WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment economic impact

  1. Economic impact assessment on SANREM

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint summarizes findings from SANREM’s economic impact assessment cross-cutting research activity (CRRA-6). It describes results from budgeting studies, linear programming models, and aggregate impact analysis for several study sites. Additionally, it provides information about the CCRA’s publications and training activities.

  2. Assessing the economic impacts of ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Keith

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a wide-ranging overview of issues related to the economic impacts of ICT. It discusses the broad issues of theory and method involved in thinking about a new radical technology, such as ICT, in economic change. However this discussion is extended in several directions – into a discussion of statistical and measurement issues, into an overview of the empirical dimensions of ICT in economic growth both at OECD and European levels, and into a discussion of the nature of ICT as a te...

  3. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  4. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  5. Lebanon : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    To provide a solid basis to define its needs and frame its priorities in terms of the specific assistance it seeks from the international community as well as to inform its own domestic policy response, the Government of Lebanon (GoL) requested the World Bank to lead an Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the Syrian conflict on Lebanon. Upon an official request from the Prime M...

  6. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  7. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  9. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  10. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  11. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  12. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  13. Assessing the Social Impacts of the Economic Crisis in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Center of Social Expertise

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in three stages during 2009 through April 2011. The main objective of the study is to determine, on the basis of usage of qualitative data collection methods, impact of the economic crisis on the most vulnerable population groups, as well as to monitor dynamics of changes in the lives of the respondents by consistently comparing the results of each of the consec...

  14. Economic Impact Assessment of IPM CRSP Activities in Bangladesh and Uganda: A GIS Application

    OpenAIRE

    Debass, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assist planners and scientists in assessing the economic implications of the USAID-funded Integrated Pest Management-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) research activities. The study presents a framework and a set of procedures for documenting, evaluating and communicating aggregate economic impacts of IPM technologies within targeted areas and across agro-ecological regions. Performing an economic impact assessment involves consideration of ...

  15. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  16. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  17. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  18. Economic and social impact of introducing casino gambling: a review and assessment of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Mallach

    2010-01-01

    Reviews and assesses the existing literature on the potential economic impact of introducing casino gambling into a community or region, first by discussing the casinos? effect on economic activity and growth within a community or region, and then by exploring their effect on government revenues. Also discusses the literature related to the economic impact of social costs widely associated with gambling, such as increases in crime, bankruptcy, and problem gambling.

  19. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  1. Socio-economic scenarios for climate change impact assessment : a guide to their use in the UK Climate Impacts Programme

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Enormous challenges are faced in devising socio-economic scenarios for the assessment of future impacts and there is very little experience to draw upon. Socio-economic scenarios have not been widely used within impacts studies, but this report will serve to encourage their use more widely within the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP). The aim has been to develop a scenarios framework through which stakeholders are able to reflect upon possible alternative futures and to make...

  2. Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

  3. The Economical and Ecological Importance of the Environmental Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ungureanu Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Balancing human needs of the immediate future with those of the distant future has led to the concept of sustainability, understood by the fact that economic activities should not be extended over the ability of total capital – including natural one –, keeping a stock of capital being a safe measure to ensure increasing sustainable benefits. The world of business has learned that a primary purpose of obtaining short-term financial benefits, despite the sustainable benefits to maintain economi...

  4. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  5. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  6. The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

  7. Socio-economic and Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: An Integrated Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; Tubiello, F.N.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro- ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological- economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in...

  8. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; N. Tubiello, Francesco; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conj...

  9. An empirical economic assessment of impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Suman

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia, using the Ricardian method. A multiple linear regression model with net revenue per hectare as response variable has been fitted with climate, hydrological, soil, and socioeconomic variables as explanatory variables. There is one main cropping season in Zambia, lasting from November to April. Crop product...

  10. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification’s impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Paulo A.L.D. Nunes; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from es...

  11. Public Innovation Support index for Impact Assessment in the European Economic Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Vilys; Artūras Jakubavičius; Eigirdas Žemaitis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The object of this research is public innovation support in European Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. The main aim is to propose a new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, adjusted to contemporary needs and based on practice of public innovation support development. Research Design & Methods: The methods of comparative, cluster, regression, modelling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluatio...

  12. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  13. Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Günther; Shah, Mahendra; Tubiello, Francesco N; van Velhuizen, Harrij

    2005-11-29

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological-economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in conjunction with IIASAs global food system model, using climate variables from five different general circulation models, under four different socio-economic scenarios from the intergovernmental panel on climate change. First, impacts of different scenarios of climate change on bio-physical soil and crop growth determinants of yield are evaluated on a 5' X 5' latitude/longitude global grid; second, the extent of potential agricultural land and related potential crop production is computed. The detailed bio-physical results are then fed into an economic analysis, to assess how climate impacts may interact with alternative development pathways, and key trends expected over this century for food demand and production, and trade, as well as key composite indices such as risk of hunger and malnutrition, are computed. This modelling approach connects the relevant bio-physical and socio-economic variables within a unified and coherent framework to produce a global assessment of food production and security under climate change. The results from the study suggest that critical impact asymmetries due to both climate and socio-economic structures may deepen current production and consumption gaps between developed and developing world; it is suggested that adaptation of agricultural techniques will be central to limit potential damages under climate change. PMID:16433094

  14. Trade sustainability impact assessment (SIA) on the comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Colin; Raihan, Selim; Bleser, Adam; Prud'homme, Dan; Mayrand, Karel; Morin, Jean Frederic; Pollitt, Hector; Hinojosa, Leonith; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Commissioned by the European Commission, the Final Report for the EU-Canada Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) on the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts of trade liberalisation under CETA. The analysis assesses the economic, social and environmental impacts in Canada and the European Union in three main sectors, sixteen sub-sectors and across seven cross-cutting issues. It predicts a number of macro-...

  15. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  16. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  17. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  19. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  20. Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Großmann, Harald

    2004-01-01

    The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concer...

  1. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  2. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  3. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

  4. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

  5. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  6. Assessment of Economic and Water Quality Impacts of Land Use Change Using a Simple Bioeconomic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Gandhi; Srivastava, Puneet; Marzen, Luke; Hite, Diane; Hatch, Upton

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economic and water quality impact of land use change in a small watershed in the Wiregrass region of Alabama. The study compares changes in water quality and revenue from agricultural and timber production due to changes in land use between years 1992 and 2001. The study was completed in two stages. In the first stage, a biophysical model was used to estimate the effect of land use change on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff and sediment deposition in the main channel; in the second stage, farm enterprise budgeting tools were used to estimate the economic returns for the changes in land use condition. Both biophysical and economic results are discussed, and a case for complex optimization to develop a decision support system is presented.

  7. A Critical Assessment of Fiscal Policy and Impact on Economic Growth. Albanian and Transition Economies Case

    OpenAIRE

    Haderi S.; Kola T.; Liko E.

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is making a critical assessment of possible links that exists between public finance policies and growth during transition period in Albania. Based on panel data technique is tested the impact of government size and the effect of budget deficit in economic growth. On revenue side of public finance are done important reform, such as the introduction of VAT and flat taxes for both personal income tax and corporate income tax. A common trend in the last years has bee...

  8. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts) of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O) model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II) are widel...

  9. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  10. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Carmichael, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Zirui; Stanier, Charles O; Saide, Pablo E; Yu, Man

    2015-04-01

    Haze is a serious air pollution problem in China, especially in Beijing and surrounding areas, affecting visibility, public health and regional climate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was used to simulate PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm) concentrations during the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing, and health impacts and health-related economic losses were calculated based on model results. Compared with surface monitoring data, the model results reflected pollution concentrations accurately (correlation coefficients between simulated and measured PM2.5 were 0.7, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 in Beijing, Tianjin, Xianghe and Xinglong stations, respectively). Health impacts assessments show that the PM2.5 concentrations in January might cause 690 (95% confidence interval (CI): (490, 890)) premature deaths, 45,350 (95% CI: (21,640, 57,860)) acute bronchitis and 23,720 (95% CI: (17,090, 29,710)) asthma cases in Beijing area. Results of the economic losses assessments suggest that the haze in January 2013 might lead to 253.8 (95% CI: (170.2, 331.2)) million US$ losses, accounting for 0.08% (95% CI: (0.05%, 0.1%)) of the total 2013 annual gross domestic product (GDP) of Beijing. PMID:25585158

  11. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  12. Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Ogunsumi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, Ogun, Kwara and Niger State at 72 respondents per state.Secondary data were collected from Agricultural Development Programme (ADP, International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, (IAR & T, National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Central Bank of Nigeria CBN and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS.An internal rate of return (IRR of 38 percent was estimated from the stream of netted real social gains at 1985 constant.The return to investment in soybean production technology is attractive and justifies the investments made on the technologies. The policy implication is that there is underinvestment in soybean production research.

  13. Kurdistan Region of Iraq : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict and the ISIS Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The development objective of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) economic and social impact assessment is to provide the Iraqi Government with an impact analysis of the current crisis at the regional level. This will provide a foundation for international efforts to assist the KRG in its efforts to rally humanitarian support. The events which motivate this study include: the Syrian civ...

  14. Assessment of the economic impacts of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lee L; Tonsor, Glynn T

    2015-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which first emerged in the United States in 2013, spread throughout the U.S. hog population. Limited preemptive knowledge impeded the understanding of PEDV introduction, spread, and prospective economic impacts in the United States. To assess these impacts, this article reviews the timeline of PEDV in the United States and the corresponding impacts. PEDV is a supply-impacting disease and is not demand inhibiting, as pork demand remained strong since PEDV first appeared. Pig losses reached significant levels during September 2013 through August 2014, with the majority of pork production impacts occurring in 2014. PEDV had differing impacts for subsectors of the pork industry. A budget model demonstrates that producers could have had pig losses and decreases in productivity proportionally smaller than price increases, resulting in net returns above what was expected before the major outbreak of PEDV. Previous literature is reviewed to identify the potential main industry beneficiaries of the PEDV outbreaks in the United States. As a result of reduced volumes of available pig and hog supplies, reductions in annual returns likely occurred for packers, processors, distributors, and retailers. In addition, pork consumers who experienced reduced-supply-induced pork-price increases were likely harmed directly by higher prices paid for pork and indirectly as prices of competing meats were also likely strengthened by PEDV. This article also identifies future considerations motivated by the appearance of PEDV in the United States, such as discussions of industry-wide efficiency and competitive advantage, the future role of PEDV vaccines, enhancement in biosecurity measures, and consumer perceptions of food safety and insecurity. PMID:26641031

  15. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

    2008-12-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

  16. An evaluation grid for the assessments of macro-economic impacts of energy transition. Working paper Nr 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at comparing the main available macro-economic models used to assess the consequences of policies for energy transition, and at determining their scope and limitations of validity. More precisely, the authors study the impact of two categories of policy instruments (those aimed at modifying prices and incentive ones) and the role of the adopted modelling of technical progress and of the macro-economic closure of the model. In a first part, they present various tools or models used to assess economic impacts of energy transition: technical-economic, macro-economic, general balance, and hybrid models. Then, after a presentation of some principles adopted to analyse these various models, the authors discuss price-based tools, tools based on demand support, the key role of technological progress, the impact of the macro-economic closure on the reached objective. They finally discuss the results obtained by applying an evaluation grid to energy transition scenarios. A set of recommendations is finally proposed for a better assessment of these impacts

  17. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. - Research Highlights: → Economic impact of environmental constraints on hydropower operation has been evaluated. → The reduction in revenues obtained from selling energy in the day-ahead market has been calculated. → The sensitivity of hydropower revenues to different minimum environmental flows has been explored. → The sensitivity of hydropower revenues to different maximum flow ramping rates has been explored. → The importance of controlling the flow released through the bottom outlets has been highlighted.

  18. Government use licenses in Thailand: an assessment of the health and economic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisiri Kakanang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs gained and ii increased productivity in US dollars (USD as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI. Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive

  19. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka Zadel; Sinisa Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  20. Female participation in housing activities: some assessment of the socio-economic and cultural impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid-mukhtar, E; Noor-ul-hassan

    1992-01-01

    Ordinary least squares techniques (logit and probit models yielded similar results) were used to assess the impact of sociocultural and economic conditions on women's physical or financial involvement in housing activities: construction, repairs, improvements, and additions in Pakistan. Explanatory variables were the number of men and women, family income, employment, literacy, extended family on the same or different budget, decision making by women, joint decision making, urbanization, and ethnic origin. Data were obtained from a survey undertaken by the AERC/World Bank in 1989 of 829 households (370 urban and 454 rural). A description is provided of women's role in housing, the nature of activities in which women participate, and the factors that influence their participation. Women's participation could involve decision making, contributions of assets or savings, and/or physical labor or supervision of physical construction of housing. The results indicated a uniform pattern in the performance of explanatory variables. Financially, urban women tended to participate more in financial dealings than rural women. Significant explanatory factors impacting on the proportion of women contributing financially toward housing were women's own income, their employment, their involvement in decision making for that activity, their nuclear household, and an urban location. A significant negative factor was family size. Literacy had no effect. Rural women tended to participate more in the physical construction of housing than urban women. Positive impacts on physical participation were a nuclear household, women's involvement in decision making, her employment, and a rural location. Literacy had a significant negative influence on physical participation. Unexpectedly, the number of adult females had a significant negative effect on physical or supervisory participation; the number of adult males was positive and insignificant. Factors influencing women's supervisory

  1. An Assessment of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Economic Growth: The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Were, Maureen; Nafula, Nancy N.

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa has been closely associated with adverse economic effects, and could thwart the success of poverty reduction initiatives. HIV/AIDS is fast eroding the health benefits, which Kenya gained in the first two decades of independence. The paper explores the different channels through which HIV/AIDS affects economic growth in a low-income country like Kenya. Within this framework, the paper attempts to analyse the impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenya’s economic growth by way of si...

  2. The Global Impacts of Extreme Sea-level Rise: A Comprehensive Economic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    PYCROFT JONATHAN; Abrell, Jan; CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the world-wide economic cost of rapid sea-level rise of the kind that could be caused by accelerated ice flow from the West Antarctic and/or the Greenland ice sheets. Such an event would have direct impacts on economic activities located near the coastline and indirect impacts further inland. Using data from the DIVA model on sea floods, river floods, land loss, salinisation and forced migration, we analyse the effects of these damages in a computable general equilibri...

  3. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields

  4. Assessing and modeling economic and environmental impact of wheat nitrogen management in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Benjamin; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre; Destain, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Future progress in wheat yield will rely on identifying genotypes and management practices better adapted to the fluctuating environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is probably the most important practice impacting crop growth. However, the adverse environmental impacts of inappropriate N management (e.g., lixiviation) must be considered in the decision-making process. A formal decisional algorithm was developed to tactically optimize the economic and environmental N fertilization in wheat. C...

  5. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

  6. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  7. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on annual hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower operation are becoming increasingly restrictive. These constraints may reduce the operational flexibility of a hydro plant and therefore its revenue. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of minimum environmental flows and maximum ramping rates on the annual operation of a hydropower plant. For this purpose, a revenue-driven annual optimization model based on discrete dynamic programming and mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers hourly water inflows and energy prices, limits on reservoir level and water discharge, power generation dependence on the available head, wear and tear costs of hydro units caused by power variations, start-up and shut-down costs of hydro units, and the above-mentioned environmental constraints. In order to show the applicability of the proposed methodology, it is used in a real hydropower plant under five different water year types and 56 distinct combinations of the considered environmental constraints. The results indicate that the revenues of the hydropower plant are very sensitive to the presence and magnitudes of these constraints. Annual losses increase quadratically as a function of the maximum ramping rates and almost linearly as a function of the minimum environmental flows. - Highlights: • The effect of environmental constraints on the annual income of a hydro plant has been assessed. • A revenue-driven optimization model has been used for this purpose. • The model is based on discrete dynamic programming and mixed integer linear programming. • Different water year types and magnitudes of the environmental constraints have been studied. • Results show that annual income is very sensitive to the presence and magnitude of these constraints

  8. Economic impact analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelsen, Michael; Norton, George W.; Nguema, A.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a research proposal to study the economic impact of the SANREM CRSP projects as a cross-cutting research activity. A linear programming model is proposed to measure the costs and benefits of conservation agriculture in the shorter and longer term. Data for the Economic Impact Cross Cutting Research Activity will be collected during the baseline surveys conducted by the individual LTRAs in years 1 and 4.

  9. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  10. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  11. Assessment of the economic impact of ozone on the agricultural sector in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone is the most damaging secondary pollutant to agricultural production, according to the literature. It is estimated that 90% of crop losses due to air pollution are caused by ozone. The economic impact of ozone on 20 agricultural commodities in Ontario is assessed in two steps. In the first, ozone contour maps are generated for the province. The results suggest an average ozone concentration of 40 ppB, higher than the natural background of 20 ppB. The second step measures the change in consumer and producer surplus that results from reductions in ozone levels in Ontario from 40 ppB to 20 ppB. Consumer plus producer surpluses correspond to the area below the demand curve and above the supply curve to the left of their intersection. A nonlinear programming model that maximizes consumer and producer surpluses, subject to a set of constraints, was run twice. The first run incorporates realized yields and production costs, and the second incorporates biological yield changes owing to ozone and the associated changes in production costs. The difference in value of the objective functions between the two runs shows the net benefits of reduced ozone levels. Results indicate an average net benefit of $64.3 million/y or 5.8% of the total value of all the crops considered. Average annual consumer benefits are $44.1 million and producer benefits $20.2 million. Not all producers benefit from ozone reductions; producers of fresh vegetables lose while producers of grain corn, soybeans, and winter wheat gain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  12. European Forests and Carbon Sequestration Services: An Economic Assessment of Climate Change Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Sonja S. Teelucksingh

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an original economic valuation of the impact of climate change on the provision of forest regulating services in Europe. To the authors' knowledge the current paper represents the first systematic attempt to estimate human well-being losses with respect to changes in biodiversity and forest regulating services that are directly driven by climate change. First, selected 34 European countries are grouped by their latitude intervals to capture the differentiated regional effec...

  13. Macro-economic Impact Assessment of Future Changes in European Marine Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bosello, Francesco; DELPIAZZO, ELISA; Eboli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The present research has been developed within the EU FP7 VECTORS project (http://www.marine-vectors.eu/). The main scope of the project (2011-2015) has been to evaluate, from a multilateral perspective, drivers, pressures and vectors of changes in marine life of three main European seas (Baltic, Western Mediterranean, North), the mechanisms by which they do so and the impacts that they have on ecosystem structures and functioning as well as on economic activities and wellbeing. This paper de...

  14. Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

  15. Economic Crisis and Protest Behavior in EU Member States: An Assessment after the Initial Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 European recession has been linked to higher political unconventionality across countries in recent studies. Research on the impact of the economic downturn on people’s engagement in protest has focused on data mostly from 2008 to 2012. Recent findings have supported primarily a relative deprivation theory based explanation of why Europeans choose to participate in street marches, suggesting a change has taken place in the way the economy affects political contention. This article as...

