. It shows how these resources are used and also for what are they used by the tourism industry. The paper covers only geothermal resources that are currently being used by the tourism industry. The potential for future usage in this area is also briefly discussed

  14. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  15. Prospecting for geothermal energy through satellite based thermal data: Review and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Howari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal investors need to be confident with the methods and results of exploration programs. Also cutting the upfront cost of geothermal exploration will further encourage investors to consider investment in this emerging clean energy field. Hence, it is of paramount importance to improve prospecting techniques in order to explore where economic concentrations of geothermal energy are to be expected.  The current study evaluates different approaches for downscaling thermal data from remote sensing images together with factors in surface and subsurface environment. The paper discusses case studies, the challenge and the way forward for geothermal prospecting as well as practical solutions to discrepancy that faces the mapping and documentation of spatial geothermal anomalies.  It also discusses main criteria that should be considered while prospecting for geothermal energy.

  16. Geothermal power plants around the world. A sourcebook on the production of electricity from geothermal energy, draft of Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1979-02-01

    This report constitutes a consolidation and a condensation of several individual topical reports dealing with the geothermal electric power stations around the world. An introduction is given to various types of energy conversion systems for use with geothermal resouces. Power plant performance and operating factors are defined and discussed. Existing geothermal plants in the following countries are covered: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States. In each case, the geological setting is outlined, the geothermal fluid characteristics are given, the gathering system, energy conversion system, and fluid disposal method are described, and the environmental impact is discussed. In some cases the economics of power generation are also presented. Plans for future usage of geothermal energy are described for the above-mentioned countries and the following additional ones: the Azores (Portugal), Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Panama. Technical data is presented in twenty-two tables; forty-one figures, including eleven photographs, are also included to illustrate the text. A comprehensive list of references is provided for the reader who wishes to make an in-depth study of any of the topics mentioned.

  17. Geothermal energy used in a cooling generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the geothermal energy recovery and use. It is available in an important water reservoir at 1800 m deep. Some drilled wells deliver each one about 200 1/s at 75-95 degree centigrade for agricultural use. It is necessarily cooled to be in irrigation conditions at 20-25 degree centigrade. Our purpose is to install the adequate sized heat exchangers to recover this important energy and to use it in different needs. Furthermore, a systematic survey is made, on the basis od Lindal Diagram, about different possibilities to use this geothermal reservoir available in arid area. Several applications are experimented and presented to farmers: air conditioning, domestic space heating, bathing, fruits and products drying, aqua fishing, etc.. In this report we present the study including scientific and technical questions (heat and mass transfer, absorption cooling generating, energy and mass balances, etc..). The available heat must be upgraded.The solar energy is used for this need. The total experimental cooled space is: 4 rooms X 210 m3. The coefficient of performance of the set up is 44% and could be enhanced. Inhabitants could use this fresh atmosphere to stock their products and to pay some home comfort. All calculations and theoretical simulations will be presented and commented.(Author)

  18. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide

  19. Geothermal energy in the context of international radiation protection recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous thermal brines of the German geothermal energy provinces are characterized by an enhanced overall mineralization, enhanced amount of solved gases and an enhanced activity concentration of natural radio nuclides. Due to changes in pressure and temperature during the exploration and energetic utilization, materials are deposited. These materials have an enhanced activity concentration of natural radio nuclides especially the isotopes of radium as well as lead. Beside the resulting technical problems such as encrustations in the facility pipelines reducing the performance, investigations of a possibly enhanced radiation exposure in terms of a comprehensive occupational safety and protection of the population is necessary. In order to protect the employees and populations against an enhanced radiation exposition by natural radio-active substances in Germany, since July 2001, the management of the residues with an enhanced amount of natural radio nuclides is regulated for the first time by the part 3 of the Radiological Protection Ordinance as a result of the implementation of the EURATOM regulation. The amendment of the fundamental safety standards of the European Union (EU-Basic Safety Standards - BSS) which was adopted in May 2012 pursued the objective to consider the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) published in the year 2007 as well as a conflation of several directives of the regulatory convergence for the purpose of simplification and standardization. The amendment of the European basic standards should be combined with a series of substantial alterations and will have effects on the German Industry Norms inclusive the geothermal energy by means of the implementation into the national law. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under considerations report on the main innovations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Basic Safety

  20. Geothermal energy: potential applications to diversify the energy matrix of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geothermal energy is a promising renewable energy source due to the low to null CO2 emissions and the stability of energy production. In Uruguay, high geothermal gradients related to magmatism are extinct since the Cretaceous, limiting its geothermal potential. However, a moderate geothermal gradient in northwest Uruguay is estimated at an average of ∼ 28.6 oC/km. Here, thermally insolating Cretaceous flood basalts confine aquifers in Carboniferous to Jurassic sedimentary rocks of the Parana basin. In this area geothermal applications are possible: 1) The over-pressurized, warm waters of the Guarani Aquifer System (∼45°, >1000 m), presently only used by the tourism industry, could be used for domestic or industrial heating (eg. greenhouses) to reduce the consumption of energy from other sources. 2) Waters from possibly deeper Carboniferous-Permian aquifers (≤75 °C, ∼2300 m), may allow the generation of electricity using binary power plants cooled by superficial cold water. If these or other sedimentary rocks extend deeper (≤150 °C, ∼4500 m), conventional binary plants could contribute to the national energy demand. 3) If viable, creating an enhanced geothermal systems in the granitic basement, below 5000 m depth, could also enable the generation of significant amounts of electricity with binary plants. To develop these scenarios, detailed research of the geothermal gradient and its variations at depths, the stratigraphy and structural geology of the Parana basin, the hydrogeology of its aquifers and the localization of granitic intrusions on the basement are needed. All the above, have yet to be systematically and comprehensively studied

