WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment case study

  1. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  2. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  3. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  4. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  5. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  6. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  7. A case study by life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyun

    2017-05-01

    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  8. Shift manager workload assessment - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)

  9. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  10. Attachment, assessment, and psychological intervention: a case study of anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adriana; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Attachment patterns and personality dimensions have always been considered important to the development and adaptation of the individual. The first aim of this article was to address some basic questions about the place of attachment in a multimethod assessment when compiling a complete picture of the patient's personality functioning. The second aim was to present the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP; George & West, 2001) as a valid and productive assessment measure. Based on a single case study of an anorexic young woman, the article demonstrates how the AAP is integrated with the Rorschach Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991, 1993) and other assessment tools in both the assessment and in developing a treatment plan.

  11. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  12. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  13. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  14. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  15. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  16. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B

    2018-01-01

    Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.

  17. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  18. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  19. Assessing organisational governance maturity: A retail industry case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Marius Wessels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For any business to operate effectively, a governance framework that operates at the relevant maturity level is required. An organisational governance maturity framework is a tool that leadership can use to determine governance maturity. This study aims to determine whether the organisational governance maturity framework (developed by Wilkinson can be applied to the selected retail industry organisation to assess the maturity of the organisation’s governance, limited to the ‘leadership’ attribute. Firstly, a high-level literature review on ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, ethical foundation and culture (‘tone at the top’, and organisational governance and maturity was conducted. Secondly, a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE listed South African-based company was selected for the empirical part of the study using a single case study research design. The empirical results confirmed that the organisational governance maturity framework can be used to determine the maturity level of organisational governance for the selected attribute of ‘leadership’

  20. Health visiting assessment--unpacking critical attributes in health visitor needs assessment practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-02-01

    Assessment of family health need is a central feature of health visiting practice in which a range of skills, knowledge and judgements are used. These assessments are pivotal in uncovering need, safeguarding children and in determining levels of health intervention to be offered to children and their families by the health visiting service in the UK. The central focus of this paper is to outline the critical attributes of the basic principles that underpin health visiting assessment practice that emerged as part of a case study enquiry. A case study design informed by a constructivist methodology was used to examine health visitors' professional judgements and use of formal guidelines in identifying health needs and prioritising families requiring extra health visiting support. The main study was conducted in three community Trust case sites in England, UK, with pilot work being undertaken in a fourth site. Fifteen health visitors participated in the main study and data were collected during 56 observed home visits to families receiving extra health visiting support. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with the health visitors, pre- and post-home contacts, while 53 client interviews also took place. The analysis suggests that there are certain fundamental elements associated with the majority of health visitor assessments and these have been termed assessment principles. These characteristics are integral to, and provide the basis upon which health visitors' assessments are conducted and professional judgement is formed. They reflect the basic principles of health visiting assessment practice, which exist despite the constraints and realities of the practice context and can be differentiated from the activity centred methods of assessment processes.

  1. Nutritional risk assessment for Hip fracture, A Case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Torbergsen, Anne Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Patients were included from September 2009 until April 2011. In total 116 patients and 73 healthy non-fractured controls participated. The study has 3 parts. In the first part, we studied micronutrients and the risk of hip fracture in a case control study. In the second part, we conducted a randomized controlled nutrition intervention trial and finally, in the third part, we studied if micronutrients were associated with delirium in...

  2. Assessment of human decision reliability - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P

    1998-01-01

    In his discussion of this case study, the author indicates that human beings are not merely machines who use rules. Thus, more focus needs to be put on studying decision making situations and their contexts. Decision theory (both normative and descriptive) and contextual psychological approaches may offer tools to cope with operator decision making. Further an ideal decision space needs to be defined for operators. The case study specifically addressed a loss of feedwater scenario and the various operator decisions that were involved in that scenario. It was concluded from this particular study that there are significant differences in the crew decision behaviours that are not explained by process variables. Through use of evidence from simulator tests with expert judgement, an approach to estimate probabilities has been developed. The modelling approach presented in this discussion is an extension of current HRA paradigms, but a natural one since all human beings make decisions

  3. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show......Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...

  4. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecotoxicological hazard assessment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Y.; Pauwels, S.J.; Chasse, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment (EHA) developed by the Quebec Ministry of Environment and Wildlife was used as part of the management scheme of contaminated soils from a former refinery. The study consists of assessing five types of soils (reference, heavily contaminated, slightly contaminated, thermally-treated, and biotreated) to determine their relative intrinsic hazard. During the exploratory activities a series of ten assessment endpoints where identified to support this typical EHA. During SOURCE characterization, the physicochemical make-up of the soils is described and the presence and concentrations of priority pollutants is determined. During FATE characterization, the potential for bioconcentration, mobility, and persistence of pollutants is determined. During EFFECTS characterization, the soils and their leachates are tested using standard terrestrial and aquatic bioassays. The data from the toxicological and analytical testing program are evaluated semi-quantitatively on the basis of a scoring system developed by consensus. The discussion will highlight how data are used within an EHA to streamline the decision-making process regarding the follow-up cleanup and disposal of contaminated soils

  6. Structural Safety Assessment of Existing Multiarch Tunnel: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health assessment is one of the key activities in maintaining the performance of a tunnel during its service life. Due to the development of modern detection technology, comprehensive structural health assessment system is being established for operating tunnels. To evaluate the actual operational state of Shitigou tunnel, overall detection of the liner crack, tunnel seepage, and liner void was conducted by employing the modern detection technology, such as crack width monitoring technology, concrete strength monitoring technology, and electromagnetic wave nondestructive monitoring technology. Through the statistical analysis of the detection results, the distribution characteristic, development law, and damage grade of structural defects were obtained. Tunnel liner cracks are mainly located on the middle wall; serious water leakage is encountered on the side wall, middle wall, and vault; the strength of foundation and liner structure of left tunnel does not meet the design requirement; the liner voids are mostly located at the tunnel entrance section, especially, on the tunnel vault; and the proportion of influence factors of structural defects should be considered. The research results presented for this study can serve as references for effective design and health assessment of existing multiarch tunnel projects.

  7. Productivity assessment of an opencast coal mine: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, M.K.; Bhar, C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Management Studies

    2006-07-01

    An assessment was conducted at an opencast coalmine located in Jharia coalfield. The mine is using shovel-dumper combination for winning coal. The study covers the computation of partial productivities as well as total productivity status of the mine at an aggregate level whereas partial productivities highlight the efficiency in the use of various resources. A statistical analysis among the different productivity indices has been carried out to identify the criticality of different input factors. Accordingly appropriate strategies can be devised for improving productivity of the mine. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Assessing Goodwill in Hotel Business Case Study: Milcofil SA. Vrancea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the assessment of goodwill in the hotel business, an entity which brings together both tangible and intangible elements. Even though tangible elements are relatively easy to measure by typical accounting methods, the intangible part (which defines the most important feature of services is rather difficult, if not impossible to measure. That is mainly the reason why the immaterial side, which defines famous businesses, brings the recognition of the image, advertisement, logo, emblem, fame or, in other words, all the elements that attract clients.

  9. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  10. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  11. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  12. COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT OF THE REWARD POLICY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarchuk M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive wage policy is considered as the main tool for solving the problem of attracting, retaining and promoting qualified personnel, which is relevant for domestic organizations. The article defines the main stages and purposes of evaluation of the competitiveness of the wage policy. The authors studied the use of an estimation of the wage policy competitiveness by the Russian organizations and identified practical need for and methods of assessing the competitiveness of the wage policy. Objective and subjective factors influencing the direction of the wage policy are identified, as well as the trends in wages under the influence of the crisis conditions. The main indicators of mobility and personnel turnover, the average wage in the Irkutsk region are considered. The description of the external conditions of functioning of the organizations in the Irkutsk region is presented.

  13. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  14. Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Breslin, Casey M.; ElGarhy, Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Without proper motor assessment, children with autism spectrum disorder may be placed in educational settings that are inappropriate for their motor abilities. However, many practitioners find it challenging to choose which assessment to use to assess these children, especially with the number of instruments available. The purpose of this study…

  15. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  16. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also is announcing that... report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for...

  17. Recent case studies and advancements in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1984, Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., had the lead in preparing several full scope probabilistic risk assessments for electric utilities. Five of those studies are discussed from the point of view of advancements and lessons learned. The objective and trend of these studies is toward utilization of the risk models by the plant owners as risk management tools. Advancements that have been made are in presentation ad documentation of the PRAs, generation of more understandable plant level information, and improvements in methodology to facilitate technology transfer. Specific areas of advancement are in the treatment of such issues as dependent failures, human interaction, and the uncertainty in the source term. Lessons learned cover a wide spectrum and include the importance of plant specific models for meaningful risk management, the role of external events in risk, the sensitivity of contributors to choice of risk index, and the very important finding that the public risk is extremely small. The future direction of PRA is to establish less dependence on experts for in-plant application. Computerizing the PRAs such that they can be accessed on line and interactively is the key

  18. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  19. District health information system assessment: a case study in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab

    2013-03-01

    Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.

  20. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Monazzam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. Material and Methods: For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00–9:00 a.m., afternoon (12.00–3:00 p.m. and evening (5:00–8:00 p.m. on Saturdays to Wednesdays. Results: As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A, while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq, measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A. Conclusions: The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in

  1. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Abbaspour, Majid; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.), afternoon (12.00-3:00 p.m.) and evening (5:00-8:00 p.m.) on Saturdays to Wednesdays. As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq) was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A), while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq), measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A). The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in handling noise pollution data towards depicting noise pollution intensity caused

  2. Results of Three Case Studies for Assessing Motivators and Barriers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... data infrastructures (SDIs), particularly the South African SDI. It is our hope that these findings pertaining to motivators or barriers for interorganizational GIS data sharing (as it was applied to the three cases) will provide valuable lessons to guide organizations to develop and implement successful data sharing initiatives.

  3. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  4. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…

  5. Assessment of small hydropower potential by software. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rivers hydropower potential is considered one of the oldest renewable energy source used in the electricity production process. A method to investigate the possibility to construct a micro hydropower system on a small river is presented. The analysis and the hydropower assessment were done by using Vapidro-Aste software. Results point out that micro-hydro units can be implemented in remote locations or hybrid renewable energy systems, while the environmental flow is guaranteed.

  6. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang

    2011-07-01

    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  7. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific......The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...

  8. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  9. Strategic Assessment Model and Its Application:a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiu-wen; CAO Meng-xia; ZHU Ning; ZUO M1ng-j1an

    2001-01-01

    Accurate and effective assessment of strategic alternatives of an organization directly affects the decision-making and execution of its development strategy. In evaluation of strategic alternatives, relevant elements from both internal and external environments of an organization must be considered. In this paper we use strategic assessment model to evaluate strategic alternatives of an air-conditioning company. Strategic objectives and alternatives of the company are developed through analysis of the competitive environment,key competitors and internal conditions. The environment factors are classified into internal, task, and general opportunities and threats. Analytical hierarchy process, subjective probabilities, entropy concept,and utility theory are used to enhance decision-maker's ability in evaluating strategic alternatives. The evaluation results show that the most effective strategic alternative for the company is to reduce types of products, concentrate its effort on producing window-type and cupboard-type air-conditioners, enlarge the production scale, and pre-empt the market. The company has made great progress by implementing this alternative. We conclude that SAM is an appropriate tool for evaluating strategic alternatives.

  10. Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.A.; Foster, T.L.; Zieber, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

  11. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and U.S. EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    These case studies are not completed risk assessments but are structured around an approach known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm (Davis, J.M., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7:402-9, 2007). ...

  12. Radiological impact assessment in Bagjata uranium deposit: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.K.; Bhowmik, S.C.; Jha, V.N.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium ore mining facility, in addition to the desirable product, produces wastes in the form of environmental releases or effluents to air, water and soil. The toxicological and other (non-radiological) effects are generally addressed in EIA/EMP studies as per MOEF guidelines. Since the uranium ore is radioactive, it is desirable to conduct a study on radiological effects considering the impacts of radiological releases to the environment. Before undertaking the commercial mining operations at Bagjata uranium deposit in the Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand, pre-operational radiological base line data were generated and a separate study on radiological impact on various environmental matrices was conducted in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency's laid out guidelines. The paper describes the philosophy of such studies and the findings that helped in formulating a separate environmental management plan. (author)

  13. Case study application of the IAEA safeguards assessment methodology to a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.; McDaniel, T.

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc. has prepared a case study illustrating the application of an assessment methodology to an international system for safeguarding mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facilities. This study is the second in a series of case studies which support an effort by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and an international Consultant Group to develop a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards. 3 refs

  14. A Case Study: Follow-Up Assessment of Facilitated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…

  15. Case Study : Visual Analytics in Software Product Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Lanza, M; Storey, M; Muller, H

    2009-01-01

    We present how a combination of static source code analysis, repository analysis, and visualization techniques has been used to effectively get and communicate insight in the development and project management problems of a large industrial code base. This study is an example of how visual analytics

  16. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  17. Assessment of online marketing communications of an automotive company - A case study of Jaguar Cars, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bendzovska, Daniela; Blomqvist, Michelle; Rubenstein, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the traditional face of marketing has changed. Companies need to adopt ongoing marketing strategies to stay ahead of their competitors; the design and content of their strategies continue to evolve. In this thesis a case study has been conducted on one company within the automotive industry in Sweden. The case study was performed on Jaguar Cars in Sweden and an assessment of their use of Online Marketing Communication (OMC) as a marketing tool was made. The case study indicat...

  18. Assessing climate change impacts on wheat production (a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major challenges facing humanity in the future and effect of climate change has been detrimental to agricultural industry. The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of climate change on the maturity period, leaf area index (LAI, biomass and grain yield of wheat under future climate change for the Sistan and Baluchestan region in Iran. For this purpose, two general circulation models HadCM3 and IPCM4 under three scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 in three time periods 2020, 2050 and 2080 were used. LARS-WG model was used for simulating climatic parameters for each period and CERES-Wheat model was used to simulate wheat growth. The results of model evaluation showed that LARS-WG had appropriate prediction for climatic parameters and simulation of stochastic growing season in future climate change conditions for the studied region. Wheat growing season period in all scenarios of climate change was reduced compared to the current situation. Possible reasons were the increase in temperature rate and the accelerated growth stages of wheat. This reduction in B1 scenario was less than A1B and A2 scenarios. Maximum wheat LAI in all scenarios, except scenario A1B in 2050, is decreased compared to the current situation. Yield and biological yield of wheat in both general circulation models under all scenarios and all times were reduced in comparison with current conditions and the lowest reduction was related to B1 scenario. In general, the results showed that wheat production in the future will be affected by climate change and will decrease in the studied region. To reduce these risks, the impact of climate change mitigation strategies and management systems for crop adaptation to climate change conditions should be considered.

  19. Assessment and improvement of urban streets maintenance: Case study Kragujevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available City of Kragujevac struggles with providing road maintenance services due to limited funds and low capacity within the existing Public Utility Companies. As a solution to problems with traditional methods of contracting, many road authorities have moved to contracting road maintenance works to the private sector based on performance measures. The paper presents the outcomes of the study conducted for the purpose of improving current practice and condition of urban network within the City of Kragujevac through the application of performance-based maintenance contracting.

  20. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  1. Small Data, Online Learning and Assessment Practices in Higher Education: A Case Study of Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cate; Wilson, Anna; Drew, Valerie; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an in-depth case study of a single student who failed an online module which formed part of a master's programme in Professional Education and Leadership. We use this case study to examine assessment practices in higher education in the online environment. In taking this approach, we go against the current predilection…

  2. An Approach for Integrating Toxicogenomic Data in Risk Assessment: The Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and ...

  3. Root Cause Assessment for a Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalantri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-cause identification for quality related problems are key issues for manufacturing processes. It has been a very challenging engineering problem particularly in a multistage manufacturing, where maximum number of processes and activities are performed. However, it may also be implemented with ease in each and every individual set up and activities in any manufacturing process. Kaizen is aimed towards reduction in different types of losses i.e. Failure Loss/ Breakdown Loss, Minor stoppage, idling loss, Setup and adjustment loss etc. So as to improve quality and productivity.In this report, root-cause identification methodology has been adopted to eliminate the rejection of product manufactured by the enterprise and improving the life of product. Brainstorming and other Root Cause Assesmenttools have been used to find out the reasons of tube failure and vibration in tubular strander. Solutions of these problems have also given in this report. Kaizen activities have reduced the time consumed in daily activities of cleaning, lubricating, inspection etc. A detailed study has illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  4. Multidisciplinary assessment of tako tsubo cardiomyopathy: a prospective case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilsson Kent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of tako tsubo cardiomyopathy remains unclear. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate if a common pathophysiological denominator could be outlined. Methods Within 3 days following symptom presentation and again after 3 months we investigated all patients coming to our institution and diagnosed with tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients underwent extensive biochemical screening. Left ventricular function was evaluated by echocardiography and contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiac autonomic function was studied by heart rate variability and signal-averaged electrocardiogram and posttraumatic stress and depression were investigated by questionnaires (the Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome 10-Questions Inventory, PTSS-10 and the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale, self rated version, MADRS-S. Results During 2 years, 13 consecutive patients were included. Markers of myocardial damage and heart failure were slightly to moderately elevated and ejection fraction (echocardiography and MRi was moderately reduced at hospitalization and improved to normal values in all patients. Signal averaged ECG demonstrated a statistically significant shorter duration of the filtered QRS complex in the acute phase as compared to follow-up. In heart rate variability analysis, SDNN and SDANN were shorter acutely compared to follow-up. Two patients fulfilled criteria for posttraumatic stress syndrome while 7 patients were in the borderline zone. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between PTSS-10 score and QRS duration in the signal-averaged ECG (r = -0.66, P = 0.01. Conclusions Patients with tako tsubo cardiomyopathy have altered cardiac autonomic function and a high incidence rate of borderline or definite posttraumatic stress syndrome acutely. This is in line with findings in patients with myocardial infarction and does not allow conclusions on cause and effect.

  5. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  6. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  7. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  8. The Implementation of Self-Assessment in Writing Class: A Case Study at STBA LIA Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Theresia Tuti

    2015-01-01

    Self-assessment has become a means of realizing the goals of learner-centered education. It is conducted to help students grow to be independent learners. With regard to this point, this case study is aimed at investigating the implementation of the self-assessment as a learning tool in writing class. Its purpose is to examine students' reactions…

  9. Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing stocks in data-poor African fisheries: a case study on the white grouper Epinephelus aeneus of Mauritania. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The lack of reliable stock assessment for numerous exploited stocks in West Africa often results from poor-quality data, high multi-specificity of captures, and the ...

  10. EMBEDding the CEFR in Academic Writing Assessment : A case study in training and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Lowie, Wander; Jansma, Petra; Schmidt, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The CEFR is increasingly being used as the framework of choice for the assessment of language proficiency at universities across Europe. However, to attain consistent assessment, familiarization and standardization are essential. In this paper we report a case study of embedding a standardization

  11. ASSESSING SPATIAL DATA QUALITY OF PARTICIPATORY GIS STUDIES: A CASE STUDY IN CAPE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Musungu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Participatory GIS (PGIS has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.

  12. Assessing Spatial Data Quality of Participatory GIS Studies: a Case Study in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musungu, K.

    2015-10-01

    Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of research, little has been done in the analysis of the quality of PGIS information. The study investigated the use of data quality criteria commonly used in traditional GIS systems and shows that it is possible to apply the criteria used in traditional GIS to PGIS. It provides a starting point for PGIS studies to assess the quality of the product. Notably, this a reflective exercise on one case study, but the methodologies used in this study have been replicated in many others undertaken by Community Based Organisations as well as Non-Governmental Organisations. Therefore the findings are relevant to such projects.

  13. Learning to assess in the academic workplace: Case study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study into how academics learn to assess student performance affirms the significance of context in understanding learning in the academic workplace. The study involved three case studies in academic departments with significant differences in the teaching, research and professional dimensions of academic life.

  14. Developing and pilot testing of a tool for "clinicosocial case study" assessment of community medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Manisha; Singh, Uday Shankar; Bhanderi, Dinesh; Phatak, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Practical and clinical skills teaching should constitute a core part of the postgraduate curriculum of Community Medicine. The clinicosocial case study is a method to enhance learners' skills but there is no generally accepted organized system of formative assessment and structured feedback to guide students. A new tool based on the principles of mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini CEX) was developed and pilot tested as a 'clinicosocial case study' assessment of community medicine residents with feedback as a core component. Ten core domains of clinicosocial skills were identified after reviewing the relevant literature and input from local experts in community medicine and medical education. We pilot tested the tool with eight faculty members to assess five residents during clinicosocial case presentations on a variety of topics. Kappa statistic and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between faculty members' average assessment scores. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency with faculty members as domains. All 95% confidence limits using the Bland-Altman method were within the predetermined limit of 2 points. The overall Kappa between two faculty members was fair ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Qualitative feedback revealed that both faculty and residents were enthusiastic about the process but faculty suggested further standardization, while residents suggested streamlining of the process. This new assessment tool is available for objective and unbiased assessment of residents through 'clinicosocial case study,' which enriches learning through comprehensive feedback. Further validation in different settings is needed.

  15. PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSESSMENT: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT MODELS INTERSECT THROUGH EARLY CHILDHOOD CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2013-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  17. Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2014-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  18. Mining the student assessment data: Lessons drawn from a small scale case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Vasilyeva, E.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Baker, de R.S.J.; Barnes, T.; Beck, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe an educational data mining (EDM) case study based on the data collected during the online assessment of students who were able to immediately receive tailored and elaborated feedback (EF) after answering each of the questions in the test. Our main interest as domain experts

  19. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  20. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9192-2; Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0701] Climate Change... period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of... vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate the types of analyses, models, and...

  1. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  2. Assessment of financial control practices in Polytechnics in Ghana. A case study of Sunyani Polytechnic

    OpenAIRE

    Prempeh, Kwadwo Boateng; Twumasi, Patrick; Kyeremeh, Kwadwo

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to assess the financial Control systems of Polytechnics in Ghana and suggest ways of improving them. Financial control systems exist to help organizations meet their goals and objectives, promote efficiency, reduce the risk of loss, and help ensure financial statement reliability and compliance with laws and regulations. The study adopts the case study design using Sunyani Polytechnic in the Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. A sample size of 50 staff members was selected for the stu...

  3. Introducing a design exigency to promote student learning through assessment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie A; Shaw, Julie M

    2018-02-01

    Assessment technologies are often used to classify student and newly qualified nurse performance as 'pass' or 'fail', with little attention to how these decisions are achieved. Examining the design exigencies of classification technologies, such as performance assessment technologies, provides opportunities to explore flexibility and change in the process of using those technologies. Evaluate an established assessment technology for nursing performance as a classification system. A case study analysis that is focused on the assessment approach and a priori design exigencies of performance assessment technology, in this case the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016. Nurse assessors are required to draw upon their expertise to judge performance, but that judgement is described as a source of bias, creating confusion. The definition of satisfactory performance is 'ready to enter practice'. To pass, the performance on each criterion must be at least satisfactory, indicating to the student that no further improvement is required. The Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 does not have a third 'other' category, which is usually found in classification systems. Introducing a 'not yet competent' category and creating a two-part, mixed methods assessment process can improve the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology. Using a standards approach in the first part, judgement is valued and can generate learning opportunities across a program. Using a measurement approach in the second part, student performance can be 'not yet competent' but still meet criteria for year level performance and a graded pass. Subjecting the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology to analysis as a classification system provides opportunities for innovation in design. This design innovation has the potential to support students who move between programs and clinicians who assess students from different

  4. A case-control study assessing depression in patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyamali Sundararajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the tooth. One of the important non-oral risk factors for periodontitis is psychosocial stress and depression. Depression affects oral health by affecting the immune system through its effects on hypothalamic pituitary axis system. Periodontal inflammatory surface area (PISA is a system used to assess inflammatory burden in the periodontal tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between PISA and depression. Settings and Design: The design of the study is case-control study. Materials and Methods: The study design is a case-control study with forty patients each in case and control groups. The periodontal inflammatory level was assessed by PISA system and the levels of depression was assessed by using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Statistical Analysis: Student's t-test was used to compare PISA and BDI scores. The BDI score (mean ± standard deviation [SD] for controls was 12.75 ± 6.82 compared to 22.73 ± 4.40 for the cases. The comparison (t = 7.78 was statistically significant at P < 0.0001. The PISA score (mean ± SD for controls was 210.47 ± 76.80 compared to the PISA score of 1069.50 ± 204.21 for cases which was statistically significant (t = 24.90; P < 0.0001. Results: Significantly higher BDI scores were observed in patients with chronic periodontitis than healthy controls. Conclusion: This study clearly reveals a significant association between the severity of depression and inflammatory burden.

  5. Assessment and pedagogy: a case study of two oral hygiene lecturers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergotine, G

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that most South African oral hygiene lecturers lack appropriate qualifications in the field of education. Their teaching skills are based mainly on clinical and practical experience, and this may impact on their understanding of the educational foundations of teaching, learning and assessment. To explore oral hygiene lecturers' knowledge and use of pedagogy and assessment and its alignment. A qualitative descriptive study design was used and case studies of two oral hygiene lecturers, each with qualifications in Education, were analyzed according to three themes: curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The results showed that both participants had a good understanding of formative assessment (FA) and summative assessment (SA). They made use of FA but in neither case was the application ideal. Both used a range of teaching and assessment strategies but felt accountable to external demands of meeting outcomes. They linked their understanding of pedagogy and assessment to assist in the development of their courses and reported that this alignment had improved the quality of their programmes. This alignment by oral hygiene lecturers can influence curricular and pedagogic strategies. The professional educational development of lecturers in oral hygiene could be influential in improving the profession within the country.

  6. Therapeutic Assessment of Complex Trauma: A Single-Case Time-Series Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarocchi, Anna; Aschieri, Filippo; Fantini, Francesca; Smith, Justin D

    2013-06-01

    The cumulative effect of repeated traumatic experiences in early childhood incrementally increases the risk of adjustment problems later in life. Surviving traumatic environments can lead to the development of an interrelated constellation of emotional and interpersonal symptoms termed complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). Effective treatment of trauma begins with a multimethod psychological assessment and requires the use of several evidence-based therapeutic processes, including establishing a safe therapeutic environment, reprocessing the trauma, constructing a new narrative, and managing emotional dysregulation. Therapeutic Assessment (TA) is a semistructured, brief intervention that uses psychological testing to promote positive change. The case study of Kelly, a middle-aged woman with a history of repeated interpersonal trauma, illustrates delivery of the TA model for CPTSD. Results of this single-case time-series experiment indicate statistically significant symptom improvement as a result of participating in TA. We discuss the implications of these findings for assessing and treating trauma-related concerns, such as CPTSD.

  7. Chronic hepatitis C--assessment in civil law: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruno Miguel; Sousa, Paula; Mena, Filomena; Costa, Graça Santos; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the case of a 58-year-old man who asked for an assessment of physical damage of a civil nature, having been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C for which he blamed a blood transfusion, supposedly contaminated with hepatitis C virus (HCV). After studying the documentary information, a number of presuppositions were drawn up with a view to determining the causal nexus, but this could not be proved. The assessment of situations like this is not common in civil law. This article is intended to add to the body of information on the forensic assessment of similar cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human factors and ergonomics assessment of food pantry work: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nicholas A; Talone, Andrew B; Fraulini, Nicholas W; Smither, Janan A

    2017-01-01

    Research assessing work processes in food pantries has been limited to the client's experience and aspects of food donations [3-5]. Research on food pantries has yet to focus on understanding and evaluating worker-environment interaction. The present case study examined the interaction between workers and their work environment while performing common tasks in a food pantry. Data were collected through naturalistic observations and structured interviews. A task analysis was performed on the data. Several potential issues in the pantry were identified including with the workspace layout, environmental conditions, and signage. Human factors and ergonomics principles were then utilized to provide insights and recommendations (e.g., use of numbered rather than color-coded signage). Recommendations were provided to the case study food pantry for enhancing safety and productivity. Further research is needed to assess the generalizability of our findings to other food pantries.

  9. The Assessment of Lesson Plans in Teacher Education: A Case Study in Assessment Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper forms part of an exploration of assessment on one part-time higher education (HE) course: an in-service, professional qualification for teachers and trainers in the learning and skills sector which is delivered on a franchise basis across a network of further education colleges in the north of England. This paper proposes that the…

  10. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Scott M.; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O?Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of ?Common Criteria? (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of th...

  11. A probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less importance than the approach taken, the interaction between sponsor and study team, and the technical and administrative issues that can arise during a peer review. This case study will examine the following issues: how the scope of the peer review was established, based on how it was to be used by the review sponsoring body; how the level of effort was determined, and what this determination meant for the technical quality of the review; how the team of peer reviewers was selected; how the review itself was carried out; what findings were made; what was done with these findings by both the review sponsoring body and the PSA analysis team. 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Control assessment for heat integrated systems. An industrial case study for ethanol recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Heat integration is essential for reducing the energy consumption of process industries. However, it may render the dynamic operation more interactive and difficult to control. This paper assesses the implications of heat integration in controllability and performance in energy reduction....... The assessment, both on open loop and closed loop, was carried out based on an industrial case study and compared to a modified case without heat integration. Although the heat integrated system displayed a certain deterioration of controllability, the control system made possible an efficient operation....... The reduction of energy consumption achieved thanks to heat integration was considerably larger than the losses due to poor control of the process, confirming the importance of heat integration in energy intensive processes....

  13. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills Via a Performance Assessment: A case study in instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research project. Fifty-five students participated in a performance assessment interview at the beginning and end of a place-based investigation. Two forms of the assessment were created and counterbalanced within class at pre and post. In situ scoring was conducted such that responses were scored as correct versus incorrect during the assessment's administration. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated an age-level progression in student scores. Tests of discriminant validity showed that the instrument detected variability in interpretation skills across each of three graph types (line, bar, dot plot). Convergent validity was established by correlating in situ scores with those from the Graph Interpretation Scoring Rubric. Students' proficiency with interpreting different types of graphs matched expectations based on age and the standards-based progression of graphs across primary school grades. The assessment tasks were also effective at detecting pre-post gains in students' interpretation of line graphs and dot plots after the place-based project. The results of the case study are discussed in relation to the common challenges associated with performance assessment. Implications are presented in relation to the need for authentic and performance-based instructional and assessment tasks to respond to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a case study for using biomonitoring data to address risk assessment questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2006-11-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children.

  15. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  16. Miscanthus as energy crop: Environmental assessment of a miscanthus biomass production case study in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Perrin, A.; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    assessment of different logistic (harvesting) strategies for miscanthus production in the Bourgogne region is presented. Emergy assessment is a particular methodology suited to quantify the resource use of a process and to estimate the percentage of renewability of products or services. The case study...... the environmental cost of the whole process, the percentage of renewability (%R) and the Unit Emergy Values (UEV) that represent the resource use efficiency of the final products for each phase are calculated. Since miscanthus is reproduced by rhizomes, in addition to the system for growing and distributing...... miscanthus biomass, the system for producing miscanthus rhizomes is also analysed and a UEV for miscanthus rhizomes of 1.19E+05 seJ/J was obtained. Moreover, due the absence of other emergy assessments for miscanthus biomass for comparison, a sensitivity analysis has been made by considering different...

  17. Business performance assessment and the EFQM Excellence Model 2010 (case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Antošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the latest management methods becomes today, during the ongoing European integration processes, a requisite for the success of the business within the environment of international markets. In this paper, the authors pay attention to the expansion of the organizational knowledge base with an application of a new management method. They are dealing with assessment of the organization performance, the issue of its effectiveness and the increasing economic efficiency, on an example of a selected mining company as a case study. In order to detect weaknesses in the company reviewed and to offer suggestions for improvement, which may move the company towards prosperity, the authors carried out the performance assessment by using the EFQM Excellence Model 2010. The aim of this paper is to introduce the business performance assessment model in terms of the European standards that will allow the use of latest management methods in the environment of both the Slovak and European companies.

  18. Contextual assessment of organisational culture - methodological development in two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged significance of organisational culture in the nuclear field, previous cultural studies have concentrated on purely safety related matters, or been only descriptive in nature. New kinds of methods, taking into account the overall objectives of the organisation, were needed to assess culture and develop its working practices appropriately. VTT developed the Contextual Assessment of Organisational Culture (CAOC) methodology during the FINNUS programme. The methodology utilises two concepts, organisational culture and core task. The core task can be defined as the core demands and content of work that the organisation has to accomplish in order to be effective. The core task concept is used in assessing the central dimensions of the organisation's culture. Organisational culture is defined as a solution the company has generated in order to fulfil the perceived demands of its core task. The CAOC-methodology was applied in two case studies, in the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and in the maintenance unit of Loviisa NPP. The aim of the studies was not only to assess the given culture, but also to give the personnel new concepts and new tools for reflecting on their organisation, their jobs and on appropriate working practices. The CAOC-methodology contributes to the design and redesign of work in complex sociotechnical systems. It strives to enhance organisations' capability to assess their current working practices and the meanings attached to them and compare these to the actual demands of their basic mission and so change unadaptive practices. (orig.)