  16. Do energy crops boost the economy? An assessment of the national and regional economic impacts of electricity from energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the research on the title subject are: studying possible calculation methods to assess national and regional economic impacts and determining the most suitable method for the research under consideration; assessing the impacts on the value added and employment that occur in the Netherlands when electricity is generated using domestically produced energy crops and comparing this to the impacts of electricity generation based on a fossil fuel; assessing and comparing these impacts at a regional level; assessing the impacts on the balance of payments of the government. The methods under consideration are cost-benefit analysis, input-output analysis and social accounting analysis. A case is defined for electricity production from energy crops and from a fossil fuel that is logical in the national and regional situation of the agricultural and energy sectors. The chosen calculation method is applied to a defined case and the economic impacts are calculated. In the first chapter the methods under consideration are introduced shortly and the criteria are defined by means of which the properties of the different methods can be assessed. The theory, advantages and shortcomings of these three methods are discussed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. In the fifth a well-founded choice between the methods, resulting in one method, suitable for all further calculations. The last chapter gives more methodological information on the chosen method, specifically with respect to the research under consideration. In Part 2 a Dutch case study is defined and calculated. The last part of Chapter 2 contains information about the role of the government in this case study. Chapter 3 describes the use that is made of the chosen economic calculation method in this specific case study. Chapter 4 presents the results from the calculations. The results of the sensitivity analysis are shown in Chapter 5. 68 refs

  17. The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truman P. Phillips

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

  18. Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Alternatives to DDT Usage for Antifouling Paint Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Xiao Yali; Lu Yongsen

    2008-01-01

    China is the only nation that uses DDT in antifouling pain at present, approximately 5% of DDT is applied as the additive of the antifouling paint production. Therefore, actions shall be taken urgently for banning the use of DDT and substituting with non-POPs alternatives in antifouling paints. The paper researches the social and economic backgrounds of DDT booster antifouling paint production and usage, analyzes the social and economic impact assessment of the alternatives to DDT usage for antifouiing paint. The implementation of the project of alternatives will completely eliminate the adverse impact of DDT booster antifouling paint on terrestrial, marine ecosystem and human health. The broad use of alkali silicate and pepper alkali as substitutes will be feasible if appropriate measures will be taken to encourage their development, and the social and economic risk will be reduced to accepted levels.

  19. Economic impacts of EU clean air policies assessed in a CGE framework

    OpenAIRE

    VRONTISI ZOI; Abrell, Jan; NEUWAHL FREDERIK; Saveyn, Bert; Wagner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of the "Clean Air Policy Package" proposed by the European Commission in December 2013. The analysis incorporates both the expenditures necessary to implement the policy by 2030 and the resulting positive feedback effects on human health and crop production. A decomposition analysis identifies the important drivers of the macroeconomic impacts. We show that while expenditure on pollution abatement is a cost for the abating sector...

  20. Integrating Water into an Economic Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, D

    1996-01-01

    Recent research indicates that larger countries, with multiple agro-climatic zones, have the capacity to adjust to marginal climate changes which could occur over the next century. However, in countries with fewer adaptation options and with increasing dependency on imports to meet growing domestic demands, climate change might have significant impacts. To date, little has been done on assessing integrated impacts of climate change in developing countries. This motivates the need for imp...

  1. Preliminary assessment of the cocial, economic and environmental impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria basin and status of control

    OpenAIRE

    Mailu, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary data collected in an assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria Basin. A summary of the status of control and strategies for the future is given. The report draws on field observations made, studies through interviews of affected communities and organisations, personal communications and published reports by scientists in the region. Lake Victoria, the world’s second largest freshwater body, su...

  2. Economic impact assessment of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the post-Kyoto period, Turkey strongly emphasizes the establishment of national emission trading system by 2015 and its integration with the EU ETS along its accession process to the EU. In this paper, we study the mechanisms of adjustment and economic welfare consequences of various ETS regimes that Turkey considers to apply by 2020, i.e. regional ETS and international trading within the EU ETS. We conduct our analysis under the current EU 20–20–20 emission target, 20%, and also under its revised version, 30%. We find that Turkey has economic gains from linking with the EU ETS under the 20% cap, in comparison to the domestic ETSs. Despite the EU's welfare loss under linkage in comparison to the case where Turkey has domestic abatement efforts, it still prefers linking as it increases economic well being compared to the case where Turkey does not abate. Under 30% cutback, Turkey has critical output loss under linkage due to high abatement burden on the EU, while the EU is better off as it passes some of its abatement burden to Turkey. Therefore, emission quotas and their allocation across the ETS and non ETS sectors become highly critical in distributing the overall economic gains from bilateral trading. - Highlights: • We conduct welfare analysis of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading. • Welfare impacts of having Turkey in the EU ETS via EU accession are analyzed. • Analysis is done with the current EU target of 20%, and the revised target of 30%. • Welfare impacts of linkage on both regions highly depend on the emission targets. • The EU has welfare gains when Turkey engages in abatement actions

  3. The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channing Arndt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economy-wide model. Our results indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest to 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (relative to a historical baseline. Damages double under more extreme projections. Our findings suggest that there are net benefits from selected pre-emptive actions though careful consideration of opportunity costs is required.

  4. Ports and Economic Impact: main changes, assessment approaches and distribution disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Benacchio, Marco; Musso, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    It is nowadays widely accepted that the positive economic impact of ports tends to move away from a local environment (the earlier 'port city') to a much wider and often international one, including the consignors/consignees. It is thus the purpose of this paper to take a fresh look at the current changes in a ports1 production junction, based on a territorial cost-benefit analysis, i.e. taking into account that: - The port industry is no longer a labour intensive one; - The port indust...

  5. Renewing the licenses of U.S. Nuclear Plants: An assessment of the socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the oldest nuclear power plants approach the end of their 40-year operating licenses, increasing national attention is being focused on the potential effects of renewing, or not renewing those licenses. As part of a larger study for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the authors conducted a generic assessment of the potential socio-economic impacts to communities most directly affected by renewal of a nuclear power plant license. The socio-economic impacts that have occurred as a result of construction and operation of seven case study nuclear plants were identified and used to predict the impacts of plant refurbishment and continued operations after relicensing at those plants. Six key topics are discussed in this paper: (1) changes in population associated with plant refurbishment and continued operations; (2) plant-induced changes to local housings; (3) the magnitude of nuclear plant tax payments in relation to total revenues in host communities; (4) plant-induced disruptions of local public services; (5) changes in local land use and development patterns: and (6) the effect of refurbishment and continued operations on local employment and income levels. This paper describes the bounding analysis methodology, emphasizing case study site selection. It also provides operational definitions of different levels of significance for the major socio-economic topics identified above, except for population. Finally, for each impact category, this paper describes the range of impacts that is expected to occur in host communities nationwide as a result of license renewal

  6. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Changbo; Bressers, Hans T. A.; (Bob Su, Z.; Jia, Yangwen; Wang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  7. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  8. Assessment of environmental impact as a result of industrial development in the Pars special economic energy zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acbarpur Darush

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pars special economic energy zone, the rapid industrial development has been affecting the environment severely. In order to restore the environment, definite expenses are necessary. The damaging effect on the environment (natural resources caused by the industrial zone can be assessed directly or indirectly. To investigate the Pars economic zone in the province Bushehr, GIS-methods were used. Possible impact of industrial projects on different media: physical and chemical, biological, social and economic was considered. In order to estimate the ecological consequences of the changes of ecological conditions in the area investigated Leopold matrices (with some modifications were used. As a result, both positive and negative changes were revealed in the Pars zone. Taking into account all parameters, two variants were proposed and compared using lobbying tables. Variant C seemed the best, as having minimal negative and maximal positive rating

  9. Economic analysis and environmental impact assessment of three different fermentation processes for fructooligosaccharides production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussatto, Solange I; Aguiar, Luís M; Marinha, Mariana I; Jorge, Rita C; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2015-12-01

    Three different fermentation processes for the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were evaluated and compared in terms of economic aspects and environmental impact. The processes included: submerged fermentation of sucrose solution by Aspergillus japonicus using free cells or using the cells immobilized in corn cobs, and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using coffee silverskin as support material and nutrient source. The scale-up was designed using data obtained at laboratory scale and considering an annual productivity goal of 200 t. SSF was the most attractive process in both economic and environmental aspects since it is able to generate FOS with higher annual productivity (232.6 t) and purity (98.6%) than the other processes; reaches the highest annual profit (6.55 M€); presents the lowest payback time (2.27 years); and is more favourable environmentally causing a lower carbon footprint (0.728 kg/kg, expressed in mass of CO2 equivalent per mass of FOS) and the lowest wastewater generation. PMID:26433793

  10. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  11. Economic impact of refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  12. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  13. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 3: environmental impact assessment: socio-economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticipated social and economic effects from the construction and operation of the proposed Cold Lake Expansion Project in Alberta were described. The regions and communities that would be directly affected by the project were identified and project impacts with respect to the following areas were analyzed: population and demographics, local economy and labour force, education, health, social and recreational services, protective and emergency services, physical community infrastructure, real estate, and current community planning and land use initiatives. The main sources of information used for the analysis were public statistical data compiled by Statistics Canada, provincial government statistics and municipal planning documents. The overall social impact of the project was expected to range from low to medium. 50 refs., 44 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Integrated Modeling to Assess the Impacts of Changes in Climate and Socio Economics on Agriculture in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Malek, K.; Nelson, R.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Kruger, C.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the impacts of climate change and socio economics on agriculture in the Columbia River basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. and a portion of Southwestern Canada. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of CRB water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area. Agriculture is an important component of the region's economy, with an annual value over 5 billion in Washington State alone. Therefore, the region is relevant for applying a modeling framework that can aid agriculture decision making in the context of a changing climate. To do this, we created an integrated biophysical and socio-economic regional modeling framework that includes human and natural systems. The modeling framework captures the interactions between climate, hydrology, crop growth dynamics, water management and socio economics. The biophysical framework includes a coupled macro-scale physically-based hydrology model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC model), and crop growth model (CropSyst), as well as a reservoir operations simulation model. Water rights data and instream flow target requirements are also incorporated in the model to simulate the process of curtailment during water shortage. The economics model informs the biophysical model of the short term agricultural producer response to water shortage as well as the long term agricultural producer response to domestic growth and international trade in terms of an altered cropping pattern. The modeling framework was applied over the CRB for the historical period 1976-2006 and compared to a future 30-year period centered on the 2030s. Impacts of climate change on irrigation water availability, crop irrigation demand, frequency of curtailment, and crop yields are quantified and presented. Sensitivity associated with estimates of water availability, irrigation demand, crop

  15. Assessment of environmental change and its socio-economic impacts in the mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Godstime Kadiri

    The Niger Delta, located in the central part of Southern Nigeria, is endowed with immense Mangrove resources, estimated to be the fourth largest in the world. The term Mangrove refers to salt tolerant species of trees or shrubs that grow on shores and in estuaries located in the coastal tropics and sub-tropical regions of the world. They support highly productive marine food chains. However, Mangrove ecosystems are in serious decline around the world due to the rapid increase in maritime commerce and exploration of mineral resources in the last few decades. These pressures often have immediate consequences on sensitive coastal environments and can potentially impact future human use of coastal space and resources. This dynamic process presents unique opportunities for research to explore the nature and consequences of these pressures. This dissertation focused on the Mangrove ecological zone of the Niger Delta, where resource exploitation and indigenous use of the environment are in direct conflict with important socio-economic implications. Environmental accounting metrics derived from the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework were used to assess changes in the spatial extent of the Niger Delta Mangrove ecosystem and the socio-economic impacts of the observed changes. Landsat remotely sensed satellite data from the mid-1980s through 2003 was used to assess change in the spatial extent of the Mangrove vegetation in the region. A total of 21,340 hectares of Mangrove forest was determined to be lost over the study period. Field research in the region confirmed that this loss was primarily driven by urbanization and activities of the multinational oil and gas corporations operating in the region. To estimate the socio-economic impacts of the Mangrove loss in the region, neoclassical economic valuation and participatory social valuation approaches were adopted. Results from the economic valuation revealed that the net present value of future income

  16. Application of the counterfactual method to assess of the local economic impact of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have examined the local economic effects of nuclear power stations. However, their heterogeneity within countries and between countries indicate that one must be very cautious in drawing general conclusions about the positive and negative local economic effects of nuclear power stations over time. Using information about a specific nuclear facility in Spain and its zone of influence, we investigate the local economic impact of a nuclear facility by applying an infrequently used methodology called the “counterfactual” method. The purpose of this application of the counterfactual method is to establish what would have happened if the nuclear power plant had not been built where it was. This method permits observation of the impact of the nuclear power plant on the evolution of a set of variables whose influence is extremely important for the local area, such as the population, unemployment level, per capita income, and municipal governments’ revenues. Generalization of this method could offer the possibility of providing comparative results. However, the method must be complemented with other short-term approaches to provide a more specific analysis of the economic effects on the local actors involved and to offer incentives to policymakers to design and develop policies aimed at boosting economic activity in the area. - Highlights: • The Trillo Nuclear Power Plant plays a key role in stimulating its local environment. • The counterfactual method is estimated based on the performance of control group. • At least at the beginning of its operation the population dynamism was clear. • There is not strong evidence about the rise of employment and local public revenues. • The expenditure flow assesses the local turnover, jobs and municipal revenues

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach C. Winfield

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many advanced vehicle technologies, including electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs, are gaining attention throughout the World due to their capability to improve fuel efficiencies and emissions. When evaluating the operational successes of these new fuel-efficient vehicles, it is essential to consider energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions throughout the entire lifetimes of the vehicles, which are comprised of two independent cycles: a fuel cycle and a vehicle cycle. This paper intends to contribute to the assessment of the environmental impacts from the alternative technologies throughout the lifetimes of various advanced vehicles through objective comparisons. The methodology was applied to six commercial vehicles that are available in the U.S. and that have similar dimensions and performances. We also investigated the shifts in energy consumption and emissions through the use of electricity and drivers’ behavior regarding the frequencies of battery recharging for EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This study thus gives insight into the impacts of the electricity grid on the total energy cycle of a vehicle lifetime. In addition, the total ownership costs of the selected vehicles were examined, including considerations of the fluctuating gasoline prices. The cost analysis provides a resource for drivers to identify optimal choices for their driving circumstances.

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT FARMER FIELD SCHOOL PROGRAM ON CORN PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Kariyasa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic supply of corn in Indonesia has not been able to meet demand satisfactorily due to demand rising faster than supply. Therefore, Indonesia has been continuously importing corn about of 10% of the total demand. To address this problem, the Indonesian government started to implement the Farmer Field School of Integrated Crop Management (ICM-FFS program on corn production since 2009. This study aimed to assess the impact of ICM-FFS on corn productivity, comparative and competitive advantages to produce corn as well as farmer’s income. The study found that ICM-FFS program could increase corn productivity by 30.95% of non ICM-FFS farms, of which 27.94% contributed by the difference in input use, while only 3.01% contributed by technological change. ICM-FFS farms were able to increase farmer’s income by 71.03% and social welfare by 94.69% compared to non ICMFFS farms. Through this program, Indonesia had higher comparative advantage in producing corn as an import substitute. The provision of competitive input and output markets, enhanced technical assistance to improve corn productivity and quality, and increasing attention on corn ICM-FFS development could be considered as policy directions to improve the next implementation strategies of corn production in Indonesia.

  19. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Obiri; Precious A. D. Mattah; Mattah, Memuna M.; Frederick A. Armah; Shiloh Osae; Sam Adu-kumi; Philip O. Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples o...

  20. Stimulating fuelwood consumption through public policies: An assessment of economic and resource impacts based on the French Forest Sector Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimulating renewable energy is a crucial objective in view of tackling climate change and coping with future fossil fuel scarcity. In France, fuelwood appears to be an important source for the renewable energy mix. Using the French Forest Sector Model, our paper aims to assess the impacts of three policy options to stimulate fuelwood consumption: a consumer subsidy, a producer subsidy and a fixed-demand contract policy. We explored their impacts in terms of five groups of criteria: (1) forest resource dynamics; (2) variations in wood products prices and quantities consumed and produced; (3) trade balance; (4) budgetary costs; and (5) variations in agent surpluses. We show that no policy option is more desirable than another on the basis of all of these criteria and that trade-offs will determine which is the best policy option to be implemented. - Highlights: • We compare the bio-economic impacts of policies to boost fuelwood consumption in France. • We simulate a producer subsidy, a consumer subsidy and fixed public demand contracts. • We explore their impacts until 2020 with a dynamic model of the forest sector. • Producer subsidy reduces the trade balance deficit and decreases forest stock. • Consumer subsidy increases consumer welfare and public contracts reduce budgetary costs

  1. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  2. Development of an Impact-Oriented Quantitative Coastal Inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Coastal inundations are an increasing threat to the lives and livelihoods of people living in low-lying, highly-populated coastal areas. According to a World Bank Report in 2005, at least 2.6 million people may have drowned due to coastal inundation, particularly caused by storm surges, over the last 200 years. Forecasting and prediction of natural events, such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, inland flooding, and severe winter weather, provide critical guidance to emergency managers and decision-makers from the local to the national level, with the goal of minimizing both human and economic losses. This guidance is used to facilitate evacuation route planning, post-disaster response and resource deployment, and critical infrastructure protection and securing, and it must be available within a time window in which decision makers can take appropriate action. Recognizing this extreme vulnerability of coastal areas to inundation/flooding, and with a view to improve safety-related services for the community, research should strongly enhance today's forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of coastal vulnerability and risks and develop adequate prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. This paper tries to develop an impact-oriented quantitative coastal inundation forecasting and early warning system with social and economic assessment to address the challenges faced by coastal communities to enhance their safety and to support sustainable development, through the improvement of coastal inundation forecasting and warning systems.

  3. Economic Impact of Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Martin I Meltzer; Peña, César A.; Hopkins, Annette B.; Wroth, Lane; Fix, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the economic impact of Lyme disease (LD), the most common vectorborne inflammatory disease in the United States, cost data were collected in 5 counties of the Maryland Eastern Shore from 1997 to 2000. Patients were divided into 5 diagnosis groups, clinically defined early-stage LD, clinically defined late-stage LD, suspected LD, tick bite, and other related complaints. From 1997 to 2000, the mean per patient direct medical cost of early-stage LD decreased from $1,609 to $464 (p

  4. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Chen, H.

    2015-07-01

    Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision-making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature on economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of the economic impacts of droughts by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar-producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact. By using "with and without" analysis, profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis of a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained, using an autoregressive error model to separate impact of disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free conditions and disaster-hit conditions, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote reflections among various economic bodies on economic equality related to the occurrence of natural disasters. Further, sensitivity analysis of the model built reveals that sugarcane purchase price has a significant influence on profit loss rate, which implies that setting a proper sugarcane purchase price would be an effective way of realizing economic equality in future practice of contract farming.

  5. Assessing the Economic Impact of Energy Price Increases on Washington Agriculture and the Washington Economy: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, David W.; Leroy Stodick; Kathleen Painter

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium, multi-sector economic model of the Washington economy was developed to examine the economic impact on the Washington economy, especially the agricultural industries, from increasing energy prices experienced in 2005 and 2006. The energy group includes such fossil fuel-based commodities as gasoline and diesel fuel (refined petroleum products), natural gas, nitrogenous fertilizer, and petrochemical products. The economic model shows how the Washington economy adjusts to t...

  6. Economic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions: A simulation-based assessment model applied to Campania region volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Giulio; Leone, Mattia Federico; Del Cogliano, Davide; Sgroi, Angelo

    2013-10-01

    PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II has developed a methodology that aims to estimate, in probabilistic terms, the direct and the indirect economic impacts of a Sub-Plinian I or Strombolian type eruption of Vesuvius. The economic model has been implemented as a complementary tool of the Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a tool developed at PLINIVS Center available to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) decision makers to quantify the potential losses consequent to a possible eruption of Vesuvius or Campi Flegrei. Along the expected time history of the eruptive event all the possible "direct costs" and the "factors" (indirect costs) impacting the economic growth in the event area have been identified. Each cost factor is built up through a specific algorithm that is fed by various providers, in order to run software that will estimate the global amount of economic damage from a volcanic event. The model does not include the economic evaluation of intangibles (e.g. human casualties), while the evaluation of damage to the local cultural heritage (historical buildings, archeological sites, monuments, etc.), is linked to the economic impact on tourism, estimated into indirect costs. The architecture of the model is based on a simulation logic, which allows an evaluation of different economic impact scenarios through input changes, allowing the model to be used as a tool to support the decision making process.