  1. Energy performance strategies for the large scale introduction of geothermal energy in residential and industrial buildings: The GEO.POWER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of shallow geothermal energy, in terms of ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP) for heating and cooling purposes, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative with potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. Focusing on the recent results of the GEO.POWER project, this paper aims at examining the energy performance strategies and the future regional and national financial instruments for large scale introduction of geothermal energy and GCHP systems in both residential and industrial buildings. After a transferability assessment to evaluate the reproducibility of some outstanding examples of systems currently existing in Europe for the utilisation of shallow geothermal energy, a set of regulatory, economic and technical actions is proposed to encourage the GCHP market development and support geothermal energy investments in the frame of the existing European normative platforms. This analysis shows that many European markets are changing from a new GCHP market to growth market. However some interventions are still required, such as incentives, regulatory framework, certification schemes and training activities in order to accelerate the market uptake and achieve the main European energy and climate targets. - Highlights: • Potentiality of geothermal applications for heating and cooling in buildings. • Description of the GEO.POWER project and its results. • Local strategies for the large scale introduction of GCHPs

  2. Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai; Oude Essink, Gualbert H P; Hartog, Niels; Sommer, Wijbrand

    2015-01-01

    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of separ

  3. Integrated assessment of variable density-viscosity groundwater flow for a high temperature mono-well aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeghici, Răzvan Mihai; Oude Essink, Gualbert H.P.; Hartog, Niels; Sommer, Wijb

    2015-01-01

    The use of groundwater systems for heat storage increasingly gains interest among water managers, policy makers and researchers as a way to increase the efficiency of energy production and to allow the re-use of waste heat. Typically, mono-well storage systems are thought to require the use of se

  4. Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources, thus complimenting the recently completed ERDA-Susanville Study where a designated community was used as a ''laboratory'' in which land-use planning, institutional aspects, geological assessments, technical modeling and socioeconomic impacts were all examined in overview. During the course of the study, monthly progress reports were prepared and reviewed with the Commission so that emphasis on particular features of study could be changed as necessary to reflect updated findings and to redirect efforts into additional areas of potential promise as they became apparent. In this manner, a degree of flexibility was maintained which allowed a more comprehensive study than would have been otherwise possible. Although the report generates both positive and negative findings in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent.

  5. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, ...

  6. Differences in Public Perceptions of Geothermal Energy Technology in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Carr-Cornish

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, geothermal energy technology is still considered an emerging technology for energy generation. Like other emerging energy technologies, how the public perceive the technology and under what conditions they are likely to accept or oppose the technology, remains relatively unknown. In response, this exploratory research utilised online focus groups to identify: (1 the extent of agreement with geothermal technology before and after information, including media reports focusing on a range of the technology’s attributes; and (2 how the characteristics of individuals with different levels of agreement vary. After information, within the sample of 101 participants, fewer reported being unsure, the minority disagreed and the majority agreed. Overall, the preference was for projects to be located away from communities. Participants that disagreed or were unsure, were more likely to report lower subjective knowledge of the technology, lower perceived benefits and higher risks, and were less likely to believe people in their community would have the opportunity to participate in consultation. These characteristics suggest there are advances to be made by analyzing what contributes to different levels of acceptance. The findings also suggest that the location of projects will be an important consideration and that the conditions of acceptance are likely to vary amongst community members.

  7. Life cycle assessment of geothermal binary power plants using enhanced low-temperature reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal binary power plants that use low-temperature heat sources have gained increasing interest in the recent years due to political efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of finite energy resources. The construction of such plants requires large amounts of energy and material. Hence, the question arises if geothermal binary power plants are also environmentally promising from a cradle-to-grave point of view. In this context, a comprehensive Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) on geothermal power production from EGS (enhanced geothermal systems) low-temperature reservoirs is performed. The results of the analysis show that the environmental impacts are very much influenced by the geological conditions that can be obtained at a specific site. At sites with (above-) average geological conditions, geothermal binary power generation can significantly contribute to more sustainable power supply. At sites with less favorable conditions, only certain plant designs can make up for the energy and material input to lock up the geothermal reservoir by the provided energy. The main aspects of environmentally sound plants are enhancement of the reservoir productivity, reliable design of the deep wells and an efficient utilization of the geothermal fluid for net power and district heat production.

  8. Geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  9. Geothermal energy from the earth: Its potential impact as an environmentally sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy technology is reviewed in terms of its current impact and future potential as an energy source. In general, the geothermal energy resource base is large and well distributed globally. Geothermal systems have a number of positive social characteristics (they are simple, safe, and adaptable systems with modular 1--50 MW [thermal (t) or electric (e)] plants capable of providing continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity) and benign environmental attributes (negligible emissions of CO2, SOx, NOx, and particulates, and modest land and water use). Because these features are compatible with sustainable growth of global energy supplies in both developed and developing countries, geothermal energy is an attractive option to replace fossil and fissile fuels. In 1997, about 7,000 MWe of base-load generating capacity and over 15,000 MWt of heating capacity from high-grade geothermal resources are in commercial use worldwide. 114 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  10. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Arlene [United States Department of Energy; Blackwell, David [Southern Methodist University; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Boyd, Toni [Oregon Institute of Technology; Horne, Roland [Stanford University; MacKenzie, Matthew [Uberity Technology Corporation; Moore, Joseph [University of Utah; Nickull, Duane [Uberity Technology Corporation; Richard, Stephen [Arizona Geological survey; Shevenell, Lisa A. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  11. AN OVERVIEW OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR THE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN EUROPE AND SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Šušteršić; Milun Babić; Dušan R Gordić; Milan Z Despotović; Dobrica M Milovanović

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the relevant legislation for the geothermal energy in the European countries and Serbia is reviewed. There is a variety of the incentives for the geothermal production which are well known throughout the European Union. The governmental policies for the support of the geothermal development have so far focused on the power generation only. It is necessary to make serious efforts in order to harmonize the legislation and to simplify the procedures of establishing and implementing...

