WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessment case study

  1. Collaborative Assessment: Middle School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkison, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a participant observer research model, a case study of the efficacy of a collaborative assessment methodology within a middle school social studies class was conducted. A review of existing research revealed that students' perceptions of assessment, evaluation, and accountability influence their intrinsic motivation to learn. A…

  2. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  3. Case studies in Bayesian microbial risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Joanne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of different types and quality, and providing a realistic estimate of the combined uncertainty in the final risk estimates. Methods We present two case studies related to foodborne microbial risks. In the first, we combine models to describe the sequence of events resulting in illness from consumption of milk contaminated with VTEC O157. We used Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainty in some of the inputs to computer models describing the farm and pasteurisation process. Resulting simulated contamination levels were then assigned to consumption events from a dietary survey. Finally we accounted for uncertainty in the dose-response relationship and uncertainty due to limited incidence data to derive uncertainty about yearly incidences of illness in young children. Options for altering the risk were considered by running the model with different hypothetical policy-driven exposure scenarios. In the second case study we illustrate an efficient Bayesian sensitivity analysis for identifying the most important parameters of a complex computer code that simulated VTEC O157 prevalence within a managed dairy herd. This was carried out in 2 stages, first to screen out the unimportant inputs, then to perform a more detailed analysis on the remaining inputs. The method works by building a Bayesian statistical approximation to the computer code using a number of known code input/output pairs (training runs. Results We estimated that the expected total number of children aged 1.5-4.5 who become ill due to VTEC O157 in milk is 8.6 per year, with 95% uncertainty interval (0,11.5. The most extreme policy we considered was banning on-farm pasteurisation of milk, which reduced the estimate to 6.4 with 95% interval (0,11. In the second

  4. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem

    2007-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  5. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  6. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL Environment: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, F.J.; Sluijsmans, D.M.A.; Kirschner, P.A.; Strijbos, J.-W.

    2005-01-01

    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that were embedded in the course material. The course concerned a higher education case-based virtual seminar, in which students were asked to conduct research and write a report in small multidiscipli...

  7. Unmasking Cleckley's psychopath: assessing historical case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2016-05-01

    The current study investigated original case descriptions of psychopathy (Cleckley, 1941) in relation to current conceptualizations and general personality traits. Attorneys, forensic psychologists and clinical faculty members completed ratings of psychopathy and personality after reading vignettes based on Cleckley's descriptions of a psychopath. The results suggest that professionals' ratings are consistent with current conceptualizations of psychopathy. Furthermore, the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits of the vignettes aligned with the current literature on the FFM and psychopathy (i.e. low neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness). The results further supported that a general trait model, like the FFM, may be well suited to describe the underlying personality traits of psychopathy. Gender differences were also examined. PMID:26931520

  8. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  9. Assessment of Correspondent Banks Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer F.A.A. Abbadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims at evaluating corresponding banks in Jordan. Characterizing the goals, instruments and profitability under unfavorable conditions of financial setbacks and unfair competition among banks. Focuses on the feasibility and profitability of Philadelphia Investment Bank in its international trade via its Correspondent banks. Approach: Problems and setbacks shall be screened out; reasoned and appropriate optimal recommendations are to be presented. Results: The study followed the analytical approach and depended on “History Documents” and “In depth Interview” techniques and puts a major emphasis on the fact that correspondent banking has become an essential cornerstone of international business amid the new era of world trade, globalization, external competition and cartels from the major opponents to Jordanian Banks, the main conclusion is realized the importance of correspondent banks in the international trade, so Philadelphia bank benefited from correspondent banks for the cheap cost of market entry and services were tailored to the scale of required locale. But there was no big investment in staff facilities. And there are setbacks in dealing with correspondent banks, such as fund delay in reaching destinations on time. Moreover, Jordanian banks have suffered in general from these correspondent banks because they deal with these correspondent banks individually. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation of the study is, it is the time to consider solidification and forming one financial block, or a sort of cartel and face these correspondent banks in one unit. They are also called for developing collective strategies. Small banks should merge and form huge capital blocks. Another strategy is that Jordanian banks should minimize the reliance on foreign banks and should develop their own, by establishing international branches abroad to help financing their international activities.

  10. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  11. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  12. Approaches to Children's Exposure Assessment: Case Study with Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary; Ginsberg, Justine; Foos, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Children's exposure assessment is a key input into epidemiology studies, risk assessment and source apportionment. The goals of this article are to describe a methodology for children's exposure assessment that can be used for these purposes and to apply the methodology to source apportionment for the case study chemical, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). A key feature is the comparison of total (aggregate) exposure calculated via a pathways approach to that derived from a biomonitoring approach. The 4-step methodology and its results for DEHP are: (1) Prioritization of life stages and exposure pathways, with pregnancy, breast-fed infants, and toddlers the focus of the case study and pathways selected that are relevant to these groups; (2) Estimation of pathway-specific exposures by life stage wherein diet was found to be the largest contributor for pregnant women, breast milk and mouthing behavior for the nursing infant and diet, house dust, and mouthing for toddlers; (3) Comparison of aggregate exposure by pathways vs biomonitoring-based approaches wherein good concordance was found for toddlers and pregnant women providing confidence in the exposure assessment; (4) Source apportionment in which DEHP presence in foods, children's products, consumer products and the built environment are discussed with respect to early life mouthing, house dust and dietary exposure. A potential fifth step of the method involves the calculation of exposure doses for risk assessment which is described but outside the scope for the current case study. In summary, the methodology has been used to synthesize the available information to identify key sources of early life exposure to DEHP. PMID:27376320

  13. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  14. Integrated assessment in the Mediterranean: the CIRCE case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.; Agnew, M. D.; Hemming, D.; Giannakopoulos, C.

    2012-04-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the Mediterranean environment, combined with a wide diversity of economic, social and cultural identities, make this region particularly amenable to integrated research on climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptive response. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CIRCE project, eleven case-study locations were selected to reflect three generic environments (urban, rural and coastal), to quantify current and future climate change and to assess the potential consequences to human communities and ecosystems at the regional to local scale. The case studies (Athens, Beirut, Alexandria, Tuscany, Apulia, Tel Hadya, Judean Foothills, Gulf of Valencia, Gulf of Oran, Gulf of Gabes, West Nile Delta) were chosen to reflect the east-west and north-south contrasts across the Mediterranean, using common selection criteria. A rigorous common framework, referred to as the CIRCE Case studies Integrating Framework was developed to facilitate a structured and systematic basis for identifying and selecting indicators. Within this framework, climate dynamics is viewed as a key driver of changes in social and biogeophysical systems and is modulated by the inherent dynamics of these systems. The top-down, indicator-based approach was complemented by a bottom-up approach involving local and regional stakeholders. A participatory level of involvement was aimed for, with stakeholder dialogue on an informal basis throughout the project, culminating in a series of more formal regional stakeholder workshops. Identification and construction of physical and socio-economic indicators was the most challenging and time-consuming aspect of the case-study work. A detailed set of selection criteria was defined and the process of reviewing and refining indicators was iterative. Nonetheless, a number of data and methodological challenges were encountered. Despite these issues, indicator linkages diagrams provided a useful preparatory stage for structuring the integrated

  15. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990`s is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  16. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990's is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  17. Energy security assessment framework and three case-studies

    OpenAIRE

    CHERP, ALEH; Jewell, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a novel framework for assessing energy security and illustrates its application by the Global Energy Assessment, the IEA Model for Short-term energy security and in several studies of long-term global energy security.