  19. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Resilience Investments: Tennessee Valley Authority Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilbanks, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Preston, Benjamin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a general approach for assessing climate change vulnerabilities of an electricity system and evaluating the costs and benefits of certain investments that would increase system resilience. It uses Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) as a case study, concentrating on the Cumberland River basin area on the northern side of the TVA region. The study focuses in particular on evaluating risks associated with extreme heat wave and drought conditions that could be expected to affect the region by mid-century. Extreme climate event scenarios were developed using a combination of dynamically downscaled output from the Community Earth System Model and historical heat wave and drought conditions in 1993 and 2007, respectively.

  20. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  1. A First Case Study of a Life Cycle-Based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    cycle impacts. Our approach is evaluated in a case study, through which we outline future research needs to fully operationalize a consistent and Life Cycle-based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA). We build on a flexible mass balance-based modeling system yielding cumulative multimedia transfer fractions...... and exposure pathway-specific Product Intake Fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. When combined with chemical masses in products and further with toxicity information, this approach is a resourceful way to inform AA. Our case study reveals that replacing...... various population groups including workers, consumers and the general public, while life cycle impacts need to focus on categories relevant for a given AA chemical-product application. We systematically define the scope of AA and identify key elements for quantitatively considering exposure and life...

  2. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Earthquake and Physical and Social Vulnerability Assessment for Settlements: Case Study Avcılar District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görün ARUN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many settled areas in Turkey and across the globe suffer economical and social losses resulting from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes and landslides. In this study, a vulnerability assessment model has been developed for earthquake prone areas in Turkey. The vulnerability assessment model includes ground factors, a building’s physical conditions, building evacuation and social (demographic and socioeconomic aspects of the settlement. The ground vulnerability factor is calculated using factors such as the earthquake zone, soil classification, land sliding and liquefaction threats. The physical vulnerability factor depends on the structural and non-structural threats of the building; the building evacuation vulnerability factor includes the position and structural system of the staircase, the width and natural illumination of the evacuation route, the size and opening of the building exit doors to the street and the distance of the building to the closest open area. The social vulnerability factor considers the age group, gender, family type, education, ownership, income etc of the building users. This vulnerability assessment model is applied to a case study - that of the Avcılar district of Istanbul. Forty different reinforced concrete residential buildings (349 apartments of 1225 people are assessed using the develop checklist. In order to evaluate the checklist and to assess the importance (relevance of vulnerability factors, a questionnaire is forwarded to various related professional groups (architecture, urban planning and civil engineering. The results of the questionnaire are examined using SPSS software with factor analysis. According to the results, most of the samples in the case study area can be classified as high vulnerable.

  4. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica; Nilsson, Maans; Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran

    2003-12-01

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  5. A case study and critical assessment in calculating power usage effectiveness for a data centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gemma A.; Kapur, Nikil; Summers, Jonathan L.; Thompson, Harvey M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study PUE calculation is carried out on a data centre by using open source specifications. • The PUE metric does not drive improvements in the efficiencies of IT processes. • The PUE does not fairly represent energy use; an increase in IT load can lead to a decrease in the PUE. • Once a low PUE is achieved, power supply efficiency and IT load have the greatest impact on its value. - Abstract: Metrics commonly used to assess the energy efficiency of data centres are analysed through performing and critiquing a case study calculation of energy efficiency. Specifically, the metric Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), which has become a de facto standard within the data centre industry, will be assessed. This is achieved by using open source specifications for a data centre in Prineville, Oregon, USA provided by the Open Compute Project launched by the social networking company Facebook. The usefulness of the PUE metric to the IT industry is critically assessed and it is found that whilst it is important for encouraging lower energy consumption in data centres, it does not represent an unambiguous measure of energy efficiency

  6. ASSESSING SPATIAL DATA QUALITY OF PARTICIPATORY GIS STUDIES: A CASE STUDY IN CAPE TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    K. Musungu

    2015-01-01

    Participatory GIS (PGIS) has been prescribed by scholars who sought to find a means to enable more equitable access to GIS data, diversifying the types of knowledge captured by a GIS and re-engineering GIS software. The popularity of PGIS is evident in the various studies and contexts in which it has been utilised. These include studies in risk assessment, land administration, resource management, crime mapping and urban design to mention but a few. Despite the popularity of PGIS as a body of...

  7. Social impact assessment and public participation in China: A case study of land requisition in Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bosin; Wong Siuwai; Lau, Milton Chi-hong

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the current prospects for and obstacles facing the implementation of social impact assessment (SIA) and participatory planning in the People's Republic of China. During the past two decades, rapid urbanisation and the conversion of rural land for urban development have led to numerous social conflicts and tensions between the Chinese government and its people. SIA and public participation in development decisions have received increasing attention from the Chinese authorities as possible ways to tackle the problem. Based on a Guangzhou case study, this paper argues that the assessment and mitigation of adverse impacts on the community from urban development have been carried out with different objectives, core values and principles when compared with those in Western societies. It concludes that the poor prospects of SIA and collaborative planning in China lie not only in the weak framework for environmental legislation, but also in all institutions concerning state-society relations, the socialist governing ideology and traditional Chinese culture

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment of biowaste to resource management systems - A Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    Waste to Energy combustion plants currently process most of the organic fraction of the household waste. This study presents an assessment of the environmental performance of an increased circular bioresource management system obtained by reallocating the organic fraction of the household waste...... from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fertilizer production (Alternative Scenario). The goals defined in the Danish National resource action plan for waste management, i.e. 33% reduction of organic fraction household waste dry weight, is taken as a case study. A comparative life cycle...... assessment of the diverting of the organic fraction of the household waste away from a Waste to Energy combustion plant towards sludge- and manure-based biogas plants in North Zealand (Denmark) shows a net increase in renewable electricity production of 39% at the expense of a reduction in heat production...

  9. Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modelling as a Tool to Support Risk Assessment: Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Mielke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present three case studies of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK modelling in regulatory risk assessment. (1 Age-dependent lower enzyme expression in the newborn leads to bisphenol A (BPA blood levels which are near the levels of the tolerated daily intake (TDI at the oral exposure as calculated by EFSA. (2 Dermal exposure of BPA by receipts, car park tickets, and so forth, contribute to the exposure towards BPA. However, at the present levels of dermal exposure there is no risk for the adult. (3 Dermal exposure towards coumarin via cosmetic products leads to external exposures of two-fold the TDI. PBTK modeling helped to identify liver peak concentration as the metric for liver toxicity. After dermal exposure of twice the TDI, the liver peak concentration was lower than that present after oral exposure with the TDI dose. In the presented cases, PBTK modeling was useful to reach scientifically sound regulatory decisions.

  10. A case study of a Hungarian EFL teacher’s assessment practices with her young learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Hild

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The case study aims to provide insights into how a Hungarian EFL teacher used tests, assessed her young learners and gave feedback to them in the classroom. This qualitative, exploratory study was a follow-up to a large-scale project. In this single-case study, data were collected from an EFL teacher and five of her seventh graders on what tasks she used to assess them and how. The participants were interviewed. For the purpose of triangulation, the students were also audio- and video-recorded while doing four speaking tasks, and two classes were observed. The results revealed that for the teacher with decades of teaching experience there was room for improvement in her knowledge of age-appropriate teaching methodology and that some of her beliefs and practices reflected a lack of understanding how children develop. She had difficulty diagnosing her students’ strengths and weaknesses. The learners were rarely provided with feedback on their performance and language development; therefore, they did not see how much they had progressed. Low achievers had a hard time catching up with their peers; and they lagged further behind. The teacher seemed to be more interested in what her students did not know rather than focusing on what they could do.

  11. Scenario-neutral Food Security Risk Assessment: A livestock Heat Stress Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Food security risk assessments can provide decision-makers with actionable information to identify critical system limitations, and alternatives to mitigate the impacts of future conditions. The majority of current risk assessments have been scenario-led and results are limited by the scenarios - selected future states of the world's climate system and socioeconomic factors. A generic scenario-neutral framework for food security risk assessments is presented here that uses plausible states of the world without initially assigning likelihoods. Measures of system vulnerabilities are identified and system risk is assessed for these states. This framework has benefited greatly by research in the water and natural resource fields to adapt their planning to provide better risk assessments. To illustrate the utility of this framework we develop a case study using livestock heat stress risk within the pastoral system of West Africa. Heat stress can have a major impact not only on livestock owners, but on the greater food production system, decreasing livestock growth, milk production, and reproduction, and in severe cases, death. A heat stress index calculated from daily weather is used as a vulnerability measure and is computed from historic daily weather data at several locations in the study region. To generate plausible states, a stochastic weather generator is developed to generate synthetic weather sequences at each location, consistent with the seasonal climate. A spatial model of monthly and seasonal heat stress provide projections of current and future livestock heat stress measures across the study region, and can incorporate in seasonal climate and other external covariates. These models, when linked with empirical thresholds of heat stress risk for specific breeds offer decision-makers with actionable information for use in near-term warning systems as well as for future planning. Future assessment can indicate under which states livestock are at greatest risk

  12. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Pauletto, M; Boffo, L; Carrer, C; Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Pavan, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L

    2015-02-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  14. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  15. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, M.; Pauletto, M.; Boffo, L.; Carrer, C.; Sorrentino, F.; Ferrari, G.; Pavan, L.; Patarnello, T.; Bargelloni, L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  16. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  17. Ecosystem Services Mapping Uncertainty Assessment: A Case Study in the Fitzroy Basin Mining Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services mapping is becoming increasingly popular through the use of various readily available mapping tools, however, uncertainties in assessment outputs are commonly ignored. Uncertainties from different sources have the potential to lower the accuracy of mapping outputs and reduce their reliability for decision-making. Using a case study in an Australian mining region, this paper assessed the impact of uncertainties on the modelling of the hydrological ecosystem service, water provision. Three types of uncertainty were modelled using multiple uncertainty scenarios: (1 spatial data sources; (2 modelling scales (temporal and spatial and (3 parameterization and model selection. We found that the mapping scales can induce significant changes to the spatial pattern of outputs and annual totals of water provision. In addition, differences in parameterization using differing sources from the literature also led to obvious differences in base flow. However, the impact of each uncertainty associated with differences in spatial data sources were not so great. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of uncertainty assessment and highlight that any conclusions drawn from ecosystem services mapping, such as the impacts of mining, are likely to also be a property of the uncertainty in ecosystem services mapping methods.

  18. Measurement procedure to assess exposure to extremely low-frequency fields: A primary school case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Bahillo, A.; De la Rosa, R.; Carrera, A.; Duran, R. J.; Fernandez, P.

    2012-01-01

    How to correctly measure the exposure of general public to extremely low-frequency (ELF) radiation is a key issue for ELF epidemiological studies. This paper proposes a measurement procedure to accurately assess the exposure of people to electric and magnetic field in the frequency band from 5 Hz to 100 kHz in buildings and their premises. As ELF radiation could be particularly harmful to children, the measurement procedure is focused on exposure to ELF in schools. Thus, the students' exposure to ELF fields can be assessed by correlating the ELF measurements to the hours of school activity. In this paper, the measurement protocol was applied to study the ELF exposure on students from Garcia Quintana primary school in Valladolid, Spain. The campaign of measurements for ELF exposure assessment in this primary school was of great interest for the Regional Council of Public Health because of the social alarm generated by the presence of a significant number cancer cases in children. (authors)

  19. Introducing Twitter as an assessed component of the undergraduate nursing curriculum: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray; Kelsey, Janet; Nelmes, Pam; Chinn, Nick; Chinn, Teresa; Proctor-Childs, Tracey

    2016-07-01

    To ask: (i) is it feasible to include Twitter as an assessed element of the first-year nursing curriculum; (ii) how should it be introduced and assessed; and (iii) do students think it worthwhile and learn anything from its use? Nursing students need to use social media professionally, avoiding pitfalls but using learning opportunities. This case study (2014-2015) comprised: (i) pilot introduction of Digital Professionalism (including Twitter) with second- and third-year students; (ii) introduction and assessment with a first cohort of 450 first-year students. Based on feedback, methods were revised for; (iii) a second cohort of 97. Students received a face-to-face lecture, two webinars, used chat rooms and were asked to create course Twitter accounts and were assessed on their use. Few second and third year students started optional Twitter use whereas nearly all first years used it. Most students (70·1% first, 88·0% second cohort) thought inclusion of Twitter was worthwhile. Changes from first to second cohort included better peer-peer support, more contextualization and more emphasis on nursing communities. More second cohort students learned from Twitter (44·4% vs. 70·8%) and used Twitter recently (43·3% vs. 81·6%). Students gained wider perspectives on nursing, better understanding of social media, 'being student nurses' and topics like health promotion. Students mostly followed not only online nursing communities but also patient organizations. Including Twitter as an assessed element for first-year nursing students was feasible, students think it worthwhile and other nursing schools should consider introducing it in the broader context of Digital Professionalism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  1. A Simplified Approach to Risk Assessment Based on System Dynamics: An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Seveso plants are complex sociotechnical systems, which makes it appropriate to support any risk assessment with a model of the system. However, more often than not, this step is only partially addressed, simplified, or avoided in safety reports. At the same time, investigations have shown that the complexity of industrial systems is frequently a factor in accidents, due to interactions between their technical, human, and organizational dimensions. In order to handle both this complexity and changes in the system over time, this article proposes an original and simplified qualitative risk evaluation method based on the system dynamics theory developed by Forrester in the early 1960s. The methodology supports the development of a dynamic risk assessment framework dedicated to industrial activities. It consists of 10 complementary steps grouped into two main activities: system dynamics modeling of the sociotechnical system and risk analysis. This system dynamics risk analysis is applied to a case study of a chemical plant and provides a way to assess the technological and organizational components of safety. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. A case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Chien, C.; Stahl, R.; Mack, E.; Grosso, N.

    2013-12-01

    A field site in Nanjing, China was selected for a case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation. This site is about 100m long and 100m wide. A chemical plant (1999-2010) at the site manufactured optical brightener PF, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol and 2-Nitro-4-methylphenol, totally three products. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for PPL 126 (126 pollutants in the 'Priority Pollutants List' issued by US EPA). Values of the Dutch Standards were used as the screening criteria for soil and ground water. Low levels of ethylbenezene, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4- dichlorobenzene were detected in one soil sample. Concentrations above Dutch Target Value (DTV) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and/or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, phenol, and/or 2,4-dichlorophenol were exhibited in two groundwater samples. The ground water was especially highly impacted by bichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The maximum concentration of impacts was 7.3 mg/L of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in groundwater which was 730 times higher than Dutch Intervention Values (DIV). Risk of soil and groundwater at this site was assessed according to the guidelines issued by Chinese MEP and US EPA, respectively. Finally, remedy techniques were selected according to the result of risk assessment and the characteristics of hydrogeology conditions and contaminants.

  3. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, John; Heddle, Nancy; Webert, Kathryn; Arnold, Emmy; McCurdy, Bronwen

    2011-08-24

    Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches.

  4. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Emmy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches.

  5. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonati, G.; Panzeri, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption [it

  6. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  7. Enhancing the management of secondary encopresis by assessing acceptability of treatment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, M W; Harper, D C

    1989-12-01

    This clinical case study utilized a behavioral treatment sequence to assist an 11-year-old encopretic male who had been refractory to prior treatments. The sequence included: (1) positive reinforcement of bowel movements and the non-occurrence of soiling accidents; (2) self-evaluation; (3) positive practice; (4) milk of magnesia; (5) diet modifications; and (6) a numbered underwear strategy. The treatment was initiated on a pediatric inpatient unit and then generalized to the child's home environment. Parental acceptability of treatment was assessed during a three-day home visit while the procedure was implemented by the parents. The combination of behavioral treatment with milk of magnesia eliminated soiling accidents and increased the frequency of appropriate bowel movements. Results were maintained throughout a one-year follow-up.

  8. A methodological framework for coastal development assessment: A case study of Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haiyan; Lindenmayer, David B; Wong, Gabriel T W; Mao, Zhu; Huang, Yi; Xue, Xiongzhi

    2018-02-15

    Decision-makers often have to make trade-offs between economic growth and environmental conservation when developing and managing coastal environments. Coastal development and management need to be subject to rigorous assessments to determine if they are sustainable over time. We propose a methodological framework - the Coastal Development Index (CDI) for the assessment of the changes in sustainability of coastal development over time. CDI is a modified version of the Ocean Health Index (OHI) but with two new indicators - ecological and environmental indicators (EEI), and social and economic indicators (SEI), both of which comprise three sub-indicators (coastal protection, clean waters and species protection for EEI, and food provision, coastal livelihoods and economies and tourism and recreation for SEI). The six sub-indicators represent key aspects of coastal development and the level of exploitation of natural resources that have previously been missing in other conceptual frameworks. We demonstrate the value of CDI with a detailed case study of Fujian Province in China, 2000-2013. The scores of CDI decreased from 1.01 in 2000 to 0.42 in 2013 suggesting that the Fujian coastal zone has experienced unsustainable development in that time. Meanwhile, the scores of EEI decreased from 22.1 to 20.4 while the scores of SEI increased from 21.9 to 48.1 suggesting that environmental values have been eroded by economic growth. Analysis of the scores of sub-indicators reveals a need to integrate economic growth and social development with environmental conservation on Fujian coastal management. Our case study highlights the potential value of the CDI for improving the ecological sustainability of coastal zone management and development practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal inertia and energy efficiency – Parametric simulation assessment on a calibrated case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolò; Leonforte, Fabrizio; Manfren, Massimiliano; Mazzon, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We perform a parametric simulation study on a calibrated building energy model. • We introduce adaptive shadings and night free cooling in simulations. • We analyze the effect of thermal capacity on the parametric simulations results. • We recognize that cooling demand and savings scales linearly with thermal capacity. • We assess the advantage of medium-heavy over medium and light configurations. - Abstract: The reduction of energy consumption for heating and cooling services in the existing building stock is a key challenge for global sustainability today and buildings’ envelopes retrofit is one the main issues. Most of the existing buildings’ envelopes have low levels of insulation, high thermal losses due to thermal bridges and cracks, absence of appropriate solar control, etc. Further, in building refurbishment, the importance of a system level approach is often undervalued in favour of simplistic “off the shelf” efficient solutions, focused on the reduction of thermal transmittance and on the enhancement of solar control capabilities. In many cases, the importance of the dynamic thermal properties is often neglected or underestimated and the effective thermal capacity is not properly considered as one of the design parameters. The research presented aims to critically assess the influence of the dynamic thermal properties of the building fabric (roof, walls and floors) on sensible heating and cooling energy demand for a case study. The case study chosen is an existing office building which has been retrofitted in recent years and whose energy model has been calibrated according to the data collected in the monitoring process. The research illustrates the variations of the sensible thermal energy demand of the building in different retrofit scenarios, and relates them to the variations of the dynamic thermal properties of the construction components. A parametric simulation study has been performed, encompassing the use of

  10. Health impact assessment in multinationals: A case study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birley, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment is part of the risk management process of multinational corporations/companies. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, and the 'paradox of plenty' are used as examples of the challenges they face. The 'business case' for impact assessment is explained. The policies, procedures, standards, and activities used by Shell to manage such risks are described. An approach to capacity building and competency development is presented that applies to both company staff and external contractors

  11. No short-cut in assessing trial quality: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirji Karim F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the quality of included trials is a central part of a systematic review. Many check-list type of instruments for doing this exist. Using a trial of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media, Burke et al., BMJ, 1991, as the case study, this paper illustrates some limitations of the check-list approach to trial quality assessment. Results The general verdict from the check list type evaluations in nine relevant systematic reviews was that Burke et al. (1991 is a good quality trial. All relevant meta-analyses extensively used its data to formulate therapeutic evidence. My comprehensive evaluation, on the other hand, brought to the surface a series of serious problems in the design, conduct, analysis and report of this trial that were missed by the earlier evaluations. Conclusion A check-list or instrument based approach, if used as a short-cut, may at times rate deeply flawed trials as good quality trials. Check lists are crucial but they need to be augmented with an in-depth review, and where possible, a scrutiny of the protocol, trial records, and original data. The extent and severity of the problems I uncovered for this particular trial warrant an independent audit before it is included in a systematic review.

  12. Assessing compositional variability through graphical analysis and Bayesian statistical approaches: case studies on transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, George G; Harrison, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    New transgenic (GM) crops are subjected to extensive safety assessments that include compositional comparisons with conventional counterparts as a cornerstone of the process. The influence of germplasm, location, environment, and agronomic treatments on compositional variability is, however, often obscured in these pair-wise comparisons. Furthermore, classical statistical significance testing can often provide an incomplete and over-simplified summary of highly responsive variables such as crop composition. In order to more clearly describe the influence of the numerous sources of compositional variation we present an introduction to two alternative but complementary approaches to data analysis and interpretation. These include i) exploratory data analysis (EDA) with its emphasis on visualization and graphics-based approaches and ii) Bayesian statistical methodology that provides easily interpretable and meaningful evaluations of data in terms of probability distributions. The EDA case-studies include analyses of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean and insect-protected GM maize and soybean. Bayesian approaches are presented in an analysis of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean. Advantages of these approaches over classical frequentist significance testing include the more direct interpretation of results in terms of probabilities pertaining to quantities of interest and no confusion over the application of corrections for multiple comparisons. It is concluded that a standardized framework for these methodologies could provide specific advantages through enhanced clarity of presentation and interpretation in comparative assessments of crop composition.

  13. Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Support System and Strategic Environmental Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Torrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA as an important tool to ensure sustainable development and reach a high level of environmental protection. More specifically, this paper provides an evaluation method based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS and Multi-criteria Analysis—named Integrated Spatial Multi-criteria Decision Support System (ISMDSS—to support the preparation of environmental assessment reports and the construction of scenarios for the adoption of urban plans, as an innovative tool that integrates objectives and multidimensional (economic, environmental, and social components, as well as different approaches and models for the construction of a long-term shared vision. In particular, considerations are made by presenting a thought-provoking case study on the SEA of the urban plan of the municipality of Marzano di Nola, located in the province of Avellino in the Campania region. The experiment carried out showed the potentiality of the ISMDSS to evaluate the impacts of different scenarios with the aim of developing a sustainable urban municipal plan. The spatial dimension is useful in understanding the dynamics that characterize each environmental topic in a specific area, by considering not only the components of the natural and developed environment, but also the interactions with social and economic components.

  14. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  15. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Abdullah

    1996-01-01

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  16. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  17. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  18. Assessment of small versus large hydro-power developments - a Norwegian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Harby, Atle

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The era of new, large hydro-power development projects seems to be over in Norway. Partly as a response to this, a large number of applications for the development of smallscale hydro power projects up to 10 MW overflow the Water Resources and Energy Directorate, resulting in an extensive development of small tributaries and water courses in Norway. This study has developed a framework for the assessment and comparison of several small versus many large hydro-power projects based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach, and further tested this approach on planned or developed projects in the Helgeland region, Norway. Multi-criteria analysis is a decision-support tool aimed at providing a systematic approach for the comparison of various alternatives with often non-commensurable and conflicting attributes. At the same time, the technique enables complex problems and various alternatives to be assessed in a transparent and simple way. The MCA-software was in our case equipped with 2 overall criteria (objectives) with a number of sub criteria; Production with sub-criteria like volume of energy production, installed effect, storage capacity and economical profit; Environmental impacts with sub-criteria like fishing interests, biodiversity, protection of unexploited nature The data used in the case study is based on the planned development of Vefsna (large project) with the energy/effect production estimated and the environmental impacts identified as part of the feasibility studies (the project never reached the authorities' licensing system with a formal EIA). The small-scale hydro-power projects used for comparison are based on realized projects in the Helgeland region and a number of proposed projects, up scaled to the size of the proposed Vefsna-development. The results from the study indicate that a large number of small-scale hydro-power projects need to be implemented in order to balance the volume of produced electricity/effect from one

  19. Assessing Regional Sustainability Using a Model of Coordinated Development Index: A Case Study of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based on a holistic understanding of regional sustainability. Then, a coordinated development index model focusing on the level of coordination among the subsystems as well as their comprehensive development level is established. Furthermore, an empirical study of all the provinces and municipalities is conducted by collecting the panel data from 2004 to 2010. The result shows that: (1 the coordinated developments of the most developed and the most underdeveloped regions stay stable while the regions with medium development level possess more fluctuant trends during the study years; (2 regional disparities are indicated according to the grading of CDI (the coordinated development index, which are further analyzed to be related to the local economic development patterns; (3 the conditions and causes of economic, social, and environmental development in real situations under different grades of CDI are discussed through detailed case studies of typical regions, which indicate specific suggestions of sustainable development for regions in the same pattern.

  20. Application and Assessment of Extension of Time Claim: Findings of Case Studies Conducted in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mohd Danuri,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common phenomenon for construction projects to have applications for extension of time. Many problems are encountered in practice in the application and preparation of extension of time claims. A study was conducted to identify the main problems encountered in the application and assessment of extension of time claim in selected construction projects in Malaysia. Three (3 case studies have been used 10 investigate the extension of time issues. Findings from the study revealed that local contractors usually fail to comply with the contract procedural requirements to submit timely notification of delay and have difficulty in demonstrating their entitlement for extension of time. The main problem faced by contract administrators is that contractors tend to "inflate" their extension of time entitlement with the intention to maximise their claims. Adherence to the agreed procedure in preparing and evaluating of delay claims and the implementation of a set of agreed standardised delay analysis may help to minimize the frequency and impact of such problems.

  1. Using Statistical and Probabilistic Methods to Evaluate Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The toxic chemical and heavy metals within wastewater can cause serious adverse impacts on human health. Health risk assessment (HRA is an effective tool for supporting decision-making and corrective actions in water quality management. HRA can also help people understand the water quality and quantify the adverse effects of pollutants on human health. Due to the imprecision of data, measurement error and limited available information, uncertainty is inevitable in the HRA process. The purpose of this study is to integrate statistical and probabilistic methods to deal with censored and limited numbers of input data to improve the reliability of the non-cancer HRA of dermal contact exposure to contaminated river water by considering uncertainty. A case study in the Kelligrews River in St. John’s, Canada, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and capacity of the proposed approach. Five heavy metals were selected to evaluate the risk level, including arsenic, molybdenum, zinc, uranium and manganese. The results showed that the probability of the total hazard index of dermal exposure exceeding 1 is very low, and there is no obvious evidence of risk in the study area.

  2. Radiological assessment and management of radioactive spill in a liquid waste treatment facility - Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, H.A.; Shawky, S.; Ibrahiem, N.

    2002-01-01

    The radiological assessment and management of radioactive spill from liquid waste treatment facility is presented. The incident contaminated the area surrounding the treatment facility with various radionuclides, which were dispersed into the soil. A method based on the European basic safety standards was used to contain the risks associated with the contaminated site. The introduced case study proceeded up to the stage of simplified risk study, since the site is small and it was relatively easy to remove and store the contaminated soil. According to the obtained results, the removal of the upper 30-cm would be considered as appropriate remedying action to resume background level. One of the most important basic concepts of radiation protection in nuclear facilities is the continuity of monitoring radiological release to the environment. It is known that from nuclear facilities only very small amounts of radioactivity are discharged with the liquid effluents and the exhaust air into the environment. Recent studies screening the natural and artificial radionuclide in soil samples from the investigated area revealed normal background concentrations with no anomalies

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the use of Life Cycle Impact Assessment methods: a case study on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, Cristiane; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rossignolo, Joao Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to perform a sensitivity analysis of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) case study to understand if the use of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods may lead to different conclusions by decision makers and stakeholders. A complete LCA was applied to non...

  4. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot

  5. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  6. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  7. Integrated environmental risk assessment for petroleum-contaminated sites - a North American case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Huang, G.H.; Chakma, A.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an integrated risk assessment approach is proposed for evaluating environmental risks derived from petroleum-contaminated sites. The proposed approach is composed of (i) a hydrocarbon spill screening model (HSSM) which is used for simulating immiscible flow of released hydrocarbons in vadose zone, formation of lens in capillary fringe, dissolution of pollutants at water table, and transport of the pollutants to receptors, and (ii) a fuzzy relation analysis (FRA) model which is developed for comprehensively evaluating risks caused by a number of pollutants with different impact characteristics, based on the HSSM results. This hybrid HSSM-FRA approach was applied to a case study for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada, where soil and groundwater was contaminated by industrial wastes containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEXs). The results suggest that the HSSM-FRA can provide insight into the potential risk to the receptor of concern downward the aquifer and can serve as a basis for further remediation-related decision analysis. (author)

  8. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  9. Integration of health technology assessment recommendations into organizational and clinical practice: A case study in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Sánchez, Emília; Pons, Joan M V

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of recommendations based upon health technology assessment (HTA) represents a challenge for both HTA agencies and healthcare policy makers. This research sought to understand factors affecting the uptake of HTA recommendations to support decision making with respect to the introduction of three health technologies. Using a multidimensional framework, based upon a combination of theoretical models, a case study was conducted. A total of twenty-eight semistructured interviews were done with physicians from fifteen hospitals and other stakeholders in Catalonia. Interview content was analyzed iteratively and classified according to theoretical dimensions and contextual factors. At the sociopolitical level, factors related to the organization and financing of the health system were found to affect the utilization of HTA recommendations. At the healthcare organization level, existing collaborations between the hospital and the HTA agency favored the integration of recommendations into practices. Formalism in the organization also influenced the utilization of HTA recommendations. At the professional level, the high degree of autonomy of specialists, the importance of peers and collegial control, and the definition of professional roles and responsibilities influenced physicians' willingness to integrate HTA recommendations into their practice. This study offers a comprehensive framework to understand the complex dynamics that affect adoption of health technologies in organizational and professional practices. The findings suggest some avenues to promote the integration of HTA recommendations into practices and, thus, increase the utilization of scientific evidence to support decision making in health care.

  10. Economic Assessment of Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs an optimal configuration assessment, in terms of the financial returns, of the Overtopping BReakwater for wave Energy Conversion (OBREC. This technology represents a hybrid wave energy harvester, totally embedded in traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Nine case studies along the southern coast of Western Australia have been analysed. The technique provides tips on how to estimate the quality of the investments, for benchmarking with different turbine strategy layouts and overlapping with the costs of traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Analyses of the offshore and nearshore wave climate have been studied by a high resolution coastal propagation model, forced with wave data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Inshore wave conditions have been used to quantify the exploitable resources. It has been demonstrated that the optimal investment strategy is nonlinearly dependent on potential electricity production due to outer technical constraints. The work emphasizes the importance of integrating energy production predictions in an economic decision framework for prioritizing adaptation investments.

  11. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  12. Development and application of the SSD approach in scientific case studies for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Signore, Anastasia; Hendriks, A Jan; Lenders, H J Rob; Leuven, Rob S E W; Breure, A M

    2016-09-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are used in ecological risk assessment for extrapolation of the results of toxicity tests with single species to a toxicity threshold considered protective of ecosystem structure and functioning. The attention to and importance of the SSD approach has increased in scientific and regulatory communities since the 1990s. Discussion and criticism have been triggered on the concept of the approach as well as its technical aspects (e.g., distribution type, number of toxicity endpoints). Various questions remain unanswered, especially with regard to different endpoints, statistical methods, and protectiveness of threshold levels, for example. In the present literature review (covering the period 2002-2013), case studies are explored in which the SSD approach was applied, as well as how endpoint types, species choice, and data availability affect SSDs. How statistical methods may be used to construct reliable SSDs and whether the lower 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) from a generic SSD can be protective for a specific local community are also investigated. It is shown that estimated protective concentrations were determined by taxonomic groups rather than the statistical method used to construct the distribution. Based on comparisons between semifield and laboratory-based SSDs, the output from a laboratory SSD was protective of semifield communities in the majority of studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2149-2161. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-01-17

    We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle assessment and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized impact assessment methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to impact assessment spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a case study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of impact assessment methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized impact assessment methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. Case study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and impact assessment methods.