  12. Governance Obstacles to Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Winters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having 40 per cent of the world’s potential for geothermal power production, Indonesia exploits less than five per cent of its own geothermal resources. We explore the reasons behind this lagging development of geothermal power and highlight four obstacles: (1 delays caused by the suboptimal decentralisation of permitting procedures to local governments that have few incentives to support geothermal exploitation; (2 rent-seeking behaviour originating in the point-source nature of geothermal resources; (3 the opacity of central government decision making; and (4 a historically deleterious national fuel subsidy policy that disincentivised geothermal investment. We situate our arguments against the existing literature and three shadow case studies from other Pacific countries that have substantial geothermal resources. We conclude by arguing for a more centralised geothermal governance structure.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  14. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  15. Regional assessment of geothermal potential along the Balcones and Luling-Mexia-Talco Fault Zones, Central Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; McBride, M.W.

    1979-05-01

    A region-wide inventory and assessment of aquifers known to yield warm water (greater than 90/sup 0/F, 32/sup 0/C) is presented. This study was conducted to ascertain the potential for obtaining geothermal energy for space heating and water heating. The aquifers investigated include the Hosston/Trinity Sands, the Hensel Sand, the Paluxy Sand, the Edwards Limestone, and the Woodbine Sand. Each aquifer was examined in terms of its stratigraphic and structural framework and its hydrogeological properties. (MHR)

  16. Governance Obstacles to Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Winters; Matthew Cawvey

    2015-01-01

    Despite having 40 per cent of the world’s potential for geothermal power production, Indonesia exploits less than five per cent of its own geothermal resources. We explore the reasons behind this lagging development of geothermal power and highlight four obstacles: (1) delays caused by the suboptimal decentralisation of permitting procedures to local governments that have few incentives to support geothermal exploitation; (2) rent-seeking behaviour originating in the point-source nature of ge...

  17. Governance Obstacles to Geothermal Energy Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew S. Winters; Matthew Cawvey

    2015-01-01

    Despite having 40 per cent of the world’s potential for geothermal power production, Indonesia exploits less than five per cent of its own geothermal resources. We explore the reasons behind this lagging development of geothermal power and highlight four obstacles: (1) delays caused by the suboptimal decentralisation of permitting procedures to local governments that have few incentives to support geothermal exploitation; (2) rent-seeking behaviour originating in the point-source nature of ...

  18. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. 2nd quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.V.; Willens, C.A.; Walter, K.M.; Carrico, R.L.; Lowe, G.D.; Lacy, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The completed geochemical analysis of groundwater in the Pine Creek area for evaluation of the geothermal potential of this location is presented. Also included is an environmental constraints analysis of Pine Creek noting any potential environmental problems if a geothermal system was developed onsite. Design of a geothermal system is discussed for site-specific applications and is discussed in detail with equipment recommendations and material specifications. A preliminary financial, economic, and institutional assessment of geothermal system located totally on Union Carbide property at Pine Creek is included. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal energy, research, development and demonstration program. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The following topics are covered: the geothermal resource potential in the U.S., national geothermal utilization estimates, the Federal geothermal development strategy and program, Federal progress and achievements FY 1978, regional progress FY 1978, and Federal program plans for FY 1979. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal energy and district heating in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the possibilities for using shallow geothermal energy for heating purposes in Ny-Ålesund. The current energy supply in Ny-Ålesund is a diesel generator, which does not comply with the Norwegian government and Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee’s common goal to maintain the natural environment in Ny-Ålesund. Ny-Ålesund has a potential for replacing the heat from the current diesel based energy source with geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is considered to have low im...

  1. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a layman's guide. Geothermal Resources Council special report No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are covered: nature and distribution of geothermal energy; exploration, confirmation, and evaluation of the resource; reservoir development and management; utilization; economics of direct-use development; financing direct-use projects; and legal, institutional, and environmental aspects. (MHR)

  2. Technological advances and applications of geothermal energy pile foundations and their feasibility in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Moel, Monique; Sun, JingLiang O. [Snowy Mountain Engineering Corporation (SMEC), Level 4/71, Queens Rd, Melbourne 3004 (Australia); Bach, Peter M.; Bouazza, Abdelmalek; Singh, Rao M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Building 60, Monash University, Melbourne, 3800 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Geothermal energy pile foundations are an alternative energy source for heating and cooling needs. Utilising this source of energy has great potential due to the environmental, economic and social benefits. This paper looks at an extensive amount of literature on the technology behind the system including the overall process, primary considerations for each of the main components including latest developments as well as design implications such as the integration of ground energy systems into structural piles of buildings. Environmental considerations including performance-dependent parameters of the subsurface are described. Main parameters include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and moisture content. Temperature and groundwater effects are also discussed and design considerations are provided. Mathematical models are available to aid in the design of these systems but there are various other issues and complex parameters that need to be considered qualitatively. Furthermore, the design of these systems is governed by various standards and government legislation. Case studies are presented to show the application of these systems in practise including assessments of system performance. Examples originate from countries such as Austria, Switzerland, Germany, UK, USA, Japan, Iran, Sweden and Norway. Benefits and limitations of implementing these systems are summarised and finally, the feasibility of geothermal energy pile foundations in Australia is explored. This paper found that these systems, although exhibiting some limitations and possible challenges, are a viable option in terms of an alternative energy source. (author)

  3. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  4. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO2, but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  7. Energy and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand.......The paper introduce and discuss strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and economic assessment for energy innovation and suggests approach to influence support for sustainable energy development in Thailand....