  18. Assessing Specialized Translation In Academic Contexts: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Grego

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses translation assessment, first of all by briefly outlining the topic, then by restricting the reflection to specialized translation in didactic contexts and, finally, by discussing how to determine assessment criteria in one specific academic case, the ‘English specialized translation’ course of the ‘Lingue moderne per la comunicazione e la cooperazione internazionale’ Master’s programme of the University of Milan, Italy. Both generic (common to all Master’s programmes in ...

  19. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  20. Assessment of human decision reliability - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his discussion of this case study, the author indicates that human beings are not merely machines who use rules. Thus, more focus needs to be put on studying decision making situations and their contexts. Decision theory (both normative and descriptive) and contextual psychological approaches may offer tools to cope with operator decision making. Further an ideal decision space needs to be defined for operators. The case study specifically addressed a loss of feedwater scenario and the various operator decisions that were involved in that scenario. It was concluded from this particular study that there are significant differences in the crew decision behaviours that are not explained by process variables. Through use of evidence from simulator tests with expert judgement, an approach to estimate probabilities has been developed. The modelling approach presented in this discussion is an extension of current HRA paradigms, but a natural one since all human beings make decisions

  1. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA.

  2. Assessing analytical comparability of biosimilars: GCSF as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nupur, Neh; Singh, Sumit Kumar; Narula, Gunjan; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-10-01

    The biosimilar industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth with the newer therapeutics increasing in complexity over time. A key step towards development of a biosimilar is to establish analytical comparability with the innovator product, which would otherwise affect the safety/efficacy profile of the product. Choosing appropriate analytical tools that can fulfil this objective by qualitatively and/or quantitatively assessing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product is highly critical for establishing equivalence. These CQAs cover the primary and higher order structures of the product, product related variants and impurities, as well as process related impurities, and host cell related impurities. In the present work, we use such an analytical platform for assessing comparability of five approved Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) biosimilars (Emgrast, Lupifil, Colstim, Neukine and Grafeel) to the innovator product, Neupogen(®). The comparability studies involve assessing structural homogeneity, identity, secondary structure, and product related modifications. Physicochemical analytical tools include peptide mapping with mass determination, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, reverse phase chromatography (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) have been used in this exercise. Bioactivity assessment include comparison of relative potency through in vitro cell proliferation assays. The results from extensive analytical examination offer robust evidence of structural and biological similarity of the products under consideration with the pertinent innovator product. For the most part, the biosimilar drugs were found to be comparable to the innovator drug anomaly that was identified was that three of the biosimilars had a typical variant which was reported as an oxidized species in the literature. But, upon further investigation using RPC-FLD and ESI-MS we found that this is likely a conformational variant of the biotherapeutic been

  3. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  4. Assessment of domestic water quality: case study, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Jurdi, Mey

    2007-12-01

    In urban cities, the environmental services are the responsibility of the public sector, where piped water supply is the norm for urban household. Likewise, in Beirut City (capital of Lebanon) official water authorities are the main supplier of domestic water through a network of piping system that leaks in many areas. Beirut City and its suburbs are overpopulated since it is the residence of 1/3 of the Lebanese citizens. Thus, Beirut suffers deficiency in meeting its water demand. Water rationing, as a remedial action, is firmly established since four decades by the Lebanese Water Authorities. Consumers resorted then to private wells to supplement their domestic water needs. Consequently, household water quality is influenced by external factors relating to well water characteristics and internal factors depending on the types of the pipes of the distribution network and cross connections to sewer pipes. These factors could result in chemical and microbial contamination of drinking water. The objective of this study is to investigate domestic water quality variation in Beirut City emerging form the aforementioned factors. The presented work encircles a typical case study of Beirut City (Ras Beirut). Results showed deterioration pattern in domestic water quality. The predicted metal species and scales within the water pipes of distribution network depended on water pH, hardness, sulfate, chloride, and iron. The corrosion of iron pipes mainly depended on Mg hardness.

  5. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  6. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  7. Continuous assessment in process engineering education – two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, E.-P. (Eetu-Pekka); Jaako, J. (Juha)

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Development of higher engineering education requires under-standing on teaching, learning and assessment. The content being taught and boundary conditions, such as available resources, must be taken into consideration. In practice it is not possible to implement everything that is presented as desirable in educational research and a compromise is needed, where such a teaching, learning and assessment environment is created that is both theoretically sound and useful in practice. ...

  8. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  9. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…

  10. Risk Assessment of Vertical Breakwaters -- A Case Study in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Can Elmar BALAS; Levent KOC

    2002-01-01

    In the reliability-risk assessment, the second order reliability index (βⅡ) method and the Conditional ExpectationMonte Carlo (CEMC) simulation are interrelated as a new Level Ⅲ approach for the analysis of the safety level of theDalaman yacht harbor vertical wall breakwater in Turkey. The missing wave data of the Dalaman measurement station arehindcasted by use of muhi-layer feed-forward neural networks with the steepest descent and conjugate gradient algorithms.The structural failure probabilities of sliding and overturning failure modes are forecasted by approximation of the failure sur-face with a second-degree polynomial of an equal curvature at the design point. In the new approach, for each randomlygenerated load and tide combination, the joint failure probability reflects both the occurrence probability of loading conditionand the structural failure risk at the limit state. The approach can be applied to risk assessment of vertical breakwaters inshort CPU durations of portable computers.

  11. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  12. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...

  13. Strategic Assessment Model and Its Application:a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiu-wen; CAO Meng-xia; ZHU Ning; ZUO M1ng-j1an

    2001-01-01

    Accurate and effective assessment of strategic alternatives of an organization directly affects the decision-making and execution of its development strategy. In evaluation of strategic alternatives, relevant elements from both internal and external environments of an organization must be considered. In this paper we use strategic assessment model to evaluate strategic alternatives of an air-conditioning company. Strategic objectives and alternatives of the company are developed through analysis of the competitive environment,key competitors and internal conditions. The environment factors are classified into internal, task, and general opportunities and threats. Analytical hierarchy process, subjective probabilities, entropy concept,and utility theory are used to enhance decision-maker's ability in evaluating strategic alternatives. The evaluation results show that the most effective strategic alternative for the company is to reduce types of products, concentrate its effort on producing window-type and cupboard-type air-conditioners, enlarge the production scale, and pre-empt the market. The company has made great progress by implementing this alternative. We conclude that SAM is an appropriate tool for evaluating strategic alternatives.