  14. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  15. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  16. Multivariate statistical process control in product quality review assessment - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbach, M; Cherrah, Y; Vander Heyden, Y; Bouklouze, A

    2017-11-01

    According to the Food and Drug Administration and the European Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) guidelines, Annual Product Review (APR) is a mandatory requirement in GMP. It consists of evaluating a large collection of qualitative or quantitative data in order to verify the consistency of an existing process. According to the Code of Federal Regulation Part 11 (21 CFR 211.180), all finished products should be reviewed annually for the quality standards to determine the need of any change in specification or manufacturing of drug products. Conventional Statistical Process Control (SPC) evaluates the pharmaceutical production process by examining only the effect of a single factor at the time using a Shewhart's chart. It neglects to take into account the interaction between the variables. In order to overcome this issue, Multivariate Statistical Process Control (MSPC) can be used. Our case study concerns an APR assessment, where 164 historical batches containing six active ingredients, manufactured in Morocco, were collected during one year. Each batch has been checked by assaying the six active ingredients by High Performance Liquid Chromatography according to European Pharmacopoeia monographs. The data matrix was evaluated both by SPC and MSPC. The SPC indicated that all batches are under control, while the MSPC, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the data being either autoscaled or robust scaled, showed four and seven batches, respectively, out of the Hotelling T 2 95% ellipse. Also, an improvement of the capability of the process is observed without the most extreme batches. The MSPC can be used for monitoring subtle changes in the manufacturing process during an APR assessment. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  18. Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes-Basic principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Satyabrata

    2006-01-01

    Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 o F) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 o F) is 9 years

  19. Future mobility case studies. Life cycle assessments of BEVs and ICVs with a global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hongrui; Riera-Palou, Xavier; Tait, Nigel [Shell Global Solutions (United Kingdom), Chester (United Kingdom). Shell Technology Center Thornton; Balthasar, Felix; Warnecke, Wolfgang [Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). PAE-Labor

    2012-11-01

    To highlight the potential risks associated with simplification, we present a relevant case study on electric vehicles, where the outcome of the analysis changes substantially with the methodological/system boundary choices made. Electric vehicles have increasingly gained worldwide interest as one of the most promising potential long-term solutions to sustainable personal mobility; in particular, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer zero tailpipe emissions enabling them not only to reduce transport GHG emissions but also to reduce other regulated emissions (e.g. smog). However, their true ability to contribute to GHG emissions reductions can only be properly assessed by comparing a full life cycle assessment of their GHG emissions with a similar assessment for conventional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). In this study, we have carried out an analysis for vehicles typical of those expected to be introduced in 2012 in Western Europe, the U.S. and China, taking into account the impact of three important factors: (a) like-forlike vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving conditions, (b) accounting for the GHG emissions associated with meeting the additional electricity demand for charging the batteries, and (c) the GHG emissions associated with the vehicle life cycle (e.g. manufacture and disposal, etc). We find that BEVs can deliver significant GHG savings compared to ICVs providing that the grid GHG intensity used to charge the batteries is sufficiently low. In particular, BEVs perform best relative to ICVs in terms of GHG emissions in low speed (e.g. urban) driving and when lightly loaded with weight and auxiliaries. However, vehicle life cycle emissions are higher for BEVs than ICVs due to the GHG emissions associated with battery manufacture. Furthermore, our analysis illustrates that it is inappropriate to draw general conclusions about the relative GHG performance of BEVs and ICVs without due reference to the context - such relative performance

  20. From Seismic Scenarios to Earthquake Risk Assessment: A Case Study for Iquique, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, P.; Fortuno, C.; Martin, J. C. D. L. L.; Vasquez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Iquique is a strategic city and economic center in northern Chile, and is located in a large seismic gap where a megathrust earthquake and tsunami is expected. Although it was hit by a Mw 8.2 earthquake on April 1st 2014, which caused moderate damage, geophysical evidence still suggests that there is potential for a larger event, so a thorough risk assessment is key to understand the physical, social, and economic effects of such potential event, and devise appropriate mitigation plans. Hence, Iquique has been selected as a prime study case for the implementation of a risk assessment platform in Chile. Our study integrates research on three main elements of risk calculations: hazard evaluation, exposure model, and physical vulnerabilities. To characterize the hazard field, a set of synthetic seismic scenarios have been developed based on plate interlocking and the residual slip potential that results from subtracting the slip occurred during the April 1st 2014 rupture fault mechanism, obtained using InSAR+GPS inversion. Additional scenarios were developed based of the fault rupture model of the Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake and on the local plate locking models in northern Chile. These rupture models define a collection of possible realizations of earthquake geometries parameterized in terms of critical variables like slip magnitude, rise time, mean propagation velocity, directivity, and other, which are propagated to obtain a hazard map for Iquique (e.g. PGA, PGV, PDG). Furthermore, a large body of public and local data was used to construct a detailed exposure model for Iquique, including aggregated building count, demographics, essential facilities, and lifelines. This model together with the PGA maps for the April 1st 2014 earthquake are used to calibrate HAZUS outputs against observed damage, and adjust the fragility curves of physical systems according to more detailed analyses of typical Chilean building types and their structural properties, plus historical

  1. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  2. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on…

  3. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  4. Environmental impact assessment for a radioactive waste facility: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A 77-ha site, known as the Niagara Falls Storage Site and located in northwestern New York State, holds about 190, 000 m 3 of soils, wastes, and residues contaminated with radium and uranium. The facility is owned by the US Department of Energy. The storage of residues resulting from the processing of uranium ores started in 1944, and by 1950 residues from a number of plants were received at the site. The residues, with a volume of about 18,000 m 3 , account for the bulk of the radioactivity, which is primarily due to Ra-226; because of the extraction of uranium from the ore, the amount of uranium remaining in the residues is quite small. An analysis of the environmental impact assessment and environmental compliance actions taken to date at this site and their effectiveness are discussed. This case study provides an illustrative example of the complexity of technical and nontechnical issues for a large radiative waste facility. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A case study on the structural assessment of fire damaged building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M. H.; Sarbini, N. N.; Ibrahim, I. S.; Ma, C. K.; Ismail, M.; Mohd, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a case study on the structural assessment of building damaged by fire and discussed on the site investigations and test results prior to determine the existing condition of the building. The building was on fire for about one hour before it was extinguished. In order to ascertain the integrity of the building, a visual inspection was conducted for all elements (truss, beam, column and wall), followed by non-destructive, load and material tests. The load test was conducted to determine the ability of truss to resist service load, while the material test to determine the residual strength of the material. At the end of the investigation, a structural analysis was carried out to determine the new factor of safety by considering the residual strength. The highlighted was on the truss element due to steel behaviour that is hardly been predicted. Meanwhile, reinforced concrete elements (beam, column and wall) were found externally affected and caused its strength to be considered as sufficient for further used of building. The new factor of safety is equal to 2, considered as the minimum calculated value for the truss member. Therefore, this fire damaged building was found safe and can be used for further application.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXTUAL DATA IN PRODUCING HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT RECOMMENDATIONS: A CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Bellemare, Christian A

    2018-01-01

    Contextual data and local expertise are important sources of data that cannot be ignored in hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) processes. Despite a lack of or unconvincing evidence in the scientific literature, technology can be recommended in a given context. We illustrate this using a case study regarding biplane angiography for vascular neurointervention. A systematic literature review was conducted, along with an analysis of the context in our setting. The outcomes of interest were radiation doses, clinical complications, procedure times, purchase cost, impact on teaching program, the confidence of clinicians in the technology, quality of care, accessibility, and the volume of activity. A committee comprising managers, clinical experts, physicians, physicists and HTA experts was created to produce a recommendation regarding biplane technology acquisition to replace a monoplane device. The systematic literature review yielded nine eligible articles for analysis. Despite a very low level of evidence in the literature, the biplane system appears to reduce ionizing radiation and medical complications, as well as shorten procedure time. Contextual data indicated that the biplane system could improve operator confidence, which could translate into reduced risk, particularly for complex procedures. In addition, the biplane system can support our institution in its advanced procedures teaching program. Given the advantages provided by the biplane technology in our setting, the committee has recommended its acquisition. Contextual data were of utmost importance in this recommendation. Moreover, this technology should be implemented alongside a responsibility to collect outcome data to optimize clinical protocol in the doses of ionizing delivered.

  7. Generation Risk Assessment Using Fault Trees and Turbine Cycle Simulation: Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Park, Jin Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Since 2007, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Kyung Hee University have collaborated on the development of the framework to quantify human errors broken out during the test and maintenance (T and M) in secondary systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The project entitled 'Development of Causality Analyzer for Maintenance/Test Tasks in Nuclear Power Plants' for OPR1000 on the basis of the proposed framework is still on-going, and will come to fruition by 2010. The overall concept of GRA-HRE (Generation Risk Assessment for Human Related Events) which is the designation of the framework, and the quantification methods for evaluating risk and electric loss have introduced in other references. The originality emerged while implementing GRA-HRE could be evaluated in view of (1) recognizing the relative importance of human errors comparing with other types of mechanical and/or electrical failures, (2) providing the top-down path of the propagation of human errors by designating top events in the fault tree model as trip signals, and (3) analyzing electric loss using turbine cycle simulation. Recently, we were successfully to illustrate the applicability of GRA-HRE by simulating several abnormalities. Since the detailed methodologies were released enough to follow up, this paper is going to only exemplify the case studies

  8. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  9. Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP: a refinery case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dian Kurnia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP, has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for-use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.

  10. Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geneletti, D.; Beinat, E.; Chung, C.F.; Fabbri, A.G.; Scholten, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA

  11. Assessment of the Methodological Rigor of Case Studies in the Field of Management Accounting Published in Journals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Mucio Marques

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the methodological rigor of case studies in management accounting published in Brazilian journals. The study is descriptive. The data were collected using documentary research and content analysis, and 180 papers published from 2008 to 2012 in accounting journals rated as A2, B1, and B2 that were classified as case studies were selected. Based on the literature, we established a set of 15 criteria that we expected to be identified (either explicitly or implicitly in the case studies to classify those case studies as appropriate from the standpoint of methodological rigor. These criteria were partially met by the papers analyzed. The aspects less aligned with those proposed in the literature were the following: little emphasis on justifying the need to understand phenomena in context; lack of explanation of the reason for choosing the case study strategy; the predominant use of questions that do not enable deeper analysis; many studies based on only one source of evidence; little use of data and information triangulation; little emphasis on the data collection method; a high number of cases in which confusion between case study as a research strategy and as data collection method were detected; a low number of papers reporting the method of data analysis; few reports on a study's contributions; and a minority highlighting the issues requiring further research. In conclusion, the method used to apply case studies to management accounting must be improved because few studies showed rigorous application of the procedures that this strategy requires.

  12. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  13. Teachers’ Beliefs about Young EFL Learners’ Self-assessment: a Case Study of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    /Anžela Nikolovska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Macedonian primary EFL teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding self-assessment of young learners (10-12 year-olds. The study surveyed primary EFL teachers (n=30 who teach English to 5th and 6th graders. The results indicated that vocabulary, grammar and reading were more often the focus of self-assessment tasks than the other areas of language learning. This, along with the finding that the receptive language skills were more frequently self-assessed than the productive skills has been attributed to the impact of the external exam. The most frequently used self-assessment techniques were can-do statements and check-lists. The perceived benefits and challenges of self-assessment have been found to be compatible with the findings of other studies. In spite of their positive attitudes towards learner self-assessment, the teachers expressed awareness of certain problems underlying its implementation as well as uncertainty about how to train learners to self-assess. In line with the conclusions, recommendations have been made regarding the need for greater emphasis on self-assessment of the neglected language areas (speaking and writing, the necessity of using a variety of self-assessment formats and the need for learner training in self-assessment from an early age.

  14. Environmental-impact assessment of dams and reservoir projects (review and a case study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dams and reservoirs are among one of the most sensitive of all development Project, in terms of pervasiveness of their influence in altering the environmental conditions and resources. In the present study, major dams and reservoir projects are reviewed, from the environmental point of view. Dams and Reservoir projects bring about major changes in the immediate environment, thus affecting public health, settlements, farmlands, roads and historical sites. Impacts on human population and wildlife may be profound. Tropical diseases, involving fresh-water hosts or vectors in their transmission, are often common around new reservoirs. Large lakes create limnological changes, excessive evaporation, seepage, disturbance in water-table and increased tendencies of landslides and earthquakes. Micro climatic changes are possible, such as fog formation, increased cloudiness and modified rainfall-patterns. Retention of sediment results in silting up of reservoirs. Water shortages on mountain rivers may leave unsightly dry river-beds below a dam. Sediment deposition and growth of vegetation in reservoir affects the water-extraction for navigation power-generation and fishing. Various dams and reservoir projects in the world are critically studied, in terms of creating environmental impacts. The Kala Bagh Dam project (Pakistan), which is ready for construction, has been analysed as a case study, by matrix method. Analyses show that adverse effects of this dam are less than the benefits. It is recommended that based on the experience, appropriate lines and strategies may be drawn up to evaluate the local projects. Multidisciplinary experts need to be involved, for assessing environmental impacts and suggesting mitigation measures, to combat the adverse effects. (author)

  15. Assessing the Value of Educational Competencies of Healthcare Leaders and Organizational Factors: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, James A.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research study addressed the problem that the healthcare industry has no clear evidence of the academic competencies that influence the attainment of organizational success. The study was based on one case study at a Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME) accredited Masters of Health Administration…

  16. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhower, Mark Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  17. Information Literacy and Communication Research: A Case Study on Interdisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalle, Elizabeth J.; Crowe, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This report offers an interdisciplinary approach for conducting assessment on learning outcomes in undergraduate communication research skills where information literacy is embedded in the expected outcome. A Communication Studies department and the University Library piloted a two-year program to develop strategies for coordinated assessment that…

  18. Evaluation Services from Needs Assessment to Follow-up: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbooks, Wendy J.

    This paper describes the nature and scope of evaluation services provided within the training division of Arthur Andersen & Company, and highlights some of the evaluation results. The cycle of assessment began with a needs assessment study at the curriculum level. Curriculum planning was undertaken for first-year trainees in the Tax Division.…

  19. Assessment of Health Needs in Children with Congenital Upper Limb Differences in Nicaragua: Community Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Canizares

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies are prevalent in Nicaragua, and disability is estimated to be 10% in the general population. We studied children with congenital upper limb differences, as they are vulnerable to disability. This case study documents a collaborative effort between American and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons to determine unmet health needs of children with congenital upper limb differences at Hospital Manuel de Jesus Rivera (“La Mascota” Hospital in Nicaragua, with the goal of developing programs that successfully address these needs within the context of the priorities of the community. Participants were recruited during one of the biannual pediatric hand specialty clinics held by a partnership of pediatric hand surgeons and occupational therapists under the auspices of Health Volunteers Overseas (La Brigada de las Manos, or “La Brigada” and Nicaraguan orthopedic surgeons. Structured interviews were performed with 34 parents or caregivers of patients with the diagnosis of a congenital upper limb difference. Parents were asked to rank the social, economic, environmental, and biological factors that determine health according to priority. Using the Hanlon Method for prioritizing health problems, in consultation with local providers and the program director of La Brigada, five needs were identified: (1 improvements in access to specialized care from hand surgeons and (2 rehabilitation specialists; (3 improvements in upper extremity function; (4 access to transportation; and (5 improvement in physical activity and sports participation. Based on the results of this needs assessment, we learned that some of the needs were already part of the ongoing work of the partnership, but in addition, more needs became evident; for that reason, local health care providers and members of La Brigada identified potential solutions to these needs and are currently working to translate these in future interventions.

  20. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection has several oral manifestations, including oral candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia. Occasionally unusual presentations requiring rigorous investigations are seen, and in these cases the diagnosis sometimes remains a dilemma owing to limited investigation facilities.1-3 We present the case of a patient who.

  1. Indicator-based assessment of marine biological diversity – lessons from 10 case studies across the European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Uusitalo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.

  2. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  3. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Okuda, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq . -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  4. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, B.F.; Bronson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  5. Sustainability assessment of farming in perspective of diminishing global emerge flows – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    calculations are exclusively based on present data and conditions (e.g. transformity for labour and services), it is ignored that future national emergy flows will be reduced as non-renewable stocks deplete and become harder to extract. Sustainability assessments should in our opinion address the capacity...... of products to customers. The farm has systematically and successfully worked on reducing external inputs to an extent where only fossil fuel and labour are significant. The farm is, therefore, considered to be a best case for a resilient food system. We present and compare two emergy analyses of the system...

  6. Development of Integrated Assessment System for Underground Power Cable Performance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-08-01

    The basic operation of any electrical machines that is catered to serve needs of civilization involves electrical power which is the main source to trigger the internal mechanism in the machines then transfer the power to other form of energy such as mechanical, light, sound and etc. The supplies of electrical does not happen just by providing the source itself, it has load carrying agent which in many cases, user would refer to it as cable. Specifically, it is the power cable which its ampacity depends significantly on the operation temperature and load stress on it. Apart from having to focus on providing improvement on improving efficiency on the source itself, power cable plays and important role because without it, current ranging from low to high could not be transmitted and hence a failure of the power system generally. Studies have conducted to discuss whether which factor contributes relatively more to the causes of power cable failure or breakdown. Such factors can be narrowed down to the three major causes which are over temperature, over voltage and stress caused by over current. Over current is one of the factor which is depends on the usage of the power system itself. The higher the usage of the power system, higher the chances of over current to take place. This will then produce load stress on the cable which eventually destroy the insulator of the cable and slowly reach the core of the cable. It is believed that an assessment method should be implemented in order to predict the performance and failure rate of the power cable and use this prediction as reference rather than just letting power failure to happen anytime unpredictable which cause huge inconvenience to users and industries. Not only do a method should be implemented, it should be as easy to be used and understood by large range of users and integrated by a graphical user interface to be used. Therefore, this research will further narrow down on the approaches to do so and the location

  7. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    , Ychma and Inca. A test site has been selected to assess the capability of SAR satellite data for the identification of earthen archaeological features. UAV surveys have been performed to provide a very detail DEM enabling us to analyze and interpret the radar signal backscattering behaviour of archaeological microrelief and structures. In all the three applications UAV proved to be an effective, user-friendly, less time consuming, flexible tool for a number of applications and aims ranging from from the site detection to the risk evaluation of archaeological interest areas. References Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2012. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: From Visual Data Interpretation to Digital Data Manipulation, In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, pp. 3-16, doi : 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_1. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G. 2016a. Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 Lasaponara R., Masini N., Pecci A., Perciante F., Pozzi Escot D., Rizzo E., Scavone M., Sileo M. 2016b, Qualitative evaluation of COSMO SkyMed in the detection of earthen archaeological remains: the case of Pachamacac (Peru)", Journal of Cultural heritage, 2016, in press. Leucci G., Masini N., Rizzo E., Capozzoli L., De Martino G. et al., Integrated Archaeogeophysical Approach for the Study of a Medieval Monastic Settlement in Basilicata, Open Archaeology 2015; 1: 236-246, doi: 10.1515/opar-2015-0014. F. Neitzel, J. Klonowski, Mobile 3d mapping with a low-cost UAV system, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf

  8. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  9. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  10. Assessing Student Work to Support Curriculum Development: An Engineering Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kevin; Brumm, Thomas; Brooke, Corly; Mickelson, Steve; Freeman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge and abilities associated with interdisciplinary education include integrating knowledge across disciplines, applying knowledge to real-world situations, and demonstrating skills in creativity, teamwork, communication, and collaboration. This case study discusses how a departmental curriculum committee in Agricultural and Biosystems…

  11. Assessing feasibility of IT-enabled networked value consellations: A case study in the electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derzsi, Z.; Gordijn, J.; Kok, J.K.; Akkermans, J.M.; Tan, Y.H.; Krogstie, J.; Opdahl, A.L.; Sindre, G.

    2007-01-01

    Innovative networked value constellations, such as Cisco or Dell, are often enabled by Information Technology (IT). The same holds for the Distributed Electricity Balancing Service (DBS), which we present in this case study. To explore feasibility of such constellations while designing them, we need

  12. Multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites:a case-study with JKGAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abid; Kuppusamy, K S; Nengroo, Ab Shakoor

    2017-08-02

    Nature of being accessible to all categories of users is one of the primary factors for enabling the wider reach of the resources published through World Wide Web. The accessibility of websites has been analyzed through W3C guidelines with the help of various tools. This paper presents a multi-tool accessibility assessment of government department websites belonging to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. A comparative analysis of six accessibility tools is also presented with 14 different parameters. The accessibility analysis tools used in this study for analysis are aChecker, Cynthia Says, Tenon, wave, Mauve, and Hera. These tools provide us the results of selected websites accessibility status on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 and 2.0. It was found that there are variations in accessibility analysis results when using different accessibility metrics to measure the accessibility of websites. In addition to this, we have identified the guidelines which have frequently been violated. It was observed that there is a need for incorporating the accessibility component features among the selected websites. This paper presents a set of suggestions to improve the accessibility status of these sites so that the information and services provided by these sites shall reach a wider spectrum of audience without any barrier. Implications for rehabilitation The following points indicates that this case study of JKGAD websites comes under Rehabilitation focused on Visually Impaired users. Due to the universal nature of web, it should be accessible to all according to WCAG guidelines framed by World Wide Web Consortium. In this paper we have identified multiple accessibility barriers for persons with visual impairment while browsing the Jammu and Kashmir Government websites. Multi-tool analysis has been done to pin-point the potential barriers for persons with visually Impaired. Usability analysis has been performed to check whether these websites are suitable

  13. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    , especially given the vast variety and complexity of nanomaterials and their applications. As an approach to help optimize environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials, we apply the Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model to identify best estimates for worst-case conditions of environmental risks of two case......Conducting environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials has been an extremely challenging endeavor thus far. Moreover, recent findings from the nano-risk scientific community indicate that it is unlikely that many of these challenges will be easily resolved in the near future...... studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C60 in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C60 in these applications as well as demonstrate...

  14. case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    particularly in patients who commence ART with low CD4 counts and established opportunistic infections. IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS ...

  15. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-01

    Sep 1, 2010 ... of the two diseases surgery can be successful, recovery can be similar to that .... lymphocytes predominated in 68% of cases, and that there was an .... using ferritin is the fact that it acts as an acute-phase reactant and will be ...

  16. A National Study of the Validity and Utility of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environment (CASE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy school climate is necessary for improvement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct validity and usability of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environment (CASE) as it was purportedly realigned to the three dimensions of the Breaking Ranks Framework developed by the National Association of Secondary School…

  17. Transnational Comparison of Sustainability Assessment Programs for Viticulture and a Case-Study on Programs’ Engagement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Santiago-Brown; Andrew Metcalfe; Cate Jerram; Cassandra Collins

    2014-01-01

    This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape pro...

  18. Creating a Safe Space: A Case Study of Complex Trauma and a Call for Proactive Comprehensive Psychoeducational Assessments and Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    This article advocates for proactive, dynamic and comprehensive psycho-educational assessments for children and young people who have a history of complex trauma, because of its known effects on development and learning. A case study is shared of a young woman with a history of complex trauma because of exposure to parental neglect, multiple…

  19. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  20. Developing and Using a Logic Model for Evaluation and Assessment of University Student Affairs Programming: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses theory and practice of evaluation and assessment in university student affairs, by applying logic modeling/program theory to a case study. I intend to add knowledge to ongoing dialogue among evaluation scholars and practitioners on student affairs program planning and improvement as integral considerations that serve…

  1. DETERMINATION THE MOST IMPORTANT OF HSE CLIMATE ASSESSMENT INDICATORS CASE STUDY: HSE CLIMATE ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT STAFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Doubtlessly, noting the growth of industry and the criticality of the environment at the present time and the significance of protecting and preserving the resources to achieve the sustainable development, establishing the appropriate cultural mechanisms which can be able to confront the probable problems rationally besides understanding the biological and human resources for achieving the goals of sustainable development and establish matching with the conditions is so necessary. Today, the subject of HSE in the industry and creating its relevant cultural context in the developing countries is significant and it is necessary to assess its position at the organizational level in several sessions. Assessing the climate of HSE in an organization can depict a realistic picture of the staff understanding of the subject of HSE and their duties. The purpose of carrying out this study is to identify the main assessing factors of the climate of HSE in an organization and studying one of the industrial units in order to determine the position of them with a view to HSE. This descriptive-analytical study is being carried out based on the review of the literature and its results to identify the factors of HSE climate and then assessing the climate of HSE among the staff of a combined cycle power plant. The survey (questionnaire contains forty-three questions and is adjusted based on the 9- point Likert Scale Eight factors are being determined by means of an appropriate correlation for assessing the HSE climate. The validity of the questionnaire was achieved by means of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 0.727 and the final result of the questionnaire evaluates an intermediate climate of HSE in the organization.

  2. The Insignificance of Thresholds in Environmental Impact Assessment: An Illustrative Case Study in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Wong, Janson; Singh, Gerald G.; Mach, Megan; Lerner, Jackie; Ranieri, Bernardo; Peterson St-Laurent, Guillaume; Guimaraes, Alice; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2018-06-01

    Environmental assessment is the process that decision-makers rely on to predict, evaluate, and prevent biophysical, social, and economic impacts of potential project developments. The determination of significance in environmental assessment is central to environmental management in many nations. We reviewed ten recent environmental impact assessments from British Columbia, Canada and systematically reviewed and scored significance determination and the approaches used by assessors, the use of thresholds in significance determination, threshold exceedances, and the outcomes. Findings of significant impacts were exceedingly rare and practitioners used a combination of significance determination approaches, most commonly relying upon reasoned argumentation. Quantitative thresholds were rarely employed, with less than 10% of the valued components evaluated using thresholds. Even where quantitative thresholds for significance were exceeded, in every case practitioners used a variety of rationales to demote negative impacts to non-significance. These reasons include combinations of scale (temporal and spatial) of impacts, an already exceeded baseline, model uncertainty and/or substituting less stringent thresholds. Governments and agencies can better protect resources by requiring clear and defensible significance determinations, by making government-defined thresholds legally enforceable and accountable, and by requiring or encouraging significance determination through inclusive and collaborative approaches.

  3. Knowledge mobilization in the context of health technology assessment: an exploratory case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Monique F

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding measures to enhance the dissemination and implementation of their recommendations has become part of most health technology assessment (HTA bodies' preoccupations. The Quebec government HTA organization in Canada observed that some of its projects relied on innovative practices in knowledge production and dissemination. A research was commissioned in order to identify what characterized these practices and to establish whether they could be systematized. Methods An exploratory case study was conducted during summer and fall 2010 in the HTA agency in order to determine what made the specificity of its context, and to conceptualize an approach to knowledge production and dissemination that was adapted to the mandate and nature of this form of HTA organization. Six projects were selected. For each, the HTA report and complementary documents were analyzed, and semi-structured interviews were carried out. A narrative literature review of the most recent literature reviews of the principal knowledge into practice frameworks (2005-2010 and of articles describing such frameworks (2000-2010 was undertaken. Results and discussion Our observations highlighted an inherent difficulty as regards applying the dominant knowledge translation models to HTA and clinical guidance practices. For the latter, the whole process starts with an evaluation question asked in a problematic situation for which an actionable answer is expected. The objective is to produce the evidence necessary to respond to the decision-maker's request. The practices we have analyzed revealed an approach to knowledge production and dissemination, which was multidimensional, organic, multidirectional, dynamic, and dependent on interactions with stakeholders. Thus, HTA could be considered as a knowledge mobilization process per se. Conclusions HTA's purpose is to solve a problem by mobilizing the types of evidence required and the concerned actors, in order to

  4. Assessment and Reduction of Model Parametric Uncertainties: A Case Study with A Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Y.; Liang, X. Z.; Duan, Q.; Xu, J.; Zhao, P.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The uncertainties associated with the parameters of a hydrological model need to be quantified and reduced for it to be useful for operational hydrological forecasting and decision support. An uncertainty quantification framework is presented to facilitate practical assessment and reduction of model parametric uncertainties. A case study, using the distributed hydrological model CREST for daily streamflow simulation during the period 2008-2010 over ten watershed, was used to demonstrate the performance of this new framework. Model behaviors across watersheds were analyzed by a two-stage stepwise sensitivity analysis procedure, using LH-OAT method for screening out insensitive parameters, followed by MARS-based Sobol' sensitivity indices for quantifying each parameter's contribution to the response variance due to its first-order and higher-order effects. Pareto optimal sets of the influential parameters were then found by the adaptive surrogate-based multi-objective optimization procedure, using MARS model for approximating the parameter-response relationship and SCE-UA algorithm for searching the optimal parameter sets of the adaptively updated surrogate model. The final optimal parameter sets were validated against the daily streamflow simulation of the same watersheds during the period 2011-2012. The stepwise sensitivity analysis procedure efficiently reduced the number of parameters that need to be calibrated from twelve to seven, which helps to limit the dimensionality of calibration problem and serves to enhance the efficiency of parameter calibration. The adaptive MARS-based multi-objective calibration exercise provided satisfactory solutions to the reproduction of the observed streamflow for all watersheds. The final optimal solutions showed significant improvement when compared to the default solutions, with about 65-90% reduction in 1-NSE and 60-95% reduction in |RB|. The validation exercise indicated a large improvement in model performance with about 40

  5. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  6. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of

  7. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  8. Coupling Uncertainties with Accuracy Assessment in Object-Based Slum Detections, Case Study: Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratomo, J.; Kuffer, M.; Martinez, Javier; Kohli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our

  9. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  10. Comparison between CT perfusion and Tc-99m ECD SPECT in the assessment of cerebrovascular reserve: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, J.; Wood, C.; Campbell, A.; McCarthy, M.; Dunne, M.; Bynevelt, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Brain perfusion is sensitively assessed by cerebral SPECT imaging utilising perfusion agents such as Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD). Positron emission tomography can accurately assess and quantify brain perfusion and MRI can also be used for perfusion assessment. Both MRI and PET however are currently limited by cost and availability. A new technique utilising CT with contrast has been developed to assess and quantitate cerebral perfusion. The technique utilises arterial input information and deconvolution analysis to develop quantifiable measures of perfusion and contrast transit. The technique has been validated for acute stroke assessment and is being assessed for other possible applications. We present a case study comparison of this technique with cerebral SPECT perfusion using Tc-99m ECD in the assessment of cerebrovasular reserve. In each case, the CT and SPECT studies were performed pre- and post-acetazolamide and the SPECT study was statistically compared with a normal database utilising an automated brain perfusion statistical analysis package (NeurostatT). We discuss the correlation found between techniques, their strengths, weaknesses and possible future roles. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Life cycle assessment as a tool to promote sustainable thermowood boards: a portuguese case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J.; Esteves, B.; Ribeiro Nunes, L. M.; Domingos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to conduct a Life Cycle Assessment study of thermally-modified Atlanticwood® pine boards based on real data provided by the Santos & Santos Madeiras company. Atlanticwood® pine boards have several applications, but are mainly used for exterior decking and the cladding facades of buildings. The LCA study was conducted based on the ISO 14040/44 standard and PCR “Product Category Rules for preparing an environmental product declaration for Constr...

  12. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  13. The assessment of scientific research: a case-study of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.R.; Minchin, Nigel; Skea, Jim; Peacock, Tim; Crouch, David

    1987-01-01

    The review aims to demonstrate that formal methods of evaluating research performance can play a valuable role in overcoming some of the problems with decision-making in basic science based on peer review. An approach which combines a number of research output indicators, including bibliometric measures derived from publication and citation analysis, is first outlined and then applied in a case study of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, over the period 1961-1984. (author)

  14. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, S.; Storey, K.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  15. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences between the

  17. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  18. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  19. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  20. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  1. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llera Sastresa, Eva; Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  2. Vulnerability and impact assessment of extreme climatic event: A case study of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Abdul Qayyum; Ahmad, Sajid R; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hussain, Yawar; Hussain, Muhammad Sameem

    2017-02-15

    Understanding of frequency, severity, damages and adaptation costs of climate extremes is crucial to manage their aftermath. Evaluation of PRECIS RCM modelled data under IPCC scenarios in Southern Punjab reveals that monthly mean temperature is 30°C under A2 scenario, 2.4°C higher than A1B which is 27.6°C in defined time lapses. Monthly mean precipitation under A2 scenario ranges from 12 to 15mm and for A1B scenario it ranges from 15 to 19mm. Frequency modelling of floods and droughts via poisson distribution shows increasing trend in upcoming decades posing serious impacts on agriculture and livestock, food security, water resources, public health and economic status. Cumulative loss projected for frequent floods without adaptation will be in the range of USD 66.8-79.3 billion in time lapse of 40years from 2010 base case. Drought damage function @ 18% for A2 scenario and @ 13.5% for A1B scenario was calculated; drought losses on agriculture and livestock sectors were modelled. Cumulative loss projected for frequent droughts without adaptation under A2 scenario will be in the range of USD 7.5-8.5 billion while under A1B scenario it will be in the range of USD 3.5-4.2 billion for time lapse of 60years from base case 1998-2002. Severity analysis of extreme events shows that situation get worse if adaptations are not only included in the policy but also in the integrated development framework with required allocation of funds. This evaluation also highlights the result of cost benefit analysis, benefits of the adaptation options (mean & worst case) for floods and droughts in Southern Punjab. Additionally the research highlights the role of integrated extreme events impact assessment methodology in performing the vulnerability assessments and to support the adaptation decisions. This paper is an effort to highlight importance of bottom up approaches to deal with climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  4. A life cycle assessment of distributed energy production from organic waste: Two case studies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Clift, Roland; Tagliaferri, Carla; Lettieri, Paola

    2017-06-01

    By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology. Moreover, marginal electricity production technologies are analysed to assess their influence on the results. This study has demonstrated that the type of bio-methane fed micro-CHP technology employed has a significantly different environmental impact: fuel cells are the most environmentally friendly solution in every category analysed; Stirling engines, although can supply heat to the largest number of dwellings are the least environmentally friendly technology. However, key factors investigated in the model presented in this paper influence the decision making on the type of technology adopted and the operating strategy to be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Health, safety and environmental unit performance assessment model under uncertainty (case study: steel industry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaii, Azin; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Lotfi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Performance assessment is a critical objective of management systems. As a result of the non-deterministic and qualitative nature of performance indicators, assessments are likely to be influenced by evaluators' personal judgments. Furthermore, in developing countries, performance assessments by the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) department are based solely on the number of accidents. A questionnaire is used to conduct the study in one of the largest steel production companies in Iran. With respect to health, safety, and environment, the results revealed that control of disease, fire hazards, and air pollution are of paramount importance, with coefficients of 0.057, 0.062, and 0.054, respectively. Furthermore, health and environment indicators were found to be the most common causes of poor performance. Finally, it was shown that HSE management systems can affect the majority of performance safety indicators in the short run, whereas health and environment indicators require longer periods of time. The objective of this study is to present an HSE-MS unit performance assessment model in steel industries. Moreover, we seek to answer the following question: what are the factors that affect HSE unit system in the steel industry? Also, for each factor, the extent of impact on the performance of the HSE management system in the organization is determined.