  8. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O' Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  9. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Geothermal power for communities and industry. Lecture meeting; Geothermische Energie fuer Kommunen und Industrie. Vortragsveranstaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Geothermal energy is utilized in many ways in Germany for heating, cooling and power generation. The first industrial-scale power generation plant was commissioned in Neustadt-Glewe, Mecklenburg, in late 2003. This marks the beginning of an era of rapid development which will make geothermal power a key element of power supply in Germany. Studies show a vast geothermal potential. This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers which illustrate the many applications of geothermal power and its legal and economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  11. Developments in geothermal energy in Mexico-part one: general considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas De Pozo, P.; Gomez, D.N.; Holland, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Mexico is blessed with large geothermal resources. However, the task of extracting this energy efficiently and economically presents formidable problems. These are being tackled by scientists and engineers at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca. Their work, which is described in this paper, ranges from theoretical and laboratory studies to the operation of power generating units and heat pumps located in geothermal fields. Work is also underway on the evaluation of geothermal resources, developments in well drilling and termination technology, the solution of corrosion and scaling problems and the recovery of chemicals from geothermal fluids.

  12. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  13. Uses of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses; project proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal for the exploration of geothermal energy in Jordan for heating greenhouses. The report gives some background information on geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and outlines some on-going uses of geothermal energy in various parts of Jordan. The proposal is modelled on the 2664 square meter Filclair Super 9 Multispan greenhouse from France. The overall cost of the project involves three variables, the cost of the borehole, the cost of the greenhouse, and the cost of engineering services. The total cost ranges between three to four million dollars depending on the quantity and quality of information to be collected from the borehole. The advantages of geothermal heating compared with oil heating are emphasized. The project will enable geothermal heating and horticultural production to be monitored throughout the year, will produce data enabling rational and reliable water resources management, and will produce environmentally clean and efficient energy. (A.M.H.). 1 tab. 1 map

  14. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin [Energy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric [Energy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  15. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  16. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  17. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-01-01

    Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 ), have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  18. Geothermal Energy Heat from the Earth: Nevada; GeoPowering the West Series Fact Sheet (Revised October 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General use fact sheet about geothermal energy in Nevada. Nevada holds the largest amount of untapped geothermal resources in the U.S., with a potential of 2,500 to 3,700 megawatts of electricity (Mwe)

  19. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Cremer, G.M.; Smith, M.C.

    1979-09-01

    The potential of energy extracted from hot dry rock (HDR) was investigated as a commercailly feasible alternate energy source. Run Segments 3 and 4 were completed in the prototype reservoir of the Phase I energy-extraction system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Results of these tests yielded significant data on the existing system and this information will be applicable to future HDR systems. Plans and operations initiating a Phase II system are underway at the Fenton Hill site. This system, a deeper, hotter commercial-size reservoir, is intended to demonstrate the longevity and economics of an HDR system. Major activity occurred in evaluation of the national resource potential and in characterizing possible future HDR geothermal sites. Work has begun in the institutional and industrial support area to assess the economics and promote commercial interest in HDR systems as an alternate energy source.

  20. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1995--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1995-12-01

    The report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-95. It describes 80 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment and resources. Research activities are summarized on low-temperature resource assessment, geothermal energy cost evaluation and marketing strategy for geothermal district heating. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  1. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  2. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Europe, the Pannonian Basin and adjacent areas are holding some of the most attractive geothermal energy resources available from subsurface hot water reservoirs. In fact, utilization of geothermal energy has a long-standing tradition in the region, mainly for thermal and medicinal bathing. Nevertheless, putting to use the extractable heat in a technical and economical optimum manner, and integrating the various energy flows (heating, cooling, vitiated air, etc.) in the application system as well as returning the cooled effluent (excluding used bath water) back to the reservoir, has not found general acceptance to date. This is regrettable not least because thermal spas can be regarded as virtually ideal objects for an integrated management of energy flows on a low temperature level. Hardly any other facilities are in nearly constant, year-round need of heat at a low temperature, as is actually delivered by most thermal aquifers. Also, waste heat and solar energy can be added without much inconvenience, and if hotels and/or therapeutic facilities are to be supplied, there will be cooling demand as well. Many spas in the region are about to update their technology. Complementing this development by an initiative for an integrated and therefore economical use of all the heat sinks and sources that may be present was the main objective of the "network project" PANTHERM (www.pantherm.eu) designed at the University of Applied Life Sciences and Natural Resources, Vienna, in cooperation with four Austrian and ten Hungarian, Slovak and Slovenian partners, and funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, Vienna. In the course of a technical feasibility study it was dealt with the problem, and - by example of the spa of Sárvár in Hungary - demonstrated also, in which way the given mass and energy flows need to be interconnected in order to achieve an optimum energy yield, always with an eye on cost-effectiveness and sustainability. The other Eastern

  3. 'Geothermal Energy' - and policies - in the Netherlands. Country update November 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heekeren, Victor van [Van Heekeren and Frima Management Consultants, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Roughly 40% of Dutch energy demand is consumed in the form of low temperature energy for houses, greenhouses and buildings in general - and practically all in the form of natural gas. However, this low temperature energy demand is increasingly supplied by geothermal energy in its various forms. This situation may improve in the coming years. The Netherlands saw a spectacular rise in shallow geothermal applications in the last twenty years. Now Holland seems set on a similar steep path towards deep geothermal energy use. Exploration licence applications for deep drillings have increased from a modest trickle to a torrent of > 50 in the last year and a major impact is expected from the new guarantee scheme - published in October 2009. This article deals with the Dutch developments in the domain of deep geothermal energy. (orig.)