  14. Case Study: Visual Analytics in Software Product Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Lanza, M.; Storey, M.; Muller, H

    2009-01-01

    We present how a combination of static source code analysis, repository analysis, and visualization techniques has been used to effectively get and communicate insight in the development and project management problems of a large industrial code base. This study is an example of how visual analytics can be effectively applied to answer maintenance questions and support decision making in the software industry. We comment on the relevant findings during the study both in terms of used techniqu...

  15. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.

  16. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  17. Case Study : Visual Analytics in Software Product Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Lanza, M; Storey, M; Muller, H

    2009-01-01

    We present how a combination of static source code analysis, repository analysis, and visualization techniques has been used to effectively get and communicate insight in the development and project management problems of a large industrial code base. This study is an example of how visual analytics

  18. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  19. Changes and Possibilities: A Case Study of Nova Scotia Classroom Assessment Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zoost, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous writers have identified a different set of skills needed for employment in New Times, little analytic attention has been paid to how educational assessment policies contribute to envisioning such future citizens. This case study illustrates how Nova Scotia classroom assessment policy for Grades 7-9 English classes envisions young…

  20. Root Cause Assessment for a Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalantri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-cause identification for quality related problems are key issues for manufacturing processes. It has been a very challenging engineering problem particularly in a multistage manufacturing, where maximum number of processes and activities are performed. However, it may also be implemented with ease in each and every individual set up and activities in any manufacturing process. Kaizen is aimed towards reduction in different types of losses i.e. Failure Loss/ Breakdown Loss, Minor stoppage, idling loss, Setup and adjustment loss etc. So as to improve quality and productivity.In this report, root-cause identification methodology has been adopted to eliminate the rejection of product manufactured by the enterprise and improving the life of product. Brainstorming and other Root Cause Assesmenttools have been used to find out the reasons of tube failure and vibration in tubular strander. Solutions of these problems have also given in this report. Kaizen activities have reduced the time consumed in daily activities of cleaning, lubricating, inspection etc. A detailed study has illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  1. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Peng; Minli Zong; Yi'na Hu; Yanxu Liu; Jiansheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of ...

  2. PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSESSMENT: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT MODELS INTERSECT THROUGH EARLY CHILDHOOD CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. PMID:27333488

  3. Understanding Authentic Assessment in a Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An Instrumental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The instrumental case study reported here adds to the literature on authentic assessment by illuminating how one secondary agricultural education instructor employed authentic assessment in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. The study was underpinned by the constructivist notion of authentic learning and assessment, or allowing students to perform what they can do. Multiple sources of data regarding assessment practices were collected from an exemplary secondary agricultural mechanics instructor who demonstrated model authentic assessment behavior by (1 setting high and fair expectations for students, (2 establishing a progressive hierarchy of skills for students to master, (3 providing continuous feedback so that students had knowledge of their progress, and (4 being committed deeply to students’ success. The four themes resonated with previous literature and provided the foundation for a pragmatic model of authentic assessment in the secondary agricultural mechanics laboratory. Future research should focus on refining the model of authentic assessment in agricultural mechanics for a larger audience, as case studies are limited in their ability to generalize. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine how authentic assessment impacts student performance on Oklahoma Agricultural Power and Technology competency examinations.

  4. A socio-constructivist perspective on self-assessment: a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Nicolini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our goal is to deal with self-assessment according to a socio-constructivist approach. We offer some data about different versions of the same Workshop, considered as a case study. Between the possibility to adopt a completely goal-driven or a fully goal-free self assessment, we suggest the adoption of a blended modality, in order to involve students in the learning process and make them aware about the learning outcomes.

  5. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN A BUS COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Ribeiro de Araújo; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine the application of a method for assessing the performance of the product development process (PDP) through the assessment of managerial skills in a bus body industry. A case study was carried out and a PDP method was applied through a questionnaire addressing the PDP management skills according to Dechamps and Nayak (1997) model and validated by Silva (2001) in a bus body company which showed all the features available in the literature on industria...

  6. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Pable; Kenan Fishburne

    2015-01-01

    Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs) depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully reco...

  7. Web-based Peer Assessment: A Case Study with Civil Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalo Cruz; Caroline Dominguez; Ana Maia; Daniela Pedrosa; Gordon Grams

    2013-01-01

    Peer-assessed online collaborative writing is of growing importance for higher education. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of collected data, this work presents the results of a case study in a graduate civil engineering course at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. After an overall presentation of the learning activity, it examines students’ attitudes towards web-based peer assessment and identifies which factors are rela...

  8. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  9. What about Language while Equitably Assessing Science?: Case Studies of Preservice Teachers' Evolving Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The three case studies, drawing on qualitative analysis of surveys, interviews, program artifacts, and classroom observation, describe secondary science preservice teachers' evolving expertise at providing opportunities for linguistically diverse students to learn and demonstrate what they have learned (i.e., equitable assessment). The teachers…

  10. Case Study: Optimality Theory and the Assessment and Treatment of Phonological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a 3-year-old with a phonological disorder is used to demonstrate the application of optimality theory to the assessment and treatment. A tutorial of the theory is provided and then several prototypical error patterns evident in the child's productions are analyzed within the framework. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. THE SELF-ASSESSMENT PROCESS AND IMPACTS ON PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Tarí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the European Foundation for Quality Management model self-assessment process and its effects on performance in a private manufacturing firm. A case study is used, considering the analysis of primary and secondary data. This paper explains the self-assessment process using a workshop approach, and identifies benefits, difficulties and success factors. It also shows that self-assessment has partly improved performance and the attitudes and behaviour of management and employees, reinforcing the firm’s competitiveness. The contribution of this paper is to provide lessons for managers of other organisations to learn from.

  12. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    to the original CA studies at the time of CA testing, but not for the whole work life. An independent occupational hygienist coordinated harmonization of the assessment criteria and the quality control procedure. The reliability of the exposure assessments was calculated as deviation from the majority......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...

  13. Constructivist assessment proposal a case study in a technical and industrial school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Yohana Suescún Pinilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the ongoing research “Constructivist AssessmentProposal” held at Institución Educativa Técnica Integral in Sogamoso. It isaimed at identifying why the assessment traditional approach is still beingapplied. Besides, it pretends to redefine new assessment practices in order toenhance students’ participation, speech and creativity. Likewise, it tends tomake teachers be aware of alternative assessment ways more relevant withthe education needs and demands. It is based on the case study researchapproach and developed in three stages: problematic description andcontextualization, analysis and comprehension of the assessment used bythe teacher in a technical and industrial setting and improvement alternativeproposals based on the problematic situation.

  14. Assessing CSR and Applying Social Life Cycle Assessment: A case study on Biochemical Oxygen Demand Online Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, He

    2012-01-01

    Wuhan China and Borlänge Sweden collaborate to promote sustainable business growths. This thesis, being part of sustainable business project, aims to understand how business can contribute to sustainable development and explore mechanisms of social life cycle assessment. In an effort to answer research questions and further to achieve the general purpose, a BOD online monitor case study is described and analyzed by applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data collection is base...