  6. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...

  7. Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienhuis, Anne S.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Driessen, Marja; Luijten, Mirjam; Delft, Joost H.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have employed toxicogenomic technologies to date have already provided a proof of principle for the value of hepatic systems toxicology in hazard identification. In the present review, acetaminophen is used as a model compound to discuss the application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for its potential role in the risk assessment process, to progress from hazard identification towards hazard characterization. The toxicogenomics-based parallelogram is used to identify current achievements and limitations of acetaminophen toxicogenomic in vivo and in vitro studies for in vitro-to-in vivo and interspecies comparisons, with the ultimate aim to extrapolate animal studies to humans in vivo. This article provides a model for comparison of more species and more in vitro models enhancing the robustness of common toxicogenomic responses and their relevance to human risk assessment. To progress to quantitative dose-response analysis needed for hazard characterization, in hepatic systems toxicology studies, generation of toxicogenomic data of multiple doses/concentrations and time points is required. Newly developed bioinformatics tools for quantitative analysis of toxicogenomic data can aid in the elucidation of dose-responsive effects. The challenge herein is to assess which toxicogenomic responses are relevant for induction of the apical effect and whether perturbations are sufficient for the induction of downstream events, eventually causing toxicity.

  8. Assessing the Role of Motivation on Teacher Performance: Case Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Irwandy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the role of motivation on teacher performance in Indonesia. This study in an assessment of this aim used deductive approach where a qualitative survey was conducted among students at Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED, Indonesia who are assumed to be future teachers. The survey was intended to get their responses on what they feel are the best factors that could motivate them as future teachers among a list of ten motivational factors. In the light of this the study sets to identify the most ranked factors among the ten motivational factors. The analysis from the empirical findings showed that Good Salary was the most ranked factor for both sub groups that made up the sample survey. However, a study from previous researches used in this study showed that different results could be obtained from different groups of already working employees. This study therefore can be seen as an introduction to a more detailed study to be carried by future researchers in the field of teachers’ motivation.

  9. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  10. Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.

  11. Assessment of the importance of acidic fogwater and cloudwater in affecting terrestrial vegetation: Some important case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, P.M.; Eagar, C. (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC (USA). Office of the Director of Research; Forest Service, Broomall, PA (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some examples of terrestrial effects of concern as case studies to demonstrate the methodology to be used for answering questions of the NAPAP Integrated Assessment. The two examples presented, one each for forestry and crops, represent what is probably the worst case'' for possible acidic rain effects on crops and forests. Both examples revolve around hypotheses centering on stress from acidic fogwater or cloudwater. Because it is likely that additional information will become available prior to the publication of the Integrated Assessment, it should be understood that the analyses and interpretations presented on the following pages are subject to change when NAPAP publishes its final Assessment in 1990. 76 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Higher tier field research in ecological risk assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    A newly developed basic procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment in The Netherlands was followed in practice for the first time. In line with conventional Triade approaches, the procedure includes multidisciplinary parameters from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to provide multiple weight of evidence. However, land use at the contaminated site and its vicinity is given more importance, and research parameters are selected in accordance to specific objectives for land use in order to test for harmful effects to underlying ecosystem services. Moreover, the approach is characterized by repetitive interactions between stakeholders and researching consultants, in particular with respect to the choice of parameters and criteria to assess the results. The approach was followed in an ecological risk assessment to test the assumptions underlying a soil management plant for a rural area in The Netherlands, called 'Krimpenerwaard'. Throughout this region some 5000 polder ditches have been filled with waste materials originating from local households, waterway sludge, industrial wastes, car shredders, and more. Several sites are severely polluted by heavy metals, cyanide, PAH or chlorinated hydrocarbons and require remediation or clean up. However, the exact distribution of these wastes over the entire region is scarcely known, and the Krimpenerwaard as a whole is treated as one case of serious soil pollution. A soil management plan was constructed by 13 stakeholding parties, aiming for a 'functional clean up' in view of land use, by means of covering 'suspected' categories of wastes with a 30-cm layer of local type soil. The ecological risk assessment aims to verify the assumptions in the soil management plan regarding the prevention of possible undesirable effects induced by the various waste materials. A tiered approach is followed, including a screening for bioavailable contaminants, a testing for general effects

  13. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  14. Social Life Cycle Assessment in the Textile Sector: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Lenzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first application of the Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA to a textile product made in Sicily (Italy, according to the Social Life Cycle Assessment guidelines (UNEP. The main goal is to assess and present the social values of a product manufactured in a particular territorial area where the presence of an industry represents the main source of employment. The first part of the study is a literature review of the current state of the art of the S-LCA and its implementation to textile products. In the implementation, particular attention is paid in identifying the positive impacts and in highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the method when applied in this specific sector. The functional unit of the study is an order for a garment (consisting of 495 capes in a soft blend of wool and cashmere, produced by a textile company located in Sicily (Italy. The system boundaries of the study include all phases from cradle-to-gate, i.e. from raw material production through fabric/accessory production to the manufacturing process of the product itself at the company. Background and foreground processes are taken into account using specific and generic data. Two stakeholder groups have been considered (workers and local communities as those that can better represent the company’s value in the territory. The analysis carried out on the functional unit of the study allowed assessing social performance related to the specific textile product, but also to outline the general behaviour of the company. Results offer to scholars a perspective on which to focus their future researches in the sector and highlight that S-LCA is a valuable tool to support business decisions, assessing the social impact of the product to improve the social conditions of stakeholders. However, the access to primary and/or good quality local, national and global data is essential to draw credible conclusions; consequently, every effort to promote the

  15. Project Photofly: New 3d Modeling Online Web Service (case Studies and Assessments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Furini, G.; Migliori, S.; Pierattini, S.

    2011-09-01

    During summer 2010, Autodesk has released a still ongoing project called Project Photofly, freely downloadable from AutodeskLab web site until August 1 2011. Project Photofly based on computer-vision and photogrammetric principles, exploiting the power of cloud computing, is a web service able to convert collections of photographs into 3D models. Aim of our research was to evaluate the Project Photofly, through different case studies, for 3D modeling of cultural heritage monuments and objects, mostly to identify for which goals and objects it is suitable. The automatic approach will be mainly analyzed.

  16. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald's Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald's Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess McDonald's activities. Data identifying potential impacts were sourced through document analysis, including McDonald's corporate literature; media analysis and semi-structured interviews. We commissioned a spatial and socioeconomic analysis of McDonald's restaurants in Australia through Geographic Information System technology. The data was mapped against a corporate health impact assessment framework which included McDonald's Australia's political and business practices; products and marketing; workforce, social, environmental and economic conditions; and consumers' health related behaviours. We identified both positive and detrimental aspects of McDonald's Australian operations across the scope of the CHIA framework. We found that McDonald's outlets were slightly more likely to be located in areas of lower socioeconomic status. McDonald's workplace conditions were found to be more favourable than those in many other countries which reflects compliance with Australian employment regulations. The breadth of findings revealed the need for governments to strengthen regulatory mechanisms that are conducive to health; the opportunity for McDonald's to augment their corporate social responsibility initiatives and bolster reputational endorsement; and civil society actors to inform their advocacy towards health and equity outcomes from TNC operations. Our study indicates that undertaking a corporate health impact assessment is possible, with the different methods revealing sufficient information to

  17. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  18. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  19. Risk assessment of manual material handling activities (case study: PT BRS Standard Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviani; Triyanti, V.

    2017-12-01

    The process of moving material manually has the potential for injury to workers. The risk of injury will increase if we do not pay attention to the working conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess and analyze the injury risk level in manual handling material activity, as well as to improve the condition. The observed manual material handling activities is pole lifting and goods loading. These activities were analyzed using Job Strain Index method, Rapid Entire Body Assessment, and Chaffin’s 2D Planar Static Model. The results show that most workers who perform almost all activities have a high level of risk level with the score of JSI and REBA exceeds 9 points. For some activities, the estimated compression forces in the lumbar area also exceed the standard limits of 3400 N. Concerning this condition, several suggestions for improvement were made, improving the composition of packing, improving body posture, and making guideline posters.

  20. Hydraulic and Condition Assessment of Existing Sewerage Network: A Case Study of an Educational Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourabh, Nishant; Timbadiya, P. V.

    2018-04-01

    The hydraulic simulation of the existing sewerage network provides various information about critical points to assess the deteriorating condition and help in rehabilitation of existing network and future expansion. In the present study, hydraulic and condition assessment of existing network of educational Institute (i.e. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology-Surat, Gujarat, India), having an area of 100 ha and ground levels in range of 5.0-9.0 m above mean sea level, has been carried out using sewage flow simulation for existing and future scenarios analysis using SewerGEMS v8i. The paper describes the features of 4.79 km long sewerage network of institute followed by network model simulation for aforesaid scenarios and recommendations on improvement of the existing network for future use. The total sewer loads for present and future scenarios are 1.67 million litres per day (MLD) and 3.62 MLD, considering the peak factor of 3 on the basis of population. The hydraulic simulation of the existing scenario indicated depth by diameter (d/D) ratio in the range of 0.02-0.48 and velocity range of 0.08-0.53 m/s for existing network for present scenario. For the future scenario, the existing network is needed to be modified and it was found that total of 11 conduits (length: 464.8 m) should be replaced to the next higher diameter available, i.e., 350 mm for utilization of existing network for future scenario. The present study provides the methodology for condition assessment of existing network and its utilization as per guidelines provided by Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, 2013. The methodology presented in this paper can be used by municipal/public health engineer for the assessment of existing sewerage network for its serviceability and improvement in future.

  1. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. Landslide Vulnerability Assessment (LVAs: A Case Study from Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodeano Roslee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.1.49-59The topic on Landslide Vulnerability Assessment (LVAs in Malaysia is relatively new and received little attention from geoscientists and engineers. This research paper tries to formulate the concept of LVAs by taking into account the science and socio-economic aspects. A new approach in vulnerability concept is also introduced herein. To achieve this goal, a framework was designed for assessing the LVAs. The framework was formulated semiquantitatively through the development of database for the risk elements (human and properties based on information from secondary data (technical reports, extensive review of literature, and field observations. The vulnerability parameters included in assessing LVAs are 1 physical implication (building structures, internal materials, property damage, infrastructural facilities, and stabilization actions, 2 social status (injury, fatalities, safety, loss of accommodation, and public awareness, and 3 interference on environment (affected period, daily operation, and diversity. Each considered parameter in the vulnerability assessment is allocated with a certain index value ranges from 0 (0 % damage/victims/period, 0.25 (1 - 25% damage/victims/period, 0.50 (26 - 50% damage/victims/period, 0.75 (51 - 75% damage/victims/period, and 1.00 (75 - 100% damage/victims/period. All of these parameters are compiled and analyzed with “Landslide Distribution Map” (LDM to generate a “Landslide Vulnerability Degree map (LVD”. The LDM was produced based on field studies and satellite image interpretations in order to locate the landslide locations in the studied area. Finally, three types of physical, human, and environment vulnerabilities were then classified into five classes of vulnerabilities, namely: Class 1 (< 0.20: Very Low Vulnerability; Class 2 (0.21 - 0.40: Low Vulnerability; Class 3 (0.41 - 0.60: Medium Vulnerability; Class 4 (0.61 - 0.80: High Vulnerability; and Class 5 (> 0.81: Very

  3. Reliability assessment using Bayesian networks. Case study on quantative reliability estimation of a software-based motor protection relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminen, A.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2003-06-01

    In this report a quantitative reliability assessment of motor protection relay SPAM 150 C has been carried out. The assessment focuses to the methodological analysis of the quantitative reliability assessment using the software-based motor protection relay as a case study. The assessment method is based on Bayesian networks and tries to take the full advantage of the previous work done in a project called Programmable Automation System Safety Integrity assessment (PASSI). From the results and experiences achieved during the work it is justified to claim that the assessment method presented in the work enables a flexible use of qualitative and quantitative elements of reliability related evidence in a single reliability assessment. At the same time the assessment method is a concurrent way of reasoning one's beliefs and references about the reliability of the system. Full advantage of the assessment method is taken when using the method as a way to cultivate the information related to the reliability of software-based systems. The method can also be used as a communicational instrument in a licensing process of software-based systems. (orig.)

  4. Adoption Assessment of Internet Usage Amongst Undergraduates In Nigeria Universities -A Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olusesan Awoleye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the level of penetration of Internet usage among undergraduate students in Nigeria using Obafemi Awolowo University as a case study. Result showed that about 92% of undergraduate students have embraced the Internet and are using it consistently. The online mean time is 3.5hrs/week while on the average, undergraduate experience of Internet usage is about 4years. We found also that the students use the Internet mostly for e-mail, information search and online chatting; all of these were found to have significant impact on their academics and social life. Further analysis revealed that gender attitude is also an important issue; male students appear to use the Internet more than their female counterparts; just as science based students use it more than the non-science based students. The paper therefore recommends appropriate policies for all higher schools of learning in Nigeria to facilitate further diffusion and use of the Internet.

  5. Uncertainties in environmental impact assessments due to expert opinion. Case study. Radioactive waste in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontic, B.; Ravnik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive study was done at the J. Stefan Institute in Ljubljana and the School of Environmental Sciences in Nova Gorica in relation to sources of uncertainties in long-term environmental impact assessment (EIA). Under the research two main components were examined: first, methodology of the preparation of an EIA, and second validity of an expert opinion. Following the findings of the research a survey was performed in relation to assessing acceptability of radioactive waste repository by the regulatory. The components of dose evaluation in different time frames were examined in terms of susceptibility to uncertainty. Uncertainty associated to human exposure in the far future is so large that dose and risk, as individual numerical indicators of safety, by our opinion, should not be used in compliance assessment for radioactive waste repository. On the other hand, results of the calculations on the amount and activity of low and intermediate level waste and the spent fuel from the Krsko NPP show that expert's understanding of the treated questions can be expressed in transparent way giving credible output of the models used.(author)

  6. A method to assess soil erosion from smallholder farmers' fields: a case study from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamoud, Yusuf M

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion by water is a major threat to sustainable food production systems in Africa. This study presents a qualitative soil erosion assessment method that links the number of broken ridges (NBRS) observed on a smallholder farmer's field after a rain event to factors of soil erosion (e.g., rainfall intensity, slope steepness, crop canopy height, and conservation practice) and to soil loss data measured from a runoff plot and receiving small streams. The assessment method consists of a rapid survey of smallholder farmers combined with field monitoring. Results show an indirect relationship between NBRS and factors of soil erosion. Results also show a direct relationship between NBRS and suspended sediment concentrations measured from an experimental runoff plot and receiving streams that drain the sub-watersheds where farmers' fields are located. Given the limited human and financial resources available to soil erosion research in developing countries, monitoring NBRS is a simple, cost-effective, and reliable erosion assessment method for regions where smallholder farmers practice contour ridging.

  7. Constructing Ecological Networks Based on Habitat Quality Assessment: A Case Study of Changzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Ma, Lei; Liu, Jiaxun; Zhuang, Zhuzhou; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation and reduced continuity of habitat patches threaten the environment and biodiversity. Recently, ecological networks are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers as they provide fundamental frameworks for environmental protection. This study suggests a set of procedures to construct an ecological network. First, we proposed a method to construct a landscape resistance surface based on the assessment of habitat quality. Second, to analyze the effect of the resistance surface on corridor simulations, we used three methods to construct resistance surfaces: (1) the method proposed in this paper, (2) the entropy coefficient method, and (3) the expert scoring method. Then, we integrated habitat patches and resistance surfaces to identify potential corridors using graph theory. These procedures were tested in Changzhou, China. Comparing the outputs of using different resistance surfaces demonstrated that: (1) different landscape resistance surfaces contribute to how corridors are identified, but only slightly affect the assessment of the importance of habitat patches and potential corridors; (2) the resistance surface, which is constructed based on habitat quality, is more applicable to corridor simulations; and (3) the assessment of the importance of habitat patches is fundamental for ecological network optimization in the conservation of critical habitat patches and corridors. PMID:28393879

  8. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.

  10. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  11. Energy Performance Certificate of building and confidence interval in assessment: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronchin, Lamberto; Fabbri, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The Directive 2002/91/CE introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC), an energy policy tool. The aim of the EPC is to inform building buyers about the energy performance and energy costs of buildings. The EPCs represent a specific energy policy tool to orient the building sector and real-estate markets toward higher energy efficiency buildings. The effectiveness of the EPC depends on two factors: •The accuracy of energy performance evaluation made by independent experts. •The capability of the energy classification and of the scale of energy performance to control the energy index fluctuations. In this paper, the results of a case study located in Italy are shown. In this example, 162 independent technicians on energy performance of building evaluation have studied the same building. The results reveal which part of confidence intervals is dependent on software misunderstanding and that the energy classification ranges are able to tolerate the fluctuation of energy indices. The example was chosen in accordance with the legislation of the Emilia-Romagna Region on Energy Efficiency of Buildings. Following these results, some thermo-economic evaluation related to building and energy labelling are illustrated, as the EPC, which is an energy policy tool for the real-estate market and building sector to find a way to build or retrofit an energy efficiency building. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of the accuracy of energy performance of buildings in relation with the knowledge of independent experts. ► Round robin test based on 162 case studies on the confidence intervals expressed by independent experts. ► Statistical considerations between the confidence intervals expressed by independent experts and energy simulation software. ► Relation between “proper class” in energy classification of buildings and confidence intervals of independent experts.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment of Dumpsite: Case Study from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaifi, H. J.; Alhumidan, S. M.; Kahal, A. Y.; Abdel Rahman, K.; Al-Qadasi, B.

    2017-12-01

    The dumpsite is underlain by highly fractured Precambrian basement complex of metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks. Minor Tertiary, Quaternary basalts and Quaternary alluvial deposits overlie the basement rocks. Structurally, the area is affected by intersected series of north-to northwest trending faults. Hydrogeological setting of the study area is characterized by shallow groundwater aquifers in the fractured and weathered basement rocks. Moreover, the area exposes heavy rains especially during summer seasons, which may accelerate the transferring of contaminated water to the neighbouring valleys and low land. At present, the residential and Khamis Mushait new industrial zone are situated close to the dumpsite. The main objective of this study is to assess the leachate intrusion and groundwater contamination in the urban area of Khamis Mushait. Geophysical and geochemical techniques have been successfully applied in the assessment of environmental impact of dumpsites globally. Near-surface geophysical investigations such as Seismic refraction tomography, Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) and ground magnetic survey have been conducted to detect the controlling structures and lithological variation of the dumpsite. In addition, four water samples from hand dug wells and two surface water samples were collected from and around dumpsite. These water samples were analysed geochemically to inspect the presence of heavy metals, salts (sulphates, nitrates and chlorides), radioactive elements and physically to assess pH, TDS, DO, salinity, total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity and temperature. Results of VES illustrate low resistivity zones (≤ 30 Ohm-m) due to conductive leachate from dumpsite while seismic models and ground magnetic intensity map delineated fractures beneath the weathered basement layer which may provide pathways for the contaminants. The physico-chemical analysis of the collected groundwater samples revealed that

  13. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management methods: Ankara case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeler, D; Yetiş, U; Demirer, G N

    2006-04-01

    Different solid waste management system scenarios were developed and compared for the Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Ankara by using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The solid waste management methods considered in the scenarios were collection and transportation of wastes, source reduction, Material Recovery Facility (MRF)/Transfer Stations (TS), incineration, anaerobic digestion and landfilling. The goal of the study was to determine the most environmentally friendly option of MSWM system for Ankara. The functional unit of the study was the amount of solid waste generated in the system area of concern, which are the districts of Ankara. The life cycle inventory analysis was carried out by IWM Model-1. The inputs and outputs of each management stage were defined and the inventory emissions calculated by the model were classified in to impact categories; non-renewable energy sources exhausting potential, final solid waste as hazardous and non-hazardous, global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity. The impacts were quantified with the weighing factors of each category to develop the environmental profiles of each scenario. In most of the categories, Source Reduction Scenario was found to be the most feasible management method, except the global warming category. The lowest contribution to GWP was calculated for the anaerobic digestion process. In the interpretation and improvement assessment stage, the results were further evaluated and recommendations were made to improve the current solid waste management system of Ankara.

  14. AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE WALKING ENVIRONMENT IN A MEGACITY: CASE STUDY OF VALIASR STREET, TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Motamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High air pollution, car dependency, and increasing statistics of obesity and cardiovascular diseases are growing issues in the mega city of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Therefore, investigating the quality of walkability as an effective solution for these issues in Valiasr Street, the longest street of Middle East and one of the key vena of Tehran, becomes significant. Research shows that despite the attempts of executed projects, the majority of implemented actions in this street were not in accordance with services of its pedestrian facilities. Even in some cases, they may threaten the walking environment. This paper discusses not only the physical features of Valiasr Street but it also considers the consequences of policies and municipal decisions in light of walkability criteria. Using walkability indexes from various scholars, this study seeks to investigate the level of walkability in Valiasr Street through field observation and mapping by trained observers/ auditors.

  15. Taking a case study approach to assessing alternative leadership models in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan; Mayo, Paula

    2018-06-14

    Good leadership is essential to patient-centred care and staff satisfaction in the healthcare environment. All members of the healthcare team can be leaders and evidence-based theory should inform their leadership practice. This article uses a case study approach to critically evaluate leadership as exercised by a charge nurse and a student nurse in a clinical scenario. Ineffective leadership styles are identified and alternatives proposed; considerable attention is given to critiquing both 'heroic' and 'post-heroic' transformational leadership theories. The concept of power will also be discussed, as power and leadership are closely related, and the importance of empowering members of the healthcare team through altering organisational structure is emphasised. This article advocates leadership that encourages innovation, enhances patient-centred care, encourages excellence and has ethical integrity. Recommendations of appropriate models of leadership are provided, while existing gaps in the healthcare leadership literature are highlighted.

  16. Erosion risk analysis by GIS in environmental impact assessments: a case study--Seyhan Köprü Dam construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, S; Kurum, E

    2002-11-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a systematically constructed procedure whereby environmental impacts caused by proposed projects are examined. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are crucially efficient tools for impact assessment and their use is likely to dramatically increase in the near future. GIS have been applied to a wide range of different impact assessment projects and dams among them have been taken as the case work in this article. EIA Regulation in force in Turkey requires the analysis of steering natural processes that can be adversely affected by the proposed project, particularly in the section of the analysis of the areas with higher landscape value. At this point, the true potential value of GIS lies in its ability to analyze spatial data with accuracy. This study is an attempt to analyze by GIS the areas with higher landscape value in the impact assessment of dam constructions in the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal. A method needs to be defined before the overlapping step by GIS to analyze the areas with higher landscape value. In the case of Seyhan-Köprü Hydroelectric Dam project proposal of the present work, considering the geological conditions and the steep slopes of the area and the type of the project, the most important natural process is erosion. Therefore, the areas of higher erosion risk were considered as the Areas with Higher Landscape Value from the conservation demands points of view.

  17. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  18. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  19. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon

    2016-01-01

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  20. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  1. Methodological challenges in assessing the environmental status of a marine ecosystem: case study of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity, less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances. The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure.

  2. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  3. SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT: THE SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, water resource management has been developed using an essentially technical approach. Currently, public opinion on water resource management is formed as a result of growing environmental concerns and social conflicts arising from poorly planned actions. Environmental problems are complex and have multiple dimensions, including social and economic. Therefore, the inclusion of a human dimension in integrated assessment methodologies is required for the introduction of new elements to the water management planning process. Environmental water allocation (EWA is understood as the quantity, quality and distribution of water required for the maintenance of the functions and processes of aquatic ecosystems on which people depend. Within the various holistic assessment methodologies, the Building Block Methodology (BBM was found to be the most suitable, in the Brazilian context, for maintaining and restoring essential elements of the natural flow regime. This article describes the process of social participation in the environmental flow assessment (EFA for the Sao Francisco River, and compares it with some of the lessons learned from EFA in other parts of the world. The process involved multiple stakeholders who have conflicting interests. BBM was used to guide the field interviews, to incorporate the empirical observations by the local population and to guide the methodological procedures of the multidisciplinary team. The results of the study indicate the effectiveness of this holistic approach in organizing the elements to be evaluated. It also facilitated important contributions to the establishment of a dialogue between the actors to achieve a better understanding of the multiple aspects involved in the decisions associated with the EWA.

  4. Applying physiological principles and assessment techniques to swimming the English Channel. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E O; Meyers, M C; Hayman, M; Haskin, J

    1997-03-01

    This study presents the use of physiological principles and assessment techniques in addressing four objectives that can enhance a swimmer's likelihood of successfully swimming the English Channel. The four objective were: (1) to prescribe training intensities and determine ideal swimming pace; (2) to determine the amount of insulation needed, relative to heat produced, to diminish the likelihood of the swimmer suffering from hypothermia; (3) to calculate the caloric expenditure for the swim and the necessary glucose replacement required to prevent glycogen depletion; and (4) to determine the rate of acclimatization to cold water (15.56 C/60 F). The subject participated in several pool swimming data collection sessions including a tethered swim incremental protocol to determine peak oxygen consumption and onset of lactate accumulation and several steady state swims to determine ideal swimming pace at 4.0 mM/L of lactate. Additionally, these swims provided information on oxygen consumption, which in combination with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous fat was used to assess heat production and insulation capabilities. Finally, the subject participated in 18 cold water immersions to document acclimatization rate. The data demonstrated the high fitness level of this subject and indicated that at a stroke rate of 63 stokes/min, HR was 130 heats/min and lactate was 4 mM/L. At this swimming pace the swimmer would need to consume 470 kcal of glucose/hr. In addition, the energy produced at this swim pace was 13.25 kcal/min while the energy lost at the present subcutaneous fat quantity was 13.40 kcal/min, requiring a fat weight gain of 6,363.03 g (13.88 lbs) to resist heat loss. Finally, the data from the cold water immersions suggested that acclimatization occurred following two weeks of immersions. There results were provided to the swimmer and utilized in making decisions in preparation for the swim.

  5. Assessing the performance of SIA in the EIA context: A case study of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, Jacobus A. du; Sandham, Luke A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, a theoretical perspective based on a literature study, is a critical evaluation of SIA as part of the EIA process in South Africa against the background of international guidelines and best practices. It includes sections on the historical background of the development of SIA in South Africa, the legal status and requirements of SIA in the country, and a critical evaluation of SIA regulation in South Africa. The conclusion reached in the article is that the persistent problems of SIA practice, experienced in other parts of the world, are also evident in South Africa. Apart from institutional, financial and professional constraints, there are also serious problems associated with approach and methods. This conclusion confirms the findings of empirical studies that SIA in South Africa is neglected, that the practice of SIA in South Africa is not yet on a sound footing, and that it does not receive the professional attention it deserves in a country beset by enormous social challenges. To conclude the article recommendations are made to improve the level of SIA practice in South Africa, and the possible significance of this national case study for international practice is indicated

  6. Assessment of vitamin K2 levels in osteoporotic patients: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Akram; Lashkari, Mahin; Oveisi, Sonia; Khair Khah, Mohamad Reza; Zargar, Ali

    2014-07-14

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of Vit K2 in samples was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square test. The level of Vit K2 in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group (Median: 75.95 vs. 71.35 nmol/L, respectively; P-value: 0.709). The authors determined cut-offs 75 percentile of vitamin K2 in all participants that was 85 nmol/L and percentages of persons in two groups were similar. Although Vit K2 level in patients with osteoporosis was not significantly different from the control group, further studies are necessary to confirm the association of osteoporosis and Vit K2.

  7. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  8. Taste function assessed by electrogustometry in burning mouth syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, A; Descroix, V; Ungeheuer, M-N; Rougeot, C; Boucher, Y

    2017-04-01

    Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome (iBMS) is characterized by oral persistent pain without any clinical or biological abnormality. The aim of this study was to evaluate taste function in iBMS subjects and healthy controls. Electrogustometric thresholds (EGMt) were recorded in 21 iBMS patients and 21 paired-matched controls at nine loci of the tongue assessing fungiform and foliate gustatory papillae function. Comparison of EGMt was performed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A correlation between EGMt and self-perceived pain intensity assessed using a visual analogic scale (VAS) was analyzed with the Spearman coefficient. The level of significance was fixed at P < 0.05. Mean EGMt were significantly increased with iBMS for right side of the dorsum of the tongue and right lateral side of the tongue (P < 0.05). In the iBMS group, VAS scores were significantly correlated to EGMt at the tip of the tongue (r = -0.59; P < 0.05) and at the right and left lateral sides of the tongue (respectively, r = -0.49 and r = -0.47; P < 0.05). These data depicted impaired taste sensitivity in iBMS patients within fungiform and foliate taste bud fields and support potent gustatory/nociceptive interaction in iBMS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of Urban Vegetation using Remote Sensing Data: a Case Study in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Kim, J.; Yeom, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation in the city has various positive effects on the entire urban ecosystem: it reduces CO2 and air temperature, improves air quality, helps to maintain the water balance of natural ground, decreases surface overflow during floods, and provides food source as well as living space for diverse wildlife. Urban green areas also have a social and educational role, e.g. for recreational activity, positive experience in a natural environment, and perception of seasonal changes. In addition, citizens can find a balance between urban green and built up spaces. However, the very high intensity of land use in urban areas changes the local urban ecosystem to a large degree and leads to enormous stress for the urban vegetation. In this study, we aim to develop a method for assessing effects of urban vegetation on ecosystem function using remote sensing technology. We use multispectral RapidEye satellite and LiDAR data for the classification of urban vegetation types in metropolitan area Seoul and test different kinds of vegetation indices focusing on the red edge of RapidEye data to assess the stress degree of the vegetation.

  10. Demographic methods to assess food insecurity: a North Korean case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Hsu, E; Burnham, G

    2001-01-01

    In complex emergencies, especially those involving famine and/or widespread food insecurity, assessments of malnutrition are critical to understanding the population's health status and to assessing the effectiveness of relief interventions. Although the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) has benefited from some of the largest, most sustained appeals in the history of the World Food Program (WFP), the government in Pyongyang has placed restrictions on international efforts to gather data on the health and nutritional status of the affected population. Lacking direct means to assess the nutritional status of the North Korean populace, what other methodologies could be employed to measure the public health impacts of chronic food shortage? The paper begins with a review of methods for assessing nutritional status, particularly in emergencies; a brief history of the North Korean food crisis (1995-2001), and a review of the available nutritional and health data on the DPRK. The main focus of the paper is on the results of a survey of 2,692 North Korean adult migrants in China. Recognizing certain biases and limitations, the study suggests that sample households have experienced an overall decline in food security, as evidenced by both the decline in government rations from an average of 120 grams per person per day to less than 60 grams per day, and by the increase in the percentage of households relying on foraging or bartering of assets as their principal source of food. It also is apparent that the period 1995-1998 has been marked by elevated household mortality, declining fertility, and steadily rising out-migration. Taken together, the signs point toward famine, whether that is defined as a discrete event--that is, as a regional failure in food production or distribution leading to elevated mortality from starvation and associated disease--or as a more complex social process whose sub-states include not only elevated mortality, but declining fertility

  11. Contribution of occupational therapy to the assessment of competence: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marie; Huynh, Tammy; Giroux, Dominique; Bottari, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    Many occupational therapists contribute to the assessment of competence to take care of oneself and manage one’s affairs, but few guidelines exist regarding this practice with adults who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study explored the ability of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile (IADL Profile) to capture competence following a TBI. Task performance on the IADL Profile of a 46-year-old man (ML) who was found to be incompetent following a severe TBI was compared to eight control subjects (mean age 49.3 ± 4.2 years). The IADL Profile scores, observable behaviours, and verbalizations were compared using descriptive statistics (M, SD) and qualitative analyses. The independence level of ML was lower than that of the control subjects on seven of the eight tasks of the IADL Profile (p competence. © CAOT 2016.

  12. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  13. Assessment of environmental benefits of flyover construction over signalized junctions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Goel, Sangita; Tamhane, S M

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the flyover construction to curb traffic congestion problem has been assessed in terms of traffic decongestion, time saving, fuel saving and emission reduction. A flyover has also been constructed over four signalized junctions in the main commercial area in Nagpur city, India. It was found that about 35% of the total traffic is diverted to the flyover, which results in a reduction of about 32% in the total emission generation. Travel on the flyover resulted in as much as 60-70% saving in time, compared to the travel on the main road, particularly when all the four signals are found to be in the red phase. The loss of fuel for combustion and the associated cost resulting from waiting for the signal to change are also estimated, and these are found to be significant.

  14. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  15. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  16. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  17. Integrating economic and environmental indicators in the assessment of desertification risk: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L. [Piazza F. Morosini 12, Rome (Italy); Zitti, M.; Ceccarelli, T. [Ufficio Centrale di Ecologia Agraria, Rome (Italy)

    2008-09-30

    Desertification is a complex phenomenon which reduces the soil fertility involving ecological and economic processes that characterize the environment at different geographic scales. The most widely accepted definition of desertification is the one given by the United Nations Convention. It defines desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human actities'.Desertification involves many countries featuring different ecological, economic, and social conditions. In Mediterranean Europe, high human pressure, economic development, and climatic changes combine to produce land consumption, soil erosion, salinization, and fire risk, all considered as key factors to start desertification processes. For many years the term desertification has been strictly associated to geo-physical conditions, but in very complex ecosystems the study of the interaction of physical patterns with population and social characteristics is necessary to better delineate areas at risk. The aims of this paper are therefore (i) to review recent findings in term of desertification processes and risk assessment in the Mediterranean basin, (ii) to illustrate a simplified model in which social and economic variables may significantly accelerate land degradation leading to desertification, (iii) to suggest a set of demographic, economic, and institutional indicators suitable to contribute to the assessment of desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin, (iv) to built a synthetic index based on a multivariate approach and, finally, (v) to compare such index with a standard index of desertification risk only referring to geo-physical conditions. As a conclusion, new findings to be achieved in the context of human impact on environment as an original contribution to the study of desertification were delineated.