  4. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  5. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  6. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  7. Alsace, geothermal energy on the way of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsace is a leader in geothermal energy as projects presented in this article illustrate it. This technology means the exploration of more than two thousand meter deep drillings to exploit hot water (with a temperature of about 150 C or more). A first project is rather advanced in Beinheim with a starch plant which will be supplied with steam by a 24 MW power plant which is under construction in Rittershoffen. The Fonroche Geothermie Company which has German partners has announced the construction of four power plants for the Strasbourg urban community. The article also evokes an older industrial pilot project which was built in 1987, and outlines the academic expertise of the region

  8. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  9. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Behavior and Fluid Flow in Geothermal Energy Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson III, Willis Hope

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal heat exchangers are a growing energy technology that improve the energy efficiency of heating and cooling systems in buildings. Vertical borehole heat exchangers (BHE) coupled with ground source heat pumps have been widely developed and researched in the past century. The major disadvantage of BHEs is the initial capital cost required to drill the boreholes. Geothermal energy piles (GEP) were developed to help offset the high initial cost of these systems. A GEP combines ground...

  11. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  12. Assessment of the Geothermal System Near Stanley, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Armstrong; John Welhan; Mike McCurry

    2012-06-01

    The City of Stanley, Idaho (population 63) is situated in the Salmon River valley of the central Idaho highlands. Due to its location and elevation (6270 feet amsl) it is one of the coldest locales in the continental U.S., on average experiencing frost 290 days of the year as well as 60 days of below zero (oF) temperatures. Because of high snowfall (76 inches on average) and the fact that it is at the terminus of its rural grid, the city also frequently endures extended power outages during the winter. To evaluate its options for reducing heating costs and possible local power generation, the city obtained a rural development grant from the USDA and commissioned a feasibility study through author Roy Mink to determine whether a comprehensive site characterization and/or test drilling program was warranted. Geoscience students and faculty at Idaho State University (ISU), together with scientists from the Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted three field data collection campaigns between June, 2011 and November, 2012 with the assistance of author Beckwith who arranged for food, lodging and local property access throughout the field campaigns. Some of the information collected by ISU and the IGS were compiled by author Mink and Boise State University in a series of progress reports (Makovsky et al., 2011a, b, c, d). This communication summarizes all of the data collected by ISU including data that were compiled as part of the IGS’s effort for the National Geothermal Data System’s (NGDS) data compilation project funded by the Department of Energy and coordinated by the Arizona Geological Survey.

  13. Geothermal energy in Montana: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    A short description of the state's geothermal characteristics, economy, and climate is presented. More specific information is included under the planning regions and site specific data summaries. A brief discussion of the geothermal characteristics and a listing of a majority of the known hot springs is included. The factors which influence geothermal development were researched and presented, including: economics, financing, state leasing, federal leasing, direct-use technology, water quality laws, water rights, and the Major Facility Siting Act. (MHR)

  14. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  15. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager.

  16. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  17. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  18. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  19. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  20. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N. (eds.)

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  1. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  2. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  3. Environmental investigations associated with the LASL hot dry rock geothermal energy development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, K.H.

    1977-12-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is currently evaluating the feasibility of extracting thermal energy from hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. An overview of the environmental studies that LASL has conducted relative to its HDR Geothermal Energy Development Project is presented. Because HDR geothermal technology is a new field of endeavor, environmental guidelines have not been established. It is anticipated that LASL's research will lead to the techniques necessary to mitigate undesirable environmental impacts in future HDR developments. To date, results of environmental investigations have been positive in that no undesirable environmental impacts have been found.

  4. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  5. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  7. Environmental considerations for geothermal energy as a source for district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1996-01-01

    Geothermal energy currently provides a stable and environmentally attractive heat source for approximately 20 district heating (DH) systems in the United States. The use of this resource eliminates nearly 100% of the conventional fuel consumption (and, hence, the emissions) of the loads served by these systems. As a result, geothermal DH systems can rightfully claim the title of the most fuel-efficient CH systems in operations today. The cost of producing heat from a geothermal resource (including capitalization of the production facility and cost for pumping) amounts to an average of $1.00 per mission Btu (0.0034 $/kWh). The major environmental challenge for geothermal systems is proper management of the producing aquifer. Many systems are moving toward injection of the geothermal fluids to ensure long-term production.

  8. Environmental considerations for geothermal energy as a source for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy currently provides a stable and environmentally attractive heat source for approximately 20 district heating (DH) systems in the US. The use of this resource eliminates nearly 100% of the conventional fuel consumption (and, hence, the emissions) of the loads served by these systems. As a result, geothermal DH systems can rightfully claim the title of the most fuel-efficient DH systems in operation today. The cost of producing heat from a geothermal resource (including capitalization of the production facility and cost for pumping) amounts to an average of $1.00 per million Btu (0.0034 $/kWh). The major environmental challenge for geothermal systems is proper management of the producing aquifer. Many systems are moving toward injection of the geothermal fluids to ensure long-term production