  7. The Human Capital - The Economic Impact, the Function and the Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Božeková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to compare the index of the development of the employment and the education of the region of Ústí nad Labem. In the first part are defined the concepts of the human capital, its measures, the human resource development and not at last the education, the expansion of employment and unemployment. In the second part you can find the basic definition of the socio-economic situation in the region of Ústí nad Labem and the passion on the market. The main target is...

  8. Assessing the economic impacts of drought from the perspective of profit loss rate: a case study of the sugar industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have enormous impacts on human society, especially on the development of the economy. To support decision making in mitigation and adaption to natural disasters, assessment of economic impacts is fundamental and of great significance. Based on a review of the literature of economic impact evaluation, this paper proposes a new assessment model of economic impact from drought by using the sugar industry in China as a case study, which focuses on the generation and transfer of economic impacts along a simple value chain involving only sugarcane growers and a sugar producing company. A perspective of profit loss rate is applied to scale economic impact with a model based on cost-and-benefit analysis. By using analysis of "with-and-without", profit loss is defined as the difference in profits between disaster-hit and disaster-free scenarios. To calculate profit, analysis on a time series of sugar price is applied. With the support of a linear regression model, an endogenous trend in sugar price is identified, and the time series of sugar price "without" disaster is obtained using an autoregressive error model to separate impact by disasters from the internal trend in sugar price. Unlike the settings in other assessment models, representative sugar prices, which represent value level in disaster-free condition and disaster-hit condition, are integrated from a long time series that covers the whole period of drought. As a result, it is found that in a rigid farming contract, sugarcane growers suffer far more than the sugar company when impacted by severe drought, which may promote the reflections on economic equality among various economic bodies at the occurrence of natural disasters.

  9. Foot and mouth disease economic impact assessment on production, export losses and eradication expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Rod; Halderen, Andre van

    2014-01-01

    The second paper in this three paper session models the impact of a number of foot and mouth disease (FMD) incursion scenarios on production and export revenues of dairy, meat and other products. The guiding principle was big picture, plausible and estimable Key to this was how processors might respond during FMD eradication and how importing countries might respond once New Zealand becomes FMD free again. Government expenditure for FMD eradication and related livestock compensation was estim...

  10. Is it appropriate to support the farmers for adopting conservation agriculture? Economic and environmental impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Troccoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA in the last decades has been spread in several parts of the world, especially in South and North America and Australia. In Italy, however, its adoption is often restrained by the risk to have a reduction in crop production in the early years of transition from conventional (CT to CA. To quantify sufficient financial support to promote no-tillage and CA, a mini-review about main effects of CA was conducted. The effect on crop yield, soil fertility - especially as it is influenced by the chemical, physical and microbiological factors - on soil compaction, the economic balance of the farm and the cost of equipment for direct seeding, the influence of environment on soil erosion, water retention, emissions of greenhouse gases, and carbon sequestration are briefly treated. The paper reports findings from national and international scientific literature and some results from long-term experiments conducted in Southern Italy. The main conclusions are about the reduction of yield in the first years of transition from CT to CA (from -5 to -10%, an improvement of soil fertility (soil organic carbon increases in the upper layers, reduction of management cost (less machinery operations, improvement of soil C sequestration (in specific conditions, a reduction of greenhouse gases emission and soil erosion risk. The paper provides the scientific basis in order to justify and quantify the amount to be paid to the farmers who decide to adopt the model of CA, oriented to protect the agro-ecosystem and to promote the principle of subsidiarity. Finally, a proposal of public subsidy in cash and for machinery purchase has been described.

  11. Contribution to the economic impact assessment of policy options to regulate animal cloning for food production with an economic simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    DILLEN KOEN; FERRARI EMANUELE; TILLIE PASCAL; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE; Helaine, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The EU is currently evaluating different policy options towards the use of cloning or products derived from cloned animals in the food chain. This study presents a first attempt to quantify the likely effects of different policy scenarios on international trade and EU domestic production. In the context of the Impact Asessment process the JRC was requested to simulate via a modelling study the economic impact of selected policy options. Based on a literature review and the specific constraint...

  12. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an agen

  13. University-private sector partnerships:assessing long-term collaboration to deliver economic impact in the Northwest of England

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Christopher Grant; Dobson, Simon; Hacking, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Private and public sector working together for mutual benefit is nothing new and in the context of education, this has historically focussed on areas such as employability-related experiences for students, supply-chains for goods and services, and within higher education specifically, the growing need to demonstrate research impact. In this presentation, we explore the impact of private and public-sector working together to deliver regional economic growth through technology transf...

  14. Assessing the economic impacts of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccinating against Newcastle disease in local chickens, in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the rapid growth in poultry population in the past decade, various constraints continue to adversely affect the productivity of local birds in Kenya. Sustainable cost effective interventions are necessary if full potential is to be realised. The impact of Newcastle disease (ND) control using vaccination and commercial poultry feed supplementation was assessed in 16 farms found in Kiambu district (ECZ II). Information on flock size, flock structure and disease control was gathered from these farms. F strain ND vaccine administration and commercial poultry feed supplementation was also done. Generally there was a notable increase in flock size when birds were supplemented and vaccinated. There was marked increase in numbers of growers and chicks with feed supplementation and vaccination. It was economically profitable to supplement and vaccinate local birds as returns were >1.0. Vaccination gave the highest return on investment (3,36) and feed supplementation the least (1,15). The high cost of commercial poultry feed discourages farmers from supplementing local chicken; therefore farm formulations using locally available materials should be encouraged. There is need to produce thermostable vaccines locally to use in local birds which would bring vaccine costs further down. (author)

  15. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2009-01-01

    representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies...

  16. Assessment of economic impacts using the Local Area Model (LAM) : Working Paper No. 7.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a national level for Canada, the economic impact of the construction phase of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) is very small. The economy will not be greatly affected and unemployment will decline only slightly. However, the proposed project will have a greater impact in British Columbia and will dominate the economy in the Yukon. Most of the construction labour force will have to come from outside of the Yukon and possibly outside of British Columbia and Alberta, qualifying the AHPP as a mega-project that requires resources from beyond the region. The Local Area Model (LAM) tool was developed by Informetrica Ltd. to assist communities in thinking through the economic impact of the AHPP. It is designed to help communities plan on gaining what they want from the pipeline development. In some instances, this may imply enhancing possible economic impacts, or it may mean reducing impacts. It was noted that the model is not limited to the AHPP. It is a valuable tool that can evaluate the economic impact of any project or spending decision on local communities. It is estimated that Yukon residents can take up to 20 per cent of the expected 6,000 pipeline-related jobs. This employment number includes direct, indirect and induced effects. The LAM can quantify the effect an event or a business can have on a community. The model consists of nine modules which calculate and measure the income, employment and tax impact of AHPP construction on the communities of Whitehorse and Haines Junction. 1 ref., 14 tabs., 1 fig

  17. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. PMID:26439649

  18. SEQUOIA: a methodology for the socio-economic impact assessment of software-as-a-service and internet of services research projects

    OpenAIRE

    Passani, Antonella; Monacciani, Fabiana; Graaf, Shenja van der; Spagnoli, Francesca; Bellini, Francesco; Debicki, Marie; Dini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for the self-assessment of the socio-economic impact of Software-as-a-Service and Internet of Services research projects is presented in the context of EU-funded research. The SEQUOIA methodology was developed by assessing thirty existing projects with their close collaboration. This process was documented to provide a basis for future research projects to apply the methodology on their own. The model and the empirical findings are discussed in detail, focussing on five projects...

  19. Evaluating economic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Should a value be put on nature? On what basis can it be evaluated? Although disagreements persist as to the legitimacy of such evaluations, many economists think that economics can usefully be applied to the mechanisms leading to destruction of natural environments. Ecological and human systems are closely intertwined. The aim of an evaluation is to pro-vide tools on which to base environmental policy. But there has to be agreement as to the methods and criteria to apply. For the United Stat...

  20. Economic Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela PĂDURE; Ion Adrian TURTUREANU

    2005-01-01

    As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due to over commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ by man. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact the destination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to si...

  1. Environmental and Economical Assessment of MSW Management in Europe: An Analysis between the Landfill and WTE Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Polzer, Veronica; Persson, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Every year two billion tons of MSW are produced globally. Due to the impact of solid waste and population growth, it is necessary to develop an integrated solid waste management plan. Such a plan, holistic in scope, would aim to minimize the negative impact of this material in the environment while being economically viable. The designation and terming of any one mode of waste treatment as superior or preferable is an intricate issue in which a large set of standards and measures should be ta...

  2. Assessing the Economic Impact of an Agricultural Export Shock on the Washington Economy: A Tale of Two Models

    OpenAIRE

    David Holland; Abdul Razack

    2006-01-01

    The results of an economic impact analysis with a regional input-output (IO) model are compared with results from a regional computable general equilibrium CGE) model. The I0 model embodies a number of restrictive assumptions. These assumptions are consistent with the long run equilibrium of the economy where there is no capacity constraint for production, fixed coefficients in production, and no price changes or due to Leontief technology, and fixed input prices. For all of these reasons inp...

  3. Socio-Economic Assessment of the Impacts of the 1998 Coral Reef Bleaching in the Indian Ocean: A Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar, H.S.J.; Westmacott, Susie; Pet-Soede, L.

    2001-01-01

    Coral reefs are a vital resource to many areas of the Indian Ocean. Coastal populations are continuously increasing (Table 1) and relying on this resource as the basis of the economy. Across the region, the two common socio-economic reef based activities are fisheries and tourism. For local subsistence fishermen, reef fisheries often represent their only livelihood. Degradation of coral reefs will first impact the reef fishery and subsequently, the local fishing community. Tourism also is ...

  4. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  5. Economic Impact of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela PĂDURE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

  6. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  7. ONTARIO GRAPE PRODUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, Kevin; Martin, Larry J.; Stiefelmeyer, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report was undertaken in order to measure the economic impacts of the grape industry on the Ontario economy and the impacts of maintaining the Wine Content Act at the 30% level. It will also provide an estimate of the benefits to grape growers and Ontario of increasing the requirements of the Wine Content Act to 75%. Specifically, the objectives are: 1. To determine the current contribution of the processing grape industry to the economy of Ontario. 2. To estimate the economic effects of...

  8. A critical evaluation of social impact assessment methodologies and a call to measure economic and social impact holistically through the External Rate of Return platform

    OpenAIRE

    Florman, Mark; Vidra, Robyn Klingler; Facada, Martim Jacinto

    2016-01-01

    Companies, investors, international organisations and non-governmental organisations have designed frameworks and tools for measuring the social impact of business. In this report we evaluate the landscape of existing social impact assessment methods. We first delineate the characteristics, context and development of leading methodologies. We then critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of today’s leading social impact assessment methodologies. We identify the strengths of existing a...

  9. The Impact of TTIP: The underlying economic model and comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkmans, Jacques; Lejour, Arjan; Schrefler, Lorna; Mustilli, Federica; Timini, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    What are the economic and other impacts of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership? At the request of the European Parliament, CEPS has provided an appraisal of the TTIP Impact Assessment carried out by the European Commission, with special elaboration of the underlying economic model. The methodology applied by the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) for this economic modelling is analysed in depth, together with the assumptions used to make TTIP amenable to an economic app...

  10. ECONOMICS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the session was to describe procedures used in the estimation of economic cost of air pollution to agriculture in the U.S. and to present some examples of those estimates. In recent years, there has been great interest in the development of monetary estimates of ...

  11. Monitoring study and impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Budidarsono, Suseno; Rahmanulloh, Arif

    2008-01-01

    Report on the progress of socio-economic objective of LTRP 5 in Indonesia. The objectives were: (1) Identify vegetable cultivation technology on agroforestry system that socially acceptable, economically feasible, and affordable; (2) Provide information on the level adoption of vegetable cultivation technology in agroforestry system and (3)Assess impacts of technology adoption on farmers' incomes.

  12. A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brandão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental and economic assessment of land use for food, energy and timber in the UK has been performed using environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and economic Life Cycle Costing (LCC, to explore complementary sustainability aspects of alternative land uses. The environmental assessment includes impacts on climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, all of which include soil carbon emissions. The systems explored include all processes from cradle to farm ‘gate’. The crops assessed were wheat and oilseed rape (under both organic and conventional farming systems, Scots Pine, and willow and Miscanthus. Food crops, particularly conventional food crops, are shown to have the highest climate-changing emissions per ha, whereas energy and forestry crops show negative net emissions. To a lesser extent, the same situation applies to impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity, with carbon storage in biomass playing a larger role than carbon in soils. The energy and forestry crops in this study show an overall beneficial environmental impact, in particular due to soil carbon sequestration, making these land uses the lowest contributors to climate change. Combining this with the non-renewable CO2 emissions displaced will mean that energy crops have an even lower impact. Economically, conventional food crops present the highest costs per ha, followed by organic food crops, energy and forestry crops. Integrating the results from LCA and LCC shows that the climate impacts per monetary unit of all land uses are dominated by soil management and, in the case of food production, also by fertilisation. Taxes or incentives such as “carbon charging” will encourage changes in practice in these areas to improve the sustainability of land management, mainly by building up Soil Organic Carbon (SOC.

  13. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo;

    2004-01-01

    methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...

  14. The economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Brander, Luke M.; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Because ocean acidification has only recently been recognized as a problem caused by CO2 emissions, impact studies are still rare and estimates of the economic impact are absent. This paper estimates the economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs which are generally considered to be economically as well as ecologically important ecosystems. First, we conduct an impact assessment in which atmospheric concentration of CO2 is linked to ocean acidity causing coral reef area loss. Next,...

  15. Economic and industrial development. EID - EMPLOY. Final report. Task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of existing impact assessment studies that analyse employment impacts of renewable energy (RE) deployment and to show which methodological approaches are best suitable to assess employment effect in the field of RE- electricity. A first review shows a large variety of impact assessment studies in the field of energy deployment applying a rather broad array of methodological approaches. Bounding the studies to RE-electricity considerably reduces the number of studies, but not necessarily the number of approaches. Due to different approaches the questions answered by the impact assessment studies cover a wide range that captures e.g. limited impacts in the RE industry as well as overarching employment impacts in the overall economy. First, based on the research focus of the studies and their impacts (Figure 0-1), we classify the assessed studies on employment impacts into two groups: gross employment studies and net employment studies. They aim to answer different policy questions and capture different effects: - Gross employment studies focus on the economic relevance of the RE industry in terms of employment, thus on the number of jobs provided in the RE industry and the structural analysis of employment in the RE industry. Furthermore employment in supplying industries are also included as indirect or induced impacts. The aim is to provide transparency on employment in an industry that is in the public interest but not adequately represented in official statistics, and, furthermore, enabling monitoring of this industry in the course of RE promotion. Gross studies take into account positive effects of RE deployment. - Net employment impact studies aim to assess the overall economic impact of promoting RE deployment, thus the change of the number of jobs in the total economy. For this, they take into account negative and positive effects of RE deployment on employment in all economic sectors and hence provide a

  16. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, Didier; Trillat, Pauline; Cahuzac, Clélia

    2016-01-01

    Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT) due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig). FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13), 1.75 (1.50-2.03), 1.51 (1.05-2.17) and 1.91 (1.63-2.24), respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval) total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109) and €80 (€20-139) for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention. PMID:26986832

  17. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Raboisson

    Full Text Available Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig. FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13, 1.75 (1.50-2.03, 1.51 (1.05-2.17 and 1.91 (1.63-2.24, respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109 and €80 (€20-139 for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention.

  18. Economic impact of RVF outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Chevalier, Véronique; Peyre, Marisa; Abdo-Salem, Shaïf; Bonnet, Pierre; Roger, François

    2012-01-01

    Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countri...

  19. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  20. Economic assessment of sterifeed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of a processing technology depends on its cost. Two types of costs commonly used in the estimation are a fixed cost and the other is variable cost. The cost structure that included in the fixed cost, mainly, the cost of land, building and machineries, and the variable cost covers raw materials, salary / wages, utilities, irradiation charge, other miscellaneous expenses and contingencies. The assessment were made by treating the economic data using discounted cash flow projection method to deduce the economic indicators: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit to Cost (B/C) ratio, that would suggest the project feasibility, either feasible or otherwise. The NPV, IRR, B/C deduced from Sterifeed Process showed the economic of this technology was infeasible due high cost incurred in transportation, labour as well as the cost of machinery. This is accomplished by sensitivity test performed on these cost components. However, cost structure derived from Sterifeed Plant serves as a model cost structure for economic assessment in production of Sterifeed, a fermented ruminant feed, and to work further on the economic of the project. This paper discuss economic evaluation of Sterifeed process in different scenarios that carried out in the Sterifeed process operations and deduction were made to derive a model production unit for commercialisation. (Author)

  1. Application of a Life Cycle Impact Assessment framework to evaluate and compare environmental performances with economic values of supplied coal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangena, S.J.; Brent, A.C. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. for Engineering & Technological Management

    2006-07-01

    The South African economy is strongly based on coal as a mined resource, and various grades of coal are supplied to local and international customers. However, the environmental impacts associated with the preparation and production of different coal grades from Run of Mine (RoM) or raw coal are variable; specifically, the different mining methods used for coal extraction opencast or underground mining - have different environmental impacts. The entire life cycles of the grades of coal must therefore be evaluated in order to compare environmental performances with supplied economic values. In this paper, a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology, based on the ISO 14040 standard, is applied for this purpose. Four cases are considered in South Africa: typical high-grade and low-grade coals from opencast and underground mines.

  2. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted. This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  3. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  4. 77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its economic impact procedures. A draft of the proposed economic impact procedures can be accessed at the following location:...

  5. Economic impact of PCI remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

  6. Economics and Research Assessment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Gillies

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the effects on Economics of Research Assessment Systems, such as the Research Assessment Exercise (or RAE) which was carried out in the UK between 1986 and 2008. The paper begins by pointing out that, in the 2008 RAE, economics turned out to be the research area which was accorded the highest valuation of any subject in the UK, even though economists were then under attack for failing to predict the global financial crash which had occurred a few months earlier. On...