  15. Risk assessment of oil and gas well drilling activities in Iran - a case study: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir-Heidari, Payam; Farahani, Hadi; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling activities are associated with numerous hazards which have the potential to cause injury or harm for people, property and the environment. These hazards are also a threat for the reputation of drilling companies. To prevent accidents and undesired events in drilling operations it is essential to identify, evaluate, assess and control the attendant risks. In this work, a structured methodology is proposed for risk assessment of drilling activities. A case study is performed to identify, analyze and assess the risks arising from human factors in one of the on shore drilling sites in southern Iran. A total of 17 major hazards were identified and analyzed using the proposed methodology. The results showed that the residual risks of 100% of these hazards were in the acceptable or transitional zone, and their levels were expected to be lowered further by proper controls. This structured methodology may also be used in other drilling sites and companies for assessing the risks.

  16. A probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less importance than the approach taken, the interaction between sponsor and study team, and the technical and administrative issues that can arise during a peer review. This case study will examine the following issues: how the scope of the peer review was established, based on how it was to be used by the review sponsoring body; how the level of effort was determined, and what this determination meant for the technical quality of the review; how the team of peer reviewers was selected; how the review itself was carried out; what findings were made; what was done with these findings by both the review sponsoring body and the PSA analysis team. 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Web-based Peer Assessment: A Case Study with Civil Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Cruz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer-assessed online collaborative writing is of growing importance for higher education. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of collected data, this work presents the results of a case study in a graduate civil engineering course at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. After an overall presentation of the learning activity, it examines students’ attitudes towards web-based peer assessment and identifies which factors are related to students’ use and appreciation of feedback. In addition, an analysis of the type of feedback is presented in an attempt to evaluate students’  written communication skills. The results of this study provide indications on how to improve the design and implementation of future web-based peer assessment tasks and raise questions on the effectiveness of peer/teacher grading in the use of feedback.

  18. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills Via a Performance Assessment: A case study in instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research project. Fifty-five students participated in a performance assessment interview at the beginning and end of a place-based investigation. Two forms of the assessment were created and counterbalanced within class at pre and post. In situ scoring was conducted such that responses were scored as correct versus incorrect during the assessment's administration. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated an age-level progression in student scores. Tests of discriminant validity showed that the instrument detected variability in interpretation skills across each of three graph types (line, bar, dot plot). Convergent validity was established by correlating in situ scores with those from the Graph Interpretation Scoring Rubric. Students' proficiency with interpreting different types of graphs matched expectations based on age and the standards-based progression of graphs across primary school grades. The assessment tasks were also effective at detecting pre-post gains in students' interpretation of line graphs and dot plots after the place-based project. The results of the case study are discussed in relation to the common challenges associated with performance assessment. Implications are presented in relation to the need for authentic and performance-based instructional and assessment tasks to respond to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.

  19. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  20. Incorporating formative assessment and science content into elementary science methods---A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Derek John

    Just as elementary students enter the science classroom with prior knowledge and experiences, so do preservice elementary teachers who enter the science methods classroom. Elementary science methods instructors recognize the challenges associated with preparing teachers for the science classroom. Two of these challenges include overcoming limited science content understanding and a low science teaching efficacy. Based upon research in science misconceptions, conceptual change theory, formative assessment, and science teaching efficacy, this design experiment explored the use of formative assessment in an authentic learning environment to address some of these challenges. As a case study, the goal was to identify two specific topics in science which the preservice teachers did not understand and to model consistent use of formative assessment to guide instruction in those science topics for six weeks. The research questions for this study sought to explore the design of the class while also exploring students' understanding of the science content and their understanding of formative assessment. One specific question was whether the formative data could differentiate between deeply held student misconceptions in science and incomplete science understanding. In addition, data was collected to measure changes in science teaching efficacy as well as preservice teachers' desire to use formative assessment in their own future classrooms. Based upon student interviews and a final content quiz, the participants in this study did show improved science content understanding in the areas of plant food/energy and plate tectonics. The course design implemented a variety of formative assessment tools including formative assessment probes, student science notebooks, student concept maps, a non-graded quiz, and more. The STEBI-B survey identified improved science teaching efficacy among the participants. Student final essays indicated improved understanding of formative assessment

  1. Case study for model validation : assessing a model for thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Leslie, Ian H. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Hobbs, Michael L.; Rutherford, Brian Milne; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Pilch, Martin M.

    2004-10-01

    A case study is reported to document the details of a validation process to assess the accuracy of a mathematical model to represent experiments involving thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. The focus of the report is to work through a validation process. The process addresses the following activities. The intended application of mathematical model is discussed to better understand the pertinent parameter space. The parameter space of the validation experiments is mapped to the application parameter space. The mathematical models, computer code to solve the models and its (code) verification are presented. Experimental data from two activities are used to validate mathematical models. The first experiment assesses the chemistry model alone and the second experiment assesses the model of coupled chemistry, conduction, and enclosure radiation. The model results of both experimental activities are summarized and uncertainty of the model to represent each experimental activity is estimated. The comparison between the experiment data and model results is quantified with various metrics. After addressing these activities, an assessment of the process for the case study is given. Weaknesses in the process are discussed and lessons learned are summarized.

  2. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN A BUS COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Ribeiro de Araújo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the application of a method for assessing the performance of the product development process (PDP through the assessment of managerial skills in a bus body industry. A case study was carried out and a PDP method was applied through a questionnaire addressing the PDP management skills according to Dechamps and Nayak (1997 model and validated by Silva (2001 in a bus body company which showed all the features available in the literature on industrial segment. The proposed method provided a way to assess strengths and opportunities for improvement in the company´s PDP allowing the company to focus on its efforts in actions to solve deficiencies on critical points and having continuous improvement for consolidation of the identified strengths.

  3. Contextual assessment of organisational culture - methodological development in two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the acknowledged significance of organisational culture in the nuclear field, previous cultural studies have concentrated on purely safety related matters, or been only descriptive in nature. New kinds of methods, taking into account the overall objectives of the organisation, were needed to assess culture and develop its working practices appropriately. VTT developed the Contextual Assessment of Organisational Culture (CAOC) methodology during the FINNUS programme. The methodology utilises two concepts, organisational culture and core task. The core task can be defined as the core demands and content of work that the organisation has to accomplish in order to be effective. The core task concept is used in assessing the central dimensions of the organisation's culture. Organisational culture is defined as a solution the company has generated in order to fulfil the perceived demands of its core task. The CAOC-methodology was applied in two case studies, in the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland and in the maintenance unit of Loviisa NPP. The aim of the studies was not only to assess the given culture, but also to give the personnel new concepts and new tools for reflecting on their organisation, their jobs and on appropriate working practices. The CAOC-methodology contributes to the design and redesign of work in complex sociotechnical systems. It strives to enhance organisations' capability to assess their current working practices and the meanings attached to them and compare these to the actual demands of their basic mission and so change unadaptive practices. (orig.)