  9. Outlook on principles for designing integrated and cascade use of low enthalpy geothermal energy in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the countries of Western Europe, USA and Japan, the technologies of a new generation evolved to exploit high and low enthalpy geothermal sources and mineral waters. There are great experiences for modern complex exploitation of these resources, which increase natural wealth values, in European Community Countries. In Albania, rich in geothermal resources of low enthalpy and mineral waters, similar new technologies have been either partly developed or remain still untouched. Modern complex exploitation is very rare phenomena. Large numbers of geothermal energy of high and low enthalpy resources, a lot of mineral water sources and some CO2 gas reservoirs represent the base for successfully application of modern technologies in Albania, to achieve economic effectively and success of complex exploitation. Actuality, there are many geothermal, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, biological and medical investigations and studies of thermal and mineral water resources carried out in Albania. Generally, these investigations and studies are separated each from the other. Their information and data will serve for studies and evaluations in Albania regional scale. These studies and evaluations are necessary to well know in regional plane the thermal and mineral water resources potential and geothermal market of the Albania. According to results of these new studies, the evaluation for the perspective level of the best areas in country will be necessary. After the evaluation is possible to start investments in these areas. These investments will be profitable in a short period of time. Integrated and cascade use of geothermal energy of low enthalpy it is important condition for profitable investment. In Albania, there are several geothermal energy sources that can be used. Such geothermal energy sources are natural thermal water springs and deep wells with a temperature of up to 65,5oC. Deep abandoned oil wells can be used as 'Vertical Earth Heat Probe'. The integrated and

  10. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  11. Assessment of New Approaches in Geothermal Exploration Decision Making: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, S.; Young, K. R.

    2015-02-01

    Geothermal exploration projects have significant amount of risk associated with uncertainties encountered in the discovery of the geothermal resource. Understanding when and how to proceed in an exploration program, and when to walk away from a site, are two of the largest challenges for increased geothermal deployment. Current methodologies for exploration decision making is left to subjective by subjective expert opinion which can be incorrectly biased by expertise (e.g. geochemistry, geophysics), geographic location of focus, and the assumed conceptual model. The aim of this project is to develop a methodology for more objective geothermal exploration decision making at a given location, including go-no-go decision points to help developers and investors decide when to give up on a location. In this scope, two different approaches are investigated: 1) value of information analysis (VOIA) which is used for evaluating and quantifying the value of a data before they are purchased, and 2) enthalpy-based exploration targeting based on reservoir size, temperature gradient estimates, and internal rate of return (IRR). The first approach, VOIA, aims to identify the value of a particular data when making decisions with an uncertain outcome. This approach targets the pre-drilling phase of exploration. These estimated VOIs are highly affected by the size of the project and still have a high degree of subjectivity in assignment of probabilities. The second approach, exploration targeting, is focused on decision making during the drilling phase. It starts with a basic geothermal project definition that includes target and minimum required production capacity and initial budgeting for exploration phases. Then, it uses average temperature gradient, reservoir temperature estimates, and production capacity to define targets and go/no-go limits. The decision analysis in this approach is based on achieving a minimum IRR at each phase of the project. This second approach was

  12. Utilization of surface-near geothermal energy by means of energy piles and geothermal probes; Nutzung der oberflaechennahen Geothermie mittels Energiepfaehlen und Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2013-05-01

    In collaboration with the Institute of Thermo-Fluid Dynamics (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany), a pilot plant for geothermal and sorption supported air-conditioning was built in the dockside area of Hamburg. The author of the book under consideration investigates a geothermal power plant with five energy poles and three boreholes. The economic and environmental benefits of this pilot plant were detected. The thermodynamic behavior of these energy piles was numerically simulated very well. The complex processes in the energy pile and in the soil could be mapped By means of a thermal-hydraulic-mechanical coupled simulation. The extraction capacity of a geothermal probe could be significantly increased by means of a combination of a groundwater circulation method with borehole heat exchangers.

  13. Wellhead anti-frost technology using deep mine geothermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; He Manchao; Yang Qin; Chen Chen

    2011-01-01

    The auxiliary shaft is an important location for coal mine heating in the winter,where the main purpose of heating is to prevent icing of the shaft.Wellhead heating requires characteristics of openness,no-noise and big heat loads.The original coal-fired boiler heating mode causes significant waste of energy and environmental pollution due to the low efficiency of the heat exchange.Therefore,to solve these problems,we will use deep mine geothermal energy to heat the wellhead by making full use of its negative pressure field and design a low-temperature water and fan-free heating system.Through numerical calculations we will simulate temperature fields,pressure fields and velocity fields under different air supply temperatures,as well as different air supply outlet locations and varying number of radiators in the wellhead room of a new auxiliary shaft to find the proper layout and number of radiators that meet wellhead anti-frost requirements from our simulation results,in order to provide guidelines for a practical engineering design.Tests on the Zhangshuanglou auxiliary shaft wellhead shows good,look promising and appear to resolve successfully the problem of high energy consumption and high pollution of wellhead heating by a coal-fired boiler.

  14. Injection and energy recovery in fractured geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; O' Sullivan, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical studies of the effects of injection on the behavior of production wells completed in fractured two-phase geothermal reservoirs are presented. In these studies the multiple-interacting-continua (MINC) method is employed for the modeling of idealized fractured reservoirs. Simulations are carried out for a five-spot well pattern with various well spacings, fracture spacings, and injection fractions. The production rates from the wells are calculated using a deliverability model. The results of the studies show that injection into two-phase fractured reservoirs increases flow rates and decreases enthalpies of producing wells. These two effects offset each other so that injection tends to have small effects on the usable energy output of production wells in the short term. However, if a sufficiently large fraction of the produced fluids is injected, the fracture system may become liquid-filled and an increased steam rate is obtained. Our studies show that injection greatly increases the long-term energy output from wells, as it helps extract heat from the resrvoir rocks. If a high fraction of the produced fluids is injected, the ultimate energy recovery will increase manyfold.