  7. Implementing an advanced waste separation step in an MBT plant: assessment of technical, economic and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirhofer, Martina; Piringer, Gerhard; Rixrath, Doris; Sommer, Manuel; Ragossnig, Arne Michael

    2013-10-01

    Heavy fractions resulting from mechanical treatment stages of mechanical-biological waste treatment plants are posing very specific demands with regard to further treatment (large portions of inert and high-caloric components). Based on the current Austrian legal situation such a waste stream cannot be landfilled and must be thermally treated. The aim of this research was to evaluate if an inert fraction generated from this waste stream with advanced separation technologies, two sensor-based [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), X-ray transmission (XRT)] and two mechanical systems (wet and dry) is able to be disposed of. The performance of the treatment options for separation was evaluated by characterizing the resulting product streams with respect to purity and yield. Complementing the technical evaluation of the processing options, an assessment of the economic and global warming effects of the change in waste stream routing was conducted. The separated inert fraction was evaluated with regard to landfilling. The remaining high-caloric product stream was evaluated with regard to thermal utilization. The results show that, in principal, the selected treatment technologies can be used to separate high-caloric from inert components. Limitations were identified with regard to the product qualities achieved, as well as to the economic expedience of the treatment options. One of the sensor-based sorting systems (X-ray) was able to produce the highest amount of disposeable heavy fraction (44.1%), while having the lowest content of organic (2.0% C biogenic per kg waste input) components. None of the high-caloric product streams complied with the requirements for solid recovered fuels as defined in the Austrian Ordinance on Waste Incineration. The economic evaluation illustrates the highest specific treatment costs for the XRT (€ 23.15 per t), followed by the NIR-based sorting system (€ 15.67 per t), and the lowest costs for the air separation system (€ 10.79 per t

  8. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  9. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  10. Theoretical basis for expert system to forecast and assess economic impact of anthropogenic pollution on population disease level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Bublyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Theoretical basis of mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets to evaluate and account the man-made (anthropogenic losses is improved in the article in order to take effective administrative decisions of their reduction and prevention. Theoretical basis for building an expert system for forecasting the economic effects of man-made (anthropogenic pollution on population levels of disease is analyzed. Practically these investigations will give the opportunity to control measures of orientation of the national economy and its individual industries on sustainable development. The results of the analysis. The theoretical foundations and applied problems of predicting man-made damage to the national economy and methods of management at the state level allowed for the following conclusions. 1. To justify the application of theoretical principles of fuzzy sets as an effective mathematical tool in conditions of incomplete information and uncertainty in future work the advantages of fuzzy expert systems, including the possibility of approximate descriptions such complex phenomena that can not be described in conventional quantitative terms, and the ability to receive, store and adjust the knowledge possessed by experts in this subject area in the process of dialogue with them in order to get real results. 2. The model of fuzzy expert system for establishing interdependencies between the amount of pollution (emissions, effluents, waste and deterioration of health in Ukraine has been proposed. 3. The model in predicting the technogenic load (discharges (drained polluted waters without treatment and emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide due to economic activity and its effects on the number of newly registered tumors in 1000 people of the population in Ukraine has been investigated. 4. During the investigation it was established as a rising idea to use the claim that the impact of emissions and discharges of pollutants to the number

  11. The impact of trade on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of marginal intra-industry trade on economic growth. The manuscript questions the economic growth exogenous models. It introduces new proxies to explain the economic growth as in marginal intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The change of intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hyp...

  12. Health, social and economic impact of some tritium watches in Italy. Regulations, derogations and proposed scenarios for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian Radiation Protection regulations issued in 1995, valid since the beginning of 1996, ban the trading, production, import, use, handling and anyway keeping of 'products for personal use containing deliberately added radioactive materials'. Tritium watches belong to such a category of consumer products. A derogation to this ban may be asked to the Italian authorities provided that a Qualified Expert performs a dose assessment for all the possible scenarios involving users, non-users, workers and general population for the use, distribution, repair and disposal of tritium watches in normal and accident a conditions. We have carried out this assessment for watches imported by some large Italian comparies and the general results are here reported. In this context we have also compared the Italian legislation with the present one of other European countries, just few months before the deadline for the compulsory implementation by the EU member states of the 1996 Euratom Directive, laying down Basic Safety Standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation. We have also traced the evolution of the Italian legislation in the matter of radioluminescent watches in the last thirty years. The dose assessments have been carried out considering scenarios both reported in international literature and suitably set out by the authors. It can be pointed out that, considering credible hypotheses, the maximum committed dose to the user of a tritium watch, in normal conditions of use, is less than 10 micro Sv/y and that in many cases neither in the worst and unlikely scenarios such a value is exceeded; the other categories of potentially exposed people (non-users, repairmen, distributors) are affected by much lower 'doses'. In all cases the individual doses are well below the annual limit set out by the Italian legislation for practices involving radioactive man-made material. Nevertheless, these

  13. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): A Long-Term Remote Sensing, Hydrologic, Ecologic, and Socio-Economic Assessment with Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto-Orta, M.; Ortiz, J.; Santiago, L.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs) have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Coral reefs, for instance, have been impacted by sedimentation, increased eutrophication, and coastal water contamination. Here we present an overview of a new NASA project to study human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project uses an interdisciplinary approach that includes historic and recent remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change in coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and sandy beaches. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. Methods include assessments of coral reefs benthic communities cover, monitoring of short- and long-term beach geomorphological changes associated with riverine and sediment input, calculation of the economical value of selected CMEs, establish permanent monitoring transects in never before studied coral reef areas, provide recommendations to enhance current coastal policy management practices, and disseminate the results to local stakeholders. This project will include imagery from the Operational Land Imager of Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Our results and the generality of the methodology will provide for its application to other similar tropical locations.

  14. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  15. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  16. The economic impact of educational training assessed by the Handling Questionnaire with three inhalation devices in asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Povero, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Background The usability of inhalation devices depends on several factors, eg, the drug to inhale, device handling, and patients’ training. Usability is then presumed to have economic consequences. Aim To assess and compare the cost of patients’ training for proper usability of Breezhaler and Genuair (both dry powder inhalers) and Respimat (a soft mist inhaler) in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outpatients. Methods The acceptance and handling of the three devices were investigated by means of the Handling Questionnaire. The time spent in specific training for ensuring a proper actuation and the corresponding costs were also calculated. Linear and logistic regressions were used in order to investigate the factors influencing proper handling of the devices. A significance level of PAsthma and COPD patients showed a similar trend, with better outcomes reported for asthma patients probably due to lower age. Conclusion Substantial differences were found to exist in patients’ acceptability and handling of the three devices. The economic impact of specific training was also different and strictly related to the comprehension of the procedure for actuation of each device. Respimat as a soft mist inhaler and Genuair as an metered-dose inhaler proved to be the most convenient in economic terms also.

  17. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just focus on the dire...

  18. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    OpenAIRE

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this survey, we review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just f...

  19. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  1. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The importance of renewable energy in energy systems is increasing at an impressive rate, and the expectation is that this tendency will continue in the longer term. As a consequence, there is a strong need for reliable insight into the employment benefits from renewable energy. The current knowledge on the economic impacts of large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies is more or less derived on an ad hoc basis and consists of a variety of different methodologies with different objectives. This is why the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) would like to facilitate a more structural approach, which will contribute to reliable and consistent insights of employment effects from deployment of renewable energy technologies. The objectives of the EMPLOY-EID project are to: Provide guidelines based on a thorough review of best practices, which are able to contribute to a consistent, reliable framework in which to measure employment effects from renewable energy deployment and which can be replicated from one country to another; Identify data sources and/or inputs required in application of such guidelines; Provide better understanding of key parameters and mechanisms that determine contribution of renewable energy employment; Assess availability of sources for employment benefit data for all RETD member countries as well as other interesting countries; Provide concrete gross employment benefit data to countries where data is available through application of the guidelines and best practices; and, Document the economic effects of renewable energy deployment through a publishable brochure of the main project results, presentations, the guidelines and background report. This project will help achieve the IEA-RETD's objective to ''empowering policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources'' by underlining the

  2. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  3. Images of a place and vacation preferences: Implications of the 1989 surveys for assessing the economic impacts of a nuclear waste repository in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July, 1989 the authors produced a report titled Perceived Risk, Stigma, and Potential Economic Impacts of a High-Level Nuclear-Waste Repository in Nevada (Slovic et al., 1989). That report described a program of research designed to assess the potential impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada upon tourism, retirement and job-related migration, and business development in Las Vegas and the state. It was concluded that adverse economic impacts potentially may result from two related social processes. Specifically, the study by Slovic et al. employed analyses of imagery in order to overcome concerns about the validity of direct questions regarding the influence of a nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain upon a person's future behaviors. During the latter months of 1989, data were collected in three major telephone surveys, designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) to replicate the results from the Phoenix, Arizona, surveys using samples from other populations that contribute to tourism, migration, and development in Nevada; (2) to retest the original Phoenix respondents to determine the stability of their images across an 18-month time period and to determine whether their vacation choices subsequent to the first survey were predictable from the images they produced in that original survey; (3) to elicit additional word-association images for the stimulus underground nuclear waste repository in order to determine whether the extreme negative images generated by the Phoenix respondents would occur with other samples of respondents; and (4) to develop and test a new method for imagery elicitation, based upon a rating technique rather than on word associations. 2 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs.

  5. Assessing the impact of humidex on HFMD in Guangdong Province and its variability across social-economic status and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangjian; Du, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Huang, Yong; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-01-01

    Humidex is a meteorological index that combines the impacts of temperature and humidity, and is directly comparable with dry temperature in degrees Celsius. However, to date, no research has focused on the effect of humidex on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current study was designed to address this research need. Case-based HFMD surveillance data and daily meteorological data collected between 2010 and 2012 was obtained from the China CDC and the National Meteorological Information Center, respectively. Distributed lag nonlinear models were applied to assess the impact of humidex on HFMD among children under 15 years oldin Guangdong, and its variability across social-economic status and age groups. We found that relative risk (RR) largely increased with humidex. Lag-specific and cumulative humidex-RR curves for children from the Pearl-River Delta Region as well as older children were more likely to show two-peak distribution patterns. One RR peak occurred at a humidex of between 15 and 20, and the other occurred between 30 and 35. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of humidex on HFMD incidence in Guangdong Province. Results from the present study should be important in the development of area-and-age-targeted control programs. PMID:26743684

  6. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.;

    2006-01-01

    European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified...... for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio...

  7. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the economic consequences of a reduction in the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) at herd level under current Swedish farming conditions. A second objective was to ask whether the estimated cost of CM alters depending upon whether the model...... 150 cows (9000 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow-year). Four herd types, defined by production level and reproductive performance, were modelled to investigate possible interactions between herd type and response to a reduction in the risk of CM. Technical and economic results, given the initial...... single yield-loss pattern irrespective of when, during the lactation period, the cow develops CM - was compared with a new modelling strategy in which CM was assumed to affect production differently depending on its lactational timing. The effect of the choice of reference level when estimating yield...

  8. "Wage Differentials and Wage Inequality in Croatia, 1970-2008: Assessing the Labor Market Impact of Economic Transformation"

    OpenAIRE

    Saul D. Hoffman; Ivo Bicanic; Oriana Vukoja

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine wage inequality and wage differentials in Croatia from 1970 to 2008. We focus especially on changing income inequality related to educational and vocational attainment, changing income inequality within those groups, and how these two components of inequality were affected by the economic transformation from Socialism to capitalism. We find that income inequality between groups was relatively stable, while overall inequality trended upward in the post-transformation ...

  9. Theoretical basis for expert system to forecast and assess economic impact of anthropogenic pollution on population disease level

    OpenAIRE

    Bublyk, M. I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. Theoretical basis of mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets to evaluate and account the man-made (anthropogenic) losses is improved in the article in order to take effective administrative decisions of their reduction and prevention. Theoretical basis for building an expert system for forecasting the economic effects of man-made (anthropogenic) pollution on population levels of disease is analyzed. Practically these investigations will give the opportunity to control mea...

  10. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km2 road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%

  11. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km2 road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%. (author)

  12. An Introduction to the IBMR : A Hydro-Economic Model for Climate Change Impact Assessment in Pakistan’s Indus River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Brown, Casey M.; Yu, Winston H.; Savitsky, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR) is a hydro-agro-economic optimization model for agricultural investment planning across Pakistan’s Indus Basin provinces. This study describes IBMR-2012, an update and modification of the model that reflects the current agro-economic conditions in Pakistan for the purpose of evaluating the impact of climate change on water allocation and food security. Results of hydro-climatic parameter sensitivity and basin-wide and provincial-level climate change impact...

  13. AASA Survey: Impact of the Economic Downturn on School Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    AASA, The School Superintendent's Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to gauge how school districts across the country are responding to the current economic downturn, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) continues to assess various measures of economic impact. Earlier AASA surveys addressed trends in districts' initial responses to the downturn, districts'…

  14. Integrated impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.L.; Rossini, F.A.

    1981-12-01

    Impact assessment studies the effects on society of proposed projects, programs, or policies. It is perhaps best known in the forms of technology assessment and environmental-impact assessment. The institutionalization of impact assessment, the principal features of impact assessment and its performance are discussed here, keynoting interdisciplinarity as a critical factor. Substantial progress in performance has occurred over the past decade, especially in environmental and social analyses, pointing to some critical issues for the decade ahead. Within studies, integration across disciplinary components, between contributions from professionals and parties-at-interest, and between producers and users must be improved. Across studies, practitioners of impact assessment need to intercommunicate to advance the state of their art. 38 references.

  15. 76 FR 79679 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811...

  16. 75 FR 20993 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room 1238, Washington, DC...

  17. 75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room...

  18. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  19. Assessing climate impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Roger S. Pulwarty; Zhang, Jian Yun

    2000-01-01

    Assessing climate impacts involves identifying sources and characteristics of climate variability, and mitigating potential negative impacts of that variability. Associated research focuses on climate driving mechanisms, biosphere–hydrosphere responses and mediation, and human responses. Examples of climate impacts come from 1998 flooding in the Yangtze River Basin and hurricanes in the Caribbean and Central America. Although we have limited understanding of the fu...

  20. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  1. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Tawil, J.

    1982-08-01

    The overall purpose of this research was to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) in developing methods for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts due to the effects of increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ on agricultural production. First, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken to determine what types of models and methods have been developed, which could be effectively used to conduct assessments of the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon models and methods for assessing the physical impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields; national and multi-regional agricultural sector models; and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The second task involved a thorough investigation of the research efforts being conducted by other public and private sector organizations in order to determine how more recent analytical methods being developed outside of DOE could be effectively integrated into a more comprehensive analysis of the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ buildup. The third and final task involved synthesizing the information gathered in the first two tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes originating in the agricultural sector of the US economy. It is concluded that the direct economic impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the agricultural sector and the indirect economic impacts caused by spillover effects from agriculture to other sectors of the economy will be pervasive; however, the direction and magnitude of these impacts on producers and consumers cannot be determined a priori.

  2. Economic impacts of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will probably have a limited impact on the economy and human welfare in the 21st century. The initial impacts of climate change may well be positive. In the long run, the negative impacts dominate the positive ones. Negative impacts will be substantially greater in poorer, hotter, and lower-lying countries. Poverty reduction complements greenhouse gas emissions reduction as a means to reduce climate change impacts. Climate change may affect the growth rate of the economy and ma...

  3. A study on the feasibility of environmental impacts assessment for Wolsung nuclear 3 and 4 - Ecology, population and socio-economic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to study persistently methodology and all relevant information for environmental impacts assessment, which will make the assessment be more effective. The contents and scope of this project are summarized as follows : review on the feasibility of the overall environmental status surveyed at the vicinity of the proposed nuclear power plants, review on the assessment of the probable impacts, review on the potential of alternatives to minimize the adverse impacts on the surrounding environments

  4. A study on the feasibility of environmental impacts assessment for Wolsung nuclear 3 and 4 - Ecology, population and socio-economic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho; Lee, Jin Hong; Hong, Seong Soo [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1993-09-15

    It is necessary to study persistently methodology and all relevant information for environmental impacts assessment, which will make the assessment be more effective. The contents and scope of this project are summarized as follows : review on the feasibility of the overall environmental status surveyed at the vicinity of the proposed nuclear power plants, review on the assessment of the probable impacts, review on the potential of alternatives to minimize the adverse impacts on the surrounding environments.

  5. Assessment of the Impact of Stochastic Day-Ahead SCUC on Economic and Reliability Metrics at Multiple Timescales: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Ela, E.; Krad, I.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Ibanez, E.; Gao, W.

    2015-03-01

    This paper incorporates the stochastic day-ahead security-constrained unit commitment (DASCUC) within a multi-timescale, multi-scheduling application with commitment, dispatch, and automatic generation control. The stochastic DASCUC is solved using a progressive hedging algorithm with constrained ordinal optimization to accelerate the individual scenario solution. Sensitivity studies are performed in the RTS-96 system, and the results show how this new scheduling application would impact costs and reliability with a closer representation of timescales of system operations in practice.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Management Buyouts on Economic Efficiency: Plant-Level Evidence from the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Harris; Siegel, Donald S.; Mike Wright

    2003-01-01

    We assess the total factor productivity (TFP) of plants before and after management buyouts (MBOs), using the Annual Business Inquiry Respondents Database (ARD) file, which contains longitudinal data for approximately 36,000 U.K. manufacturing establishments. Our preliminary results suggest that these MBO establishments were less productive than comparable plants before the transfer of ownership. We also find that MBO plants experienced a substantial increase in productivity after a buyout. T...

  7. Assessing the impacts of socio-economic and hydrological factors on urban water demand: A multivariate statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, George P.

    2014-10-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques conducted on quarterly water consumption data in Mytilene reveal valuable tools that could help the local authorities in assigning strategies aimed at the sustainable development of urban water resources. The proposed methodology is an innovative approach, applied for the first time in the international literature, to handling urban water consumption data in order to analyze statistically the interrelationships among the determinants of urban water use. Factor analysis of demographic, socio-economic and hydrological variables shows that total water consumption in Mytilene is the combined result of increases in (a) income, (b) population, (c) connections and (d) climate parameters. On the other hand, the per connection water demand is influenced by variations in water prices but with different consequences in each consumption class. Increases in water prices are faced by large consumers; they then reduce their consumption rates and transfer to lower consumption blocks. These shifts are responsible for the increase in the average consumption values in the lower blocks despite the increase in the marginal prices.

  8. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  9. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF INCORPORATING ROMANIAN'S AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SECTORS INTO EU'S CUSTOMS UNION: AN APPLIED GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu S. Scrieciu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining the European Union club implies, among many other policy changes, full integration of Romania’s economy into EU’s customs union. This is expected to have significant implications for domestic farmers and food processors. The paper constructs a single-country Applied General Equilibrium (AGE model to investigate the impact of tariff border adjustments on changes in relative prices, production and trade patterns associated with fifteen local agro-food activities. Moreover, the modelling work identifies those agro-food sectors that have the potential to benefit the most from EU enlargement in terms of output effects given that Romanian producers are capable of fully responding to the incentives provided with integration. These mainly include (bovine live animals and meat products, sugar, and cereal grains. Agro-food trade with EU intensifies in particular for those commodities for which trade restrictions are still substantial prior to accession. However, the magnitude of changes is relatively small due to the weak integration of domestic agro-food sectors into international trade structures. The AGE model also predicts static welfare gains of 0.65 percent of GDP equivalent variation. These seem to be more associated with better access to EU markets and increased export prices, and less with the preferential unilateral elimination of tariffs or their adjustment to EU’s external levels. The model assumptions are highly theoretical and the model structure does not reflect with fidelity the workings of an economy in transition. Nonetheless, it does represent a solid base upon which further improvements could be added and structural transitional issues could be attached to more accurately predict potential outcomes.

  10. Impact assessment of economic and monetary innovations for their financing and improvement: why is it necessary for social transformation projects management ?

    OpenAIRE

    Place, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    After a deep literature review of 151 sources on impact assessment in the sector of development projects, sustainable finance and monetary innovation, only 31%, 17% and 14% were respectively reference materials of this research topic. The two first sectors are advanced on this topic and already have some principles, standards and guidelines for impact assessment methodology and even handbooks. Furthermore, in the impact finance sector, 24% of a database of 169 sources or 54% of a research of ...

  11. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

  12. Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath

    OpenAIRE

    Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

    2008-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in m...