  4. Integrating risk assessment and life cycle assessment: a case study of insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Yurika; Levy, Jonathan I; Norris, Gregory A; Wilson, Andrew; Hofstetter, Patrick; Spengler, John D

    2002-10-01

    Increasing residential insulation can decrease energy consumption and provide public health benefits, given changes in emissions from fuel combustion, but also has cost implications and ancillary risks and benefits. Risk assessment or life cycle assessment can be used to calculate the net impacts and determine whether more stringent energy codes or other conservation policies would be warranted, but few analyses have combined the critical elements of both methodologies In this article, we present the first portion of a combined analysis, with the goal of estimating the net public health impacts of increasing residential insulation for new housing from current practice to the latest International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2000). We model state-by-state residential energy savings and evaluate particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), NOx, and SO2 emission reductions. We use past dispersion modeling results to estimate reductions in exposure, and we apply concentration-response functions for premature mortality and selected morbidity outcomes using current epidemiological knowledge of effects of PM2.5 (primary and secondary). We find that an insulation policy shift would save 3 x 10(14) British thermal units or BTU (3 x 10(17) J) over a 10-year period, resulting in reduced emissions of 1,000 tons of PM2.5, 30,000 tons of NOx, and 40,000 tons of SO2. These emission reductions yield an estimated 60 fewer fatalities during this period, with the geographic distribution of health benefits differing from the distribution of energy savings because of differences in energy sources, population patterns, and meteorology. We discuss the methodology to be used to integrate life cycle calculations, which can ultimately yield estimates that can be compared with costs to determine the influence of external costs on benefit-cost calculations. PMID:12442994

  5. The assessment and management of pain in an orthopaedic out-patient setting: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gillian; Gregory, Julie

    2016-08-01

    The management of pain is an important aspect of an orthopaedic nurse's role. The aim of this paper is to use an individual case study to demonstrate the role of an out-patient orthopaedic nurse in the identification, assessment and management of pain. This paper describes how pain was identified and managed for a patient in the orthopaedic outpatient department, highlighting that pain and its management are not isolated to the in-patient setting. The case study illustrates the importance of recognising pain and taking into account the numerous factors that can influence pain perception. The assessment of an individual patient's pain led to obtaining help from the Acute Pain Team which led to improvement in the patient's pain management and quality of life. The nursing team reflected and discussed the issues identified by this case study which led to changes in practice being introduced. This has resulted in an increased knowledge of and confidence in pain management within the nursing team and development and improvement of pain management practice within the orthopaedic out-patient department. PMID:26711709

  6. Overview of EPA's Approach to Developing Prospective Case Studies Technical Workshop: Case Studies to Assess Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) study of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources is prospective case studies, which are being conducted to more fully understand and assess if and how site specific hydrau...

  7. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Maans [Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology

    2003-12-01

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  8. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  9. A case study and critical assessment in calculating power usage effectiveness for a data centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A case study PUE calculation is carried out on a data centre by using open source specifications. • The PUE metric does not drive improvements in the efficiencies of IT processes. • The PUE does not fairly represent energy use; an increase in IT load can lead to a decrease in the PUE. • Once a low PUE is achieved, power supply efficiency and IT load have the greatest impact on its value. - Abstract: Metrics commonly used to assess the energy efficiency of data centres are analysed through performing and critiquing a case study calculation of energy efficiency. Specifically, the metric Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE), which has become a de facto standard within the data centre industry, will be assessed. This is achieved by using open source specifications for a data centre in Prineville, Oregon, USA provided by the Open Compute Project launched by the social networking company Facebook. The usefulness of the PUE metric to the IT industry is critically assessed and it is found that whilst it is important for encouraging lower energy consumption in data centres, it does not represent an unambiguous measure of energy efficiency

  10. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan DARVISH; Mehdi ROOSTAEI; Azizi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In ...

  11. Case study of residential exposure pathways: A probabilistic risk assessment using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk assessment case study presented in this paper evaluates the potential human health risk to residential receptors exposed to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from a JP-4 fuel spill. The eight residential scenario exposure pathways quantitatively assessed for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxicological effects are: ingestion of groundwater, ingestion of soil, inhalation of volatiles (outdoors), inhalation of fugitive dust, dermal exposure to soil, dermal exposure while showering, inhalation of volatiles while showering, and ingestion of fruits and vegetables. Human health risks were calculated following EPA guidance documents which recommend determining a point estimate for potential risk in a baseline risk assessment (BRA) and a quantified uncertainty in that point estimate by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). BRAs typically use conservative estimates for exposure parameters, and consequently, the calculated risk represents an upper-bound or worst scenario that is beyond the reasonable maximum exposure (RME) without an associated quantified uncertainty. PRAs employing Monte Carlo techniques incorporate distributions for exposure parameters into the risk analysis to calculate a distribution for risk with each value in the risk distribution having a corresponding quantified uncertainty. The results of the assessment presented in this paper are examined to show the usefulness of the PRA in quantifying the uncertainty in the BRA

  12. Site-specific Vulnerability Assessment for Debris Flows: Two Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Here the vulnerability is defined as the potential total maximum losses due to a debris flow damaging event for a specific debris flow fan. The vulnerability is classified into property vulnerability and population vulnerability. Assessment indexes include the assets of buildings, traffic facilities, lifeline works, personal properties, and land resources for property vulnerability; age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants, natural population growth rate, and population density for population vulnerability. The vulnerability is expressed as the sum of the transformed values of the losses of property and population. Two study cases with post-fact damages by historic debris flow events in Sichuan of SW China are presented.

  13. Assessment of water pollution control strategies: a case study for the Dianchi Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lake eutrophication has increasingly become a major environmental issue in China. Although significant efforts have been made towards its resolution in the last decade, most of the implemented control strategies are fragmented, and the formation of policy lacks of sound scientific basis and long-term objectives. Taking the well-known Dianchi Lake as a case study, this paper presented a comprehensive assessment for the effectiveness of various eutrophication control strategies. It is expected that the concluding lessons would have a major implication to future eutrophication control.