  15. IN SITU GEOTHERMAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY: AN APPROACH FOR BUILDING CLEANER AND GREENER ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Faruque Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is abundant everywhere in the world. It certainly would be a great benefit for human being once it is produced by a sophisticated technology. Consequently, it would be the biggest console for earth considering environmental sustainability. Unfortunately, the current status of commercial production of geothermal energy primarily from hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma are limited to a few countries due to technological difficulties and production cost. This p...

  16. Disposal of materials from deep geothermal energy facilities. Experiences from the regulatory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003 the Federal authorities (Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz Brandenburg) were confronted for the first time with the problem of radioactive waste materials (drill sludge) from the deep geothermal energy facility in Gross Schoenebeck. The geothermal energy facility is part of the genetic research center Potsdam. The legal boundary conditions based on the radiation protection regulations are discussed in the frame of the experiences since 2003. The German radiation protection legislation has to include the actual Euratom guideline until 2018.

  17. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  18. Status and prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany; Stand und Aussichten der Tiefengeothermie in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [GGA-Inst., Hannover (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The article summarizes the geothermal potential, the status and the prospects of geothermal energy use in Germany and arrives at the following conclusions: Even in a country like Germany with no active vulcanism the resources for geothermal power production and direct use are very high and exceed those of conventional energy sources by far. Geothermal use in Germany however is still in its initial stage. The installed capacity in 2005 amounted to 135 MW{sub th} for direct use and to only 230 kW{sub el} for power production. The uprating of the allowance for geothermal power from 0.09 Euro/kWh to 0.15 Euro/kWh in 2004 and the R and D-programme for renewable energy of the Ministry of Environment has initiated a great number of new projects especially in the Upper Rhine Valley and in the Fore Alp Region near Munich. The success of these projects will be critical for the development of geothermal power production in Germany in the near future. Geothermal energy use in Germany is so far restricted to deep seated hot water aquifers. One of the major barriers for a wider application of this resource is our poor knowledge about the hydraulic properties of these aquifers leading to a great and in many cases unacceptable risk for potential investors. For this reason a geothermal information system is under development at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover which will help to supply investors with the best information available and to quantify the risk for insurance companies and geothermal funds. Though hot water aquifers suitable for geothermal power production are rare in Germany the size of this resource is comparable to the German oil and gas resources. Nevertheless their contribution to the national power production will remain small and will hardly exceed a few hundred MW{sub el}. Their potential for direct use is much higher. But since heat has to be produced very close to the consumer to prevent excessive costs for transportation this huge

  19. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  20. Evaluation of state taxes and tax incentives and their impact on the development of geothermal energy in western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.T.; Bronder, L.D.

    1980-09-01

    The economic impact of existing and prospective state taxes and tax incentives on direct thermal applications of geothermal energy are evaluated. Study area is eight western states which have existing potential geothermal activities. Economic models representing the geothermal producer and business enterprise phases of four industrial/commercial uses of geothermal energy are synthesized and then placed in the existing tax structures of each state for evaluation. The effects of the state taxations on net profits and tax revenues are determined. Tax incentives to accelerate geothermal development are also examined.

  1. Data assimilation for the investigation of deep temperature and geothermal energy in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, Damien; Limberger, Jon; Lipsey, Lindsey; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems, mostly for the direct use of heat, have been attracting more and more interest in the past 10 years in Western Europe. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system, the scientific community has been working on tools that could be used to highlight area of potential interest for geothermal exploration. In the Netherlands, ThermoGIS is one such tool that has been developed to inform the general public, policy makers, and developers in the energy sector of the possibility of geothermal energy development. One major component incorporated in this tool is the temperature model. For the Netherlands, we created a thermal model at the lithospheric scale that focus on the sedimentary deposits for deep geothermal exploration. This regional thermal modelling concentrates on the variations of geological thermal conductivity and heat production both in the sediments and in the crust. In addition, we carried out special modelling in order to specifically understand convectivity in the basin, focusing on variations at a regional scale. These works, as well as recent improved of geological knowledge in the deeper part of the basin, show interesting evidence for geothermal energy development. At this scale, the aim of this work is to build on these models and, using data assimilation, to discriminate in the actual causes of the observed anomalies. The temperature results obtained for the Netherlands show some thermal patterns that relate to the variation of the thermal conductivity and the geometry of the sediments. There is also strong evidence to indicate that deep convective flows are responsible for thermal anomalies. The combination of conductive and local convective thermal patterns makes the deeper part of the Dutch sedimentary basin of great interest for the development of geothermal

  2. Economic Feasibility Analysis of the Application of Geothermal Energy Facilities to Public Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present an efficient plan for the application of a geothermal energy facility at the building structure planning phase. Energy consumption, energy cost and the primary energy consumption of buildings were calculated to enable a comparison of buildings prior to the application of a geothermal energy facility. The capacity for energy savings and the costs related to the installation of such a facility were estimated. To obtain more reliable criteria for economic feasibility, the lifecycle cost (LCC analysis incorporated maintenance costs (reflecting repair and replacement cycles based on construction work specifications of a new renewable energy facility and initial construction costs (calculated based on design drawings for its practical installation. It is expected that the findings of this study will help in the selection of an economically viable geothermal energy facility at the building construction planning phase.

  3. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  4. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  6. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  7. The Romanian perspective on geothermal energy resources. The chemistry of the geothermal waters from Oradea Triassic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra M. Petrescu-Mag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the European Commission put forward a proposal for a new directive (COM (200830 on renewable energies to replace the existing measures adopted in 2001. According to the proposal, each member state should increase its share of renewable energies - such as solar, wind or hydro - in an effort to boost the EU's share from 8.5% today to 20% by 2020. According to Cohuţ & Bendea (2000 in Romania are over 200 wells drilled to depths between 800 and 3500 m that encountered geothermalresources at temperatures from 40 to 120 °C. These wells have a total thermal capacity of about 480 Mwt. The Oradea aquifer was identified between 1963-1964 by the drills 4005 and 4006. To establish the content of the major elements of the geothermal waters from the production wells from Oradea, the geothermal fluids were sampled and analyzed during six months (since October 2007 to March 2008, by using ion chromatographic (IC method. In this period of the year, the geothermal installations are used at the maximum capacity.