  13. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  14. The Economic Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, Richard S.J.

    2008-01-01

    I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

  15. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ona Rakauskienė; Eglė Krinickienė

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that...

  16. Re-examining the economic options for import risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, David; Cook, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of altering quarantine policies are divided into two main areas: trade evaluations, utilising a partial equilibrium approach to determine the benefits of market liberalisation; or pest management economics, used to determine the on-ground impacts of introduced species. This paper rationalises why these approaches need to be brought together within the policy framework of import risk assessments to provide a greater understanding of the benefits and risks from market liber...

  17. Re-examining economic options for import risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    David Adamson; David Cook

    2007-01-01

    The economic impacts of altering quarantine policies are divided into two main areas: trade evaluations, utilising a partial equilibrium approach to determine the benefits of market liberalisation; or pest management economics, used to determine the on-ground impacts of introduced species. This paper rationalises why these approaches need to be brought together within the policy framework of import risk assessments to provide a greater understanding of the benefits and risks from market liber...

  18. Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

  19. Joint Social and Economic Assessment : Republic of Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Social and Economic Assessment (JSEA) has been prepared in response to a request from the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MoPIC) in Yemen, and was undertaken jointly by the World Bank, the United Nations, the European Union, and the Islamic Development Bank. The JSEA's main purpose is to assess the social and economic impact of the crisis in Yemen, and to iden...

  20. Impact assessment revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Markussen, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of the assessment of invasive alien species impacts need to be improved. At present most approaches are unreliable to quantify impact at regional scales and do not allow for comparison of different invasive species. There are four basic problems that need to be...... addressed: (1) Some impacted ecosystem traits are spatially not additive; (2) invader effects may increase non-linearly with abundance or there may be effect thresholds impairing estimates of linear impact models; (3) the abundance and impact of alien species will often co-vary with environmental variation......; and (4) the total invaded range is an inappropriate measure for quantifying regional impact because the habitat area available for invasion can vary markedly among invasive species. Mathematical models and empirical data using an invasive alien plant species (Heracleum mantegazzianum) indicate that...

  1. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  2. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  3. The economic impact of molecular modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbeck, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for economic impact of molecular modelling of chemicals and materials is investigated, including the mechanisms by which impact is achieved and how it is measured. The impact pathway is followed from the fundamental theories via the users of software to the researchers that utilise the results and to new, engineered products. While a quantification of the impact of one methodology is very difficult, it has been possible to consider measures of impact a...

  4. A Critical Assessment of Islamic Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Shams, Rasul

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the widely discussed concept of Islamic Economics. The two different interpretations of Islamic economics as the study of the functioning of an interest-free economy and the validity of moral values in the economy are discussed. It is shown that none of these interpretations can help to create an acceptable foundation for an Islamic economics. Far away from laying the foundation for such an economics the question is raised how an Islamic economy wo...

  5. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdzadeh Reza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

  6. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding...

  7. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  8. The Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is a hotly contested policy issue in the United States. Diametrically opposed advocacy groups exchange counterclaims on immigration’s blessings or banes, sometimes with little pretext of objectivity. However, recent decades have also seen a growing body of nonpartisan scholarly analysis of immigration’s fiscal and economic impact in the US. An exploration of such study finds that the preponderance of evidence points to positive net fiscal and economic impacts—albeit modest ones—an...

  9. Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Kooten, van, K.

    2009-01-01

    Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the impact of various levels of wind penetration on grid management costs, we show that costs of reducing CO2 emissions by relying more on wind power depend on the generation mix of the existing electrical ...

  10. Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Pekkala

    2005-01-01

    This survey presents findings from recent empirical studies on economic impacts of immigration with particular emphasis on European and Nordic countries. The survey consists of three parts. First, we look at the extent of immigration as an economic phenomenon in various host countries. The second part deals with the assimilation of immigrant workers in host country labor markets and the use of social benefits by immigrants. Third, the effect of immigration on natives? labor market outcomes is...

  11. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan KANNAN

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  12. Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA's competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It is almost competitive as a location for another 80 to 90 types of businesses and is a marginal choice for another 200 business groups. In other words, Clark County, as is, fully satisfies the basic requirements of almost a sixth of the businesses in this study. With minor improvements in areas such as the skill mix of its work force and the quality of its educational facilities and with an effective campaign to improve the area's image, the Las Vegas area could become a competitive location for about two-thirds of all business groups -- a very large shift in marketability. The proposed nuclear waste repository that he Federal government has proposed for siting at Yucca Mountain more than a hundred miles from Las Vegas would become operational after the turn of the century, more than fifteen years from now. Its influence on business investment decisions would be felt in the mid- to late-1990s if the final decision were made and announced. To measure that impact it would be desirable to establish a baseline that reflects Clark County's competitiveness as a business facility location in the middle of the next decade. In constructing that baseline, several variables could be considered -- changes in business climate conditions in the area other than the nuclear waste repository; and changes in the location decision process itself resulting from changes in technology and in market pressures

  13. Shamba Maisha: A pilot study assessing impacts of a micro-irrigation intervention on the health and economic wellbeing of HIV patients

    OpenAIRE

    Onjolo Elijah; Tittle Robin; Sirotin Nicole; Pandit Jay A; Bukusi Elizabeth A; Cohen Craig R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS negatively impacts poverty alleviation and food security, which reciprocally hinder the rapid scale up and effectiveness of HIV care programs. Nyanza province has the highest HIV prevalence (15.3%), and is the third highest contributor (2.4 million people) to rural poverty in Kenya. Thus, we tested the feasibility of providing a micro-irrigation pump to HIV-positive farmers in order to evaluate its impact on health and economic advancement among HIV-positive patie...

  14. Clinical and economic impact of etanercept in real-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Andersen, Peter Hundevadt; Lorentzen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-life data on the therapeutic effectiveness and costs of etanercept are scarce. Objectives: To assess the clinical and economic impact of etanercept in patients with psoriasis in Denmark and Norway. MATERIAL & METHODS: This prospective, non-interventional study in a private dermat...

  15. Assessing the Long-Run Economic Impact of Labour Law Systems: A Theoretical Reappraisal and Analysis of New Time Series Data

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Deakin; Prabirjit Sarkar

    2008-01-01

    Standard economic theory sees labour law as an exogenous interference with market relations and predicts mostly negative impacts on employment and productivity. We argue for a more nuanced theoretical position: labour law is, at least in part, endogenous, with both the production and the application of labour law norms influenced by national and sectoral contexts, and by complementarities between the institutions of the labour market and those of corporate governance and financial markets. Le...

  16. Economic assessment of crop loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report uses the change in producers' plus consumers' surplus as the criterion to judge the economic desirability of a change in ozone level. While this is the appropriate measure of aggregate welfare, economics also should provide information on the distribution of gains and losses to policymakers for consideration in setting ozone standards. The paper argues data on the change in equilibrium price and quantity produced by commodity, regional shifts in production, changes in producers' surplus by production region, and the division of changes in consumer surplus between domestic and foreign consumers should be provided. Two additional studies that should be included in the report are cited

  17. Comparative assessment of environmental and socio-economic impacts of disposal of radioactive waste by shallow burial at sites identified by Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study tested two methodologies, comparative assessment and multi-attribute value analysis, on repository site selection. Problems affecting their application stemmed from incomplete baseline and proposed project data and from the impacts being essentially indistinguishable between sites. The latter meant that initial screening was not possible and subsequent screening became arbitrary. The large number of impacts which had to be retained made handling difficult and meaningful rating under comparative assessment was virtually impossible without introducing implicit weightings and adjusting the scale. Multi-attribute value analysis, whilst the more data demanding of the two methodologies, has a greater capability for handling the impacts. Clearly, the limitations on what data can realistically be collected must be taken into account when the evaluation methodology is designed. Ideally a draft methodology should be applied to one site and modified as need be before used for the formal assessment. (author)

  18. Techno-economic environmental assessment of advanced intercooled propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi Saatlou, Esmail

    2012-01-01

    A tool based on a Techno-economic and Environmental Risk Assessment (TERA) framework is useful at the preliminary stage of an aero engine design process, to conceive and assess engines with minimum environmental impact and lowest cost of ownership, in a variety of emission legislation and taxation policy scenarios. This research was performed as part of the EU FP6 New Aero engine Core concepts (NEWAC) programme which was established to assess the potential of innovative gas ...

  19. 78 FR 39728 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has.... James Cruse, Senior Vice President, Policy and Planning. BILLING CODE 6690-01-P...

  20. 77 FR 69453 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $20.4 million long- term guarantee to support...

  1. 76 FR 54467 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $25.1 million guarantee to support the U.S....

  2. 78 FR 30920 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $650 million long- term guarantee or direct...

  3. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $135 million direct loan to support the export...

  4. 77 FR 29344 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $4.3 billion direct loan to support the export...

  5. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $750 million in...

  6. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this transaction due to a request for increased financing. The foreign borrower is requesting a $225 million...

  7. 77 FR 36536 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $22.5 million working capital guarantee to...

  8. 77 FR 65686 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $14 million loan guarantee to support the...

  9. 78 FR 11884 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $500 million direct loan to support the $325 million export of U.S....

  10. 77 FR 47840 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this transaction due to a request for increased financing. The foreign borrower...

  11. 77 FR 77078 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $448 million loan guarantee to support the export of approximately...

  12. 77 FR 40612 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $694 million long- term guarantee to support...

  13. 75 FR 148 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $70 million direct loan to support the export...

  14. 77 FR 53201 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $21 million guarantee to support the $19 million export of a wire rod mill...

  15. 77 FR 44614 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $2.3 billion in...

  16. 75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $400 million long- term ] guarantee to support...

  17. 75 FR 24700 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to provide short-term insurance support for a...

  18. 78 FR 37539 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $63 million loan guarantee to support the export of approximately $74...

  19. 75 FR 48333 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $53 million long- term guarantee to support the export...

  20. 77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $35 million transaction specific working...

  1. 78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $115 million direct loan to support the export of approximately $100...

  2. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $1.74 billion loan to support the export...

  3. 77 FR 23247 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $112 million in...

  4. 76 FR 28225 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $47 million long- term guarantee to support...

  5. 77 FR 21981 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $19.5 million long- term guarantee to support...

  6. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $99 million comprehensive loan guarantee to support the export...

  7. The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

  8. Economic Impact: Methodology and Overall Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes five phases of a comprehensive Economic Impact Study conducted by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) from 2009-2011. The methodology and assumptions of those analyses is summarized for those wishing to conduct similar studies. The paper also documents highlighted results, such as the school's…

  9. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  10. Shamba Maisha: A pilot study assessing impacts of a micro-irrigation intervention on the health and economic wellbeing of HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onjolo Elijah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS negatively impacts poverty alleviation and food security, which reciprocally hinder the rapid scale up and effectiveness of HIV care programs. Nyanza province has the highest HIV prevalence (15.3%, and is the third highest contributor (2.4 million people to rural poverty in Kenya. Thus, we tested the feasibility of providing a micro-irrigation pump to HIV-positive farmers in order to evaluate its impact on health and economic advancement among HIV-positive patients and their families. Methods Thirty HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES program in Kisumu, Kenya were provided a micro-financed loan to receive an irrigation pump and farming guidance from KickStart, the developer of the pump. Economic data, CD4 counts, household health and loan repayment history were collected 12 months after the pumps were distributed. Results Mean annual family income increased by $1,332 over baseline. CD4 counts did not change significantly. Though income increased, only three (10% participants had paid off more than a quarter of the loan. Conclusions We demonstrated the feasibility of an income-generating micro-irrigation intervention among HIV-positive patients and the collection of health and economic data. While family income improved significantly, loan repayment rates were low- likely complicated by the drought that occurred in Kenya during the intervention period.

  11. TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todt Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a critical assessment of the theses of UNWTO that tourism is an effective means of developing whole regions especially difficult aeries such as mountain regions. Growth Pole Theory and Economic Base Theory are used as methodological base.

  12. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - Evaluation/scoping of Management plans - Data analysis for support of the impact assessment for the management plan of Bay of Biscay anchovy (COM(2009)399 final). (STECF-14-05)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-14-03 on Evaluation/scoping of Management plans. Data analysis for support of the impact assessment for the management plan of Bay of Biscay anchovy (COM(2009)399 final) was held from 10-14 March 2014 in Varese, Italy. The report was reviewed and endorsed by the STECF during its plenary meeting held from 24 to 28 March 2014 in Brussels (Belgium).

  13. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, R. [Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Assessment of economic impact of offshore and coastal discharge requirements on present and future operations in the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high potential costs of compliance associated with new effluent guidelines for offshore and coastal oil and gas operations could significantly affect the economics of finding, developing, and producing oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico. This report characterizes the potential economic impacts of alternative treatment and discharge regulations for produced water on reserves and production in Gulf of Mexico coastal, territorial and outer continental shelf (OCS) waters, quantifying the impacts of both recent regulatory changes and possible more stringent requirements. The treatment technologies capable of meeting these requirements are characterized in terms of cost, performance, and applicability to coastal and offshore situations. As part of this analysis, an extensive database was constructed that includes oil and gas production forecasts by field, data on existing platforms, and the current treatment methods in place for produced water treatment and disposal on offshore facilities. This work provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of alternative regulatory requirements for produced water management and disposal in coastal and offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  15. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  16. Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

  17. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  18. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  19. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were i

  20. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  1. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments

  2. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint

  3. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainembabazi, John Herbert; Tripathi, Leena; Rusike, Joseph; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA). GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Objective To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease. Data Sources The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA. Analysis We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana. Results On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production. Conclusion The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries. PMID:26414379

  4. Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment of Genetically Modified Banana Resistant to Xanthomonas Wilt in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Herbert Ainembabazi

    Full Text Available Credible empirical evidence is scanty on the social implications of genetically modified (GM crops in Africa, especially on vegetatively propagated crops. Little is known about the future success of introducing GM technologies into staple crops such as bananas, which are widely produced and consumed in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLA. GM banana has a potential to control the destructive banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.To gain a better understanding of future adoption and consumption of GM banana in the GLA countries which are yet to permit the production of GM crops; specifically, to evaluate the potential economic impacts of GM cultivars resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt disease.The paper uses data collected from farmers, traders, agricultural extension agents and key informants in the GLA.We analyze the perceptions of the respondents about the adoption and consumption of GM crop. Economic surplus model is used to determine future economic benefits and costs of producing GM banana.On the release of GM banana for commercialization, the expected initial adoption rate ranges from 21 to 70%, while the ceiling adoption rate is up to 100%. Investment in the development of GM banana is economically viable. However, aggregate benefits vary substantially across the target countries ranging from US$ 20 million to 953 million, highest in countries where disease incidence and production losses are high, ranging from 51 to 83% of production.The findings support investment in the development of GM banana resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease. The main beneficiaries of this technology development are farmers and consumers, although the latter benefit more than the former from reduced prices. Designing a participatory breeding program involving farmers and consumers signifies the successful adoption and consumption of GM banana in the target countries.

  5. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  6. Broad economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

  7. The Economic Impacts of Self-Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Fleming, David A.; Rupasingha, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Even as self-employment continues to increase, policymakers remain largely unaware of this trend and fail to see it as an opportunity for addressing enduring joblessness. In part, this is explained by limited data on the self-employed and by widespread perceptions that returns to self-employment are low; that the self-employed are merely patching together piecemeal work opportunities requiring limited skills; and that there are no local economic impacts or spillover benefits into other sector...

  8. Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

  9. History of Virtual Water , International Trade and Economic Metabolism at the Time Colonialism and a First Attempt to Assess Their Impact on Hydrologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, F.

    2008-12-01

    This research considers the historical impact of virtual water into the geophysical arena by considering it as a human-led phenomenon that impacts the hydrologic system and, consequently, the environment as a whole. This paper is in line with the idea of including the humans into the water-balance model, and it is deepening the idea that this has to be done not only at the light of each watershed, but globally, looking at the role of water-trade embedded in food and tradable goods. Starting from a definition of what virtual water is, this research explores the role of crops export in the early U.S. Colonial time. As early as 1630 a huge biomass from here was already exported to the UK (the fur trade). In 1700 the tobacco export started, along with cereals exports and timber. An entire ecosystem has been "exported" in terms of water-embedded-in-goods. This was the beginning of a massive depletion of bio-mass stocks and flows, a raise in nitrogen discharge into the environment and its impact on the hydrological systems ( CUAHSI Summer Institute findings). Immigration and its effects on the water balance is also considered in this work. The experiment of interdisciplinary work of CUAHSI Summer Institute 2008 has proven that there is space for a historical reconstruction of evidence of human-led changes to the hydrological systems. This has been possible through the analysis of material stocks and flows, water-balance analysis of these stocks and flows, including human-led changes like international trade and population growth. This proposal will argue that these changes can also be identified by the term of 'socio- economic metabolism', in which societies are trading their goods internationally but taking the primary resources, including water, locally. This work will put the basis for the history of virtual water and its implications on both socio-economic metabolism and local geophysical changes.

  10. Does the Impact Assessment on the 'Third Package' provide the correct economic forecast for the liberalisation of the EU energy markets?

    OpenAIRE

    TORRITI, Jacopo

    2008-01-01

    The EU proposal on liberalisation of the energy markets has been widely debated in policy, stakeholder and academic circles both for its content and the potential consequences to the gas and electricity markets. However, little has been said about the empirical evidence produced by the European Commission to support this legislative package. Since the Impact Assessment system has been in place, there have been concerns regarding quality and adequateness, especially when quantifying costs, ben...

  11. ASSESSING ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL IMPACTS OF NON EXPECTED WEATHER EVENTS ON FRENCH SUCKLER COW FARMS DYNAMICS: A DYNAMIC RECURSIVE FARM MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mosnier, Claire; Agabriel, Jacques; Lherm, Michel; REYNAUD Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Weather variability can threaten French suckler cow farms which rely on rather extensive forage production. However, flexibility of the production system can help farmer to face crop production shocks. This study aims at assessing how crop yield shocks impact on farms outcomes when adaptive capacity is taken into account. Our objectives are to develop a dynamic model which enables us 1) to predict the optimal mix of production adjustments to face crop yield shocks, 2) to quantify how far the ...

  12. Downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with a participatory approach for assessing the possible impacts of future land use and cover changes on the vulnerability of societies to mountain risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémont, Marine; Houet, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the peculiarities of their landscapes and topography, mountain areas bring together a large range of socio-economic activities whose sustainability is likely to be jeopardised by projected global changes. Disturbance of hydro-meteorological processes will alter slope stability and affect mountain hazards occurrence. Meanwhile, socio-economic transformations will influence land use and cover changes (LUCC), which in turn will affect both hazards occurrence and hazards consequences on buildings, infrastructures and societies. Already faced with recurrent natural hazards, mountain areas will have to cope with increasing natural risks in the future. Better understanding the pathways through which future socio-economic changes might influence LUCC at local scale is thus a crucial step to assess accurately the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of societies to mountain risks in a global change context. Scientists face two main issues in assessing spatially explicit impacts of socio-economic scenarios in mountainous landscapes. First, modelling LUCC at local scale still faces many challenges related to past (observed) LUCC and those to consider in the future in terms of dynamics and processes. Second, downscaling global socio-economic scenarios so that they provide useful input for local LUCC models requires a thorough analysis of local social dynamics and economic drivers at stake, which falls short with current practices. Numerous socio-economic prospective scenarios have recently been developed at regional, national and international scales. They mostly rely on literature reviews and expert workshops carried out through global sectoral analysis (e.g. agriculture, forestry or industry) but only few of these exercises attempt to decline global scenarios at smaller scales confronting global vision with information gathered from the field and stakeholders. Yet, vulnerability assessments are more useful when undertaken at local scales that are relevant to

  13. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  14. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.;

    2014-01-01

    truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can be......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so that...