  18. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  19. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Li, Yongle; Ding, Jiajie

    2016-11-10

    A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  20. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Bao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of olive production using Life Cycle Assessment: A case study, Tarom county, Zanjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ehsan khodarezaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Horticulture industry consumes a significant part of the energy and materials and release pollutants into the environment. Olive (Olea europaea L. is one of the most cultivated plants in Iran, so the environmental impact assessment of these production systems is important. However, the consequences and environmental impacts of olive production systems have not been studied in Iran. Tarom County is one of the most important olive production centers in Iran. So, this study is performed to evaluate environmental impacts of olive production in Tarom region. Materials and Methods In this study, the LCA approach is used to assessment of environmental impacts of olive production. This study is conducted in Tarom County in 2012-2013. The aim of this study was to determine hot spots of olive life cycle and offering appropriate Solutions to reduce the related environmental impact in Tarom region. In this research, one ton of Olives was considered as functional unit. System boundary is defined as “from cradle to farm gate”. Primary data were collected through observation, sampling and questionnaires completing method. The climate and soil data were collected from the "Olive Research Center" located in the Tarom County. Data for the production of used inputs (Secondary data were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database, and SimaPro software was employed to analyze primary data. Impact categories were analyzed based on CML 2 baseline 2000 V2.04/ world, 1995/ characterization and SimaPro 7.2 software. CML 2 baseline 2000. Results and Discussion The obtained data from inventory are presented in the table 1. These data includes Inputs and outputs of olive production system in Tarom olive systems. Table 1- Inputs and outputs of olive production system (per 1 ton olive. Amount\tUnit\tInputs 48.04\tkg\tDiesel fuel Chemical fertilizer 62.8\tkg\tUrea 53.9\tkg\tTriple Super Phosphate 46.4\tkg\tPotassium sulphate 5.6\tkg\tPesticides 1222\tkg

  2. Assessment of two-way relationship between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Monika; Tangade, Pradeep; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, Hunny; Jain, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance which begins during pregnancy. Few studies have examined the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The study population comprised ninety patients, out of which thirty were cases and sixty were controls. All cases underwent a laboratory screening test for GDM between 24 and 30 weeks of gestation based on the recommendation of the obstetricians and gynecologists. To assess the periodontal status, a full-mouth periodontal examination assessing the probing depth, periodontal depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession was performed on all study participants by a single trained examiner. Tests for associations were performed using Chi-square statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. None of the periodontitis conditions was found to be a significant predictor of GDM. In GDM patients, 70% of females were having periodontal disease whereas non-GDM patients 77% of patient had periodontal disease. The present study did not show any positive association between periodontal disease and GDM.

  3. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  4. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of Safety Condition in One of the Teaching Hospitals in Kermanshah (2015: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masod Ghanbari Kakavand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Many working conditions-related stress factors that can produce injuries and illnesses are important in hospital environments. So, the health and safety of nurses and patients from workplace-induced injuries and illnesses is important. In this study, we have assessed the safety condition of one of the teaching hospitals in Kermanshah (2015. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of medical sciences. For this aim a checklist was prepared based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standards and Part 3 of the manual of National Building Regulations. These checklists comprised (The final checklist had 239 questions of 9 dimensions various sections of safety including; fire safety, building safety, electrical safety, emergency exit routes safety, heating and cooling equipment safety, operating room and laundry room and salty home safety. Eventually, using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics, data were analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, 66.6% of the units had poor safety and 33.4% of them were moderately safe. As well as, only ICU and CCU unit, heating and cooling equipment and operational room showed moderate compliance with safety requirements and other sections were poorly complied. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that safety conditions of hospital were not at favorable level. These poor safety statues can jeopardize patients and hospital personnel. Thus some interventions such as improvement of working conditions, compliance with safety acts and implementation of health, safety and environmental management system would be necessary.

  6. Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT): Sustainable Energy Planning Using the WEF Nexus Approach - Texas Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroue, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The future energy portfolio at the national and subnational levels should consider its impact on water resources and environment. Although energy resources are the main contributors to the national economic growth, these resources must not exploit other primary natural resources. A study of the connections between energy and natural systems, such as water, environment and land is required prior to proceeding to energy development. Policy makers are in need of a tool quantifying the interlinkages across energy, water and the environment, while demonstrating the consequent trade-offs across the nexus systems. The Energy Portfolio Assessment Tool (EPAT) is a tool that enables the policy maker to create different energy portfolio scenarios with various energy and electricity sources, and evaluate the scenario's sustainability environmentally and economically. The Water-Energy-Food nexus systematic approach is the foundation of the EPAT framework. The research evaluates the impact of the current and projected Texas energy portfolios on water and the environment, taking into consideration energy production, electricity generation and policy change. The three scenarios to be assessed include EIA projections for energy production, and EIA projections for electricity generation with and without the Clean Power Plan (CPP). Each scenario is accompanied by tradeoffs across water, land, emissions, energy revenue and electricity cost. The CPP succeeds in mitigating the emissions of the electricity portfolio, but leads to an increase in water consumption and land use. The cost of electricity generation is almost identical with and without environmental conservation. Revenue from energy production increased, but results are majorly influenced by commodity price. Therefore, conservation policies should move from the silo to the nexus mentality to avoid unintended consequences as improving one part of the nexus could end up worsening the other parts.

  7. Assessing local resilience to typhoon disasters: A case study in Nansha, Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    Building communities’ resilience to natural weather hazards requires the appropriate assessment of such capabilities. The resilience of a community is affected not only by social, economic, and infrastructural factors but also by natural factors (including both site characteristics and the intensity and frequency of events). To date, studies of natural factors have tended to draw on annual censuses and to use aggregated data, thus allowing only a limited understanding of site-specific hot or cold spots of resilience. To improve this situation, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of resilience to typhoon disasters in Nansha district, Guangzhou, China. We measured disaster resilience on 1×1-km grid units with respect to socioeconomic and infrastructural dimensions using a set of variables and also estimated natural factors in a detailed manner with a meteorological modeling tool, the Weather Research and Forecast model. We selected typhoon samples over the past 10 years, simulated the maximum typhoon-borne strong winds and precipitation of each sample, and predicted the wind speed and precipitation volume at the 100-year return-level on the basis of extreme value analysis. As a result, a composite resilience index was devised by combining factors in different domains using factor analysis coupled with the analytic hierarchy process. Resilience mapping using this composite resilience index allows local governments and planners to identify potential hot or cold spots of resilience and the dominant factors in particular locations, thereby assisting them in making more rational site-specific measures to improve local resilience to future typhoon disasters. PMID:29522526

  8. The role of qualitative risk assessment in environmental management: A Kazakhstani case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajenthira, Arani, E-mail: arani.kajenthira@gmail.com [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Holmes, John, E-mail: johnho@earth.ox.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); McDonnell, Rachael, E-mail: rachael.mcdonnell@ouce.ox.ac.uk [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Successful environmental management is partly contingent on the effective recognition and communication of environmental health risks to the public. Yet risk perceptions are known to differ between experts and laypeople; laypeople often exhibit higher perceptions of risk in comparison to experts, particularly when these risks are associated with radiation, nuclear power, or nuclear waste. This paper consequently explores stakeholder risk perceptions associated with a mercury-contaminated chloralkali production facility in Kazakhstan. Using field observations and in-depth interviews conducted in the vicinity of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant, this work assesses the relevance of the substantial on-site mercury contamination to the health and livelihoods of the local population with the goal of informing remediation activity through a combination of quantitative and qualitative risk assessments. The findings of this research study cannot be broadly generalized to all the primary stakeholders of the site due to the small sample size; however, the indifference of the local population towards both the possibility of mercury-related health risks and the need for mitigation activity could pose a substantial barrier to successful site remediation and also suggests that a qualitative understanding of stakeholder risk perceptions could play an important role in striving towards sustainable, long-term environmental risk management. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mercury spill in Kazakhstan created environmental and health risks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the role of risk communication/perception in environmental management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term risk mitigation was impeded by lack of engagement of site stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prioritizing engagement of the local population is critical for remediation success.

  9. Assessment of fungal contamination in waste sorting and incineration-case study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Gomes, Anita Q; Abegão, João; Sabino, Raquel; Graça, Tiago; Viegas, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Organic waste is a rich substrate for microbial growth, and because of that, workers from waste industry are at higher risk of exposure to bioaerosols. This study aimed to assess fungal contamination in two plants handling solid waste management. Air samples from the two plants were collected through an impaction method. Surface samples were also collected by swabbing surfaces of the same indoor sites. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5 to 7 d. After lab processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative and qualitative results were obtained with identification of the isolated fungal species. Air samples were also subjected to molecular methods by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) using an impinger method to measure DNA of Aspergillus flavus complex and Stachybotrys chartarum. Assessment of particulate matter (PM) was also conducted with portable direct-reading equipment. Particles concentration measurement was performed at five different sizes (PM0.5; PM1; PM2.5; PM5; PM10). With respect to the waste sorting plant, three species more frequently isolated in air and surfaces were A. niger (73.9%; 66.1%), A. fumigatus (16%; 13.8%), and A. flavus (8.7%; 14.2%). In the incineration plant, the most prevalent species detected in air samples were Penicillium sp. (62.9%), A. fumigatus (18%), and A. flavus (6%), while the most frequently isolated in surface samples were Penicillium sp. (57.5%), A. fumigatus (22.3%) and A. niger (12.8%). Stachybotrys chartarum and other toxinogenic strains from A. flavus complex were not detected. The most common PM sizes obtained were the PM10 and PM5 (inhalable fraction). Since waste is the main internal fungal source in the analyzed settings, preventive and protective measures need to be maintained to avoid worker exposure to fungi and their metabolites.

  10. Assessing local resilience to typhoon disasters: A case study in Nansha, Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinglu; Huang, Bo; Li, Rongrong

    2018-01-01

    Building communities' resilience to natural weather hazards requires the appropriate assessment of such capabilities. The resilience of a community is affected not only by social, economic, and infrastructural factors but also by natural factors (including both site characteristics and the intensity and frequency of events). To date, studies of natural factors have tended to draw on annual censuses and to use aggregated data, thus allowing only a limited understanding of site-specific hot or cold spots of resilience. To improve this situation, we carried out a comprehensive assessment of resilience to typhoon disasters in Nansha district, Guangzhou, China. We measured disaster resilience on 1×1-km grid units with respect to socioeconomic and infrastructural dimensions using a set of variables and also estimated natural factors in a detailed manner with a meteorological modeling tool, the Weather Research and Forecast model. We selected typhoon samples over the past 10 years, simulated the maximum typhoon-borne strong winds and precipitation of each sample, and predicted the wind speed and precipitation volume at the 100-year return-level on the basis of extreme value analysis. As a result, a composite resilience index was devised by combining factors in different domains using factor analysis coupled with the analytic hierarchy process. Resilience mapping using this composite resilience index allows local governments and planners to identify potential hot or cold spots of resilience and the dominant factors in particular locations, thereby assisting them in making more rational site-specific measures to improve local resilience to future typhoon disasters.

  11. The role of qualitative risk assessment in environmental management: A Kazakhstani case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Holmes, John; McDonnell, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Successful environmental management is partly contingent on the effective recognition and communication of environmental health risks to the public. Yet risk perceptions are known to differ between experts and laypeople; laypeople often exhibit higher perceptions of risk in comparison to experts, particularly when these risks are associated with radiation, nuclear power, or nuclear waste. This paper consequently explores stakeholder risk perceptions associated with a mercury-contaminated chloralkali production facility in Kazakhstan. Using field observations and in-depth interviews conducted in the vicinity of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant, this work assesses the relevance of the substantial on-site mercury contamination to the health and livelihoods of the local population with the goal of informing remediation activity through a combination of quantitative and qualitative risk assessments. The findings of this research study cannot be broadly generalized to all the primary stakeholders of the site due to the small sample size; however, the indifference of the local population towards both the possibility of mercury-related health risks and the need for mitigation activity could pose a substantial barrier to successful site remediation and also suggests that a qualitative understanding of stakeholder risk perceptions could play an important role in striving towards sustainable, long-term environmental risk management. - Highlights: ► A mercury spill in Kazakhstan created environmental and health risks. ► We evaluated the role of risk communication/perception in environmental management. ► Long-term risk mitigation was impeded by lack of engagement of site stakeholders. ► Prioritizing engagement of the local population is critical for remediation success.

  12. ACADEMICS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WEB 2.0 ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezanu Ramona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is the way through which the universities demonstrate their own value, but also that of their graduates. Our present paper suggests a debate regarding the evaluation of students in economics in a web 2.0 world. More precisely, we are trying to offer an answer to the question: Do the students of economics have the necessary computer science abilities to learn and to be evaluated in a 2.0 web environment? The paper starts off with the presentation of fundamental principles of assessment and teaching done with Web 2.0 means and methods. The exemplifications are added to this structure as they had been presented in the specialized works of this domain. The paper then goes on to present the results of our prospective study. Through this prospective study we wanted to identify the attributes based on which we could create the next phases of our research into elaborating the behavior of the students as it is observed during the process of evaluation. This evaluation takes place in a world that is bombarded with synchronic and a-synchronic means of communication called according to acronyms such as web 2.0, 3.0 and maybe even 4.0. It is in this context that we consider that the main purpose of the present paper is to determine the state of being prepared/ unprepared characterizing the student in the use (acceptance of the evaluation and assessment of certain softs for socialization. In order to achieve our purpose, we have carried out a survey based on which we were intending to obtain the students’ level of perception regarding the evaluation system they are subjected to through web 2.0 means as well as their reaction to the web type of evaluation. The result we obtained demonstrated that the students are willing to participate at a declarative level, but they are not actually willing to be evaluated through web 2.0 means when it comes to practice. The end of the study is where we identified the need for a better means of informing and

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios T. Balafoutis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Precision viticulture is the application of site-specific techniques to vineyard production to improve grape quality and yield and minimize the negative effects on the environment. While there are various studies on the inherent spatial and temporal variability of vineyards, the assessment of the environmental impact of variable rate applications has attracted limited attention. In this study, two vineyards planted with different grapevine cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah were examined for four consecutive growing seasons (2013–2016. The first year, the two vineyards were only studied in terms of soil properties and crop characteristics, which resulted in the delineation of two distinct management zones for each field. For the following three years, variable rate nutrient application was applied to each management zone based on leaf canopy reflectance, where variable rate irrigation was based on soil moisture sensors, meteorological data, evapotranspiration calculation, and leaf canopy reflectance. Life cycle assessment was carried out to identify the effect of variable rate applications on vineyard agro-ecosystems. The results of variable rate nutrients and water application in the selected management zones as an average value of three growing seasons were compared to the conventional practice. It was found that the reduction of product carbon footprint (PCF of grapes in Sauvignon Blanc between the two periods was 25% in total. Fertilizer production and distribution (direct and application (indirect was the most important sector of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction, accounting for 17.2%, and the within-farm energy use was the second ranked sector with 8.8% (crop residue management increase GHG emissions by 1.1%, while 0.1% GHG reduction is obtained by pesticide use. For the Syrah vineyard, where the production was less intensive, precision viticulture led to a PCF reduction of 28.3% compared to conventional production. Fertilizers

  14. Assessment of Three Flood Hazard Mapping Methods: A Case Study of Perlis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizat, Nazirah; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Flood is a common natural disaster and also affect the all state in Malaysia. Regarding to Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) in 2007, about 29, 270 km2 or 9 percent of region of the country is prone to flooding. Flood can be such devastating catastrophic which can effected to people, economy and environment. Flood hazard mapping can be used is an important part in flood assessment to define those high risk area prone to flooding. The purposes of this study are to prepare a flood hazard mapping in Perlis and to evaluate flood hazard using frequency ratio, statistical index and Poisson method. The six factors affecting the occurrence of flood including elevation, distance from the drainage network, rainfall, soil texture, geology and erosion were created using ArcGIS 10.1 software. Flood location map in this study has been generated based on flooded area in year 2010 from DID. These parameters and flood location map were analysed to prepare flood hazard mapping in representing the probability of flood area. The results of the analysis were verified using flood location data in year 2013, 2014, 2015. The comparison result showed statistical index method is better in prediction of flood area rather than frequency ratio and Poisson method.

  15. Generic performance assessment for a deep repository for low and intermediate level waste in the UK - a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Patton, D.; Copplestone D.; Norris, S.; O'Sullivan, P.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of radionuclides in soil and surface water, taken from a generic performance assessment of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, assumed to be located in the UK, have been used as the basis for a case study in assessing radiological impacts on the natural environment. Simplified descriptions of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types likely to be impacted have been developed. A scoping assessment has identified 226 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 230 Th and 238 U as having the highest potential for impact, with doses from internally incorporated alpha emitters as being potentially of particular importance. These nuclides, together with 36 Cl and 129 I (which have proved to be of importance in radiological risk assessments for humans) were included in a more detailed dose assessment. A basic methodology for dose assessment of ecosystems is described, and has been applied for the defined impacted ecosystems. Paucity of published data on concentration factors prevented a more detailed assessment for terrestrial ecosystems. For the aquatic ecosystem, a more detailed assessment was possible and highest calculated absorbed dose rates (weighted for the likely higher biological effectiveness of alpha radiation were about 6.5 μGy h -1 . We conclude that harm to the impacted ecosystems is unlikely and make the observation that the lack of concentration factor or transfer factor data for a sufficiently wide range of species, ecosystems and nuclides appears to be the principal obstacle to establishing a comprehensive framework for the application of radiological protection to ecosystems

  16. Assessing the health impact of transnational corporations: a case study on McDonald?s Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances E.; Fisher, Matt; Harris, Elizabeth; Friel, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Background The practices of transnational corporations affect population health through production methods, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. There has been limited research on community exposures to TNC policies and practices. Our pilot research used McDonald?s Australia to test methods for assessing the health impacts of one TNC within Australia. Methods We adapted existing Health Impact Assessment methods to assess M...

  17. A Bayesian belief nets based quantitative software reliability assessment for PSA: COTS case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2002-03-01

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualitative assessment methods. Then recently practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. But conventional quantitative software reliability assessment methods are not enough to get the necessary results in assessing the safety critical software used in nuclear power plants. Thus, current reliability assessment methods for these digital systems exclude the software part or use arbitrary values for the software reliability in the assessment. This reports discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software dedication process that KAERI developed was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the proposed method in PSA

  18. Comparative assessment of landslide susceptibility. Case study: the Niraj river basin (Transylvania depression, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoŞca Sanda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a comparison between two independent models used to evaluate landslide susceptibility in Romania: first, the model derived from the Romanian Governmental Decision no. 447/2003 (H.G. 447 and second, the bivariate statistical analysis. Considering the numerous objections to the first approach, which is also imposed by law, the accuracy of the results was analyzed using an alternative method which takes into consideration the reality from the field to a greater extent (the inventory of the existing landslides. The case study is focused on the Niraj catchment area (658 km2, a representative area for frequent landslide occurrence. The H.G. 447 model implies the estimation of the importance of eight factors involved in landslide occurrence: lithology, geomorphology, structure, hydro-climatic factors, hydrogeology, seismicity, forest cover and the anthropogenic factor. A thematic map was generated and analyzed for each one of the eight factors influencing slope instability and a specific coefficient was assigned. The statistical model, based on the bivariate probability analysis, was applied in order to predict the spatial distribution of the susceptibility classes. The probability of landslide occurrence was estimated based on the assumption that the prediction of the spatial distributions of landslides starts from the existing ones. In order to validate the model, the resulting maps were compared with the existing landslide maps: the relative landslide density index (R and the relative operation curve (ROC value were calculated, which indicate that the statistical model emphasizes a better correlation between the susceptibility classes and the active landslides (ROC value 0.972, the causative factors selected being relevant for the applied models.

  19. Integrated design and sustainable assessment of innovative biomass supply chains: A case-study on miscanthus in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Aurelie; Wohlfahrt, Julie; Morandi, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    economically optimized across the whole supply chain (from field to plant gate) by considering potential feedstock production (from a high-resolution map), costs, logistical constraints and product prices. Then sustainability assessment was conducted by combining recognized methodologies: economic analysis......Cost-efficient, environmental-friendly and socially sustainable biomass supply chains are urgently needed to achieve the 2020 targets of the Strategic Energy Technologies-Plan of the European Union. This paper investigated technical, social, economic, and environmental barriers to the development......, multi-regional input-output analysis, emergy assessment, and life-cycle assessment. The analysis of the case study scenarios found that expanding biomass supply from 6,000 to 30,000tons of dry matter per year did not impact the profitability, which remained around 20€perton of biomass procured...

  20. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  1. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar

    2013-08-01

    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future

  2. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  3. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study. This report outlines an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to ...

  4. Assessing health care needs and clinical outcome with Urological case complexity : A study using INTERMED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herms, AMRD; Pinggera, GM; De Jonge, P; Strasser, H; Sollner, W

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract symptoms and, particularly, urinary incontinence are often chronic and complex conditions that cause diagnosis, treatment, and management problems. In many cases, psychosocial factors contribute to the development of a chronic condition. The authors investigated whether INTERMED, an

  5. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area, which is regularly affected by flooding, landslides and earthquakes. In order to assist the local emergency commission and the municipality, a pilot study was carried out in the development of a GI...

  6. Developing an Information Literacy Assessment Rubric: A Case Study of Collaboration, Process, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Christina H.; Ke, Irene; Creelman, Kerry M.; Vaillancourt, Shawn P.

    2014-01-01

    A team of four librarians at the University of Houston (UH) Libraries partnered with the UH Office of Institutional Effectiveness and its Director of Assessment and Accreditation Services for General Education to conduct a campus-wide, exploratory assessment of undergraduate information literacy skills. The project evaluated a selection of…

  7. Non-invasive assessment of equine muscular function: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This specific region was assessed by accelerometry which revealed a normal step interval for the injured leg when compared with the contralateral, but a weaker acceleration and strike force. Finally, an assessment of muscle resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) using bioimpedance confirmed a regional loss of muscle mass ...

  8. Monitoring Basic Skills Acquisition through Rapid Learning Assessments: A Case Study from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzi, Helen; Crouch, Luis; Echegaray, Marcela; Pasco, Consuelo; Sampe, Jessyca

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a reading assessment pilot test that took place in the context of a process of analysis and dialogue aimed at contributing to the analysis of school quality in Peru, as part of a World Bank sector assessment. Peruvian first and second graders at the bottom half of the income distribution were asked to read a brief passage…

  9. Economic security integrated assessment: a case study for OJSC “Sintez”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esembekova A. U.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article seeks to define a comprehensive assessment of economic security of an organization by calculating ratios. The authors aim to determine the financial stability and the probability of bankruptcy in order to assess the liquidity of the organization, and learn how well it is protected from internal and external threats.

  10. Implementing Summative Assessment with a Formative Flavour: A Case Study in a Large Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jaclyn; Panadero, Ernesto; Boud, David

    2018-01-01

    Teaching a large class can present real challenges in design, management and standardisation of assessment practices. One of the main dilemmas for university teachers is how to implement effective formative assessment practices with accompanying high-quality feedback consistently over time with large classroom groups. This article reports on how…

  11. Design Decisions in Developing Learning Trajectories-Based Assessments in Mathematics: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan; Rupp, André A.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the design decisions of a team developing diagnostic assessments for a learning trajectory focused on rational number reasoning. The analysis focuses on the design rationale for key decisions about how to develop the cognitive assessments and related validity arguments within a fluid state and national policy context. The…

  12. Improving Digital Assessment Practice: A Case Study of a Cross-Institutional Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anne-Marie; Ross, Bella; Robbie, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Assessment practice is a crucial component of higher education learning and teaching, however many academic teachers lack formal teaching qualifications and often fall back on teaching and assessing the way they themselves were taught. Furthermore, with increasingly diverse student cohorts, larger classes and increasing components of teaching…

  13. Assessment of groundwater potentiality using geophysical techniques in Wadi Allaqi basin, Eastern Desert, Egypt - Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2017-12-01

    Electrical resistivity surveying has been carried out for the determination of the thickness and resistivity of layered media in Wadi Allaqi, Eastern Desert, Egypt. That is widely used geophysical tool for the purpose of assessing the groundwater potential and siting the best locations for boreholes in the unconfined Nubian Sandstone aquifers within the study area. This has been done using thirteen 1D Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) surveys. 1D-VES surveys provide only layered model structures for the subsurface and do not provide comprehensive information for interpreting the structure and extent of subsurface hydro-geological features. The integration of two-dimensional (2D) geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting has been done to provide a more detailed identification for the subsurface hydro-geological features from which potential sites for successful borehole locations are recognized. In addition, five magnetic profiles were measured for basement depth determination, expected geological structures and thickness of sedimentary succession that could include some basins suitable for groundwater accumulation as groundwater aquifers.

  14. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Cockles (Anadara granosa Farming: A Case Study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Dina Razman Pahri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of the cockle farming activity in Malaysia. The study was conducted by a mid-point approach following the ISO 14040 series of standard and CML-IA Baseline V3.01 method using SimaPro 8 software. A total of ten impact categories were selected namely abiotic depletion (ABD, global warming potential (GWP, ozone layer depletion (OLD, human toxicity (HT, freshwater ecotoxicity (FET, marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MET, terrestrial ecotoxicity (TET, photochemical oxidation (PO, acidification (ACD, and eutrophication (EUT. Capital goods dominate the impact of HT (82.20%, ABD (81.72%, EUT (81.36%, FET (79.3%, PO (79.02%, MET (75.06%, TET (59.8%, and GWP (53.15%. Operational goods dominate OLD at 80.24% and ACD at 53%. Fiberglass material dominated almost the entire environmental impact except for the eutrophication which was dominated by polypropylene. Harvesting process was identified as the main process contributed to the potential environmental impact in cockle farming. LCA is potentially expanded not only to the entire chain of cockle production, but also to put into practice other aquaculture systems in Malaysia.

  16. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2018-06-15

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of energy and economic performance of office building models: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. Y.; Ye, C. T.; Li, H. S.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. B.

    2016-08-01

    Energy consumption of building accounts for more than 37.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of energy-saving buildings is just 5% in China. In this paper, in order to save potential energy, an office building in Southern China was selected as a test example for energy consumption characteristics. The base building model was developed by TRNSYS software and validated against the recorded data from the field work in six days out of August-September in 2013. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for energy performance of building envelope retrofitting; five envelope parameters were analyzed for assessing the thermal responses. Results indicated that the key sensitivity factors were obtained for the heat-transfer coefficient of exterior walls (U-wall), infiltration rate and shading coefficient (SC), of which the sum sensitivity factor was about 89.32%. In addition, the results were evaluated in terms of energy and economic analysis. The analysis of sensitivity validated against some important results of previous studies. On the other hand, the cost-effective method improved the efficiency of investment management in building energy.

  18. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  19. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  20. Reflective action assessment with a prospective clinical problem solving tool in the context of rehabilitation medicine: an illustrative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, David; Mpofu, Elias; Madden, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a case formulation approach applying a prospective ICF derived clinical tool to assess rehabilitation needs for a community dwelling stroke survivor with care from an outpatient rehabilitation medicine clinic. Case history data on the person were assessed for rehabilitation management planning using a prospective tool to interlink current with projected future functional status in everyday settings. Implicit assessment with reflective action informed decision points at each stage of the rehabilitation process. As a result of reflective action using the prospective tool, rehabilitation management led to significant changes in client participation after limitations to mobility and self care were mapped to the living conditions of the stroke survivor. The context sensitive rehabilitative plan resulted in higher subjective health-related quality of life in the stroke survivor and significant other and enhanced their capacity for participation. Reflective action informed assessment applying ICF concepts to clinical problem solving resulted in positive gains in health-related quality of life in a stroke survivor.

  1. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Play Provisions for Children in Urban Neighborhoods of India: Case Study Nagpur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti D. Bhonsle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of satisfying urban environments calls for the planners, designers and policy makers to understand the structures that cause residents to feel satisfied with their environments. The paper focuses on qualitative aspects of the childrens play spaces in the urban neighborhoods of Nagpur which were analysed with the background of their daily activity schedule survey, their assement of the existing play provisions and their aspirations from their neighborhood environment quality. Apart from these studies, the childrens and their parents perceptions of the quality of urban residential environments was also studied. The literature review gave an extract of relevant attributes of environmental quality (EQ which became the theoritical basis for the work. The research generates an approach to assessing the child friendliness of our urban neighborhoods, which in certain ways is not even catering to the most fundamental right of the child to play; it also generates a matrix of children’s needs and parameters relevant to Indian context. A theoretical model of the residents satisfaction is also generated which forms the base for the qualitative questionnaire analysis in SPSS 20 with a set of dependent and independent variables which shows the correlation of the resident’s satisfaction with child friendliness of neighborhoods in the Indian context. The regression model and mathematical equation as an outcome of the qualitative analysis was also validated upon two other urban neighborhoods of the city of Nagpur. The research with all its tools used and the approach adopted can help in undertaking such child-centered researches in other cities of India which have their own unique issues and characteristics of urban growth.

  3. Integrated Earthquake Risk Assessment in the Kathmandu Valley - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Julia; Anhorn, Johannes; Khazai, Bijan; Nüsser, Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urban growth is a process which can be observed in cities worldwide. Managing these growing urban areas has become a major challenge for both governing bodies and citizens. Situated not only in a highly earthquake and landslide-prone area, but comprising also the cultural and political capital of Nepal, the fast expanding Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayan region is of particular interest. Vulnerability assessment has been an important tool for spatial planning in this already densely populated area. The magnitude 8.4 earthquake of Bihar in 1934 cost 8600 Nepalis their lives, destroyed 20% of the Kathmandu building stock and heavily damaged another 40%. Since then, Kathmandu has grown into a hub with over a million inhabitants. Rapid infrastructure and population growth aggravate the vulnerability conditions, particularly in the core area of Metropolitan Kathmandu. We propose an integrative framework for vulnerability and risk in Kathmandu Valley. In order to move towards a more systemic and integrated approach, we focus on interactions between natural hazards, physically engineered systems and society. High resolution satellite images are used to identify structural vulnerability of the building stock within the study area. Using object-based image analysis, the spatial dynamics of urban growth are assessed and validated using field data. Complementing this is the analysis of socio-economic attributes gained from databases and field surveys. An indicator-based vulnerability and resilience index will be operationalized using multi-attribute value theory and statistical methods such as principal component analysis. The results allow for a socio-economic comparison of places and their relative potential for harm and loss. The objective in this task is to better understand the interactions between nature and society, engineered systems and built environments through the development of an interdisciplinary framework on systemic seismic risk and vulnerability. Data

  4. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); White, Lori D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Andrea S. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wilson, Vickie S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P. [National Center for Environmental Research Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Bioinformatics Center, Environmental Bioinformatics and Computational Toxicology Center (ebCTC), Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  5. Migration case studies and the implications of humic substances for the radiological performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.; Bernhard, G.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Schmeide, K.; Benes, P.

    2005-01-01

    Using the information obtained during the experimental and modelling tasks a series of migration case studies have been performed. These are not full performance assessment studies, but are merely intended to demonstrate the likely impact of humic substances upon the migration of radionuclides in the environment. Three separate sites have been investigated: (i) a shallow waste repository site at Dukovany in the Czech Republic; (ii) the formerly proposed, but now withdrawn, waste repository site at Gorleben in Germany; (iii) a large rock pile, consisting of tailings from a uranium mine, Schlema Alberode, near Dresden, Germany. To provide the maximum information, a variety of 'release scenarios' have been defined: continuous leakage in the Dukovany case study; a short pulsed release at Gorleben, and steady leaching in the case of the rock pile. The effects of the magnitudes of the chemical rate constants have been studied along with the effects of the initial distribution between exchangeable and non-exchangeable. Further, modelling during the HUPA project has shown that in certain lab column experiments the sorption of humic and humic-radionuclide complexes onto mineral surfaces could have an impact upon migration. Therefore, the likely impact of these processes on the field scale was investigated. In each of the three cases, humics are predicted to have a significant impact upon migration. However, whereas for the repository cases, it is the presence of the non-exchangeable fraction that results in migration, and the exchangeable fraction plays no significant part in transport, for the rock pile, the model predicts that the humic should promote migration even with the exchangeable interaction alone. Humic sorption may affect the degree of migration, but even in the case of maximum impact, the net effect of humic substances is still to enhance migration significantly. In fact, the initial distribution of radionuclide upon entry to the far-field is much more

  6. Integrating Global Open Geo-Information for Major Disaster Assessment: A Case Study of the Myanmar Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suju Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Major disasters typically impact large areas, cause considerable damages, and result in significant human and economic losses. The timely and accurate estimation of impacts and damages is essential to better understand disaster conditions and to support emergency response operations. Geo-information drawn from various sources at multi spatial-temporal scales can be used for disaster assessments through a synthesis of hazard, exposure, and post disaster information based on pertinent approaches. Along with the increased availability of open sourced data and cooperation initiatives, more global scale geo-information, including global land cover datasets, has been produced and can be integrated with other information for disaster dynamic damage assessment (e.g., impact estimation immediately after a disaster occurs, physical damage assessment during the emergency response stage, and comprehensive assessment following an emergency response. Residential areas and arable lands affected by the flood disaster occurring from July to August 2015 in Myanmar were assessed based on satellite images, GlobeLand30 data, and other global open sourced information as a study case. The results show that integrating global open geo-information could serve as a practical and efficient means of assessing damage resulting from major disasters worldwide, especially at the early emergency response stage.