  14. IAC Energy Assessment of Spanish Fork Plant: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Aluminum BestPractices Assessment Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects

  15. Scenario-neutral Food Security Risk Assessment: A livestock Heat Stress Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hopson, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Food security risk assessments can provide decision-makers with actionable information to identify critical system limitations, and alternatives to mitigate the impacts of future conditions. The majority of current risk assessments have been scenario-led and results are limited by the scenarios - selected future states of the world's climate system and socioeconomic factors. A generic scenario-neutral framework for food security risk assessments is presented here that uses plausible states of the world without initially assigning likelihoods. Measures of system vulnerabilities are identified and system risk is assessed for these states. This framework has benefited greatly by research in the water and natural resource fields to adapt their planning to provide better risk assessments. To illustrate the utility of this framework we develop a case study using livestock heat stress risk within the pastoral system of West Africa. Heat stress can have a major impact not only on livestock owners, but on the greater food production system, decreasing livestock growth, milk production, and reproduction, and in severe cases, death. A heat stress index calculated from daily weather is used as a vulnerability measure and is computed from historic daily weather data at several locations in the study region. To generate plausible states, a stochastic weather generator is developed to generate synthetic weather sequences at each location, consistent with the seasonal climate. A spatial model of monthly and seasonal heat stress provide projections of current and future livestock heat stress measures across the study region, and can incorporate in seasonal climate and other external covariates. These models, when linked with empirical thresholds of heat stress risk for specific breeds offer decision-makers with actionable information for use in near-term warning systems as well as for future planning. Future assessment can indicate under which states livestock are at greatest risk

  16. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, P J Matt; Rees, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a 12-h period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not previously identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  17. Comparative Case Study as Social Impact Assessment: Possibilities and Limitations for Anticipating Social Change in the Far North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Jodie; Parkins, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is increasingly an accepted component of environmental impact assessment and project evaluation throughout North America. Tools and methodologies utilized to conduct such assessments vary greatly and continue to evolve with time and experience. This paper follows the evolution of case study methods in social impact…

  18. Miscanthus as energy crop: Environmental assessment of a miscanthus biomass production case study in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morandi, Fabiana; Perrin, A.; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    assessment of different logistic (harvesting) strategies for miscanthus production in the Bourgogne region is presented. Emergy assessment is a particular methodology suited to quantify the resource use of a process and to estimate the percentage of renewability of products or services. The case study...... the environmental cost of the whole process, the percentage of renewability (%R) and the Unit Emergy Values (UEV) that represent the resource use efficiency of the final products for each phase are calculated. Since miscanthus is reproduced by rhizomes, in addition to the system for growing and distributing...... transport distances and different aboveground biomass yields. Comparing the harvesting methodologies, the bales made with short strands has the best performance. The aboveground biomass production was found to have an Energy Return On energy Investment (EROI), which is the double of that from...

  19. The benefit of assessment-based language and reading instruction: perspectives from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran Nielsen, Diane; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    We present a case study of the language and literacy development of a deaf child, Marcy, from preschool through sixth grade. The purpose of the project was to examine the connection between language and reading and to provide insight into the relationships between them. To compile the case study, we analyzed data from nine years of follow-up, including listening, speech articulation, semantic, syntactic, reading, and writing information drawn from a number of informal and formal assessments. Annual evaluation of language and literacy skills was used to select educational placements, as well as instructional methods, strategies, and materials. Given that Marcy began school at 4 years of age, mute and without expressive language of any form (oral or sign), it may at first appear remarkable that she read narrative and expository text as did her hearing peers by sixth grade, because a substantial body of research shows that most deaf students read at the fourth-grade level by high school graduation (review by Paul, 1998). However, those responsible for Marcy's education prevented reading failure by carefully planning, instituting, and monitoring elements of language and literacy instruction. We present Marcy's progress and instruction by grade level and discuss it within the framework of phases/stages of reading development. We hope that the resulting case study may serve as an example of the language-reading connection, an awareness important not only for the literacy instruction of deaf and language-challenged children but for hearing students as well.

  20. A Case Study in Support of Multiple Post Mortem Assessments (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Creative projects in various fields are often subjected to afterthe- fact 'post-mortem' assessments to better understand their successes and failures. Names for these include project retrospectives or post occupancy evaluations (POEs depending on their field of origin. This case study from the architecture field will show the utility of engaging in multiple rounds of post-mortem activities in order to assess the solution from multiple stakeholder perspectives and in doing so, more fully recognize its strengths and weaknesses. The design of a homeless shelter bedroom was subjected to two POE analyses: a 'demand side' focused study that analyzed user accommodation, and a 'supply side' study that addressed issues including budget and funding. The two POEs yielded both corroborative and contrasting findings that sometimes worked at cross purposes. Three evaluation tactics emerged that could be extended to other fields' post mortem assessment activities: 1 conduct two or more POEs; 2 vary the POE criteria so that one is deep and focused 'demand side' user analysis and the other is 'supply side' operational and installation issues; and 3 conduct the POEs over a broad time period.

  1. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  2. CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ELT: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CASE STUDY IN A CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ernest Mambu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine some challenges of assessing character education in the context of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia (TEFLIN. Major sources of character education in Indonesia (e.g., Kurikulum 2013 seem to be religious values. However, there are two salient problems. First, in religiously inspired character education, there are concerns about religious values imposition. Second, it is oftentimes vague what types of, and how, character education can be evaluated in English language teaching and learning settings. In the context of an EFL teacher education program in a Christian university that I studied, one Christian student showed her religious dogmatism in classroom interactions or elsewhere in which peers having different religious views were present. Students’ communicative competence in expressing religious values can be assessed by examining their growing self-reflexivity (which problematizes dogmatism, among others, in their discourse. Character education assessment rubrics are developed from the cases reported here, in light of: (1 the Indonesian government’s guidelines for assessing character education; (2 critical ELT; and (3 Celce-Murcia’s (2007 model of communicative competence.

  3. Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city.

  4. Assessment and functional impact of allocentric neglect: a reminder from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyanka P; Spaldo, Nicole; Barrett, A M; Chen, Peii

    2013-01-01

    SR suffered a right hemispheric stroke more than 3 years ago, and now lives with left-sided hemiparesis and chronic spatial neglect due to damaged white matter pathways connecting the frontal, temporal and parietal regions. We report here that SR suffers from both viewer-centered (i.e., egocentric) and object-centered (i.e., allocentric) spatial neglect. Notably, unlike most neuropsychological and functional assessments that focus on egocentric deficits, a specialized neuropsychological figurative discrimination test (the Apples test) revealed SR's allocentric neglect. Further, using assessments sensitive to detect functional deficits related to allocentric neglect, we observed SR's difficulty in reading and using clocks, reflecting his object-centered errors in these everyday activities. SR's case suggests that allocentric-specific assessments, both neuropsychological and functional, are valuable in standard neglect examinations, particularly to predict daily function after stroke. We recommend that neglect-related functional disability be distinguished further with respect to allocentric spatial deficits, and functional assessments for allocentric neglect should be validated in future large sample studies. Identifying allocentric neglect early, and learning about its influence on daily function, may enhance care quality and facilitate effective rehabilitation planning for stroke recovery.

  5. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In this study, applied tools presented by Loughborough University are used to evaluate safety climate in one of steel industries and data is collected through questionnaire, group discussions or purposeful interviews and observations, and safety climate score was obtained in 17 scopes. Calculating the score of each safety climate domain and preparing the profile indicated there is the average rate (4.89 2 in the safety climate of the industry.