  15. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  16. DUPIC fuel cycle economics assessment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the current status of the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis conducted by the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group of the DUPIC fuel development project. For the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized the 1st technical meeting composed of 8 domestic specialists from government, academy, industry, etc. and a foreign specialist of hot cell design from TRI on July 16, 1998. As a continuation of the 1st technical meeting, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized a 2nd technical meeting on March 9, 1999 with 10 domestic and 4 foreign specialists. This report contains the presentation material of the 2nd technical meeting which could be utilized for further DUPIC fuel cycle and back end fuel cycle economics analyses. (author). 10 charts

  17. Assessment of the regional economic impacts of catastrophic events: CGE analysis of resource loss and behavioral effects of an RDD attack scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesecke, J A; Burns, W J; Barrett, A; Bayrak, E; Rose, A; Slovic, P; Suher, M

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the regional economic consequences of a hypothetical catastrophic event-attack via radiological dispersal device (RDD)-centered on the downtown Los Angeles area. We distinguish two routes via which such an event might affect regional economic activity: (i) reduction in effective resource supply (the resource loss effect) and (ii) shifts in the perceptions of economic agents (the behavioral effect). The resource loss effect relates to the physical destructiveness of the event, while the behavioral effect relates to changes in fear and risk perception. Both affect the size of the regional economy. RDD detonation causes little capital damage and few casualties, but generates substantial short-run resource loss via business interruption. Changes in fear and risk perception increase the supply cost of resources to the affected region, while simultaneously reducing demand for goods produced in the region. We use results from a nationwide survey, tailored to our RDD scenario, to inform our model values for behavioral effects. Survey results, supplemented by findings from previous research on stigmatized asset values, suggest that in the region affected by the RDD, households may require higher wages, investors may require higher returns, and customers may require price discounts. We show that because behavioral effects may have lingering long-term deleterious impacts on both the supply-cost of resources to a region and willingness to pay for regional output, they can generate changes in regional gross domestic product (GDP) much greater than those generated by resource loss effects. Implications for policies that have the potential to mitigate these effects are discussed. PMID:21232064

  18. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. PMID:27609899

  19. The evaluation of the impact of institutional environment on economics

    OpenAIRE

    Šeputienė, Janina

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the impact of institutional environment on economics, considering the impact of international trade and geography factors as well. Aforementioned factors are called “deep determinants” of economic development, as they influence proximate determinants of economic growth – investments, human capital, and technology. The main object of research is the impact of institutional environment on countries’ economics. The primary aim is to reason the impact of institutiona...

  20. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute and...... researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating...

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija;

    2010-01-01

    The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness in...... sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued that...... contemporary research context, learning derived from analysing the meaning and implications of plural interpretations of effectiveness represents the most constructive strategy for advancing impact assessment and policy integration theory. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  2. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  3. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar;

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures are not...... suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts in...

  4. Climate Change: Socio-Economic impacts and violent conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland EC; Klaassen MG; Nierop T; van der Wusten H; PB-NOP; LUW

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a literature study on the socio economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect. The socio economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors in chapter 2 of the study. The impacts on property, ecos

  5. The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2002-01-01

    Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

  6. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  7. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  8. Economic impact of potential NORM regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

  9. Solar Heating and Cooling: An Economic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Arthur E.

    This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…

  10. The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

  11. The impact of water quality changes on the socio-economic system of the Guadiana Estuary: an assessment of management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Boski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism related to bathing has a growing economic importance in the Guadiana Estuary in southern Spain and Portugal. Polls of local public opinion showed an awareness of potential and current threats to the aquatic environment posed by regulation of river flow and untreated/poorly-treated urban sewage discharge. Because of this strong concern for water quality, it was selected as the policy issue for our application of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF. We developed an integrated simulation model of the Guadiana estuarine system in which the ecological system and socioeconomic components are linked by means of beach eco-label (Blue Flag Award through its dependence on fecal bacterial thresholds. We quantified the socioeconomic impacts of water quality through an Economic Base Model that is used to portray the effect of increasing employment on resident population as a result of change in coastal water quality. A Cost-Benefit Analysis provides monetary indicators for scenario evaluation. It includes a monetary valuation of changes in water quality on human welfare using a Contingent Valuation Method. Because the population has a strong seasonal influence on the wastewater discharge into the estuary, we were able to simulate the feedback loop between the human activities that control water quality and those that benefit from it. We organized a critical evaluation of our efforts with the stakeholders, which allowed us to better understand their perceptions of the strengths, limitations, and opportunities for future SAF applications. Here we describe several aspects of our efforts that demonstrate the potential value of the SAF to environmental managers and stakeholders in clarifying some of the causal mechanisms, management options, and costs for resolution of the conflictual problem between water quality and tourism in the Guadiana estuary.

  12. Impact Assessment as Shared Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul N. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Increased attention directed towards evidence-based aid clearly dominates evaluation discussions within the development community. All development agencies, but particularly non-governmental organizations (NGO), struggle with the requirements for rigorous impact assessments of their project/program interventions. Given the serious operational obstacles confronting impact assessments, any successful integration of impact assessments into ongoing and new NGO programs can gain from the adoption ...

  13. Environmental and economic assessment of 'open waste dump' mining in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Open waste dumps in Sri Lanka generate adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to inadequate maintenance. In this study, a concept of 'open waste dump mining' is suggested in order to minimise the environmental and socio-economic impacts, together with resource recovery. A model based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing has been used to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of the suggested open waste dump mining concept. Two scenarios have been defined fo...

  14. Assessment of the Economic Impact of Belimumab for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the Italian Setting: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pierotti

    Full Text Available The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of belimumab, a new biological treatment specifically developed for the treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, in the Italian setting. SLE is a chronic non-organ specific autoimmune disease characterized by a disregulation of the immune system that involves many organs and systems.A cost-effectiveness micro-simulation model with a lifetime horizon originally developed for the UK was adapted to the Italian setting. The analysis compared Standard of Care (SoC alone vs belimumab plus SoC from a National Healthcare Service (NHS and societal perspective. Health-economic consequences of treatments and organ damage progression were calculated. When available, Italian data were used, otherwise UK costs were converted using Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs. Utility values were based on the EQ-5D™ assessments in the belimumab clinical trials (BLISS 52 and 76. Results were discounted with 3% for costs and effects. A maximum belimumab treatment duration of 6 years was assumed and wastage costs were considered.Cost per life year gained (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio, ICER and cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY (Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio, ICUR were €22,990 and €32,859, respectively. These values reduced to €20,119 and €28,754, respectively, when indirect costs were included.It may be concluded that in the Italian setting and according to the guidelines of the Italian Association of Health Economics (IAHE, belimumab was shown to be cost-effective, in terms of both ICER and ICUR, (€25-40,000/QALY.

  15. Assessment and insurance risk of foreign economic activity: accounting aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Susyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on research approaches to risk positioning grounded classification of risks arising in foreign trade activity. Deals with issues of assessment and insurance risks expediency display your losses from them. To reduce the negative impact of risks the theoretical foundations of security and practical advice with his reflection in the system of accounts. Grounded algorithm to select the most suitable method of risk assessment and constructed flowchart automation choice method for assessing the risk of foreign trade. The expediency of development of self-insurance risks of foreign economic activity.

  16. The Impact of Public Spending on Regional Economic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that public spending and investment have upon economic growth in the departments of Colombia is examined using the results of national accounts for the years 2000-2011. Figures for departmental production by activity, along with change over the period and information for the gross public capital are brought together to create a statistical model to assess effects. A data panel model is chosen to relate the existing differences between departments and compare the impact of spending and investment between departments using the available information. Results indicate that public spending and investment play an important role in departmental economic dynamic and that its effect is greater in larger and wealthier departments.

  17. Review article "Assessment of economic flood damage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Damage assessments of natural hazards supply crucial information to decision support and policy development in the fields of natural hazard management and adaptation planning to climate change. Specifically, the estimation of economic flood damage is gaining greater importance as flood risk management is becoming the dominant approach of flood control policies throughout Europe. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art and identifies research directions of economic flood damage assessment. Despite the fact that considerable research effort has been spent and progress has been made on damage data collection, data analysis and model development in recent years, there still seems to be a mismatch between the relevance of damage assessments and the quality of the available models and datasets. Often, simple approaches are used, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damage mechanisms. The results of damage assessments depend on many assumptions, e.g. the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries, and there are many pitfalls in economic evaluation, e.g. the choice between replacement costs or depreciated values. Much larger efforts are required for empirical and synthetic data collection and for providing consistent, reliable data to scientists and practitioners. A major shortcoming of damage modelling is that model validation is scarcely performed. Uncertainty analyses and thorough scrutiny of model inputs and assumptions should be mandatory for each damage model development and application, respectively. In our view, flood risk assessments are often not well balanced. Much more attention is given to the hazard assessment part, whereas damage assessment is treated as some kind of appendix within the risk analysis. Advances in flood damage assessment could trigger subsequent methodological improvements in other natural hazard areas with comparable time-space properties.

  18. Impact of uncertainty in economic projections for stabilization scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, N. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Scenarios for the stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations typically take economic and technological growth, and thus the 'background', no-controls emissions trajectory, as essentially given, most commonly based on one or more of the IPCC SRES scenarios. One limitation of this set of scenarios is that they postulate a rather small range of future economic growth rates, based on extrapolation from recent experience as well as assumed tendencies such as international 'convergence'. Because there is no validated theoretical or empirical method to reliably predict long-term (decade to century) changes in the size and composition of the world economy, the uncertainty in economic path is large and likely understated by any measure derived from the ensemble of SRES scenarios. Considering a wider range of economic trajectories complicates stabilization scenarios. In particular, slow economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to detrimental impacts of climate change. I show with a simple integrated assessment model that taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown generally heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now, rather than in future decades, for stabilizing radiative forcing or welfare damage at a given target.

  19. Environmental impact assessment Geopressure Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    This environmental impact assessment (EIA) addresses the expected programmatic activities of the Geopressure Subprogram of the Division of Geothermal Energy. The goal of the Geopressure Subprogram is to stimulate development of geopressured resources as an economic, reliable, operationally safe, and environmentally acceptable energy source. The subprogram includes activities in the areas of engineering research and development; resource exploration, assessment, and development; resource utilization including pilot and demonstration facilities; and environmental research and control technology development. It should be recognized that most of the subprogram activities extend over several years and are in their early stages of implementation at this time. The zones of potential geopressure development are in the region located along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts extending up to 200 miles (300 km) inland. Geopressured zones are sedimentary basins where water is trapped at high pressures within or below thick, nearly impermeable shale sequences. The confined water supports most or all of the weight of the overburden. This inhibits sediment compaction and causes formation pore pressure to exceed hydrostatic pressure. in sedimentary basins that are underlain by thin oceanic crust, upward thermal conduction from the mantle heats geopressured fluids and sediments to abnormally high temperatures, often in excess of 260 C (500 F).

  20. The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies. A...

  1. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  2. Developments in Social Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of a

  3. External State Debts and their Impact on Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bidenko, Andriy; Galushko, Olena

    2013-01-01

    Theses are devoted to problem of state debts growing and their impact on economic security. Economic essence of state debts and methods of state debts management are considered. Dynamics of state debts in Ukraine is analyzed. Role of state debts in economy and their impact on economic security are discussed.

  4. Impact assessment of agricultural innovations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Barrientos-Fuentes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current conditions of the markets and favorable policies, as well as the progress of science and communications, are promoting further development and diffusion of agricultural innovations, which have effects on different areas of agrarian development. The objective of this paper is to present a review of characteristics of agricultural innovations and their diffusion, adoption and impacts, as well as an update of the types and methods of assessment. Agricultural innovations are not only new or improved products, they are also models and systems, and should have a positive social effect. Innovation areas in developing countries are more concentrated on production and distribution, whereas developed countries concentrate on offering inputs. Investments from the private sector in agricultural innovations are growing faster than those from the public sector. The adoption of innovations is medium-term, and usually less than 100%. The impact of innovations includes intermediate areas, such as institutional, political, scientific and productive areas. The economic efficiency of the investment in innovations is the most often mentioned purpose of impact assessments in the literature. The efficiency analysis (ex-post and its surplus approach is still the most used method for assessing impact of agricultural innovations. Nevertheless, other goals are becoming more important, such as food security, environmental protection and poverty reduction. Livelihood, comprehensive and multidimensional approaches go beyond the economic approach. Moreover, specific models with advantages of prognosis and improved precision are replacing or complementing the classic socio-economic approach

  5. Local economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

  6. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n = 10). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000 USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery. PMID:24454339

  8. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  9. Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment of Waste Policy Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ljunggren Söderman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for new policy instruments supporting the on-going transition from end-of-pipe waste treatment to resource management has been recognized in European policy. Instruments need to be carefully assessed before implementation to promote the desired changes and avoid problem shifting. Mathematical models may assist policy makers in such assessments. This paper presents a set of soft-linked models for assessing the economic and environmental impacts of policy instruments for both the prevention and management of waste and discusses its strengths and limitations. Consisting of (1 a macro-economic model, (2 a systems engineering model for waste management and (3 a life cycle assessment model for waste management, the set is primarily suited to assessing market-based instruments and environmental regulations. Considerable resources were needed for developing and using the set, and there are clear limits as to what can be addressed. However, if only one of the models had been used, neither the range of instruments nor the scope of impacts would have been possible to cover. Furthermore, soft-linked models allow many disciplines to contribute within one harmonized framework. Such integrated assessments may become increasingly useful for continuing the implementation of policy for sustainable governance of society’s material resources.

  10. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  11. Economic impacts of East Coast Fever immunization on smallholder farms, Kenya: a simulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron O.; Richardson, James W.; Mundy, Darrell S.; Mukhebi, Adrian W.; Zimmel, Peter; Namken, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    A whole farm simulation model, Technology Impact Evaluation System (TIES), was used to assess ex-ante financial and economic impacts of immunization of dairy cattle against East Coast Fever (ECF) by the infection and treatment method (ITM) on smallholder farms from two sites in Kenya. Four alternative strategies of immunization in combination with different levels of acaricide use were compared with the current acaricide-based method of control. The economic impacts were estimated using simul...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON AGRIBUSINESS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvyakov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes methodical approaches to an impact assessment of social factors on development of the agribusiness as a subsidiary tool applied in development and adjustment of social and economic programs and plans for the rural territories.

  13. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  14. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  15. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid an

  16. Ecological impact assessment tools for fluvial flooding and coastal inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Old, Gareth; Acreman, Michael; Laize, Cedric; Nottage, Albert; Overton, Ian; Mountford, Owen; Packman, John; Walton, Sam; Cowx, Ian; Thorne, Colin; Thompson, Julian; Newman, Jonathan; Ramsbottom, David; Gouldby, Ben; LUMBROSO, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the scientific basis and development of the Ecological Impact Assessment (EIA) tools for fluvial flooding (EIA F tool) and coastal inundation (EIA C tool). These tools have been developed within the Ecological Consequences of Flooding (ECF) project and may be used to support an environmental risk assessment. When developing plans to manage flood risk, economic, social and environmental impacts are considered. There are many tools that help to estimate the economic ...

  17. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  18. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  19. Economic impacts of climate change on agrifood markets: A bio-economic approach with a focus on the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Fonseca, Maria; Ramos, Fabien; Van Doorslaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Projections for world food production and prices play a crucial role to evaluate and tackle future food security challenges. Understanding how these projections will be affected by climate change is the main objective of this study. By means of a bio-economic approach we assess the economic impacts of climate change on agrifood markets, providing both a global analysis and a regionalised evaluation within the EU. To account for uncertainty, we analyse the IPCC emission scenario A1B for the 20...

  20. Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This repository contains Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) that have been vetted/approved. Section 208 of the Electronic Government Act of 2002 (E-Gov Act) requires...

  1. The impact of physics assumptions on fusion economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of fusion promises a long term supply of energy with widespread resources and good safety and environmental properties. However the introduction of fusion into the future energy market will rely on the development of an economically viable fusion power plant. Although predictions of the likely cost of electricity produced by a future fusion power plant are uncertain, it is important that an assessment is made to ensure that the likely economics are not unreasonable. In this paper the impact of different physics (and other) constraints on the economics of fusion is considered. Comparison with the expected future cost of electricity from other sources must take account of the trends in the energy market, particularly at present towards sources with low external costs related to impact on human health and the natural environment. Although these costs depend on the country concerned, a range of expected future costs can be derived. Comparison with the expected range of fusion costs shows that fusion can contribute to the future energy market. (author)

  2. A look at local economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

  3. Ecological catastrophe and economical damages. The problems of assessment from Amoco-Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book strikes the balance of the accident of the tanker ship Amoco-Cadiz (environmental effects and economic impact) and sets the problem of damages assessment, liabilities, victims compensation. 99 refs., 41 figs., 43 tabs

  4. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  5. The Economic Impact of the Horse Industry in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Terance J. Rephann

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of Virginia\\'s horse industry using input-output analysis. Statewide impacts are further disaggregated into three categories: (1) expenditures on horse maintenance and support by horse owners and operations, (2) expenditures on horse shows and competitions, and (3) expenditures associated with pari-mutuel racing activities. Results indicate a total economic impact of 16,091 jobs and $670 million in value-added impact.

  6. Health in social impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the direct negative impacts. However, like other types of impact assessment, SIA has evolved over time and has diverged considerably from EIA. Nowadays, SIA has widened its scope to become a “philosop...

  7. The value of environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment and the economy are inextricably linked. Today the environmental, economic, and social associated with project and program decisions are at times of such a magnitude and duration that they exceed our ability to understand, let alone mitigate them. Energy production, distribution, pricing, policies, end uses, and externalities demonstrate the need for wise planning and informed decision making. International cooperation, based upon mutually shared respect, responsibility, and innovative solutions is an essential component of addressing contemporary issues, impacts, and opportunities. Both egypt and the united states have laws requiring environmental impact assessments. Just as egypt can learn from our successes and failures in the environmental impact assessment field over the past 36 years, the united states and other nations can learn as egypt develops and innovates its own approaches and solutions

  8. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  9. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  10. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  11. The Impact of High School Economics on the College Principles of Economics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)

  12. Spatial Variability of Tourism Demand and Differences in Economic Impact in a Rural Economic Development Context

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Biswa R.; Rainey, Daniel V.

    2008-01-01

    Statistically predicted future tourism demand is used to conduct an economic impact analysis in twelve tourism zones in the state of Arkansas. The analysis reveals spatial variability in employment, and output growth that will continue into the future. Tourism has the potential as an economic growth engine for the state, especially in economically disadvantaged regions with long-term benefits.

  13. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case study landfill as greater environmental benefits are foreseen in several impact categories compared to the landfill's current situation (the 'Do-nothing' scenario). Among the considered processes, the thermal treatment process dominates both the environmental and economic performances of ELFM. Improvements in the electrical efficiency of thermal treatment process, the calorific value of refuse derived fuel and recovery efficiencies of different waste fractions lead the performance of ELFM towards an environmentally sustainable and economically feasible direction. Although the environmental and economic profiles of ELFM will differ from case to case, the results of this analysis can be used as a benchmark for future ELFM projects. PMID:25708403

  14. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin L Pendell

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms.