  7. Eco-Efficiency Assessment and Food Security Potential of Home Gardening: A Case Study in Padua, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sanyé-Mengual

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the expanding urban agriculture phenomenon in Europe, home gardens are a traditional form that have kept agriculture within cities, even becoming crucial in certain historical periods (e.g., war periods. However, horticultural practices in home gardens can also have negative consequences. The goal of this paper is to assess the eco-efficiency of home gardens as a type of urban agriculture. To do so, a case study in Padua (Italy was evaluated following life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods. A home garden of 30.6 m2 and 21 crop cycles were evaluated. The functional unit of the assessment was 1 kg of harvested fresh vegetable at the consumption point, and the ReCiPe method was employed for impact assessment. Environmental assessment indicated that organic fertilization, use of tap water, mineral fertilization and pesticides were the most contributing elements of the entire life cycle. Furthermore, the relevance of garden design and crop selection was a determinant in the eco-efficiency results. The assessed home garden could satisfy the food requirements of between 1 and 2 members of the household. Crop management and design recommendations are provided to improve eco-efficiency and food security potential of home gardens.

  8. Assessing and Improving Children's Rights in Hospitals: Case Studies from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel Fernandes Guerreiro, Ana; Kuttumuratova, Aigul; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Boderscova, Larisa; Pirova, Zulfiya; Weber, Martin W

    2016-06-01

    There is a recognized need to raise evidence on how to adopt human rights-based approaches (HRBAs) to health and to assess their impact. In 2013 and 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe used a set of tools to assess and improve the situation of children's rights in 11 hospitals in Kyrgyzstan, 10 hospitals in Tajikistan, and 21 hospitals in Moldova, by applying a HRBA to health, taking as a reference the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The assessment results show a similar situation across countries in some areas, and more or less significant variation in others. Common gaps include the need to improve adolescent-friendly health services, the rights to privacy and play; and infrastructure and equipment. In Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, a second round of assessment, was carried out, which showed an effective change in several areas, whilst other areas showed persistent gaps. Moldova did not carry out a second round of assessment. Involving children and parents in the assessment was crucial to obtain more reliable data; the project showed how to use the CRC as a framework to improve quality of care for children (QoC); and the tools were proven useful for self-assessment.

  9. Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects Using LCA: Ethanol Biofuel as a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courchesne, Alexandre; Becaert, Valerie; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g. biofuel use, sequestering plant, afforestation project, etc.). The Lashof accounting methodology is chosen amid other methods of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission characterization for its relative simplicity and capability of characterizing all types...... of carbon mitigation projects. It calculates the cumulative radiative forcing caused by GHG emission within a predetermined time frame. Basically, the developed framework uses the Mg-year as a functional unit and isolates impacts related to the climate mitigation function with system expansion. The proposed...... framework is demonstrated with a case study of tree ethanol pathways (maize, sugarcane and willow). Study shows that carbon mitigation assessment through LCA is possible and that it could be a useful tool for decision makers as it can compare different projects regardless of their original context. Case...

  10. Developing an Information Literacy Assessment Rubric: A Case Study of Collaboration, Process, and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hoffman Gola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A team of four librarians at the [Institution Name] ([Institution Initials] Libraries partnered with the [Institution Initials] Office of Institutional Effectiveness and its Director of Assessment & Accreditation Services for General Education to conduct a campus-wide, exploratory assessment of undergraduate information literacy skills. The project evaluated a selection of graduating, senior-level student papers using a rubric developed as part of the collaboration. This paper describes and discusses the collaborative rubric development and rating process, the practical implications for other librarians seeking to conduct a similar assessment, and the impact the project is having on the library instruction program.

  11. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  12. Assessing the impact of systematic reviews on future research: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Nerz, Patrick; Dalberth, Barbara; Voisin, Christiane; Lohr, Kathleen N; Tant, Elizabeth; Jonas, Daniel E; Carey, Timothy

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of systematic reviews on research funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) through Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs), and to identify barriers to and facilitators for the effects of these documents on future research. Two AHRQ systematic reviews were selected as case studies to evaluate their impact on future research. Key citations generated by these reports were identified through ISI Web of Science and PubMed Central and traced forward to identify effects on subsequent studies through citation analysis from updated systematic reviews on the topics. Requests for applications and program announcements from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts website were reviewed and dissemination data were obtained from AHRQ. Finally, interviews were conducted with 13 key informants to help identify short-, medium- and long-term impacts of the EPC reviews. The measurable impact of the two EPC reviews is demonstrably greater on short-term outcomes (greater awareness of the issues) than on medium-term (e.g., the generation of new knowledge) or long-term outcomes (e.g., changes in patient practice or health outcomes). Factors such as the topic and the timing of the report relative to the development of the field may explain the impact of these two AHRQ reports. The degree to which the new research can be directly attributed to the AHRQ reviews remains unclear. Key informants discussed several benefits stemming from the EPC reports, including providing a foundation for the research community on which to build, heightening awareness of the gaps in knowledge, increasing the quality of research and sparking new directions of research. However, the degree to which these reports were influential hinged on several factors including marketing efforts, the very nature of the reports and other influences external to the EPC domain. The findings outlined in this article illustrate the importance of numerous factors influencing future

  13. Discrimination and Assessment of Induced Seismicity in Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Lindsey, N.; Foxall, W.; Robertson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes induced by human activity have become a matter of heightened public concern during recent years. Of particular concern is seismicity associated with wastewater injection, which has included events having magnitudes greater than 5. The causes of the induced events are primarily changes in pore-pressure, fluid volume and perhaps temperature due to injection. Recent research in the US has focused on mid-continental regions having low rates of naturally-occurring seismicity, where induced events can be identified by relatively straightforward spatial and temporal correlation of seismicity with high-volume injection activities. Recent examples include events correlated with injection of wastewater in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Ohio, and long-term brine injection in the Paradox Valley in Colorado. Even in some of the cases where there appears at first sight to be a clear spatial correlation between seismicity and injection, it has been difficult to establish causality definitively. Here, we discuss methods to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. We concentrate our study on Southern California, where large numbers of wastewater injection wells are located in oil-producing basins that experience moderate to high rates of naturally-occurring seismicity. Using the catalog of high-precision CISN relocations produced by Hauksson et al. (BSSA, 2012), we aim to discriminate induced from natural events based on spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity occurrence characteristics and their relationships to injection activities, known active faults and other faults favorably oriented for slip under the tectonic stress field. Since the vast majority of induced earthquakes are very small, it is crucial to include all events above the detection threshold of the CISN in each area studied. In addition to exploring the correlation of seismicity to injection activities in time and space, we analyze variations in frequency-magnitude distributions, which can

  14. Atmospheric pollution assessment from a mountainous environment in Southern Ghana: case study of Abetifi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei

    2016-07-01

    In the pursuit to improve man’s livelihood, human activities which include emission of heavy metals from various industries and sectors, as well as the past use of chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and flame retardants have often mobilized and redistributed natural substances and anthropogenic pollutants into the atmosphere, predisposing it to relatively high concentrations of such pollutants even in pristine areas in the environment. This study assessed the level of atmospheric pollution, contributing sources and human health exposure risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along with selected heavy metals with focus on Abetifi, one of the highest altitude environments in Ghana. Passive sampling with polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent was employed. Samplers were deployed every 84 days for two years. A total of 65 polyurethane foams were deployed and twelve (12) groups of analytes were considered together with their various isomers. High resolution gas chromatographic technique coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and electron capture detectors (ECD) were used in the analysis of the POPs. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MS was employed in analysing the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) while the heavy metals were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and UNMIX model were used to group pollution source contribution of all analytes (POPs and heavy metals) in this study. Diagnostic isomer and other predictive ratios were also employed for source apportionment of various individual analyte groups. Results revealed that polychlorinated dibenzo-furans gave with the least total mean concentration (0.074 pg/m"3) for the sampling period and polybrominated biphenyls gave the highest (55 pg/m"3). The pesticide group gave values in the order of DRINs (53 pg/m"3) > DDT (41 pg/m"3) > HCHs (28 pg/m"3). Data for perflourinated compounds (PFCs) in

  15. Performance metrics for the assessment of satellite data products: an ocean color case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance assessment of ocean color satellite data has generally relied on statistical metrics chosen for their common usage and the rationale for selecting certain metrics is infrequently explained. Commonly reported statistics based on mean squared errors, such as the coeffic...

  16. Using Blackboard to Deliver Library Research Skills Assessment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura A Smale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other college and university departments, academic libraries are increasingly expected to assess their services and facilities. This article describes an initial step in the development of a comprehensive assessment program for library instruction in the Brooklyn College Library. A pre- and post-quiz were developed based on the curriculum for a required library session in an introductory English composition course. The quizzes were designed to establish a baseline for student knowledge of information literacy as well as measure the effect of library instruction on student learning. We also sought to evaluate the suitability of the Blackboard learning management system for assessment of library instruction. Our discussion of the benefits and limitations of this pilot project will be useful to instruction librarians considering using Blackboard to implement multiple choice quizzes as a means of assessing information literacy and library instruction.

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment: a case study of interconnected 500 kV Italy-France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, S.; Ceccariglia, M.; Rivabene, N.; Motawi, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the new interconnected power transmission line Italy-France is applied the Strategic Environmental Assessment procedure for the purpose of integration planning electric and railway lines of the new base tunnel Lyon Turin Ferroviaire Frejus [it

  18. Adaptive assessment and management of riverine ecosystems: the Crocodile/Elands River case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available to assess the collected data relative to a reference state, homogeneous river segments were identified. Each segment was classified in terms of its relative ecological integrity, based on three biological indicators (fish, benthic invertebrates, riparian...

  19. Developing an Information Literacy Assessment Rubric: A Case Study of Collaboration, Process, and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Hoffman Gola; Irene Ke; Kerry M. Creelman; Shawn P. Vaillancourt

    2014-01-01

    A team of four librarians at the [Institution Name] ([Institution Initials]) Libraries partnered with the [Institution Initials] Office of Institutional Effectiveness and its Director of Assessment & Accreditation Services for General Education to conduct a campus-wide, exploratory assessment of undergraduate information literacy skills. The project evaluated a selection of graduating, senior-level student papers using a rubric developed as part of the collaboration. This paper describes and ...

  20. Flood Risk Assessment as a Part of Integrated Flood and Drought Analysis. Case Study: Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabnakorn, Saowanit; Suryadi, Fransiscus X.; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Flood and drought are two main meteorological catastrophes that have created adverse consequences to more than 80% of total casualties universally, 50% by flood and 31% by drought. Those natural hazards have the tendency of increasing frequency and degree of severity and it is expected that climate change will exacerbate their occurrences and impacts. In addition, growing population and society interference are the other key factors that pressure on and exacerbate the adverse impacts. Consequently, nowadays, the loss from any disasters becomes less and less acceptable bringing about more people's consciousness on mitigation measures and management strategies and policies. In general, due to the difference in their inherent characteristics and time occurrences flood and drought mitigation and protection have been separately implemented, managed, and supervised by different group of authorities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop an integrated mitigation measure or a management policy able to surmount both problems to acceptable levels and is conveniently monitored by the same group of civil servants which will be economical in both short- and long-term. As aforementioned of the distinction of fundamental peculiarities and occurrence, the assessment processes of floods and droughts are separately performed using their own specific techniques. In the first part of the research flood risk assessment is focused in order to delineate the flood prone area. The study area is a river plain in southern Thailand where flooding is influenced by monsoon and depression. The work is mainly concentrated on physically-based computational modeling and an assortment of tools was applied for: data completion, areal rainfall interpolation, statistical distribution, rainfall-runoff analysis and flow model simulation. The outcome from the simulation can be concluded that the flood prone areas susceptible to inundation are along the riparian areas, particularly at the

  1. Bio-Inspired Sustainability Assessment for Building Product Development—Concept and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Horn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement culminating in a globalized economy has brought tremendous improvements for mankind in manifold respects but comes at the cost of alienation from nature. Human activities nowadays are unsustainable and cause severe damage especially in terms of global depletion and destabilization of natural systems but also harm its own social resources. In this paper, a sustainability assessment method is developed based on a bio-inspired sustainability framework that has been developed in the project TRR 141-C01 “The biomimetic promise.” It is aims at regaining the advantages of societal embeddedness in its environment through biological inspiration. The method is developed using a structured approach including requirement specification, description of the inventory models on bio-inspiration and sustainability assessment, creation of a bio-inspired sustainability assessment model and its validation. It is defined as an accompanying assessment for decision support, using a six-fold two-dimensional structure of social, economic and environmental functions and burdens. The method is applied and validated in 6 projects of TRR 141 and its applicability is exemplarily shown by the assessment of “Bio-flexi”, a biobased and biodegradable natural fiber reinforced plastic composite for indoor cladding applications. Based on the findings of the application the assessment method itself is proposed to be advanced towards an adaptive structure and a consequent outlook is provided.

  2. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  3. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  4. CONTRIBUTION OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT TO THE IMPACT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: AN IRISH CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máirín; Moran, Patrick S; Harrington, Patricia; Murphy, Linda; O'Neill, Michelle; Whelan, Marty; Teljeur, Conor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the contribution of stakeholder engagement to the impact of health technology assessment (HTA) using an Irish HTA of a national public access defibrillation (PAD) program. In response to draft legislation that proposed a PAD program, the Minister for Health requested that Health Information and Quality Authority undertake an HTA to inform the design and implementation of a national PAD program and the necessary underpinning legislation. The draft legislation outlined a program requiring widespread installation and maintenance of automatic external defibrillators in specified premises. Stakeholder engagement to optimize the impact of the HTA included one-to-one interviews with politicians, engagement with an Expert Advisory Group, public and targeted consultation, and positive media management. The HTA quantified the clinical benefits of the proposed PAD program as modest, identified that substantial costs would fall on small/medium businesses at a time of economic recession, and that none of the programs modeled were cost-effective. The Senator who proposed the Bill actively publicized the HTA process and its findings and encouraged participation in the public consultation. Participation of key stakeholders was important for the quality and acceptability of the HTA findings and advice. Media management promoted public engagement and understanding. The Bill did not progress. The HTA informed the decision not to progress with legislation for a national PAD program. Engagement was tailored to ensure that key stakeholders including politicians and the public were informed of the HTA process, the findings, and the advice, thereby maximizing acceptance. Appropriate stakeholder engagement optimizes the impact of HTA.

  5. Bottom-up responses to environmental and social impact assessments: A case study from Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Støen, Mariel, E-mail: mariel.stoen@sum.uio.no [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1116, Blindern, Oslo 0317 (Norway); Hirsch, Cecilie [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1116, Blindern, Oslo 0317 (Norway); Department of International Environment and Development, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    In this article we take a closer look at resistance to the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in mining and energy projects in Guatemala. Collectivities resisting mining and hydropower projects in Guatemala are increasingly using the evaluations of EIAs conducted by international independent professionals. Reaching out to international experts is facilitated by local communities' engagements in transnational networks bringing together activists, NGOs, scientists, journalists and others. We argue that resistance movements resort to international professionals to challenge the limits imposed on them by the national legislation and institutional arrangements as well as by the way in which EIAs are performed in the country. Further, the engagements in networks that facilitate access to knowledge contribute to strengthen the legitimacy of communities' claims. Challenges to and complaints about EIAs are ways in which affected communities try to reclaim their right to participate in decision-making related to their local environment and the development of their communities. Both complaints about EIAs and the use of transnational networks to attain better participation in decision making processes at local levels, illustrated in this study for Guatemala, are common responses to the advancement of extractive industries and hydropower development across Latin America. The widespread of initiatives to challenge EIAs involving international experts in the region show that EIAs have become a sort of a transnational battleground. - Highlights: • Communities’ opposition to extractive projects is rooted in lack of participation in decision-making, including EIAs • Experts’ evaluations of approved EIAs confirm communities’ claims of poor practices in the public sector • Research presented here shows that local communities linked to transnational networks are able to scale up their demands.

  6. Bottom-up responses to environmental and social impact assessments: A case study from Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Støen, Mariel; Hirsch, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    In this article we take a closer look at resistance to the practice of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in mining and energy projects in Guatemala. Collectivities resisting mining and hydropower projects in Guatemala are increasingly using the evaluations of EIAs conducted by international independent professionals. Reaching out to international experts is facilitated by local communities' engagements in transnational networks bringing together activists, NGOs, scientists, journalists and others. We argue that resistance movements resort to international professionals to challenge the limits imposed on them by the national legislation and institutional arrangements as well as by the way in which EIAs are performed in the country. Further, the engagements in networks that facilitate access to knowledge contribute to strengthen the legitimacy of communities' claims. Challenges to and complaints about EIAs are ways in which affected communities try to reclaim their right to participate in decision-making related to their local environment and the development of their communities. Both complaints about EIAs and the use of transnational networks to attain better participation in decision making processes at local levels, illustrated in this study for Guatemala, are common responses to the advancement of extractive industries and hydropower development across Latin America. The widespread of initiatives to challenge EIAs involving international experts in the region show that EIAs have become a sort of a transnational battleground. - Highlights: • Communities’ opposition to extractive projects is rooted in lack of participation in decision-making, including EIAs • Experts’ evaluations of approved EIAs confirm communities’ claims of poor practices in the public sector • Research presented here shows that local communities linked to transnational networks are able to scale up their demands.

  7. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessment studies based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Gret-Regamay, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; van Oudenhoven, A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of

  8. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijian Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model for the artificial wetland was established based on cost–benefit analysis by means of field monitoring, social surveys, GIS geostatistics, raster calculation methods, etc. Empirical analysis and calculations were performed on the case study region. The following conclusions were drawn: (1 after ecological restoration, ecosystem services of Jiuli Lake wetland which has become a national level wetland park yield positive values; (2 the improved environment of the Jiuli Lake wetland has a spillover effect on the price of surrounding land, resulting in land price appreciation; (3 using GIS geostatistics and raster calculation methods, the impact range, strength, and value of the spillover effect can be explicitly measured; (4 through the establishment of a value assessment model of the artificial wetland, incomes of the ecological restoration was found to be sufficient to cover the implementation costs, which provides a research foundation for economic feasibility of ecological restoration of mining subsided lakes.

  9. Computational assessment of hemodynamics-based diagnostic tools using a database of virtual subjects: Application to three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemet, Marie; Vennin, Samuel; Alastruey, Jordi

    2016-12-08

    Many physiological indexes and algorithms based on pulse wave analysis have been suggested in order to better assess cardiovascular function. Because these tools are often computed from in-vivo hemodynamic measurements, their validation is time-consuming, challenging, and biased by measurement errors. Recently, a new methodology has been suggested to assess theoretically these computed tools: a database of virtual subjects generated using numerical 1D-0D modeling of arterial hemodynamics. The generated set of simulations encloses a wide selection of healthy cases that could be encountered in a clinical study. We applied this new methodology to three different case studies that demonstrate the potential of our new tool, and illustrated each of them with a clinically relevant example: (i) we assessed the accuracy of indexes estimating pulse wave velocity; (ii) we validated and refined an algorithm that computes central blood pressure; and (iii) we investigated theoretical mechanisms behind the augmentation index. Our database of virtual subjects is a new tool to assist the clinician: it provides insight into the physical mechanisms underlying the correlations observed in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  11. A Feasibility Assessment of Photovoltaic Power Systems in Ireland; a Case Study for the Dublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionnuala Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the cleanest sources for producing renewable energy; however uptake on the Irish renewable energy market to date has been low. There is a lack of support for solar PV systems in Ireland; there is currently no solar PV energy feed-in-tariff as there are for other renewable energy systems in Ireland. Despite the current lack of support, the Government has indicated that support for the uptake of solar PV installations will be provided through the provision of a feed-in tariff in the future. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of installing PV systems under Irish climatic conditions at a location based in Dublin, Ireland, from a technical, environmental and economic point of view. This was achieved by carrying out a life cycle assessment of potential environmental impacts, and analysis of energy and economic payback times relating to the proposed PV system. Four possible renewable feed-in-tariffs (based on existing feed-in-tariffs for other renewable energy systems were considered to determine the effect of such tariffs on the overall economics of the proposed PV system. Results show that life cycle GHG emissions are 69 g CO2-eq per kWh generated by the system, significantly lower than the current electricity grid mix emissions of 469 g CO2-eq per kWh. It will take 5.23 years of operation of the solar plant to generate the same amount of energy (in terms of primary energy equivalent that was used to produce the system itself. The economic payback time varies from 19.3 and 34.4 years depending on the rate of renewable energy feed-in-tariff applied. The costs for the production of PV electricity in this study are higher than is usual in countries where the solar PV market is more developed, e.g., Germany, due to constraints with building integration and lack of experienced PV installers. As more PV is deployed, the Irish PV installer base will increase and ‘learning by doing’ effects

  12. Quantifying pathogen risks associated with potable reuse: A risk assessment case study for Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoueyan, Erfaneh; Ahmad, Sajjad; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Pecson, Brian; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and equivalency of three different potable reuse paradigms: (1) surface water augmentation via de facto reuse with conventional wastewater treatment; (2) surface water augmentation via planned indirect potable reuse (IPR) with ultrafiltration, pre-ozone, biological activated carbon (BAC), and post-ozone; and (3) direct potable reuse (DPR) with ultrafiltration, ozone, BAC, and UV disinfection. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to (1) quantify the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium oocysts; (2) compare the risks associated with different potable reuse systems under optimal and sub-optimal conditions; and (3) identify critical model/operational parameters based on sensitivity analyses. The annual risks of infection associated with the de facto and planned IPR systems were generally consistent with those of conventional drinking water systems [mean of (9.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -5 to (4.5 ± 0.1) × 10 -4 ], while DPR was clearly superior [mean of (6.1 ± 67) × 10 -9 during sub-optimal operation]. Because the advanced treatment train in the planned IPR system was highly effective in reducing Cryptosporidium concentrations, the associated risks were generally dominated by the pathogen loading already present in the surface water. As a result, risks generally decreased with higher recycled water contributions (RWCs). Advanced treatment failures were generally inconsequential either due to the robustness of the advanced treatment train (i.e., DPR) or resiliency provided by the environmental buffer (i.e., planned IPR). Storage time in the environmental buffer was important for the de facto reuse system, and the model indicated a critical storage time of approximately 105 days. Storage times shorter than the critical value resulted in significant increases in risk. The conclusions from this study can be used to inform regulatory decision making and aid in the development of design or operational

  13. Assessing “gas transition” pathways to low carbon electricity – An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesz, Jenny; Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain

    2015-01-01

    industries may involve minimising energy sourced from gas, and increasing renewable generation. In the Australian case study considered, the modelling suggests it is appropriate to target renewable energy penetrations approaching 60% of energy by 2030 and 80–100% by 2050. In the lowest cost and lowest risk portfolios, firm capacity is provided primarily by the transition of existing coal-fired plant into a peaking role, and later by further investment in peaking open cycle gas turbine plant. These results are found to be robust to a wide range of assumptions around future carbon prices

  14. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  15. Implementation and evaluation of the International Electrotechnical Commission specification for tidal stream energy resource assessment: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, V.; Ringwood, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The utility of the International Electrotechnical Commission standards for tidal stream resource assessment were analysed. • The Orkney Region (N Scotland) was used as a case study. • A sensitivity analysis in terms of accuracy vs computational times was carried out for different mesh resolutions. • Modelling the operation of a tidal energy converter becomes essential for an appropriate estimation of the tidal resource. • Practical recommendations are proposed for future editions of the technical standard. - Abstract: Over the next decades, tidal stream energy aims to become a fully commercially viable energy source. For this purpose, complete knowledge regarding tidal stream resource assessment is essential. In this context, the International Electrotechnical Commission has developed a technical standard for the assessment of the tidal stream resource, “IEC 62600-201 TS: Marine energy - Wave, tidal and other water current converters - Part 201: Tidal energy resource assessment and characterisation”, offering a vast set of recommendations in the fields of data collection, numerical modelling, data analysis and reporting of the results with the purpose of standardising tidal stream resource characterisation. The standard divides resource assessments into two different classes: feasibility and layout design. The model setup procedure (mesh resolution, boundary conditions) and the computational effort required vary significantly from one class to another. For these reasons, the objective of the present work is to explore the proposed standard using the Orkney Region (N Scotland) as a case study. Overall, it was found that the standard works well, offering a detailed characterisation of the tidal resource; however, in order to improve its manageability, some aspects related to the grid resolution requirements and the approach to model a tidal energy converter could be revisited for future editions.

  16. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With the revolution occurred in communication technologies at the beginning of 1990’s, network technologies have emerged as the challenging parameters accelerating improvements of instructional technologies. Online classrooms and management of them appeared as a new domain which necessitates a new paradigm different from the classical ones. User and instructor friendly learning context and management systems (LCMS have brought new approaches, techniques and tools for the assessment and measurement processes. These approaches, techniques and tools embedded in LCMS have redefined not only the way teachers teach but also students learn. WebCT, Blackboard and eCollege and many others as the online instructional environments have provided new opportunities to construct a coherent instructional system which has never been used as a unique environment any before. Assessment and measurement have been redefined within this framework. The successes of assessment and measurement methodologies or system inevitably depend on conceptualization and then implementation to different educational settings.

  17. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  18. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  19. Scenario Development and Delphi Application in Life Cycle Assessment for Assessing Environmental Impact of New Technology Case Study: Removal of Wind Turbines Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina Fitrika Dewi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain technology is intended to create eco-efficient products or process or is developed as answer to the recent challenge. This kind of technology consequently can also create another impact therefore it shall be assessed and analyzed.The focus of the study is on assessment method namely Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, Scenario development and Delphi application. The objective is to understand benefits and drawbacks of the combined methodology and observe practicality of its implementation for assessing new technology. The distinctive feature comes from the combination of social and technological foresight (as Delphi application and future studies (as Scenario development which are applied in the environmental assessment of a product (by Life Cycle Analysis.The utilization of LCA-Scenario-Delphi case study as an explanatory example is presented in the Removal Wind Turbines Project by the Danish Energy Agency. The wind turbine is considered new technology with some of it phases are yet to occur, for example: removal of turbines after phase out stage. Technology Assessment by LCA-Scenario-Delphi is complicated procedure, but necessary to validate the results. The drawbacks of this procedure are extensive time it consumes and the dependency on public participation and/or expert willingness to participate. Nonetheless, its advantages are due to its interactive feature; integration of knowledge from different areas of expertise and its assessment’s characteristic which focuses on process.

  20. Assessment of an iPad Loan Program in an Academic Medical Library: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Sewell, Robin; Halling, T Derek; McKay, Becky; Pepper, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An academic medical library expanded its iPad loan service to multiple campus libraries and conducted an assessment of the service. iPads loaded with medical and educational apps were loaned for two-week checkouts from five library campus locations. Device circulation statistics were tracked and users were invited to complete an online survey about their experience. Data were gathered and analyzed for 11 months. The assessment informed the library on how best to adapt the service, including what resources to add to the iPads, and the decision to move devices to campuses with more frequent usage.

  1. Reliability assessment platform for the power semiconductor devices - Study case on 3-phase grid-connected inverter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernica, Ionut; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    provide valuable reliability information based on given mission profiles and system specification is first developed and its main concept is presented. In order to facilitate the test and access to the loading and lifetime information of the power devices, a novel mission profile based stress emulator...... experimental setup is proposed and designed. The link between the stress emulator setup and the reliability tool software is highlighted. Finally, the reliability assessment platform is demonstrated on a 3-phase grid-connected inverter application study case....

  2. High Resolution Tsunami Modeling and Assessment of Harbor Resilience; Case Study in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Aytore, Betul; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Kanoglu, Utku; Duzgun, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey; Arikawa, Taro; Tomita, Takashi; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2014-05-01

    Ports and harbors are the major vulnerable coastal structures under tsunami attack. Resilient harbors against tsunami impacts are essential for proper, efficient and successful rescue operations and reduction of the loss of life and property by tsunami disasters. There are several critical coastal structures as such in the Marmara Sea. Haydarpasa and Yenikapi ports are located in the Marmara Sea coast of Istanbul. These two ports are selected as the sites of numerical experiments to test their resilience under tsunami impact. Cargo, container and ro-ro handlings, and short/long distance passenger transfers are the common services in both ports. Haydarpasa port has two breakwaters with the length of three kilometers in total. Yenikapi port has one kilometer long breakwater. The accurate resilience analysis needs high resolution tsunami modeling and careful assessment of the site. Therefore, building data with accurate coordinates of their foot prints and elevations are obtained. The high resolution bathymetry and topography database with less than 5m grid size is developed for modeling. The metadata of the several types of structures and infrastructure of the ports and environs are processed. Different resistances for the structures/buildings/infrastructures are controlled by assigning different friction coefficients in a friction matrix. Two different tsunami conditions - high expected and moderate expected - are selected for numerical modeling. The hybrid tsunami simulation and visualization codes NAMI DANCE, STOC-CADMAS System are utilized to solve all necessary tsunami parameters and obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of flow depth, current velocity, inundation distance and maximum water level in the study domain. Finally, the computed critical values of tsunami parameters are evaluated and structural performance of the port components are discussed in regard to a better resilience. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-Ç-12

  3. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  4. Assessing storm surge hazard and impact of sea level rise in the Lesser Antilles case study of Martinique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Yann; Dudon, Bernard; Roger, Jean; Arnaud, Gael; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2017-09-01

    In the Lesser Antilles, coastal inundations from hurricane-induced storm surges pose a great threat to lives, properties and ecosystems. Assessing current and future storm surge hazards with sufficient spatial resolution is of primary interest to help coastal planners and decision makers develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we use wave-current numerical models and statistical methods to investigate worst case scenarios and 100-year surge levels for the case study of Martinique under present climate or considering a potential sea level rise. Results confirm that the wave setup plays a major role in the Lesser Antilles, where the narrow island shelf impedes the piling-up of large amounts of wind-driven water on the shoreline during extreme events. The radiation stress gradients thus contribute significantly to the total surge - up to 100 % in some cases. The nonlinear interactions of sea level rise (SLR) with bathymetry and topography are generally found to be relatively small in Martinique but can reach several tens of centimeters in low-lying areas where the inundation extent is strongly enhanced compared to present conditions. These findings further emphasize the importance of waves for developing operational storm surge warning systems in the Lesser Antilles and encourage caution when using static methods to assess the impact of sea level rise on storm surge hazard.

  5. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Web-Based System for Adaptable Rubrics: Case Study on CAD Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Pedro; Contero, Manuel; Otey, Jeffrey; Camba, Jorge D.; Agost, María-Jesús; Pérez-López, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and testing of our concept of adaptable rubrics, defined as analytical rubrics that arrange assessment criteria at multiple levels that can be expanded on demand. Because of its adaptable nature, these rubrics cannot be implemented in paper formats, neither are they supported by current Learning Management…

  7. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management : A multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, J.; Voordijk, H.; Vos, G.C.J.M.; Buter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  8. Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment of Reading Difficulties: A Case Study of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Paula Outon; Gonzalez, Rebeca Abal

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability in reading and writing, which requires adequate early intervention to prevent future school failure. We describe the diagnostic assessment of a 7-year-old boy labelled "dyslexic", the evaluation of his family, social, medical, developmental, and academic status as a preliminary for the design…

  9. Assessing regional sustainability using a model of coordinated development index : a case study of mainland China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Q.; Ding, Y.; Vries, de B.; Han, Q.; Ma, H.

    2014-01-01

    From a holistic view, this paper addresses a perspective of coordinated development of economy, society, and environment for regional sustainability assessment. Firstly, a comprehensive indicator system for co-evaluating the level of economic, social, and environmental subsystems is presented based

  10. Building Dams in Jordan, Assessing Teachers in England: A Case Study in Edu-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat; Hextall, Ian; Menter, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes, in the context of one highly circumscribed element of English educational policy, namely, "Threshold assessment," the ways in which the boundaries between the public and the private have become increasingly porous and blurred. In this context, some consequences and implications of private sector involvement in…

  11. Eliciting and Assessing Reflective Practice: A Case Study in Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Kajder, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of multimodal technologies in facilitating reflective processes and the subsequent assessment of reflectivity for students in pre-professional programs. Reflective practice has been established as a critical tool for developing identity in and on practice. This paper will focus firstly on reviewing salient literature…

  12. Assessment and Treatment of Selective Mutism: Recommendations and a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents results of stimulus fading procedure used to treat a six-year-old girl with elective mutism. Presents assessment protocol that features procedures that can be used to render a diagnosis and assist in treatment planning. Results suggest stimulus fading of new persons into the school setting was effective in producing speech. (JBJ)

  13. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  14. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  15. Assessing buyer-supplier relationship management: a multiple case-study in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, B.; Buter, J.I.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on obstacles to, and opportunities for, increasing the effectiveness of construction firms in managing buyer-supplier relationships. More specifically, the focus is on assessing the maturity level of buyer-supplier relationship management by construction

  16. Expanding and Personalising Feedback in Online Assessment: A Case Study in a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Steven; Barber, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the Manchester Pharmacy School, we first adopted summative on-line examinations in 2005. Since then, we have increased the range of question types to include short answers, short essays and questions incorporating chemical structures and we achieve time savings of up to 90% in the marking process. Online assessments allow two novel forms of…

  17. Assessing Multi-scale Reptile and Amphibian Biodiversity: Mojave Ecoregion Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast the life support functions of ecosystems is absolutely critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment now and into the future. Because of the variability among living orga...