  6. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies: Method and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2016-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  7. Assessment of a questionnaire for breast cancer case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Kregzdyte, Rima; Rugyte, Danguole Ceslava; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Mechonosina, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess criterion validity and external reliability of a questionnaire on risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods. Women with breast cancer diagnosis (the cases) (N=40) and matched individuals without cancer (the controls) (N=40) were asked to fill in a questionnaire twice: on a day of admission to hospital (Q1) and on a day before discharge (Q2), with a time interval of 4-6 days. The questionnaire included questions (N=150) on demographic and socioeconomic factors, diseases in the past, family history of cancer, woman's health, smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and work environment. Criterion validity of the questionnaire Q2 relative to reference questionnaire Q1 was assessed with the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC); external reliability of the questionnaire was measured in terms of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results. The responses to most of the questions on socioeconomic factors, family history on cancer, female health, lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) correlated substantially in both the cases and the controls with SCC and ICC>0.7 (pcases drank at the ages up to 25 years and 26-35 years as well as time of use of estrogen and estrogens-progestin during menopause by the cases. Moderate and substantial SCC and ICC were determined for different food items. Only the response of the cases on veal consumption did not correlate significantly. Conclusions. The questionnaire on breast cancer risk factors is valid and reliable for most of the questions included. PMID:23803031

  8. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  9. Ecosystemic needs assessment for children with developmental coordination disorder in elementary school: multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Tétreault, Sylvie; Joly, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the needs of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) from an ecosystemic viewpoint as part of a theory-driven program evaluation process. A multiple case study needs assessment was conducted. Participants included ten children with DCD, their parents (n = 12), teachers (n = 9), and service providers (n = 6). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, validated questionnaires, and a review of the children's records. The results support the relevance of using an ecosystemic model to assess the needs of children with DCD in their life and social contexts. More specifically, the results highlight the need to provide additional services at school, such as occupational therapy and special education, as well as information and training regarding DCD for parents and teachers. The results also point to the relevant variables to consider in an intervention program based on theory-driven evaluations. This study shows how employing an ecosystemic frame of reference provides a better understanding of the needs of children with DCD. Future research should document the ecosystemic profiles and evolution of the needs of children with DCD with a larger sample from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds using a longitudinal study design. PMID:24649977

  10. Environmental integrated impact assessment for waste treatment activity: methodology and case-study application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature method for the environmental integrated impact assessment, according to the IPPC Directive, has been critically analysed and adjusted in order to be used for the environmental performance assessment of waste treatment activities. The assessment parameters, sorted in eight treatment and combined pollution categories, have been partly redefined and re balanced. The adjusted methodology has been applied to a real case-study, a chemical- physical waste treatment plant, in order to calculate the current performance (Actual Integrated Index) and the ideal performance (Actual Integrated Index) achievable by technical and operational improvements. The adjusted methodology has also been used as a decision support system, in order to estimate the value of the expected environmental performances improvement after the execution achievable from the introduction of a single one or a set of improvement actions. The valuation of the Integrated Index percentage reduction, along with the action achievable, made the best actions able to be identified, both in comparative way and in the cost-effective one. The results, 50 as Effective Integrated Index and 42 as Ideal Integrated Index, in a 10-100 scale, show a medium impact level and point out an appreciable improvement margin on all the environmental performances, especially in air emission control and water consumption

  11. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  12. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Goundar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] system is proposed in this paper to overcome the many challenges faced by practitioners. Fiji’s EIA process is used as a case study. The steps involved in the process are automated as a sequence of computer executable programs with Expert System. Based on the information provided about projects, the EIA system is expected to compute environmental impacts and produce Environment Impact Statements. With the system, a user enters information about the environmental settings in which the development project is expected to take place as well as the proposed development project activities. Based on the input, an expert system with an inference engine uses rules to check the knowledge base and report on possible impacts and mitigation actions. The knowledge base is connected to databases on domain experts, GIS and simulation models.

  13. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  14. Functionally assessing the sustainability of regional ecosystem services:a case study of Hohhot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    "The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital" by R.Costanza et al.in 1997 is generally regarded as a monument to the research of valuing ecosystem services.However,the classification of ecosystem services,the method of various services summation,and the purpose for static global value had many criticisms.Based on a summary of these criticisms and suggestions,further study direction—on the sustainability of ecosystem services—is presented.The two basis indicators in ecology—productivity and biodiversity,respectively characterize the ability of producing and self-organizing—not only represent the internal function of ecosystem,but also can be proportioned to its external function of supporting and providing for human life.Theoretically,the two indicators combined could physically assess the sustainability of ecosystem services based on the traditional procedure of Costanza’s.The case study of Hohhot City in 1995-2005 shows that the new model reflects the changes of ecosystem services at spatial and temporal scale,and the functionally adjusted assessment shows the sustainability of Hohhot City became gradually stronger during the study decade.But due to the enormous value per unit of water ecosystem,the minimal loss of water area leads to the final result being opposite to the processing analysis,which gives a clue to the further experimental testing research.

  15. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  16. Case studies of geophysical imaging for road foundation design on soft soils and embankment risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert J.; Kelly, Richard B.; Stewart, Simon B.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth along the coast of eastern Australia has increased demand for new and upgraded transport infrastructure within intervening coastal floodplains and steeper hinterland areas. This has created additional challenges for road foundation design. The floodplain areas in this region are underlain by considerable thicknesses of recently deposited alluvial and clayey marine sediments. If characterisation of these deposits is inadequate they can increase road construction costs and affect long-term road stability and serviceability. Case studies from a major coastal highway upgrade demonstrate how combining surface wave seismic and electrical geophysical imaging with conventional geotechnical testing enhances characterisation of these very soft and soft soils. The geophysical results also provide initial foundation design parameters such as void ratio and pre-consolidation pressure. A further significant risk issue for roads is potential embankment instability. This can occur during new road construction or when upgrades of existing embankments are required. Assessing the causes of instability of existing steeper embankments with drilling and probing is often difficult and costly due to access and safety problems. In these situations combinations of electrical, ground penetrating radar and P-wave seismic imaging technologies can rapidly provide information on the likely conditions below both the roadway and embankment. Case studies show the application of these technologies on two unstable road embankments. It is concluded that the application of both geophysical imaging and geotechnical testing is a cost-effective enhancement for site characterisation of soft soils and for risk assessment of potentially unstable embankments. This approach overcomes many of the current limitations of conventional methods of site investigation that provide point location data only. The incorporation of geophysics into a well crafted site investigation allows concentration on