  15. The Impact Of Economic News On Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of economic news, that is, the difference between economic announcements and what was anticipated, on financial markets. The three contributions of this paper are, first, the market expectation is derived from economic derivative prices that allow a full distribution for the market expectation to be derived. Economic derivatives data better predict financial market movements and also allow for testing whether there is information in the high moments of th...

  16. Assessing Climate Change Impacts: Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bosello, Francesco; Zhang, Jian

    2005-01-01

    The economy-wide implications of climate change on agricultural sectors in 2050 are estimated using a static computable general equilibrium model. Peculiar to this exercise is the coupling of the economic model with a climatic model forecasting temperature increase in the relevant year and with a crop-growth model estimating climate change impact on cereal productivity. The main results of the study point out on the one hand the limited influence of climate change on world food supply and wel...

  17. On the macro-economic impacts of climate change under informational failures

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ruixuan; Gohin, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Although the sources, extent and physical impacts of the future climate change are highly uncertain, available dynamic economic assessments implicitly assume that economic agents perfectly know them. Perfect foresight, rational expectations or active learning are standard assumptions underlying simulated results. To the contrary, this paper builds on the assumption that economic agents may suffer for a while from limited knowledge about the average and variability of physical impa...

  18. Global maps of climate change impacts on the favourability for human habitation and economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between climatic factors and the global distribution of population and economic activity. Building on this analysis, a new method is developed for assessing geographically explicit impacts of climate change on the suitability of regions for human habitation and economic activity. This method combines information about differences in the conditional distributions of population density and economic activity across climate categories with climate ...

  19. Economic Costs of Ocean Acidification: A Look into the Impacts on Shellfish Production

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Richard S.J. Tol

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due...

  20. Economic costs of oceanacidification: A look into the impacts on shellfish production

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Richard S.J. Tol

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due...

  1. GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    ЛУК’ЯНЕНКО, О.Д.; ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»

    2012-01-01

     Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

  2. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: socio-economic impact.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, J. A.; Cumberland, P.; Sockett, P. N.; Wheeler, J.; L. C. Rodrigues; Sethi, D.; Roderick, P. J.; Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive, I. I. D.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the socio-economic impact of infectious intestinal disease (IID) on the health care sector, cases and their families, cases of IID ascertained from a population cohort component and those presenting to general practices were sent a socio-economic questionnaire 3 weeks after the acute episode. The impact of the illness was measured and the resources used were identified and costed. The duration, severity and costs of illness linked to viruses were less than those linked to bacteria. ...

  3. Did the Economic Impact of CCCTB affect the Voting Behaviour of MEPs?

    OpenAIRE

    ANNELIES ROGGEMAN; ISABELLE VERLEYEN; PHILIPPE VAN CAUWENBERGE; CARINE COPPENS

    2014-01-01

    On 19 April 2012, the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) voted on the European Commission’s proposal for a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). We exploit a unique research setting which was created by an economic impact assessment of CCCTB that was made available to the MEPs. Using regression analysis, we investigate if the voting behaviour of MEPs was influenced by the predicted economic impact of CCCTB on their country. Our results show that, even after controlling for pa...

  4. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  5. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  6. Comparison of lignin extraction processes: Economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Juan C; Gómez, Álvaro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the technical-economic and environmental assessment of four lignin extraction processes from two different raw materials (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks). The processes are divided into two categories, the first processes evaluates lignin extraction with prior acid hydrolysis step, while in the second case the extraction processes are evaluated standalone for a total analysis of 16 scenarios. Profitability indicators as the net present value (NPV) and environmental indicators as the potential environmental impact (PEI) are used through a process engineering approach to understand and select the best lignin extraction process. The results show that both economically and environmentally process with sulfites and soda from rice husk presents the best results; however the quality of lignin obtained with sulfites is not suitable for high value-added products. Then, the soda is an interesting option for the extraction of lignin if high quality lignin is required for high value-added products at low costs. PMID:27174614

  7. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  8. Introducing Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark AJ

    2015-01-01

    methodology projects and presents the international scientific discussions and methodological consensus attempts in consecutive working groups under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) as well as the UNEP/ SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, and the (almost) parallel......This chapter serves as an introduction to the presentation of the many aspects of life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in this volume of the book series ‘LCA Compendium’. It starts with a brief historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment driven by numerous national LCIA...

  9. The territorial economic impact of entrepreneurial youthfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente González, Esteban Miguel; Gómez Araujo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and youth population interact to enhance economic performance, and actions oriented to bring down social barriers linked to the fear to entrepreneurial failure are as important as policies focused on access to finance or human capital formation. Entrepreneurship generates opportunities for professional development, social and economic integration, the maintenance of the rural population and the attraction of new residents to these territories. Young entrepreneurs face more th...

  10. Economic Assessment of the Atlantic Coast Horseshoe Crab Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this report, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (lEc) provides an assessment of the economic value of the Atlantic Coast horseshoe crab fishery. We accomplish...

  11. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A

    2014-01-15

    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. PMID:24374467

  12. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  13. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  14. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  15. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  16. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  17. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  18. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  19. Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Cambodia : A Five-Country Study Conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, and Vietnam Under the Economics of Sanitation Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The sanitation impact study, initiated by the World Bank water and sanitation program, aims to generate sound evidence on the negative impacts of existing sanitation and hygiene conditions and the potential benefits of improvements in sanitation and hygiene in Cambodia. In this study, quantitative assessment is conducted on the economic impacts of poor sanitation and hygiene on health, wat...

  20. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  1. Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. S. S. Shimpale

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified and its impact can be observed from the very fact of falling Stock market. In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time.

  2. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify t

  3. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  4. Predicting Student Achievement In Intermediate University Economics From Principles Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Hickson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how first year Principles of Economics courses assessment items predict achievement in post principles economics courses. Of particular interest is how achievement in different assessment forms (assignments, multiple choice questions, and constructed response questions) predicts future performance. I use assessment data compiled from principles and post principles economics classes at the University of Canterbury from 2002-2008. I also control for performance in first ...

  5. Economic impact World Rowing Championships 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faille Deutekom, Marije de la; Verhoogt, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Economische impact World Rowing Championships 2014 Van 24 tot 31 augustus 2014 vond op de Bosbaan in Amsterdam de World Rowing Championships (WRC) plaats. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil de World Rowing Federation (FISA inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van dit ev

  6. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  7. Biogrouting compared to jet grouting: environmental (LCA) and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Hallberg, Niklas; Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Holm, Goran

    2009-03-01

    In order to predict consequences of replacing jet grouting with biogrouting, and identify major contributors to the cost of both technologies, a large road project in Stockholm, Sweden, was used as a case study. Jet grouting had been used to seal the contact between sheet piling and bedrock, biogrouting for the same function was computed. A comparative environmental and economical assessment was carried out using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results show that biogrouting was cheaper than jet grouting and would have had lower environmental impact. The major difference was the transport and use of heavier equipment for jet grouting. Biogrouting also used less water and produced less landfilled waste. However, the production of urea and CaCl(2) for biogrouting required much energy. PMID:19184701

  8. Methodology for evaluating economic impacts of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guoxiong

    1990-01-01

    This research addresses two important issues facing transportation economists and planners: the relationship between transportation investment and economic development and the methodology for evaluating transportation projects and programs. Transportation is viewed as an important factor which enters the production functions of firms and the consumption functions of individuals. The demand for and the supply of transportation cannot be determined within the transportation syste...

  9. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    DeFrancis, Marc P.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the nonmonetary, financial, and economic costs of poor sanitation in the areas of health, drinking water, and domestic water, as well as user preference and welfare. Financial costs refer to the direct financial expense paid in monetary terms by someone, such as changes in household and government spending and real income losses for households. Nonmonetary costs consist ...

  10. Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

  11. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  12. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs...

  13. Book review: The economic impacts of natural disasters

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters." Edited by Debarati Guha-Sapir and Indhira Santos. Oxford Univesity Press. May 2013. --- Since the turn of the millennium, more than one million people have been killed and 2.3 billion others have been directly affected by natural disasters around the world. Economic Impacts presents six national case studies (Bangladesh, Vietnam, India, Nicaragua, Japan and the Netherlands) and seeks to show how household surveys and country-level macroeconomic dat...

  14. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah; Jaafar Mastura; Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Par...

  15. Economic impact World Rowing Championships 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Faille Deutekom, Marije de la; Verhoogt, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Economische impact World Rowing Championships 2014 Van 24 tot 31 augustus 2014 vond op de Bosbaan in Amsterdam de World Rowing Championships (WRC) plaats. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil de World Rowing Federation (FISA inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van dit evenement. Zij heeft de Hogeschool van Amsterdam in samenwerking met Hogeschool Inholland en Sport2B gevraagd hier onderzoek naar te doen. Daarnaast heeft de FISA enkele aanvullende vragen geformulee...

  16. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  17. Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional and municipal economy assessment of socio economical impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to give an up-to-date assessment of the effects the construction of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Eurajoki, based on latest knowledge. The disposal facility's effects on employment, population, housing construction, community structure and economy are estimated in the municipality of Eurajoki and in the wider region under the influence of the facility. The time-span of the report reaches from 2001 to the early 2020's when the facility will be in operation. The investment in research and construction of the disposal facility during the years 2004-2020 will be all together approximately 290 million euros. The estimation for the overall effect on national employment during the years 2001-2020 is circa 6 800 manyears, of which 4 200 man-years are from direct effects and 2 600 from indirect effects. The direct employment effects of the project will be at its highest approximately 325 man-year per year in 2020. The direct effect on employment during the operational period is estimated to be circa 130 man-years per year, of which the share of regular employees of Posiva is slightly over 100 man-years. At its highest, about 45 man-years per year of the total effect on employment (direct + indirect effects) will be directed to Eurajoki municipality. During the operational phase the share of Eurajoki is estimated to be circa 30 man-years per year. For the whole region, the effect of the disposal facility on employment will be significant, at its height in 2020, approximately 220 man-years per year. The disposal facility will also have an effect on the size and the structure of the population due to changes in employment and jobs. The estimation for the cumulative effect on the growth of the population caused by the facility is 80 more inhabitants in Eurajoki by 2020, which corresponds to 1,4 % of the municipality's current population. The growth of the population brought about by the facility in the whole region is estimated

  19. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...... with respect to the decibel traffic noise. The model distinguishes between houses and apartments and shows that the ability to include refined accessibility variables have significant impact on estimated prices....

  20. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  1. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  2. Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

  3. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  4. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  5. Methodology of Economic Assessment of Corporate Finance Management Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Juscu Nicolae Cristian

    2011-01-01

    “The methodology of economic assessment of corporate finance management effectiveness” deals with the analysis of the basic issues of economic aspects of corporate finance management effectiveness; the paper presents the essential issues of the existing methods for establishing the economic effectiveness of corporate finance management and control; it also proposes the improvement of the approach regarding the assessment of finance management effectiveness of a company.

  6. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  7. Economic impacts of sanitation in Southeast Asia : summary

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investments in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decision makers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts of poor sanitation...

  8. Analysis and improvement of the process of economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste Análise e melhoria do processo de avaliação dos impactos econômicos, sociais e ambientais de tecnologias da Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi; Armando de Andrade Rodrigues; Fernando Campos Mendonça; Oscar Tupy; Wladomiro Barioni Junior; Odo Primavesi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the business process management methodology to strengthen the process of "Economic, social, and environmental impact assessment of technologies from Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste". A methodology based on the PDCA cycle was used, which allowed the indication of the key point (inventory of technology), the critical success factor (selection of the adopted technologies), the main problem (non-assessment of technology), and major causes of the problem. The a...

  9. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, the deterioration of the environment continues to harm livelihoods and health, increasing the vulnerability of the nation's poor. It has long been clear that lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has a wide variety of impacts; however, the data and evidence needed to verify the size of the burden imposed on the people of Pakistan are limited. As a result, inv...

  10. Impact of venture capital on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Laurinavičius, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

  11. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  12. The Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Food Waste in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Venkat, Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the climate change and economic impacts of food waste in the United States. Using loss-adjusted national food availability data for 134 food commodities, it calculates the greenhouse gas emissions due to wasted food using life cycle assessment and the economic cost of the waste using retail prices. The analysis shows that avoidable food waste in the US exceeds 55 million metric tonnes per year, nearly 29% of annual production. This waste produces life-cycle greenhouse gas ...

  13. Modelling economic impacts of deficit irrigated maize in Brazil with consideration of different rainfall regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Martins, Juliano D.; Silva, Francisco G. da; Carlesso, Reimar; L. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Deficit irrigation is often required to cope with droughts and limited water availability. However, to select an appropriate irrigation management, it is necessary to assess when economic impacts of deficit irrigation are acceptable. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate economic water productivity for maize submitted to various levels of water deficits and different irrigation systems. The study was based on two different experiments conducted in Southern Brazil, o...

  14. The Local Economic Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Determinants of Dutch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Maniloff; Ralph Mastromonaco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we quantify the local economic impacts of the development of unconventional shale oil and gas reserves through the controversial extraction procedure known as hydraulic fracturing or ``fracking'' and assess the possibility of the boom creating a ``resource curse'' for resource-rich counties. First, using government local economic data matched to highly detailed national oil and natural gas panel data, we estimate the effect that new ``fracking'' installations have on local job g...

  15. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    The Solid Waste Management (SWM) sector has evolved from a simple control of emissions towards a resource recovery sector while still being constrained by strict emission regulations. For that waste authorities are paying increased attention to the waste hierarchy as a set of priorities for solid...... waste treatment options to boost this shift towards higher resource recovery. In this hierarchy, waste prevention has the highest priority, followed by re-use and recycling options, and what cannot be recycled should be energy recovered; and, finally, the least favoured option is disposal in landfills....... However, the waste hierarchy does not consider the local needs/conditions of each geographical area, and it cannot be used to identify sustainable SWM options by itself. Environmental impact assessment can help with this task as holistic decision-support tool. Nevertheless, waste authorities need economic...

  16. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.

  18. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  19. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  20. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  1. Sense-making and Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts.......The poster integrates knowledge about how we make sense of situations into SEA methodology to strengthen the staging of impact assessments and the process of scoping impacts....

  2. Green Jobs in Tennessee: Economic Impact of Green Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Arik

    2011-01-01

    The term green jobs has been widely used to describe jobs in businesses that are particularly related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or environmental sustainability. The Business and Economic Research Center has partnered with the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development to estimate the economic impact of six ground-breaking green investments in Tennessee: Hemlock Semiconductor, Wacker Chemie AG, Volkswagen, Nissan Leaf and Storage Battery Manufacturing, Tennessee Sola...

  3. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  4. The Local Economic Impact of Wind Power Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    May, Nils G.; Nilsen, Øivind Anti

    2015-01-01

    Globally installed wind power capacity has grown tremendously since 2000. This study focuses on the local economic impacts of wind power deployment. A theoretical model shows that wind power deployment is not necessarily driven by locally-accruing economic payoffs, but also by other factors such as emphasis on environmentally-friendly energy production and its associated benefits. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis using German county-level panel data...

  5. Valuing the Coast: Economic Impacts of Connecticut's Maritime Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeroy, Robert S.; Nataliya Plesha; Umi Muawanah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain and document the significance of the maritime industry to Connecticut’s economy. The specific objective was to estimate the total economic impact of maritime industry sectors through the use of an economic model of the Connecticut economy. This study defines the Connecticut maritime industry as including, but not limited to, shipbuilding, commercial fishing, aquaculture, tourism, recreational boating and fishing, marine manufacturing, marine engineering...

  6. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  7. Health economics of dengue: a systematic literature review and expert panel's assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I; Shepard, Donald S; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S; Kuritsky, Joel N

    2011-03-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  8. Occupational doses and impact on fusion economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the SEAFP-99 programme, water cooled and helium cooled fusion power plant design concepts were assessed with regard to occupational doses and related availability and operating costs. Different design and management measures to reduce occupational doses were considered. This task assessed the existing designs and proposed extensions or changes, where required. For each significant contributor, possible methods were specified which could reduce the operator dose and outage time. Where this was the case expected; costs or savings incurred by the improvement were estimated. Overall, the use of a system to remove particulate corrosion product activity from the primary coolant was considered essential for the water-cooled variant. In addition, application of the most up-to-date ALARA techniques could make the estimated dose for the water-cooled conceptual design appreciably lower than earlier estimated. It was concluded that the water cooled conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e). A survey of occupational doses from the UK AGR plants was also carried out. From this, it is judged that the helium cooled fusion plant conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e) without the need for additional plant to reduce primary coolant activity levels

  9. Occupational doses and impact on fusion economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustoe, J. E-mail: julian.mustoe@nnc.co.uk; Currie, I.D.; Frias, M. Pascual

    2001-04-01

    As part of the SEAFP-99 programme, water cooled and helium cooled fusion power plant design concepts were assessed with regard to occupational doses and related availability and operating costs. Different design and management measures to reduce occupational doses were considered. This task assessed the existing designs and proposed extensions or changes, where required. For each significant contributor, possible methods were specified which could reduce the operator dose and outage time. Where this was the case expected; costs or savings incurred by the improvement were estimated. Overall, the use of a system to remove particulate corrosion product activity from the primary coolant was considered essential for the water-cooled variant. In addition, application of the most up-to-date ALARA techniques could make the estimated dose for the water-cooled conceptual design appreciably lower than earlier estimated. It was concluded that the water cooled conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e). A survey of occupational doses from the UK AGR plants was also carried out. From this, it is judged that the helium cooled fusion plant conceptual design could meet the project design target for occupational dose of 0.7 p-Sv per GW(e) without the need for additional plant to reduce primary coolant activity levels.

  10. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, J.; Storey, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland`s social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Investment in Urban Heritage : Economic Impacts of Cultural Heritage Projects in FYR Macedonia and Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Throsby, David

    2012-01-01

    Although World Bank projects in the cultural heritage field are subject to the usual assessments that are applied to any project implementation, little is known about the subsequent performance of these projects in the years post-completion. This study was undertaken to provide some empirical evidence for the economic impacts of cultural heritage investment. Two case studies were chosen fo...

  13. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  14. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

  15. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks onsmallholder farmers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Woldehanna, T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks everyyear. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming sys-tems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment ofthe clinical and direct economic

  16. Assessing the Impact of Integrated Natural Resource Management: Challenges and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas C. White; María Verónica Gottret

    2002-01-01

    Assessing the impact of integrated natural resource management (INRM) research poses a challenge to scientists. The complexity of INRM interventions requires a more holistic approach to impact assessment, beyond the plot and farm levels and beyond traditional analysis of economic returns. Impact assessment for INRM combines the traditional "what" and "where" factors of economic and environmental priorities with newer "who" and "how" aspects of social ac...

  17. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  18. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  19. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Economic impacts of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine on the Commonwealth of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kshirsagar, Shukla

    1994-01-01

    This thesis estimates the economic impacts of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine on the Commonwealth of Virginia. Two types of economic impacts were measured. First, the short term impacts were assessed, using the input-output model for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Operating expenditures of the college were entered into the model as a change in final demand and the multiplier effects of these expenditures were measured. Second, long run benefits o...

  1. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  2. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; DR. MRS. I. S. MADUEME

    2012-01-01

    This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

  3. Biophysical and Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Poverty Impacts of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Lobell, David; Verma, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural output, international trade, and poverty. We incorporate biophysical uncertainty by sampling from a distribution of productivity shocks reflecting the impacts of climate on agricultural yields in 2030. These shocks, in turn, affect the global economy. The response of economic agents to climate change is the second source of uncertainty in our estimates. We find that, even ...