  8. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  9. A Reservoir Assessment of the Geysers Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Dykstra, Herman; Stockton, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Upon moderately dipping, fracture network. Condensed steam at the steep reservoir flank drains back to the hot water table. These flanks are defined roughly by marginally-producing geothermal wells. Field extensions are expected to be on the southeast and northwest. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably represent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resitivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. Monitoring gravity and geodetic changes with time and mapping microearthquake activity are methods that show promise for determining reservoir size, possible recharge, production lifetime, and other characteristics of the known stream field. Seismic reflection data may contribute to the efficient exploitation of the field by identifying fracture zones that serve as conduits for the steam. (DJE-2005)

  10. The impact of large-scale renewable energy development on the poor: environmental and socio-economic impact of a geothermal power plant on a poor rural community in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariita, N.O. [Kenya Electricity Generating Company Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

    2002-09-01

    The article assesses the local environmental and socio-economic impact of geothermal power plant on poor rural community in Kenya. The country's geothermal resources are located in the Rift Valley region - an environmentally and culturally fragile part of the country. Kenya's main geothermal plants are located in the middle of one of Rift Valley's major wildlife parks - a major tourist attraction. Over the last two decades, the surrounding area has also become a major centre for Kenya's flourishing commercial flower farming, which is now partially powered by geothermal energy. This article examines environmental and socio-economic impacts on the nomadic low-income rural Maasai community of the simultaneous development of geothermal energy, flower farming and wildlife/tourism industry. While the near-term environmental impacts have been minimal, the article warns of significant adverse impacts in the future if the competing demands of the fast growing geothermal energy, flower farming as well as wildlife/tourism sector are not adequately addressed. In the short-term, however, the socio-economic impact of geothermal energy development is likely to be the main source of conflict. The article ends by proposing policy and institutional measures that would ensure that the local Maasai community enjoys a wider range of socio-economic benefits as well as mitigate long-term adverse environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy development. (author)

  11. Geothermal Heat Flux Assessment Using Remote Sensing Land Surface Temperature and Simulated Data. Case Studies at the Kenyan Rift and Yellowstone Geothermal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C.; van der Meer, F. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we propose an innovative approach to assess the geothermal heat flux anomalies in the regions of the Kenyan Rift and the Yellowstone geothermal areas. The method is based on the land surface temperature (LST) differences obtained between remote sensing data and land surface model simulations. The hypothesis is that the model simulations do not account for the subsurface geothermal heat source in the formulation. Remote sensing of surface emitted radiances is able to detect at least the radiative portion of the geothermal signal that is not in the models. Two methods were proposed to assess the geothermal component of LST (LSTgt) based on the aforementioned hypothesis: a physical model and a data mining approach. The LST datasets were taken from the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facilities products over Africa and the Copernicus Programme for North America, at a spatial resolution of 3-5 km. These correspond to Meteosat Second Generation and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system satellites data respectively. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate LST based on atmospheric and surface characteristics using the Noah land surface model. The analysis was carried out for a period of two months by using nighttime acquisitions. Higher spatial resolution images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were also used on the Kenyan area to produce similar outputs employing existing methods. The comparison of the results from both methods and areas illustrated the potential of the data and methodologies for geothermal applications.

  12. Geothermal energy: Its role in the generation of electricity and its environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy, as natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades to generate electricity and in district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is 5,838 MWe, and will reach 9,000 MWe in 1995. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional sources of energy. In developing countries where total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: In El Salvador, for example, 19% of electricity comes from geothermal steam and 14% in the Philippines. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy can also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. While the viability of hot dry rock technology has been proven, research and development are still necessary for the other two sources. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

    1996-01-24

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

  14. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J. [Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Univ. of California (United States); Antunez, E.U. [Earth Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Univ. of California (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and to learn more about them is also given. (orig.)

  15. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  16. Current state of exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that at present, the geothermal exploitation in France is characterized by sixty plants using geothermal energy for direct heat in district heating. Drilling and connection to networks occurred mainly during the years 1980-1985. From 1985 to 1990, the research efforts have been focused on detailed reservoir knowledge, corrosion-scaling process induced by the fluid composition, methods and techniques for maintenance, rehabilitation of some wells and equipments after work over. Concentrated in two main area, the Paris and Aquitaine basins, the French geothermal potential is large. The improved knowledge obtained during the last five years spared to the valorization of existing plants will allow a new start of geothermal exploitation. Nevertheless this latter is highly dependent on the international energy context

  17. Natural radionuclides in facilities of deep geothermal energy in Germany. Origin and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy facilities use two inexhaustible energy reservoirs, the heat flux from the earth crust and earth core, originating from the gravitational process of the planet development 4.7 billion years ago, and on the other hand the continuous heat production as a consequence of the decay processes of natural radionuclides in the earth crust. The heat flux through the earth surface is in the range of 1013 W, 50 to 70% originating from the radioactive decay. The constancy of this heat flux causes the attractiveness of the geothermal energy as base load energy production in comparison with other renewable energy sources.

  18. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  20. Geothermal energy in Idaho: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The various factors affecting geothermal resource development are summarized for Idaho, including: resource data base, geological description, reservoir characteristics, environmental character, lease and development status, institutional factors, legal aspects, population and market, and development. (MHR)