  18. Adoption of Technological Innovations: A Case Study of the ASSESS Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah; Brown, Shane; Davis, Denny; LeBeau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In engineering education, assessment instruments are often developed to evaluate programs and projects. Unfortunately, these innovations are not always adopted by intended audiences. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory provides a framework to analyze characteristics of an innovation that will affect adoption. The Appraisal System for…

  19. Productivity assessments in small ruminant improvement programmes : a case study of the West African dwarf goat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.G.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the

  20. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a

  1. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  2. Development of Sustainability Assessment Tool for Malaysian hydropower industry: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Abu Sofian, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-01

    This research deals with the development of sustainability assessment tools as a medium to assess the performance of a hydropower project compliances towards sustainability practice. Since the increasing needs of implementing sustainability practice, developed countries are utilizing sustainability tools to achieve sustainable development goals. Its inception within ASEAN countries including Malaysia is still low. The problem with most tools developed from other countries is that it is not very comprehensive as well as its implementation factors are not suitable for the local environment that is not quantified. Hence, there is a need to develop a suitable sustainable assessment tool for the Malaysian hydropower industry to comply with the sustainable development goals as a bridging gap between the governor and the practitioner. The steps of achieving this goal is separated into several parts. The first part is to identify sustainable parameters from established tools as a model for comparison to enhance new parameters. The second stage is to convert equivalent quantification value from the model to the new developed tools. The last stage is to develop software program as a mean of gaining energy company feedback with systematic sustainable reporting from the surveyor so as to be able to integrate sustainability assessment, monitoring and reporting for self-improved reporting.

  3. Comparison of Risk Assessment Using HAZOP and ETBA Techniques: Case Study of a Gasoline Refinery Unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of accidents—a crucial requirement in oil industries—involves hazard recognition, risk assessment, and corrective actions. The purpose of this study was to compare the ETBA and HAZOP techniques for risk assessment in a gasoline refinery unit. Methods: In this case study, data were collected using process flow diagram, walking–talking through method, piping and instrumentation diagram, and direct observations. Worksheets for both techniques were filled on the basis of the risk assessment matrix MIL-STD-882E. Results: The HAZOP method identified 44 deviations attributable to 118 causes. In addition, 11.37% of the identified hazards were associated with unacceptable risk, and 36.36%, with unfavorable risk. The ETBA method detected 10 groups of energy (24 subgroups; 33 hazards were detected, 10.62% of which were associated with unacceptable risk. Conclusion: HAZOP proved to be the more powerful technique for the prediction and identification of hazards. However, ETBA detected certain hazards that were not identifiable using HAZOP. Therefore, a combination of these two methods is desirable for the assessment of hazard risk in process industries.

  4. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Assessment of safety culture from the INB organization: A case study for nuclear fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, J.S.; Barreto, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The present article describes strategies, methodologies and first results on the Safety Culture Self-assessment Project under way at INB since August 2001. As a Brazilian Government company in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle activities,. the main purposes of the Project is to evaluate the present status of its safety culture and to propose actions to ensure continuous safety improvement at management level of its industrial processes. The proposed safety culture assessment describes INB's various production sites taking into account the different aspects of their activities, such as regional, social and technical issues. The survey was performed in March/2002 very good attendance (about 80%) the employees. The first global survey results are presented in item 4. (author)

  6. Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Production with Case Studies from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas

    technologies appear relatively more attractive. Fruit and cocoa residue‐based biogas production in a fruit processing facility, with return of compost to pineapple farmers also proved to be a viable technology. It is recommended that relevant stakeholders explore the implementation of biogas and nutrient......The use of agricultural residues for the production of bioenergy offers tantalising prospects of reduced pollution and greater food sovereignty. Integrated food and bioenergy systems seek to optimise the joint production of food and energy. Integrated food and bioenergy systems may be evaluated...... and compared with other food and energy systems using Environmental Sustainability Assessment (ESA). This thesis investigates a range of integrated food and residuebased bioenergy production systems and provide methodological developments that are relevant for the assessment of such systems. The methodological...

  7. An Evolutionary Approach to Adaptive Capacity Assessment: A Case Study of Soufriere, Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ryan Hogarth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the capacity of Soufriere, Saint Lucia to adapt to climate change. A community-based vulnerability assessment was conducted that employed semi-structured interviews with community members. The results were analysed using the Local Adaptive Capacity (LAC framework, which characterises adaptive capacity based on five elements: asset base; institutions and entitlements; knowledge and information; innovation; and flexible forward-looking decision-making and governance. Beyond providing an in-depth analysis of Soufriere’s capacity to adapt to climate change, the paper argues that the elements of the LAC framework largely correspond with an evolutionary perspective on adaptive capacity. However, other evolutionary themes—such as structure, history, path-dependency, scale, agency, conservation of diversity, and the perils of specialisation—should also be taken into account.

  8. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  9. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  10. In-situ metallography for damage assessment and life extension in power plants- a few case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, N.; Muralidharan, N.G.; Jayakumar, T.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection of components in power plants is necessary for damage assessment, life prediction and extension. The useful life of some of the components like pipelines are most crucial in case they are exposed to the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Periodic inservice inspection by means of non-destructive testing to obtain information on damage assessment is carried out as a routine and mandatory procedure. During these inspections, only reduction in localised and uniform wall thickness are measured. However, the microstructural degradation due to both normal and abnormal temperatures occurring conditions are not revealed by conventional non-destructive test methods during this routine inspection. For life prediction and extension programme, the information on microstructural degradation is essential and the same can be studies in an effective manner through in-situ metallography technique. (author)

  11. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  12. Therapeutic Assessment of Complex Trauma: A Single-Case Time-Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tarocchi, Anna; Aschieri, Filippo; Fantini, Francesca; Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative effect of repeated traumatic experiences in early childhood incrementally increases the risk of adjustment problems later in life. Surviving traumatic environments can lead to the development of an interrelated constellation of emotional and interpersonal symptoms termed complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). Effective treatment of trauma begins with a multimethod psychological assessment and requires the use of several evidence-based therapeutic processes, including es...

  13. Spatial assessments of soil organic carbon for stakeholder decision-making. A case study from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Vågen, Tor-Gunnar; Winowiecki, Leigh Ann; Neely, Constance; Chesterman, Sabrina; Bourne, Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation impacts the health and livelihoods of about 1.5 billion people worldwide. Given that the state of the environment and food security are strongly interlinked in tropical landscapes, the increasing need for land for food production, urbanization and other uses pose several threats to sustainability in the long term. There is increasing recognition that more integrated approaches to assessments and management of ecosystem health are needed to meet the targets of the 2030 Agenda,...

  14. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  15. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  16. Risk assessment of fungal spoilage: A case study of Aspergillus niger on yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougouli, Maria; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative risk assessment model of yogurt spoilage by Aspergillus niger was developed based on a stochastic modeling approach for mycelium growth by taking into account the important sources of variability such as time-temperature conditions during the different stages of chill chain and individual spore behavior. Input parameters were fitted to the appropriate distributions and A. niger colony's diameter at each stage of the chill chain was estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. By combining the output of the growth model with the fungus prevalence, that can be estimated by the industry using challenge tests, the risk of spoilage translated to number of yogurt cups in which a visible mycelium of A. niger is being formed at the time of consumption was assessed. The risk assessment output showed that for a batch of 100,000 cups in which the percentage of contaminated cups with A. niger was 1% the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the cups with a visible mycelium at consumption time were 8 (5, 14). For higher percentages of 3, 5 and 10 the predicted numbers (median (5 th , 95 th percentiles)) of the spoiled cups at consumption time were estimated to be 24 (16, 35), 39 (29, 52) and 80 (64, 94), respectively. The developed model can lead to a more effective risk-based quality management of yogurt and support the decision making in yogurt production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali Memon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  18. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  19. Assessment of Lean Construction Principles: A Case Study at Semarang Medical Centre Hospital Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Roy Adi Wijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lean construction frameworks have been developed for years to enhance the poor performance of Indonesian project delivery system which influenced by the waste of non-value adding activities. Never the less most of the developments were limited on working process and lack in people empowerment. Toyota Way which integrate working process optimization and people empowerment, was developed as a lean construction frame works. This paper aimed to assess the implementation of Toyota Way principles in project delivery system by observing project’s delivery current state (status quo. The assessment began by conducting a questionnaire survey about Toyota Way implementation which then validated by interview with involved stakeholders and field observation. The assessment showed that project’s stakeholders were still unfamiliar with Toyota Way concept. Although some Toyota Way guidelines have been used in projects completion process such as visual management and training program, it found that those guidelines had not fully implemented. The project delivery system was lack of process focus and concerns more on relationship inter-parties. It also found thatToyota Way implementation will constrained by the difficulties to change the status quo of project delivery. Moreover, it seems that construction projects need practical guidelines to simplify the Toyota Way implementation in project delivery system such as project flow evaluation and system of reflection.

  20. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  1. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  2. Causation in risk assessment and management: models, inference, biases, and a microbial risk-benefit case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L A; Ricci, P F

    2005-04-01

    Causal inference of exposure-response relations from data is a challenging aspect of risk assessment with important implications for public and private risk management. Such inference, which is fundamentally empirical and based on exposure (or dose)-response models, seldom arises from a single set of data; rather, it requires integrating heterogeneous information from diverse sources and disciplines including epidemiology, toxicology, and cell and molecular biology. The causal aspects we discuss focus on these three aspects: drawing sound inferences about causal relations from one or more observational studies; addressing and resolving biases that can affect a single multivariate empirical exposure-response study; and applying the results from these considerations to the microbiological risk management of human health risks and benefits of a ban on antibiotic use in animals, in the context of banning enrofloxacin or macrolides, antibiotics used against bacterial illnesses in poultry, and the effects of such bans on changing the risk of human food-borne campylobacteriosis infections. The purposes of this paper are to describe novel causal methods for assessing empirical causation and inference; exemplify how to deal with biases that routinely arise in multivariate exposure- or dose-response modeling; and provide a simplified discussion of a case study of causal inference using microbial risk analysis as an example. The case study supports the conclusion that the human health benefits from a ban are unlikely to be greater than the excess human health risks that it could create, even when accounting for uncertainty. We conclude that quantitative causal analysis of risks is a preferable to qualitative assessments because it does not involve unjustified loss of information and is sound under the inferential use of risk results by management.

  3. Risk assessment of major hazards and its application in urban planning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Mao

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid development of industry in China, the number of establishments that are proposed or under construction is increasing year by year, and many are industries that handle flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, and dangerous substances. Accidents such as fire, explosion, and toxic diffusion inevitably happen. Accidents resulting from these major hazards in cities cause a large number of casualties and property losses. It is increasingly important to analyze the risk of major hazards in cities realistically and to suitably plan and utilize the surrounding land based on the risk analysis results, thereby reducing the hazards. A theoretical system for risk assessment of major hazards in cities is proposed in this article, and the major hazard risk for the entire city is analyzed quantitatively. Risks of various major accidents are considered together, superposition effect is analyzed, individual risk contours of the entire city are drawn out, and the level of risk in the city is assessed using "as low as reasonably practicable" guidelines. After the entire city's individual risk distribution is obtained, risk zones are divided according to corresponding individual risk value of HSE, and land-use planning suggestions are proposed. Finally, a city in China is used as an example to illustrate the risk assessment process of the city's major hazard and its application in urban land-use planning. The proposed method has a certain theoretical and practical significance in establishing and improving risk analysis of major hazard and urban land-use planning. On the one hand, major urban public risk is avoided; further, the land is utilized in the best possible way in order to obtain the maximum benefit from its use. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Portfolio assessments for future generation investment in newly industrializing countries – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses future electricity generation portfolios in Thailand in 2030 given uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing policies, electricity demand, and capital costs. Thailand faces challenges for generation investment given its rapid socio-economic progress and fast growing demand. A novel generation investment and planning decision-support tool which incorporates a Monte Carlo extension to conventional optimal generation mix methods combined with portfolio-based analysis techniques, is used. The tool can formally assess tradeoffs between expected future generation costs, cost uncertainties, and CO 2 emissions for the range of different generation portfolios. Results highlight that different levels of future carbon pricing will have significant impacts on the most appropriate generation portfolios. The impact of carbon pricing, however, is not on the appropriate proportion of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in the mix but, instead, on the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. Compared with the current proposed 2030 generation mix, it is possible that there are other generation portfolios that offer lower expected costs, cost uncertainty, and CO 2 emissions depending on future carbon pricing. Results suggest that this investment decision-support approach may have value for electric utilities and policy-makers contemplating significant generation investments under high future uncertainty and conflicting policy objectives. -- Highlights: ► Assess Thailand's future generation portfolios in 2030 under uncertainties. ► Future carbon prices have significant impacts on the appropriate generation mixes. ► Carbon pricing affects the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. ► There may be more appropriate alternatives than the proposed 2030 generation mix. ► This decision-support approach has value for utility and policy decision-making.

  5. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  6. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  7. EDXRF as an analytical tool in art. Case studies from pigment identification and treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.

    2004-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was employed for the identification of pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, and the assessment of the efficiency of a treatment with barium hydroxide applied to stone. Elements present in the colored areas of the figurines, as well as the treated stone was identified by EDXRF. These data together with complementary information obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) led to the identification of several precious pigments. As far as the treatment efficiency is concerned, EDXRF analysis revealed that barium is unevenly distributed on the treated surface and reaches a maximum depth of 2.5 mm. (author)

  8. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: A case study in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Ma, W.C.; Chen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10 -4 , 10 -5 -10 -4 and 10 -6 -10 -5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10 -6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.

  9. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  10. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Motamedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

  11. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: Pocahontas II – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT. The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant errors are related to syntax, spelling, style, length of sentences, lack of clarity, and gender-related issues. These errors though made by one subtitler who has translated the animation feature film Pocahontas II released in 2012, are still typical and therefore a thorough investigation has been done and a set of linguistic rules has been suggested as a guideline for the audiovisual industry. These rules are to be added to the technical and software requirements sent by subtitling companies (such as the number of characters per line, the font, the reading speed per minute, and punctuation. This set of rules helps monitor the quality of the subtitled target text (TT.     Keywords: audiovisual translation, subtitling, quality assessment, practical functional approach, Arabic-English simulation

  12. Assessing flow regime alterations in a temporary river – the River Celone case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Girolamo Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate the hydrological alterations of a temporary river. In these rivers, it is expected that anthropogenic pressures largely modify low-flow components of the flow regime with consequences for aquatic habitat and diversity in invertebrate species. First, by using a simple hydrological index (IARI river segments of the Celone stream (southern Italy whose hydrological regime is significantly influenced by anthropogenic activities have been identified. Hydrological alteration has been further classified through the analysis of two metrics: the degree (Mf and the predictability of dry flow conditions (Sd6. Measured streamflow data were used to calculate the metrics in present conditions (impacted. Given the lack of data from pristine conditions, simulated streamflow time series were used to calculate the metrics in reference conditions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was used to estimate daily natural streamflow. Hydrological alterations associated with water abstractions, point discharges and the presence of a reservoir were assessed by comparing the metrics (Mf, Sd6 before and after the impacts. The results show that the hydrological regime of the river segment located in the upper part of the basin is slightly altered, while the regime of the river segment downstream of the reservoir is heavily altered. This approach is intended for use with ecological metrics in defining the water quality status and in planning streamflow management activities.

  13. THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - A CASE STUDY OF TRANSPORTING VOLVO CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria P. Gerilla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of vehicles in our society is detrimental to the environment because of increased fuel usage and pollutant emissions. This paper analyze the environmental effects of transporting cars from its manufacturer to its end user. The method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA. Life cycle assessment is a method for analyzing and evaluating environmental performance of products, processes or services throughout its entire life cycle. The paper also shows the effect of changing the fuel type used in transporting the vehicles. It can be seen that from the pollutant emissions in the transport chain, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the leading pollutants, which affect the air quality in the environment. The truck is shown to be a heavy polluter in terms of its emission factors and there is not much difference between a European and an Asian country. With the use of the natural gas as an alternative fuel, emission levels can be reduced to as much as 19 % for CO2 and 16 % for NOx emissions while costs are higher in the first few years because of conversion costs, it can be said that it is worth the risk. The truck can be an environmentally adapted vehicle if its engine is converted to an alternative fuel engine like the compressed natural gas. The LCA methodology is holistic because it gives a systems analysis of the product

  14. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  15. Partnership in an application of RBCA: Case study for quantitative assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.; Shepherd, D.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) was successfully applied at a site contaminated with weathered Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) from a past release of Diesel Fuel No. 2. In partnership with the state regulatory agency, an approach was developed to assess the toxicity of TPH by the evaluation of its individual classes/constituents. Historically, assessments of petroleum product releases have focused solely on TPH as an analytical parameter and not its individual fractions and/or constituents which represent the actual toxicity of the released product. Soil and groundwater TPH data by Modified California Method 8015 (GC/MS) were reviewed. Based on analytical standards, typical Diesel Fuel No. 2 carbon ranges/fractions were identified. In addition, site-specific carbon-chain lengths were identified based on the aforementioned standard. In consultation with state regulators and according to state draft RBCA guidance, site-specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three TPH carbon-range fractions were identified as constituents of concern. In order to quantify the three TPH fractions, appropriate toxicological surrogates were identified. Site-specific exposures to potential human and ecological receptors were evaluated in close consultation with the state regulators. Limited contaminant fate and transport analysis was conducted. Subsequently, complete exposure pathways were quantified

  16. Earthquake Probability Assessment for the Active Faults in Central Taiwan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rui Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent high seismic activities occur in Taiwan due to fast plate motions. According to the historical records the most destructive earthquakes in Taiwan were caused mainly by inland active faults. The Central Geological Survey (CGS of Taiwan has published active fault maps in Taiwan since 1998. There are 33 active faults noted in the 2012 active fault map. After the Chi-Chi earthquake, CGS launched a series of projects to investigate the details to better understand each active fault in Taiwan. This article collected this data to develop active fault parameters and referred to certain experiences from Japan and the United States to establish a methodology for earthquake probability assessment via active faults. We consider the active faults in Central Taiwan as a good example to present the earthquake probability assessment process and results. The appropriate “probability model” was used to estimate the conditional probability where M ≥ 6.5 and M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes. Our result shows that the highest earthquake probability for M ≥ 6.5 earthquake occurring in 30, 50, and 100 years in Central Taiwan is the Tachia-Changhua fault system. Conversely, the lowest earthquake probability is the Chelungpu fault. The goal of our research is to calculate the earthquake probability of the 33 active faults in Taiwan. The active fault parameters are important information that can be applied in the following seismic hazard analysis and seismic simulation.

  17. Alternative "global warming" metrics in life cycle assessment: a case study with existing transportation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Aamaas, Borgar; T Lund, Marianne; Solli, Christian; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2011-10-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact category "global warming" compares emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) with a 100-year time-horizon as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Two weaknesses of this approach are (1) the exclusion of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and biophysical factors despite their established importance, and (2) the use of a particular emission metric (GWP) with a choice of specific time-horizons (20, 100, and 500 years). The GWP and the three time-horizons were based on an illustrative example with value judgments and vague interpretations. Here we illustrate, using LCA data of the transportation sector, the importance of SLCFs relative to LLGHGs, different emission metrics, and different treatments of time. We find that both the inclusion of SLCFs and the choice of emission metric can alter results and thereby change mitigation priorities. The explicit inclusion of time, both for emissions and impacts, can remove value-laden assumptions and provide additional information for impact assessments. We believe that our results show that a debate is needed in the LCA community on the impact category "global warming" covering which emissions to include, the emission metric(s) to use, and the treatment of time.

  18. Assessing earthquake early warning using sparse networks in developing countries: Case study of the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolai, Stefano; Boxberger, Tobias; Pilz, Marco; Fleming, Kevin; Haas, Michael; Pittore, Massimiliano; Petrovic, Bojana; Moldobekov, Bolot; Zubovich, Alexander; Lauterjung, Joern

    2017-09-01

    The first real-time digital strong-motion network in Central Asia has been installed in the Kyrgyz Republic since 2014. Although this network consists of only 19 strong-motion stations, they are located in near-optimal locations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. In fact, it is expected that this network, which utilizes the GFZ-Sentry software, allowing decentralized event assessment calculations, not only will provide useful strong motion data useful for improving future seismic hazard and risk assessment, but will serve as the backbone for regional and on-site earthquake early warning operations. Based on the location of these stations, and travel-time estimates for P- and S-waves, we have determined potential lead times for several major urban areas in Kyrgyzstan (i.e., Bishkek, Osh, and Karakol) and Kazakhstan (Almaty), where we find the implementation of an efficient earthquake early warning system would provide lead times outside the blind zone ranging from several seconds up to several tens of seconds. This was confirmed by the simulation of the possible shaking (and intensity) that would arise considering a series of scenarios based on historical and expected events, and how they affect the major urban centres. Such lead times would allow the instigation of automatic mitigation procedures, while the system as a whole would support prompt and efficient actions to be undertaken over large areas.

  19. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Liem T., E-mail: ltran1@utk.edu [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); O& #x27; Neill, Robert V. [OTIE and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Elizabeth R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-15

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of 'self-/peer-appraisal' of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  20. Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Baviera-Puig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders.

  1. SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT IN URBAN PLANNING. A CHALLENGE FOR A METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: MONTREAL AS CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores Lucero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the methodological process for the qualitative evaluation of the concept of sustainability and its application in the island of Montreal. At the same time we present our theoretical approach and the main results issued of the assessment. We take as analytical tools the Montreal Urban Plan of 2004 and the Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development 2005. We conclude with two main points, first, that the theoretical and pragmatic aspects of urban sustainability in Montreal have been treated in an organic, complex, dynamic and flexible way, allowing social participation and the inclusion of the values of all stakeholders, which are both key elements to follow the path towards sustainability; and secondly, that the approach to an object with such features requires the construction of complex, organic and methodological processes.

  2. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  3. Inventory Data on Commercial Broiler Chicken Production System using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffian, S. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Yusof, H. M.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.

    2018-01-01

    An inventory analysis of the life cycle of broiler chicken production from cradle-to-gate perspective was carried out with the aim to identify possible input and output parameters involved in the system. To do so, broiler chicken production in Myra Chicken Farm and Services was investigated in detail. Result shows the inventory data on feed consumption, transportation, physical performance parameter and other utilities that affect the product which is broilers. Broilers production in fact shows escalation year by year because of high demand from consumer. A cradle-to-gate assessment was conducted based on ISO 14040/14044 guidelines. Inventory data was gathered from farmers and available literature. Improving all the input and output system will increase the level of productivity and the cost of the production. Thus, at the end of the research, it will able to make industry player to understand and take into consideration the solutions in order to promote a green broiler chicken production.

  4. A PRA case study of extended long term decay heat removal for shutdown risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Ragland, W.A.; Hill, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A research reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of this PRA have shown that the decay heat removal system for EBR-II is extremely robust and reliable. In addition, the methodology used demonstrates how the actions of other systems not normally used for actions of other systems not normally used for decay heat removal can be used to expand the mission time of the decay heat removal system and further increase its reliability. The methodology may also be extended to account for the impact of non-safety systems in enhancing the reliability of other dedicated safety systems

  5. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben

    2015-01-01

    requires an integration of the policy into the broader water resources management context supported with legislation and regulations which spell out clearly institutional responsibilities, and rewards and punishments for compliance or otherwise. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses......, which have been identified as key stakeholders for the policy implementation, not only lack the commitment to implement the policy but also perceive low quality water reuse as a practice that can endanger public health. We conclude that effective implementation of the low quality water reuse policy...

  6. Assessing Sustainability in Environmental Management: A Case Study in Malaysia Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Asmanizam, Asmadianatasha

    2017-08-01

    The scarcity in measuring the sustainability accomplishment has been restrained most of the companies in Malaysian industry. Currently, there are variety types of the measurement tools of the sustainability assessment that have been implemented. However, there are still not achieving the inclusive elements required by the worldwide claim. In fact, the contribution to the sustainability performance are only highlighted on the nature, financial along with society components. In addition, some of the companies are conducting their sustainability implementation individually. By means, this process approaching type is needed to be integrated into a systematic system approach. This paper is focussing on investigating the present sustainability tools in the environmental management system for Malaysian industry prior to the quantification of the sustainability parameters. Hence, the parameters of the sustainability have been evaluated then in order to accomplish this project. By reviewing on the methodology of this research it comprises of three phases where it starts with the analyzation of the parameters in environmental management system according to the Malaysian context of industry. Moving on to the next step is the quantification of the criterion and finally the normalisation process will be done to determine the results of this research either it is succeeded or vice versa. As a result, this research has come to the conclusion where the level of the sustainability compliance does not achieve the standard level of the targeted objectives though it has already surpassed the average level of the sustainability performance. In future, the understanding towards the sustainability assessment is acquired to be aligned unitedly in order to integrated the process approach into the systematic approach. Apart, this research will be able to help to provide a measurable framework yet finally bestowing the Malaysian industry with a continuous improvement roadmap in achieving

  7. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  8. [Jealousy between siblings in early childhood. Nursing assessment based on a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Plana, María Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Childhood jealousy, when a little brother or sister is born, has always been a subject treated within the family environment. Parent's attitude in their interaction with their offspring may increase the response of the jealous child. The emotional expressions of the jealous child may lead to behaviour changes, that may occasionally put the physical integrity of the newborn at risk, since it is the most vulnerable in the family group. In view of the above mentioned, a case of a three-year-old child living with his parents and his nine-month-old sister, is presented. The child shows characteristic behaviour changes of jealousy, such as, rebelliousness, aggressiveness and hyperactivity. The brother's psychomotor discomfort leads to a proneness to accidents for the baby girl and the obvious parental concern. For these reasons nursing intervention in the family group was proposed, based on the theoretical Virginia Henderson Needs Model. The actions will come from the older brother and parents. The aim of the nursing intervention is to lead the behaviour changes in order to re-establish a safe and healthy family environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Flood risk index pattern assessment: case study in Langat River Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on the creation of flood risk index in the study area based on secondary data derived from the Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID) since 1982-2012. Based on the result, it shows that the water level is the best variable to be taken for the purposed of flood warning alert system as the result for ...

  10. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, S.; Barros, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011) and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed framework

  11. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, S.; Barros, M.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011) and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed framework

  12. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  13. The application of the triple bottom line approach to sustainability assessment: The case study of the UK automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Azevedo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the level of sustainability of the UK automotive supply chain considering simultaneously the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social and environmental representing the Triple Bottom Line (TBL approach. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment of the automotive SC’ sustainability is based on the framework proposed by Salvado, Azevedo, Matias and Ferreira (2011 and uses the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method to aggregate economic, environmental and social indicators into a unique index. A case study on the UK automotive industry is used and the data do perform this study is collected from the sustainability reports of the UK’ automotive companies. Findings and Originality/value: The proposed framework represents an important benchmarking tool, offering managers the possibility for assessing the sustainability behaviour of its supply chain and compare it with other supply chains. Once identified the dimension of sustainability where the company or the supply chain is worst performer managers can work closer to their supply chain’ partners in order to improve the performance of those dimension of sustainability. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of the suggested approach is related to the ambiguity of the sustainability’ indicators selection and the definition of weights for each sustainability dimension. Practical implications: The assessment of the SC sustainability by using the suggested framework to compute a SC sustainability index offers managers an opportunity for assessing the level of sustainability of each individual company and the corresponding SC in a very easy way. It also represents an opportunity for improving company performance. In this way managers can use the information on the sustainability index to help adjust their company's behaviour and improve their economic, social and environmental performance. Originality/value: The proposed

  14. Assessing Urban Streets Network Vulnerability against Earthquake Using GIS - Case Study: 6TH Zone of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, A.

    2017-09-01

    Great earthquakes cause huge damages to human life. Street networks vulnerability makes the rescue operation to encounter serious difficulties especially at the first 72 hours after the incident. Today, physical expansion and high density of great cities, due to narrow access roads, large distance from medical care centers and location at areas with high seismic risk, will lead to a perilous and unpredictable situation in case of the earthquake. Zone # 6 of Tehran, with 229,980 population (3.6% of city population) and 20 km2 area (3.2% of city area), is one of the main municipal zones of Tehran (Iran center of statistics, 2006). Major land-uses, like ministries, embassies, universities, general hospitals and medical centers, big financial firms and so on, manifest the high importance of this region on local and national scale. In this paper, by employing indexes such as access to medical centers, street inclusion, building and population density, land-use, PGA and building quality, vulnerability degree of street networks in zone #6 against the earthquake is calculated through overlaying maps and data in combination with IHWP method and GIS. This article concludes that buildings alongside the streets with high population and building density, low building quality, far to rescue centers and high level of inclusion represent high rate of vulnerability, compared with other buildings. Also, by moving on from north to south of the zone, the vulnerability increases. Likewise, highways and streets with substantial width and low building and population density hold little values of vulnerability.

  15. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  16. Assessment of food-water nexus by water footprint: a case study in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Si, B.

    2016-12-01

    It is important but challengeable to understand the water-food nexus complexity. The water footprint (WF), a relatively new index, is a comprehensive indicator that can be used to evaluate crop water production. This paper aims to 1) determine how water footprint changes at different crop rotational types; 2) investigate what is difference if WF is calculated by yield-based or protein-based; and 3) explore how virtual water flows are responding to regional meteorological, agricultural, and socio-economic factors. The result provided the water footprint and virtual water flow exemplified for Saskatchewan agri-food production industries. By using the water footprint, we determined the best rotation for pulse crops in terms of efficiency of water productivity and water-saving opportunity. While yield is a comprehensive index to assess the productivity (yield-based WF), it underestimated the contribution of some crops, such as pulse crops with relatively low yield but high protein contents (protein-based WF). Consequently, we concluded that water-saving benefits can be achieved by the development and adoption of water efficient technology and better virtual water flows may be achieved by increased area of low water footprint in Saskatchewan. Our finding improves the current concepts of water and food security, informs production and trade decisions, and thus suggests optimal strategies by reduced water footprints in terms of agricultural management.

  17. Audit of IT Governance Based on COBIT 5 Assessments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Fernandes Andry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Training Center in Jakarta offers a certification program for the individuals and companies who wish to search for or complement international scale IT certifications. The certification program consists of training certification exam preparation and certification exams. The purpose of this research is to get an overview of the performance of information technology governance in order to determine the extent of the capabilities of information technology governance in the Training Center which is currently running, with a few aspects to consider such as effectiveness, efficiency, functional unit of information technology within an organization. Implementing IT governance, however, is a challenge to organizations. To ensure IT alignment with business goals use standard COBIT. COBIT 5 Framework is a service for auditing IS/IT are the most commonly used to audit information systems in a rapid, accurate, and interactive. The result of this audit training center is business and IT management are aware of the impact of not managing performance and capacity. Performance needs are generally met based on assessments of individual systems and the knowledge of support and project teams. In this paper the method to be used is COBIT 5 is focused on the domain of DSS (Deliver, Service, and Support.

  18. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  19. Assessing Urban Water Management Sustainability of a Megacity: Case Study of Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyowon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities are facing various water-related challenges caused by rapid urbanization and climate change. Moreover, a megacity may pose a greater risk due to its scale and complexity for coping with impending challenges. Infrastructure and governance also differ by the level of development of a city which indicates that the analysis of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM and water governance are site-specific. We examined the status of IWRM of Seoul by using the City Blueprint® Approach which consists of three different frameworks: (1 Trends and Pressures Framework (TPF, (2 City Blueprint Framework (CBF and (3 the water Governance Capacity Framework (GCF. The TPF summarizes the main social, environmental and financial pressures that may impede water management. The CBF assesses IWRM of the urban water cycle. Finally, the GCF identifies key barriers and opportunities to develop governance capacity. The results indicate that nutrient recovery from wastewater, stormwater separation, and operation cost recovery of water and sanitation services are priority areas for Seoul. Furthermore, the local sense of urgency, behavioral internalization, consumer willingness to pay, and financial continuation are identified as barriers limiting Seoul’s governance capacity. We also examined and compared the results with other mega-cities, to learn from their experiences and plans to cope with the challenges in large cities.

  20. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  1. Flood risk assessment. Case of study: Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Novelo-Casanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical location, the community of Motozintla de Mendoza (Motozintla in the State of Chiapas, Mexico, is continuously exposed to the impact of natural hazards. In this work, we assessed the flood risk of Motozintla considering the structural, socioeconomic, organizational, and global (structural, socioeconomic, and organizational vulnerabilities. In addition, we also measured the local risk perception. Spatial maps were generated to determine the most vulnerable and risk areas of this community. Our results indicate that the population has a high level of risk to flooding mainly because (1 the majority of the local houses has high structural vulnerability; (2 a high percentage of the families has a daily income less than the official Mexican minimum wage and lacks of basic public services as well as of proper social security services; (3 most of the community does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan; and (4 the community organization for disaster mitigation and response is practically non-existent. For these reasons, we believe that it is necessary for local authorities to establish in the short-term, preparedness, mitigation and response plans as well as land-use measures to reduce the risk to floods in Motozintla.