  4. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starks, Shirley J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellebracht, Lory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  5. The impact of the international economic crisis on child poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Chitiga; Bernard Decaluwé; Ramos Mabugu; Hélène Maisonnave; Véronique Robichaud; Debra Shepherd; Servaas van der Berg; Dieter von Fintel

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to provide insights into the magnitude of the shocks associated with the recent global economic crisis in macroeconomic terms in South Africa, the country’s capacity to withstand or cushion these shocks, and the extent of fragility in terms of poverty levels and child wellbeing. The analysis combines macro-economic and micro-economic tools to assess the extent of the crisis’ impact on the country. The study finds that the poverty headcount ratio increases little ...

  6. Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. S. Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to

  7. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  8. Economic Impacts of Future Changes in the Energy System - Global Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, James; Fortes, Patrícia; Krook-Riekkola, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    climate change. This chapter summarises modelling methodologies developed in the ETSAP community to assess economic impacts of decarbonising energy systems at a global level. The next chapter of this book focuses on a national perspective. The range of economic impacts is regionally dependent upon......In a climate constrained future, hybrid energy-economy model coupling gives additional insight into interregional competition, trade, industrial delocalisation and overall macroeconomic consequences of decarbonising the energy system. Decarbonising the energy system is critical in mitigating...... driven developing countries such as China and India, and fossil fuel exporting nations can expect significantly higher GDP loss of up to 5 % GDP per year by mid-century....

  9. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  10. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  11. ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    2003-01-01

    For almost half a century World War II and the Cold War provided the political and fiscal context for public investment in science and technology. The report prepared by Vannevar Bush, Science: the Endless Frontier (1945), advanced an investment rationale for federal support of scientific research. In spite of pressure from Congress and the Office of the President the scientific community has resisted the development and application of operational economic criteria for the allocation of resea...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear desalination is gaining interest among the IAEA Member States, as indicated by the planned projects, and it is expected that the number of nuclear desalination plants will increase in the near future. The IAEA has already provided its Member States with reports and documents that disseminate information regarding the technical and economic feasibility of nuclear desalination. With the rising environmental awareness, in the scope of IAEA's activities on seawater desalination using nuclear power, a need was identified for a report that would provide a generic assessment of the environmental issues in nuclear desalination. In order to offer an overview of specific environmental impacts which are to be expected, their probable magnitude, and recommended mitigation measures, this publication encompasses information provided by the IAEA Member States as well as other specialized sources. It is intended for decision makers and experts dealing with environmental, desalination and water management issues, offering insight into the environmental aspects that are essential in planning and developing nuclear desalination

  13. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  14. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  15. Framework for Modelling Economic Impacts of Invasive Species, Applied to Pine Wood Nematode in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Tarek; Mourits, Monique C. M.; van der Werf, Wopke; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; ROBINET, Christelle; Lansink, Alfons G J M Oude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. Methodology/Principal Findings: Direct economi...

  16. Modelling the socio-economic impact of river floods in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; Bianchi, Alessandra; Dottori, Francesco; Burek, Peter

    2016-06-01

    River floods generate a large share of the socio-economic impact of weather-driven hazards worldwide. Accurate assessment of their impact is a key priority for governments, international organization, reinsurance companies and emergency responders. Yet, available databases of flood losses over large domains are often affected by gaps and inconsistencies in reported figures. In this work, a framework to reconstruct the economic damage and population affected by river floods at continental scale is applied. Pan-European river flow simulations are coupled with a high-resolution impact assessment framework based on 2-D inundation modelling. Two complementary methods are compared in their ability to estimate the climatological average flood impact and the impact of each flood event in Europe between 1990 and 2013. The event-based method reveals key features, such as the ability to include changes in time of all three components of risk, namely hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Furthermore, it skilfully reproduces the socio-economic impact of major flood events in the past two decades, including the severe flooding hitting central Europe in June 2013. On the other hand, the integral method is capable of reproducing the average flood losses which occurred in Europe between 1998 and 2009. Strengths and limitations of the proposed model are discussed to stress the large potential for filling in the gaps of current datasets of flood impact.

  17. Value Added: The Economic Impact of Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This monograph reports the results of a survey of the economic impact on state and local economies of the 194 member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. Analysis of responses (from 111 institutions) is reported in text and graphs. An introductory section notes that the recent emphasis on cutting…

  18. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  19. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Molua, Ernest L.; Lambi, Cornelius M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of climate change on crop farming in Cameroon. The country's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources remain the driving force for the country's economic development. Fluctuations in national income are due not merely to the decline in world demand for Cameroon's traditional agricultural exports or to mistake...

  20. Study shows major economic impact of higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A new study conducted by the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service at the University of Virginia provides an unprecedented look at the large impact of Virginia's public colleges, universities, and community colleges on Virginia's economic output, job creation, and state tax revenues.

  1. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Olimpia MOISA

    2012-01-01

    The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  2. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISA Claudia Olimpia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  3. Criteria for comparing economic impact models of tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Korteweg Maris, D.; Bryon, J.

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial differences between models of the economic impacts of tourism. Not only do the nature and precision of results vary, but data demands, complexity and underlying assumptions also differ. Often, it is not clear whether the models chosen are appropriate for the specific situation

  4. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  5. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  6. Assessing the impact of blended learning on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...

  7. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

  8. Economic value of geothermal resource assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, M.B.; Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of decision analysis for the evaluation of resource assessment expenditures is discussed. Calculations are shown for the expected value of information - both perfect and imperfect information. (MHR)

  9. Rapid regional-scale assessments of socio-economic vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin F.; Lieske, Scott N.; Keys, Noni; Smith, Timothy F.

    2016-03-01

    Assessing socio-economic vulnerability to climate change impacts to support regional decision-making is conceptually and practically challenging. We report on research that tested a rapid assessment approach of socio-economic vulnerability in Australia’s natural resource management regions. The approach focuses on regionally important economic sectors, identified using existing datasets, which are likely to be sensitive to climate change impacts. Disaggregated spatial representations of factors known to be associated with vulnerability function as multiple lines of evidence for highlighting intra-regional hotspots of high potential vulnerability. Our results show that a small number of factors based upon contextually relevant empirical evidence offers a low-cost, rapid assessment process, which is readily transferable across regions and provides end-users with guidance for interpreting the results within the context of regional conditions.

  10. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  11. Critical review on the socio-economic impact of tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Hopkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no studies that determine the total burden that tendinopathy places on patients and society. A systematic search was conducted to understand the impact of tendinopathy. It demonstrated that the current prevalence is underestimated, particularly in active populations, such as athletes and workers. Search results demonstrate that due to the high prevalence, impact on patients' daily lives and the economic impact due to work-loss, treatments are significantly higher than currently observed. A well-accepted definition by medical professionals and the public will improve documentation and increase awareness, in order to better tackle the disease burden.

  12. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  13. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein, E-mail: mahmoudi@uni-hohenheim.de [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Renn, Ortwin [Department of Technology and Environmental Sociology (and DIALOGIK), University of Stuttgart (Germany); Vanclay, Frank [Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hoffmann, Volker [Department of Social Sciences in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim (Germany); Karami, Ezatollah [College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  14. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary

  15. Modelling the economic impacts of climate change on global and European agriculture: Review of economic structural approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Francisco J.; Blanco, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The economic effects of climate change on agriculture have been widely assessed in the last two decades. Many of these assessments are based on the integration of biophysical and agro-economic models, allowing to understand the physical and socio-economic responses of the agricultural sector to future climate change scenarios. The evolution of the bio-economic approach has gone through different stages. This review analyses its evolution: firstly, framing the bio-economic approach into the co...

  16. Trends in environmental impact assessment of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is designed to provide guidance for EIAs associated with energy projects, and particularly to discuss the economic, risk and institutional/public participation changes now taking place, It begins by examining the meaning of the term environmental impact assessment (EIA), and outlines the components of such an assessment. EIAs play an important role in obtaining developmental aid, but there are special problems and constraints associated with preparing them in developing countries. A discussion of these factors is followed by individual chapters on the economic, methodological and institutional changes noted above, as well as the requirements for specific multilateral institutions

  17. USE OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nováková; Vladimír Ovsenák

    2015-01-01

    Marketing is not free. Companies give a lot of money on advertising, brochures, exhibitions, various events and the like. In most cases, but they do not know their real impact on profit. The content of my contribution is to point out how important is feedback and use economic indicators to assess the effectiveness of marketing communications.

  18. Two economic, energetic, and environmental assessments of the French nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two studies, which try to assess the economic, energy and environmental impact of the French nuclear program. First, the two models used are described briefly and then each study is discussed separately. The main results are summarized in the conclusion. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  20. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scatasta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

  1. The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

  2. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the President’s Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  3. The economic impact of obesity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of ec...

  4. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  5. Proposal of standardization in environmental impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Maitê de Souza Sandoval; Leandro Eugenio da Silva Cerri

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts remains an important critical yet poorly understood component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. This work is a study upon the findings of a bibliographic review about the evaluation and communication of environmental impact assessment in Brazil practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria, thresholds and EIA methodologies intending to incorporate more efficiency of environmental impact ...

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  7. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  8. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  9. Environmental impact assessment: Process and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the procedures and issues regarding the preparation of an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as promulgated by the US Congress in 1969 are discussed. NEPA procedures and requirements are covered in general, while particular attention is given to the preparation of the environmental impact assessment. Also included is a discussion of the social impact assessment. The aim of the social impact assessment is to address the social issues involved in enhancing public understanding of the hazardous risks, thereby mitigating any conflicts that may arise in the NEPA process. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Is Environmental Impact Assessment fulfilling its potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    One of the topics receiving much attention in recent years is climate change and the potential of its integration in impact assessment, both in terms of achieving mitigation and adaptation. Renewable energy projects are part of the efforts to mitigate climate change, replacing the use of fossil...... fuel with CO2-neutral energy sources. A variety of these projects are subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA), which raises the following questions: What role does an impact assessment play? When is the project environmentally friendly? How are climate change-related impacts assessed...

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    least more open distribution of information about human enterprises in space, too.However, the "public concerned" in space activities may cover the entire humanity, which would most likely direct the possible spatial EIA procedures into the auspices of the UN, with states representing their portion of the "public". Despite the peculiarities in assessing the potential impacts of space activities, Environmental Impact Assessment, modified to answer thes e particular features, would seem as a tool worth considering for the above objectives of enhanced environmental protection and public involvement. This is particularly true, as any adverse environmental impacts of space activities are highly difficult to mitigate, once they have materialized. For the above mentioned reasons, and for the fact that space activities are regulated for a major part on policy level, particularly Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) would seem a viable option. As distinct from the project EIA, the SEA means carrying out EIAs of plans themselves, i.e. it directly addresses the environmental implications of proposed strategies and policies. Formerly, the governmental authorities tended to regard SEA with suspicion because of the public interest groups involvement in policy making that the SEA entails. However, currently the SEA is a highly topical issue in the international arena, particularly because of the ongoing discussions within the United Nations Economic Commision for Europe about adopting a Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to amend the Espoo Convention, and of the recent EU Directive (2001/42/EC) on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on t he environment. These instruments could also serve as feasible models for SEA in the outer space environment.

  12. Application of the Brookhaven energy-economic assessment model in the Portugal-US cooperative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.; Kyle, S.; McGranahan, G.; Mubayi, V.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the application of the Brookhaven Energy Economic Assessment Model (BEEAM) in the Portugal-US Cooperative Energy Assessment. Two projections of economic growth provided by the Government of Portugal for the period 1977 to 2010, with 1990 and 2000 as intermediate years, were used to drive the model. The main objectives in applying BEEAM were to investigate for each of the two scenarios and projected reference years the following: the detailed structure of energy demand at a sectoral level; the primary energy resources required to meet the final energy demand; the overall balance of trade due to both energy and nonenergy imports; the consistency or lack thereof between the projected sectoral growth rates; and the implication of the growth rates in regard to aggregate levels fixed capital formation. Additionally, the impacts of the accelerated and moderate energy conservation cases developed on energy demand, resource requirements, and the balance of trade were also determined. The structure of BEEAM, which consists of an energy-denominated input-output representation of the economy coupled to an energy supply-demand network and its mode of application in the Portugal assessment are described in detail in Appendix A.

  13. Assessment of environmental and economic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Потапова, Е. В.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological and economic risk - is a probability measure of negative changes (damage) in the ecosystem caused by human activities or the development of dangerous natural processes and causing loss of time Эколого-экономический риск представлен как вероятностная мера негативных изменений (ущербов) в экосистеме, обусловленных хозяйственной деятельностью человека или развитием опасных природных процессов и вызывающих возможные потери за определенное время....

  14. The impact of economic crisis on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact of some macro-economic and energy factors on the final energy consumption and the energy efficiency in different branches of Bulgarian industry, services and householding is presented. The relation between energy consumption and the gross national product (GNP) is discussed. During the last 4-5 years along with the rapid decrease of GDP and corresponding drop in the fuel and energy consumption, the following negative trends toward decreasing the efficiency of the energy sector are observed: decrease of efficiency of the primary energy resources (PER) usage; unsubstantiated increase of electrification coefficient of the fuel/energy balance of the country; decrease of the industrial sector's share in the final energy consumption. The consumption decrease is due, on one hand, to the drop in industrial production, construction and services, and on the other - to the cutting of energy resources import, the imposed restrictions in energy consumption, the rise of fuel and energy prices and the deterioration of consumers' solvency. It is concluded that the economy crisis in the country leads to a sharp drop in the fuel and energy consumption, but the further shrinking of the industrial production without undertaking considerable structural changes and without implementing energy-saving measures and technologies leads to an increase of energy intensity of the industry, which is already high as compared to the developed industrial countries. The necessity to rationalize the fuel/energy balance structure and to move from supply-side to demand-side policies as to limit the consumption of energy is stressed out. (R.I.)

  15. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  16. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

  17. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Olatubi, W.O.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2005-05-01

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated. (author)

  18. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  19. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

  20. The economic impact of tourism in six German national parks

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Marius; Mueller, Martin; Woltering, Manuel; Arnegger, Julius; Job, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Tourism in protected areas can create considerable income for adjacent communities. Based on face-to-face visitor surveys, the present study measures the structure, size and economic impact of tourist expenditure in the six German national parks Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer, Bayerischer Wald, Eifel, Müritz, Hainich and Kellerwald-Edersee. We find that mean daily expenditure per person is considerably below the national averages for tourists in Germany: day-trippers spend between EUR 7 and 13 ...

  1. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF INTRODUCING ROTATIONS ON LONG ISLAND POTATO FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; White, Gerald B.

    1984-01-01

    Potatoes have been grown continuously on many Long Island (New York) fields. Environmental concerns have raised questions about the continued usage of this practice. A farm-level linear programming model was used to investigate the economic impacts of crop rotations which result in reduced potato acreage. Crop rotations (an Integrated Pest Management tactic) reduced total pesticide use, but also reduced returns above variable costs as successively stringent rotation requirements were forced i...

  2. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-01-01

    Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management), 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following...

  3. The impact of unions on the economic performance of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Cassoni, A.; G. Fachola; G. Labadie

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the impact of unionization at the industry level and of the degree of centralization in bargaining – the industry or the firm - on wages and on the economic performance of firms within the manufacturing sector in Uruguay, using a panel of establishments for the period 1988-1995. The model, estimated using the Generalized Method of Moments, used controls for the degree of exposure to international and regional competition, and a set of industry and firm characteristics. The...

  4. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  5. The economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrian, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical examination of the direct economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon in Eidfjord. Confirming the results of other ex post analyses of sports in general, this study finds statistically significant evidence that Norseman Xtreme Triathlon contribute positively to a host‘s economy. The visitors of the event were surveyed with two different self-administrated questionnaires, developed by the researcher. The main generators of expenditure were found to be: accommo...

  6. Input-Outrageous: The Economic Impacts of Modern Biofuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Measuring the net economic impacts of ethanol plants has been problematical: access to good industrial accounts is limited, the sector has historically gone through volatile swings, regional logistical responses to a plant beyond corn inputs are not well understood, and the sector is currently expanding rapidly. In the current uncertain energy world, the prices paid for inputs and received for outputs are also volatile. There exists quite a bit of confusion about the overall value of this dim...

  7. The Economic and Educational Impact of Native American Art Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Taylor Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This research will investigate the economical and educational impact of Native American art markets. The information will compare and contrast the approaches of two museum-operated Native American art market programs, the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, California and the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art in Indianapolis, Indiana. Information collected on these market programs included observation, library research and personal interviews. This study will present a b...

  8. Estimating economic impact using ex post econometric analysis: Cautionary tales

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson; Gordon Gekko

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of techniques that can be used to estimate the economic impact of stadiums, events, championships, and franchises on local economies. Utilizing data from National Collegiate Athletic Association championships, this paper highlights the potential problems that can be made if city and time effects are not handled and unit-roots are not accounted for. In addition, the paper describes the technique for estimating dynamic panel data and the advantages that come with...

  9. Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Shera; Ardita Shehaj

    2014-01-01

    Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having...

  10. Hosts' perception of economic and socio-cultural tourism impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Kamšek, David; Milfelner, Borut; Ogorelc, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing tourism perceptions of host communities and residentsʼ attitudes toward tourism development has been gaining increasing attention in the tourism research. This paper examines how residents perceive positive and negative economic and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The authors identify several differences between two groups of respondents: residents employed in tourism and other residents. The study provides tourism planners with useful information concerning specific elements ass...

  11. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Njumba, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  12. Assessment of environmental and economic feasibility of Enhanced Landfill Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Danthurebandara, Maheshi; Van Passel, Steven; Vanderreydt, Ive; Van Acker, Karel

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental and economic performance of Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM). Based on life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, a detailed model is developed and is applied to a case study, i.e. the first ELFM project in Belgium. The environmental and economic analysis is performed in order to study the valorisation of different waste types in the landfill, such as municipal solid waste, industrial waste and total waste. We found that ELFM is promising for the case ...

  13. The convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (EIA Convention) is the first multilateral treaty to specify the procedural rights and duties of Parties with regard to transboundary impacts of proposed activities and to provide procedures, in a transboundary context, for the consideration of environmental impacts in decision-making. The EIA Convention, elaborated under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), was adopted at Espoo, Finland, in February 1991. Obligations stipulated, and measures and procedures provided for in this Convention are described. (author)

  14. Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  16. Environmental impact assessment in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A meeting on Environmental Impact Assessment has been held in Iceland, September 2-6, 2000. It was held within the framework of the project NKS/SOS-3 (Radioactive waste), subproject NKS/SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment). The meeting included presentations, discussions and a study trip to the Egilsstadir and Myvatn districts. (au)

  17. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  18. Economic impacts of the Natural Forest Protection Program in Yunnan Province,China:an input-output analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon

    2008-01-01

    The paper assesses the economic impacts of the natural forest protection program (NFPP) on the economy of Yunnan Province,China,in terms of gross output,value added,employment,and household income.An inputoutput model is developed to estimate NFPP's economic impacts by means of backward linkages in the forestry sector and logging and haulage sector.It is found that the NFPP has positive impacts on gross output,value added and household income in the initial year,but has significantly negative impacts on the regional economy in the fillowing years as the investment decreases.

  19. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). - Highlights: • Transboundary smoke haze is an annual phenomenon in Malaysia. • No evidence of seasonal factors in smoke haze related inpatient cases. • Inpatient rates during a haze event increased by 31% relative to normal days. • Annual economic loss due to inpatient health impact of haze valued at $91,000. • Present value of economic loss estimated at $1.1 million to $1.7 million. - Inpatient rates soared by 31% while economic loss valued at USD91,000 annually

  20. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Havin...