  2. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  3. Geochemical assessment of a subtropical reservoir: a case study in curitiba, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Hirata, Patricia Y.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Cunha, Cynara L.N.; Soares, Ana P.K.; Gobbi, Eduardo F. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bitterncourt, Andre V.L. [Department of Geology, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Jafelicci, Miguel Jr.; Santos, Francisco J. dos; Bini, Rafael [Chemistry Institute, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zara, Liuz F.; Gardolinski, Jose E.F.C.; Reis Neto, Jose M. [University of Brasilia, Planaltina, DC (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rotondo, Giuliana Gatto; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Suspended particles and dissolved substances in water provide reactive surfaces, influence metabolic activity and contribute to the net sediment deposition. It therefore plays an important part in the ecology and quality of the water mass. The water quality in reservoirs is crucial and it is naturally maintained by flushing and sedimentation, which continuously remove phosphorus from the water. In some reservoirs, however, these removal processes are countered by recycling of ions which could play a key role to start and/or maintain the eutrophic state. The combination of macro-, trace- and microanalysis techniques can be useful to trace pollution sources through a chemical fingerprint, whether be during an acute environmental disaster or a long-term release of pollutants. The water quality and total metal content of reservoir sediments were assessed in a reservoir, situated in the capital of the Parana State, in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The goal of this paper was to determine the metal presence in the sediment and metal and ionic speciation in the Green River reservoir water. Water and bed sediment samples, collected from various sites during 2008 and 2009, were investigated using XRF, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRD and zeta potential measurements. Based on the results, the heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the suspended matter in the water samples, as well as the sediment's chemical composition will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  5. Failure Impact Assessment for Large-Scale Landslides Located Near Human Settlement: Case Study in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chien Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused over 680 deaths and more than 20,000 landslides in Taiwan. From 2010 to 2015, the Central Geological Survey of the Ministry of Economic Affairs identified 1047 potential large-scale landslides in Taiwan, of which 103 may have affected human settlements. This paper presents an analytical procedure that can be applied to assess the possible impact of a landslide collapse on nearby settlements. In this paper, existing technologies, including interpretation of remote sensing images, hydrogeological investigation, and numerical analysis, are integrated to evaluate potential failure scenarios and the landslide scale of a specific case: the Xinzhuang landslide. GeoStudio and RAMMS analysis modes and hazard classification produced the following results: (1 evaluation of the failure mechanisms and the influence zones of large-scale landslides; (2 assessment of the migration and accumulation of the landslide mass after failure; and (3 a landslide hazard and evacuation map. The results of the case study show that this analytical procedure can quantitatively estimate potential threats to human settlements. Furthermore, it can be applied to other villages and used as a reference in disaster prevention and evacuation planning.

  6. Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhuis, A.S.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Driessen, M.; Luijten, M.; Delft, van J.H.M.; Ven, van der L.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have

  7. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: a case study in environmental impact assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnthouse, L. W; Barnthouse, Lawrence W

    1988-01-01

    Scientists spent more than 15 years studying the physical and chemical characteristics and biological productivity of the estuary and documenting the abundance, distribution, and life histories of the major fish species...

  8. Environmental impact assessment of disposal of liquid waste through marine outfall - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.

    Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wastewaters and nature of anthropogenic pollutants entering coastal waters are discussed. Site spcific information and field data acquisition through planned studies for selection of location...

  9. Risk assessment and driving factors for artificial topography on element heterogeneity: Case study at Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hualong; Dai, Minyue; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Chongling

    2018-02-01

    The rapid expansion of construction related to coastal development evokes great concern about environmental risks. Recent attention has been focused mainly on factors related to the effects of waterlogging, but there is urgent need to address the potential hazard caused by artificial topography: derived changes in the elemental composition of the sediments. To reveal possible mechanisms and to assess the environmental risks of artificial topography on transition of elemental composition in the sediment at adjoining zones, a nest-random effects-combined investigation was carried out around a semi-open seawall. The results implied great changes induced by artificial topography. Not only did artificial topography alter the sediment elemental composition at sites under the effect of artificial topography, but also caused a coupling pattern transition of elements S and Cd. The biogeochemical processes associated with S were also important, as suggested by cluster analysis. The geo-accumulation index shows that artificial topography triggered the accumulation of C, N, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd, and increased the pollution risk of C, N, S, Cu, As and Cd. Enrichment factors reveal that artificial topography is a new type of human-activity-derived Cu contamination. The heavy metal Cu was notably promoted on both the geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor under the influence of artificial topography. Further analysis showed that the Cu content in the sediment could be fitted using equations for Al and organic carbon, which represented clay mineral sedimentation and organic matter accumulation, respectively. Copper could be a reliable indicator of environmental degradation caused by artificial topography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative Assessment of Vaccination Hesitancy Among Members of the Apostolic Church of Zimbabwe: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machekanyanga, Z; Ndiaye, S; Gerede, R; Chindedza, K; Chigodo, C; Shibeshi, M E; Goodson, J; Daniel, F; Zimmerman, L; Kaiser, R

    2017-10-01

    Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. To inform planning of interventions for a measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we conducted an assessment of the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy using data from various stakeholders. Among nine districts in three regions of Zimbabwe, we collected data on religious attitudes toward, and perceptions of, vaccines through focus group discussions with health workers serving Apostolic communities and members of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization; semi-structured interviews with religious leaders; and open-ended questions in structured interviews with Apostolic parents/caregivers. Poor knowledge of vaccines, lack of understanding and appreciation of the effectiveness of vaccinations, religious teachings that emphasize prayers over the use of medicine, lack of privacy in a religiously controlled community, and low levels of education were found to be the main factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy among key community members and leaders. Accepting vaccination in public is a risk of sanctions. Poor knowledge of vaccines is a major factor of hesitancy which is reinforced by religious teachings on the power of prayers as alternatives. Because parents/caregivers perceive vaccines as dangerous for their children and believe they can cause death or disease, members of the Apostolic Church have more confidence in alternative methods such as use of holy water and prayers to treat diseases. Under these circumstances, it is important to debunk the myths about the power of holy water on the one hand and disseminate positive information of the efficacy of vaccines on the other hand in order to reduce hesitancy. Education about vaccines and vaccination in

  11. Assessing the Cost of an Invasive Forest Pathogen: A Case Study with Oak Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Robert G.; Homans, Frances R.; Horie, Tetsuya; Mehta, Shefali V.; Smith, David J.; Venette, Robert C.

    2011-03-01

    Economic assessment of damage caused by invasive alien species provides useful information to consider when determining whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. We estimate the baseline economic damage from an invasive alien pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, a fungus that causes oak wilt, which is a significant disease of oaks ( Quercus spp.) in the central United States. We focus on Anoka County, Minnesota, a 1,156 km2 mostly urban county in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan region. We develop a landscape-level model of oak wilt spread that accounts for underground and overland pathogen transmission. We predict the economic damage of tree mortality from oak wilt spread in the absence of management during the period 2007-2016. Our metric of economic damage is removal cost, which is one component of the total economic loss from tree mortality. We estimate that Anoka County has 5.92 million oak trees and 885 active oak wilt pockets covering 5.47 km2 in 2007. The likelihood that landowners remove infected oaks varies by land use and ranges from 86% on developed land to 57% on forest land. Over the next decade, depending on the rates of oak wilt pocket establishment and expansion, 76-266 thousand trees will be infected with discounted removal cost of 18-60 million. Although our predictions of removal costs are substantial, they are lower bounds on the total economic loss from tree mortality because we do not estimate economic losses from reduced services and increased hazards. Our predictions suggest that there are significant economic benefits, in terms of damage reduction, from preventing new pocket establishment or slowing the radial growth of existing pockets.

  12. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  13. Assessment and Classification of Service Learning: A Case Study of CS/EE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Tseng; Lai, Pao-Lien; Chen, Jen-Yeu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the undergraduate students in computer science/electric engineering (CS/EE) in Taiwan to measure their perceived benefits from the experiences in service learning coursework. In addition, the confidence of their professional disciplines and its correlation with service learning experiences are examined. The results show that students take positive attitudes toward service learning and their perceived benefits from service learning are correlated with their confidence in professional disciplines. Furthermore, this study designs the knowledge model by Bayesian network (BN) classifiers and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF) for counseling students on the optimal choice of service learning. PMID:25295294

  14. Assessment and Classification of Service Learning: A Case Study of CS/EE Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ying Kao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the undergraduate students in computer science/electric engineering (CS/EE in Taiwan to measure their perceived benefits from the experiences in service learning coursework. In addition, the confidence of their professional disciplines and its correlation with service learning experiences are examined. The results show that students take positive attitudes toward service learning and their perceived benefits from service learning are correlated with their confidence in professional disciplines. Furthermore, this study designs the knowledge model by Bayesian network (BN classifiers and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF for counseling students on the optimal choice of service learning.

  15. Assessing Opinions in Community Leadership Networks to Address Health Inequalities: A Case Study from Project IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Ramanadhan, S.; Viswanath, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in "Milltown", the New…

  16. Spatial assessment on ambient air quality status: a case study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Klang as the center of economic and industrial zone in Malaysia has been exposed to poor air quality condition over the years. This study was conducted to evaluate the spatial variation pattern of air quality status in Klang, Selangor by using a four years (2010-2013) secondary database from the Malaysian Department of ...

  17. Assessment on air quality pattern: a case study in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, air quality problem has become a major issue in Malaysia for the past two decades, This study aims to determine the pattern of the air quality status, investigate the significant pollutant, relationship between air pollutants and API and evaluate the pattern of air pollution. Data from Putrajaya monitoring station ...

  18. Water footprint assessment in North Eastern region of Romania: A case study for Iasi County, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, S.A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Teodosiu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors affect the water consumption pattern such as growing world population, climate changes, industrial and agricultural practices, etc. The present study provides for the first time a year-to-year analysis of water use for agricultural production, domestic water supply and industrial

  19. Assessing Demographic Changes and Income Inequalities: A Case Study of West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, Yohannes G.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Jackson, Randall W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates demographic change and income inequalities, and relationship between economic growth and income inequality in West Virginia. Income growth was positively related with population and employment growth, but is significantly and negatively related with income inequality. This indicates that higher income inequality is associated with slower economic growth.

  20. The characteristics of atmospheric phthalates in Shanghai: A haze case study and human exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Wang, Jiahui; Ren, Bainian; Wang, Hongli; Qiao, Liping; Zhu, Jiping; Li, Li

    2018-04-01

    While phthalates in indoor environments are extensively studied, reports on phthalates in outdoor air, particularly their associations with haze weather events are rare. Phthalates, especially dimethyl phthalate, are known to react with criteria air pollutants contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. This study investigated phthalates levels in the atmosphere in Shanghai with a focus on their associations with different air quality weather events. The air quality during the study period was classified into three levels: non-haze, light pollution and moderate pollution. Phthalates levels were found to be lower in non-haze weather events (236 ng/m3) and higher in moderate pollution weather events (up to 700 ng/m3). Meteorological factors of relative humidity and wind speed had an inverse relationship with phthalates levels. Particulate matter had a positive correlation with phthalates levels. Hydroxyl radical initiated photo-reaction of dimethyl phthalate was evident by its inverse relationship with total atmospheric oxidant (O3 + NO2), indicating that dimethyl phthalate could be one of the precursors of secondary organic aerosol causing haze weather events. Daily intake of phthalates through exposure to outdoor air is estimated to be relatively minor; children intake remains higher on a body weight basis. This is the first study demonstrating the relationship of phthalates and different air quality conditions in haze weather events. The knowledge contributes to our understanding on the cause of haze weather events in China and elsewhere.

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Wastewater of Pistachio Processing Terminals (Case Study: Kerman city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khademi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wastewaters resulting from seasonal processing such as pistachio processing industry are one of the most important factors of environmental pollution. High concentration of pollutants are the qualitative characteristics of wastewaters that due high consumption of water and energy resources as well as high levels production of waste have a good potential to realization of projects to reduce the environmental impacts and optimizing the consumption of energy resources.The aim of this study was to determine the wastewater̛ s quality and quantity of pistachio processing terminals. Methods: this study is cross-sectional study that has been implemented from mid –September until late October (pistachio harvest season in each of the years 2012-2013-2014 in Kerman.Firstely according to field study, the characteristics and location of 20 pistachio processing terminals were determined by a GPS device. Then 8 pistachio processing terminals were selected in around of wastewater collection system. Composite sampling method with total of 72 samples was done in each year during pistachio operation. Samples were conducted from pistachio processing wastewater screen filter outlet. In each of samples BOD5, COD, TSS, pH and Total phenolic were determined. Sampling and tests were done according to water and wastewater standard methods book (20th edition. Concentration of Phenolic compounds was measured by folin ciocaltive method. The Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: the average of total produced wastewater in pistachio processing terminals in this study was 85.9m3/d. The average BOD5, COD, TSS, Total phenolic and PH were 6106, 21570, 682, 4154 (mg/L and 5.5 respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results from raw wastewater of pistachio processing terminals showed they have high BOD and COD. This is caused by presentation of priority pollutants (phenolic compounds which have high potential in pollution and toxicity for discharging any

  2. Assessment of trend and seasonality in road accident data: an Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Alireza; Bahrampour, Abbas; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non-stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  3. Assessment of Trend and Seasonality in Road Accident Data: An Iranian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zolala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. Results The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Conclusion Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  4. The Matthew Effect and widely prescribed pharmaceuticals lacking environmental monitoring: case study of an exposure-assessment vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughton, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing ambient exposure to chemical stressors often begins with time-consuming and costly monitoring studies to establish environmental occurrence. Both human and ecological toxicology are currently challenged by the unknowns surrounding low-dose exposure/effects, compounded by the reality that exposure undoubtedly involves mixtures of multiple stressors whose identities and levels can vary over time. Long absent from the assessment process, however, is whether the full scope of the identities of the stressors is sufficiently known. The Matthew Effect (a psychosocial phenomenon sometimes informally called the "bandwagon effect" or "iceberg effect," among others) may adversely bias or corrupt the exposure assessment process. The Matthew Effect is evidenced by decisions that base the selection of stressors to target in environmental monitoring surveys on whether they have been identified in prior studies, rather than considering the possibility that additional, but previously unreported, stressors might also play important roles in an exposure scenario. The possibility that the Matthew Effect might influence the scope of environmental stressor research is explored for the first time in a comprehensive case study that examines the preponderance of "absence of data" (in contrast to positive data and "data of absence") for the environmental occurrence of a very large class of potential chemical stressors associated with ubiquitous consumer use - active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Comprehensive examination of the published data for an array of several hundred of the most frequently used drugs for whether their APIs are environmental contaminants provides a prototype example to catalyze discussion among the many disciplines involved with assessing risk. The findings could help guide the selection of those APIs that might merit targeting for environmental monitoring (based on the absence of data for environmental occurrence) as well as the prescribing of those

  5. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of new instrumentation and control technologies. Remote multiplexing. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    New instrumentation and control technologies must be justified for application in power plants on the basis of improved plant performance and reduced investment costs. This justification requires that capability differences among systems be identified and that implementation schemes be selected which permit meaningful comparisons. A simple evaluation of initial investment costs is frequently inadequate because it does not account for operational expenses or resulting changes in plant performance. As an example of a more comprehensive evaluation methodology, this paper reviews the procedures and results from a recently completed study of remote multiplexing funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). In this study it was found that plant-wide multiplexing of non-safety instrumentation and control signals is technically feasible, can be designed to satisfy availability requirements, may save millions of dollars as a hardwire replacer, and can provide other significant intangible benefits. (author)

  7. Assessment of Social Capital in terms of Participation, Knowledge, Trust, and Social Cohesion: Zahedan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimian Bostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the urban population in developing countries increases more than double from 2000 to 2030. This rapid population transformation to cities will be difficult. Therefore, the municipal administration will be involved in numerous challenges in cities. For this purpose, social capital as a bottom-up planning is one of the appropriate ways of management and dealing with these challenges. The aim of this study was to measure the social capital in four aspects of knowledge, participation, social cohesion, and trust in Zahedan. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytic in an applied type. Library studies and surveying (questionnaire were used to collect the required data. The questions in this survey were designed based on four indicators of social capital. The statistical population of the present study is 575,116 people residing in Zahedan in 2011. One sample T- test was used for calculations. The results of the analysis show that the social capital criteria in the city of Zahedan are undesirable in all four criteria.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment from a Hydrogeochemical Viewpoint A Case Study of Sarab County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources are the most important sources of drinking water in many communities. The direct impact of water quality on public health warrants a thorough investigation of water quality and the factors involved from a hydrogeochemical viewpoint. In the present study, 25 villages of Sarab County in East Azerbayejan Province were selected and the quality of the drinking water supplied in the region was analyzed in terms of its physicochemical parameters along with heavy metals content including 20 different metals. The results were plotted using the Arc GIS for interpretation. The selected villages were subsequently categorized using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Based on the result of study, the EC of the drinking water ranged over 220-2990µs/cm with an average value of 812.  A remarkable finding was the high level of dissolved solids in the Western parts of the study area. Arsenic in two villages and mercury in one village were also high. PCA results showed that the drinking water in the pilot villages could be divided into three categories. Based on certain water quality problems observed ij the region, it is suggested that substitute water supplies should be identified for some of the villages while a comprehensive investigation is also carried out on the arsenic anomaly and its health effects on water consumers in the contaminated villages.

  9. Performance Assessment of Maintenance Practices in Government Office Buildings: Case Study of Parcel E, Putrajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awg Husaini A.I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance practices must be taken into consideration by building facility managers or building owners. They involve daily operations to ensure that end users can work or live comfortably and safely. Through effective maintenance practices, the functions of the existing building facilities can be maintained and meet the needs of the building users. Maintenance practices must be effective in aspects such as planning, organization and supervision in order to maintain the building at a satisfactory level of performance all the time. A study was conducted on a Federal government office building in Parcel E, Putrajaya to determine the maintenance aspects of the management of the facility. To achieve the objectives of this study a questionnaire survey was used to obtain the required data. The outcomes indicate that the aspects of building maintenance practice and the effectiveness of the maintenance management in government office buildings can influence the satisfaction of the end user. However, some aspects of the current building maintenance practices seem to need improvements in order to enhance the building maintenance management. The recommendations of this study will help in the effective management of the facility and maintenance management practices.

  10. Assessing the value of collaboration in tourism networks: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Racherla, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of perceived value derived from interorganizational collaborations in a tourism destination. The authors propose a theoretical model of perceived value drawing upon the rich stream of literature related to strategic collaborations and interorganizational...... networks. The model was tested using a cross section of tourism organizations operating within Elkhart County, Indiana. The results indicate that a significant positive value of collaboration is achieved from dyadic relationships. Importantly, the results suggest that the positive effect achieved from one......-to-one partnerships decreases once an organization collaborates with several other organizations. The article discusses various implications for managing strategic tourism partnerships....

  11. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon

    2016-01-01

    ,followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study......Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations.An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots...

  12. An assessment of the Brazilian REDD+ governance system. A case study of the Amazon Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Dalene, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    REDD+ has become a hot issue in the climate change policy. It is seen as one way to reduce global GHG emissions by slowing and potentially reversing deforestation and forest degradation. The Amazon Fund is today seen as the only full REDD+ governance structure in the world. Thus, I was interested in doing a deeper study of this governance structure in order to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of the Fund as a REDD+ governance structure. In order to answer this objective four research ...

  13. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    macroinvertebrate community composition and natural and human induced environmental variables (eutrophication, catchment land-use, and hydromorphological pressures) were studied. This was done in different lake habitats (the profundal, sublittoral, and littoral) in five regions of Europe (Alpine, Northern, Central...... local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... and our aim is to provide useful information for designing monitoring programs and invertebrate based ecological classification tools with the ultimate aim to improve a sound management of European lake ecosystems....

  14. 110 kV NETWORK TECHNICAL LOSSES ASSESSMENT. REAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBULESCU C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focusing on evaluating the technical losses within a real distribution network. The study was conducted for a distribution system operator within the Romanian Power System. The analysed area is represented by a real part of the Romanian Power System. It is modelled in a computer aided power system analysis tool. Several power system operating conditions are analysed. Power system optimization measures are provided having as a goal to reduce the technical losses' value. Values obtained based on the field measurement are compared to the ones provided by computer simulations. These conclusions are very useful for the distribution network operator.

  15. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  16. Assessment of harmful algal species using different approaches: the case study of the Sardinian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Satta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence and distribution of harmful algal species were investigated along the coasts of Sardinia in the summer of 2012. Fourteen potentially noxious taxa were identified at 74 beaches. The majority of the recovered taxa were potentially toxic and/or high biomass producers. Alexandrium taylorii, Gymnodinium instriatum, and Ostreopsis cf. ovata were the most frequent and abundant taxa, although Barrufeta bravensis reached the highest density (4.4 × 106 cells L−1. Barrufeta bravensis, A. taylorii, and G. instriatum were responsible for intense water discoloration at two of the beaches sampled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses supported the identification of several taxa and decisively identified B. bravensis. PCR assays increased the information available on the species distributions. The locations studied were heterogeneous in their prevailing environmental conditions and their morphodynamic profiles. Statistical analyses indicated that the distributions of harmful algal species correlated with gravel and medium-fine sand substrata. These data provide substantial knowledge on the distributions of harmful algal species on beaches, which have been poorly studied on a global scale. The apparent relationship between noxious species and grain size suggests that vegetative cells may be recruited from cyst beds in beach sediments.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

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    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  18. An Assessment on Destination Characteristics: The Case Study of Pulau Perhentian

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    Muhibudin Masitah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of tourism in the small island has brought both positive and negative impacts towards the environment particularly. However, the growth seems disregard with the limited natural resources, facilities, accessibilities and others. Pulau Perhentian, one of the well known islands in Malaysia that is struggling with many physical carrying capacity related issues such as waste management, supply of accommodation, utilities, facilities and environmental protection. Consequently, this study aims to evaluate the destination characteristics that contribute to the management of physical carrying capacity using the criteria matrix. Finding shows that the physical development has marked the island into a yellow colour that indicates the condition of current development. This evaluation is hoped to contribute and assist in future tourism activities and physical developments in Perhentian.

  19. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  20. On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, María Fernanda; Oyarzún, Jorge; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims to determine if the environmental effect of an activity or project complies with standards and regulations. A primary component of the environment to evaluate is air and the effect that various activities can have on its quality. To this end, emission factors (EFs), which are empirical coefficients or mathematical relationships, are normally used. The present research critically analyzes the implications and consequences of using imported EFs in environmental impact studies (EISs), taking as case of study the situation in Chile. Among the main results, the widespread use of EFs in EISs in the country and the lack of assessments of their actual applicability stand out. In addition, the official guidelines related to emissions estimation that are used for EIA in the country mostly include EFs derived elsewhere, without considering the recommendations or restrictions that the original sources indicate for their use. Finally, the broad use of default values defined for the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile, is highly questionable for a country that extends north-south along more than 35° of latitude, with wide variability in climate, traffic conditions, population, soil types, etc. Finally, it is very likely that situations similar to those observed in the present work occurs in other countries with young environmental impact assessment systems, and therefore, that the results herein presented should be of general interest and relevance. - Highlights: • Emission factors are widely used in environmental impact assessment in Chile. • There is a lack of a proper understanding of the limitations of EFs for EIA. • Imported emission factors use requires caution and full understanding. • Misuse of foreign EFs may have serious environmental and economic consequences.

  1. On the indiscriminate use of imported emission factors in environmental impact assessment: A case study in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, María Fernanda [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Oyarzún, Jorge [Department of Mining Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Oyarzún, Ricardo, E-mail: royarzun@userena.cl [Department of Mining Engineering, Universidad de La Serena (Chile); Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Aridas, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-05-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims to determine if the environmental effect of an activity or project complies with standards and regulations. A primary component of the environment to evaluate is air and the effect that various activities can have on its quality. To this end, emission factors (EFs), which are empirical coefficients or mathematical relationships, are normally used. The present research critically analyzes the implications and consequences of using imported EFs in environmental impact studies (EISs), taking as case of study the situation in Chile. Among the main results, the widespread use of EFs in EISs in the country and the lack of assessments of their actual applicability stand out. In addition, the official guidelines related to emissions estimation that are used for EIA in the country mostly include EFs derived elsewhere, without considering the recommendations or restrictions that the original sources indicate for their use. Finally, the broad use of default values defined for the Metropolitan Region in Central Chile, is highly questionable for a country that extends north-south along more than 35° of latitude, with wide variability in climate, traffic conditions, population, soil types, etc. Finally, it is very likely that situations similar to those observed in the present work occurs in other countries with young environmental impact assessment systems, and therefore, that the results herein presented should be of general interest and relevance. - Highlights: • Emission factors are widely used in environmental impact assessment in Chile. • There is a lack of a proper understanding of the limitations of EFs for EIA. • Imported emission factors use requires caution and full understanding. • Misuse of foreign EFs may have serious environmental and economic consequences.

  2. Assessing the economic aspects of biogas plants. A case study in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmud, Md Shultan

    2012-07-01

    Energy crisis has become one of the most concerning issues throughout the world including emerging developing country like Bangladesh. Scientific community has unequivocally agreed that renewable energy is the only solution to face this challenge. A number of researches on renewable energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro energy and biogas) have been carried out in Bangladesh. So far, biogas and solar energy has been proved to be the best alternative to meet the daily energy demand. However, Bangladesh could achieve more success with biogas in rural areas if socioeconomic, technical and regulatory issues were addressed appropriately. This study analyzed not only these factors but also (i) the present situation of the biogas production, (ii) ways to improve the efficiency and economic benefits of small-scale or farm-scale biogas production, (iii) existing problem associated with small-scale/farms-scale biogas production, (iv) reason behind not using and not using of biogas by the people nearby the user of biogas, (v) economic benefits of small biogas plants and (vi) the ways to improve efficiency by intervening feed stock quality and composition of the small-scale/farms-scale biogas plants.

  3. Health assessment of Arsenic and Zinc in rice cultivated in Fars province (Case Study: Firoozabad fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food security along with the protection of environment has become a global issue.Accumulation of Arsenic and Zinc in rice is considered as a major problem for South-East Asia, where rice is a staple food. Given that, rice is considered as the highly consumed food in the diet of Iranian people, this study was conducted to estimate the concentrations of Zinc and Arsenic in rice cultivated in Firoozabad fields. For this purpose, 38 rice samples were collected from 22 nearby villages. Samples were digested by Digesdahl device and the concentrations of Arsenic and Zinc were determined by ICP. The results showed that the concentration (mean ± SD of Zinc was 20.87 ± 1.9 mg/kg of dry matter (ranged from 25.26 to 32.97; meanwhile mean value of Arsenic concentration was estimated at 22.89 ± 2.2 mg/kg of dry matter (ranged from 17.61 to 26.77.Comparing the concentrations of Arsenic and Zinc in rice samples with the standard limit set by WHO/FAO it was revealed that Arsenic concentrations in 100% of the samples were higher than standard level, whereas Zinc concentrations in 97.36% of the samples were below the limit.

  4. Sinkhole risk assessment by ERT: The case study of Sirino Lake (Basilicata, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Capozzoli, L.; Grimaldi, S.; Rizzo, E.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of natural or artificial lakes and reservoirs that can drain because of natural phenomena can generate catastrophic events affecting urban and agricultural areas next to the source area. Therefore, geophysical prospecting techniques have been applied in the study of Sirino Lake, which, during the last century, was affected by the sudden opening of small sinkholes, resulting in the almost total draining of the lake and in the sudden increase of water flow rates of distal springs. Two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out across the lake, using electrode arrays located on land and across the water body. Self-potential (SP) data were acquired around the lake shore and the surrounding area. The geophysical prospecting contributed significant data toward explaining the unique hydrogeological characteristics of the lake. Integration of geophysical, geological, hydrogeological, and geomorphological data allowed us to estimate the thickness of the lacustrine deposits beneath the lake, to describe the main patterns of the subsurface fluid flows in the area, and to identify possible water escape routes causing the piping phenomena.

  5. Assessing the economic aspects of biogas plants. A case study in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Md Shultan

    2012-01-01

    Energy crisis has become one of the most concerning issues throughout the world including emerging developing country like Bangladesh. Scientific community has unequivocally agreed that renewable energy is the only solution to face this challenge. A number of researches on renewable energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro energy and biogas) have been carried out in Bangladesh. So far, biogas and solar energy has been proved to be the best alternative to meet the daily energy demand. However, Bangladesh could achieve more success with biogas in rural areas if socioeconomic, technical and regulatory issues were addressed appropriately. This study analyzed not only these factors but also (i) the present situation of the biogas production, (ii) ways to improve the efficiency and economic benefits of small-scale or farm-scale biogas production, (iii) existing problem associated with small-scale/farms-scale biogas production, (iv) reason behind not using and not using of biogas by the people nearby the user of biogas, (v) economic benefits of small biogas plants and (vi) the ways to improve efficiency by intervening feed stock quality and composition of the small-scale/farms-scale biogas plants.

  6. Energy assessment of peri-urban horticulture and its uncertainty: Case study for Bogota, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojaca, C.R. [Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorias Agroindustriales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, P.O. Box: 140196, Chia (Colombia); Schrevens, E. [Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Applied Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Geo-Institute, Celestijnenlaan 200 E, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Scarce information is available about the energy use pattern of horticultural commodities in general and more specifically for peri-urban horticulture. Peri-urban horticulture in the outskirts of Bogota is an important source of vegetables for Colombia's capital city. Based on detailed follow-ups and periodic field measurements an output-input energy balance was performed with the main objective to study the energy use efficiency of those systems. An uncertainty analysis on the input factors and on the energy equivalents was then applied. Over a measurement period of 18-month, the energy use for coriander, lettuce, radish and spinach was investigated, respectively 12.1, 18.8, 6.6 and 10.7 GJ ha{sup -1} were consumed in these cropping systems. Negative balances were observed for all species exception made for spinach where an output:input ratio of 1.16 was found. The two-way uncertainty analysis showed the highest uncertainty for N-based fertilization while no significant effect was observed for seeds in direct sowing crops. Sustainability of peri-urban horticulture around Bogota is compromised not only because of the city expansion but also due to its inefficient energy use. Technical improvements are required to ensure the environmental subsistence of this important sector for the metropolitan area of the city. (author)

  7. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  8. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  9. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  10. Applying the High Reliability Health Care Maturity Model to Assess Hospital Performance: A VA Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Rivard, Peter E; Shin, Marlena H; Rosen, Amy K

    2016-09-01

    The lack of a tool for categorizing and differentiating hospitals according to their high reliability organization (HRO)-related characteristics has hindered progress toward implementing and sustaining evidence-based HRO practices. Hospitals would benefit both from an understanding of the organizational characteristics that support HRO practices and from knowledge about the steps necessary to achieve HRO status to reduce the risk of harm and improve outcomes. The High Reliability Health Care Maturity (HRHCM) model, a model for health care organizations' achievement of high reliability with zero patient harm, incorporates three major domains critical for promoting HROs-Leadership, Safety Culture, and Robust Process Improvement ®. A study was conducted to examine the content validity of the HRHCM model and evaluate whether it can differentiate hospitals' maturity levels for each of the model's components. Staff perceptions of patient safety at six US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals were examined to determine whether all 14 HRHCM components were present and to characterize each hospital's level of organizational maturity. Twelve of the 14 components from the HRHCM model were detected; two additional characteristics emerged that are present in the HRO literature but not represented in the model-teamwork culture and system-focused tools for learning and improvement. Each hospital's level of organizational maturity could be characterized for 9 of the 14 components. The findings suggest the HRHCM model has good content validity and that there is differentiation between hospitals on model components. Additional research is needed to understand how these components can be used to build the infrastructure necessary for reaching high reliability.

  11. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: Update on 60336 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Woolum, D.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return of Genesis Solar Wind return mission it is necessary to characterize and remove a crash-derived particle and thin film surface contamination. A small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques. Here we present an update on the sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C). This sample has undergone multiple cleaning steps (see the table below): UPW spin wash, aggressive chemical cleanings (including aqua regia, hot xylene and RCA1), as well as optical and chemical (EDS, ToF-SIMS) imaging. Contamination appeared on the surface of 60336 after the initial 2007 UPW cleaning. Aqua regia and hot xylene treatment (8/13/2013) did little to remove contaminants. The sample was UPW cleaned for the third time and imaged (9/16/13). The UPW removed the dark stains that were visible on the sample. However, some features, like "the Flounder" (a large, 100 micron feature in Fig. 1b) appeared largely intact, resisting all previous cleaning efforts. These features were likely from mobilized adhesive, derived from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. To remove this contamination, an RCA step 1 organic cleaning (RCA1) was employed. Although we are still uncertain on the nature of the Flounder and why it is resistant to UPW and aqua regia/hot xylene treatment, we have found RCA1 to be suitable for its removal. It is likely that the glue from sticky pads used during collector recovery may have been a source for resistant organic contamination [9]; however [8] shows that UPW reaction with crash-derived organic contamination does not make particle removal more difficult.

  13. Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Malik, Amal I; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

  14. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were par