  17. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results. PMID:19272634

  18. Thermal inertia and energy efficiency – Parametric simulation assessment on a calibrated case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We perform a parametric simulation study on a calibrated building energy model. • We introduce adaptive shadings and night free cooling in simulations. • We analyze the effect of thermal capacity on the parametric simulations results. • We recognize that cooling demand and savings scales linearly with thermal capacity. • We assess the advantage of medium-heavy over medium and light configurations. - Abstract: The reduction of energy consumption for heating and cooling services in the existing building stock is a key challenge for global sustainability today and buildings’ envelopes retrofit is one the main issues. Most of the existing buildings’ envelopes have low levels of insulation, high thermal losses due to thermal bridges and cracks, absence of appropriate solar control, etc. Further, in building refurbishment, the importance of a system level approach is often undervalued in favour of simplistic “off the shelf” efficient solutions, focused on the reduction of thermal transmittance and on the enhancement of solar control capabilities. In many cases, the importance of the dynamic thermal properties is often neglected or underestimated and the effective thermal capacity is not properly considered as one of the design parameters. The research presented aims to critically assess the influence of the dynamic thermal properties of the building fabric (roof, walls and floors) on sensible heating and cooling energy demand for a case study. The case study chosen is an existing office building which has been retrofitted in recent years and whose energy model has been calibrated according to the data collected in the monitoring process. The research illustrates the variations of the sensible thermal energy demand of the building in different retrofit scenarios, and relates them to the variations of the dynamic thermal properties of the construction components. A parametric simulation study has been performed, encompassing the use of

  19. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Schaap, B.F.; Mandryk, M.; Verhagen, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot acc

  20. On-line Meteorology-Chemistry/Aerosols Modelling and Integration for Risk Assessment: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanbekov, Kairat; Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Nurseitov, Daniyar; Zakarin, Edige; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    On regional level, and especially in areas with potential diverse sources of industrial pollutants, the risk assessment of impact on environment and population is critically important. During normal operations, the risk is minimal. However, during accidental situations, the risk is increased due to releases of harmful pollutants into different environments such as water, soil, and atmosphere where it is following processes of continuous transformation and transport. In this study, the Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment High Resolution Limited Area Model) was adapted and employed for assessment of scenarios with accidental and continuous emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) for selected case studies during January of 2010. The following scenarios were considered: (i) control reference run; (ii) accidental release (due to short-term 1 day fire at oil storage facility) occurred at city of Atyrau (Kazakhstan) near the northern part of the Caspian Sea; and (iii) doubling of original continuous emissions from three locations of metallurgical enterprises on the Kola Peninsula (Russia). The implemented aerosol microphysics module M7 uses 5 types - sulphates, sea salt, dust, black and organic carbon; as well as distributed in 7 size modes. Removal processes of aerosols include gravitational settling and wet deposition. As the Enviro-HIRLAM model is the on-line integrated model, both meteorological and chemical processes are simultaneously modelled at each time step. The modelled spatio-temporal variations for meteorological and chemical patterns are analyzed for both European and Kazakhstan regions domains. The results of evaluation of sulphur dioxide concentration and deposition on main populated cities, selected regions, countries are presented employing GIS tools. As outcome, the results of Enviro-HIRLAM modelling for accidental release near the Caspian Sea are integrated into the RANDOM (Risk Assessment of Nature Detriment due to Oil spill Migration) system.

  1. No short-cut in assessing trial quality: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirji Karim F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing the quality of included trials is a central part of a systematic review. Many check-list type of instruments for doing this exist. Using a trial of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media, Burke et al., BMJ, 1991, as the case study, this paper illustrates some limitations of the check-list approach to trial quality assessment. Results The general verdict from the check list type evaluations in nine relevant systematic reviews was that Burke et al. (1991 is a good quality trial. All relevant meta-analyses extensively used its data to formulate therapeutic evidence. My comprehensive evaluation, on the other hand, brought to the surface a series of serious problems in the design, conduct, analysis and report of this trial that were missed by the earlier evaluations. Conclusion A check-list or instrument based approach, if used as a short-cut, may at times rate deeply flawed trials as good quality trials. Check lists are crucial but they need to be augmented with an in-depth review, and where possible, a scrutiny of the protocol, trial records, and original data. The extent and severity of the problems I uncovered for this particular trial warrant an independent audit before it is included in a systematic review.

  2. Assessment of cleaner process options : a case study from petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, N. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Basson, L. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Pouton, A.; White, N. [Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A case study was used to illustrate the challenge of evaluating clean technologies and making modifications to an alkylation unit at a refinery in the United Kingdom. The alkylation unit used hydrogen flouride as an alkylation catalyst and generated fluoridic wastes that required further treatment. The alkylation process is used to produce a high value petroleum blend used for transport fuels. Acidic catalysts are used to eliminate the need for high temperatures and pressures. The study identified possible alterations to enable partial recycling. Different system boundaries were identified. The study considered technological, social, environmental and economic changes associated with the implementation of the process. A life cycle inventory of various processes considered for the refinery was presented. Possible technological changes that could avoid, reduce, or enable partial recycling waste were presented. Losses to relief systems, defluorinators, potassium hydroxide (KOH) treaters, and neutralization systems were also considered. Results of the study showed that the decision-making process involved trade-offs between costs and benefits with considerable uncertainties. It was concluded that the financial scale of projects cannot be used as a guide to systematic sustainability assessment. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  4. Assessing reproductive behavior important to fisheries management: a case study with red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowerre-barbieri, Susan K; Burnsed, Sarah L Walters; Bickford, Joel W

    2016-06-01

    Spawning site selection and reproductive timing affect stock productivity and structure in marine fishes but are poorly understood. Traditionally, stock assessments measure reproductive potential as spawning stock biomass or egg production and do not include other aspects of reproductive behavior. Red drum make an excellent case study to assess these other aspects, as (1) they are highly fecund, pelagic spawners, like most exploited marine fishes; (2) their life cycle is delineated between nursery (estuarine) and adult (coastal and offshore) habitat; and (3) they are managed at these two spatial scales. This study was conducted from August 2012 to December 2013 and integrates data from multiple methods and spatial scales. Aerial surveys were used for large-scale monitoring of aggregations off two known estuarine nursery areas, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, Florida, USA. Capture-based sampling in Tampa Bay coastal (n = 2581) and estuarine waters (n = 158) was used to assess reproductive state and to confirm coastal spawning. To assess spatial dynamics, we acoustically tagged two population components in the Tampa Bay system, subadults from the estuary (n = 20) and adults from the coastal spawning site (n = 60). Behavioral plasticity was seen in subadult recruitment to coastal habitat, with some subadults maturing and recruiting before or during the spawning season and others (14 of 20 acoustically tagged fish) recruiting at the end of the 2012 spawning season. Both adults and recruited subadults (n = 29) were consequently detected in the Charlotte Harbor array, 132 km to the south. Spawning-site fidelity to the Tampa Bay spawning site occurred at both the population and individual scales. Aggregations consistently occurred in Tampa Bay coastal waters during the spawning season, and approximately two-thirds of tagged adults returned in the 2013 spawning season. A similar proportion of subadults returned to the Tampa Bay spawning site, exhibiting natal homing

  5. Assessing pasture quality and degradation status using hyperspectral imaging: a case study from western Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Lukas W.; Meyer, Hanna; Meyer, Nele; Reudenbach, Christoph; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are suffering from pasture degradation induced by over-grazing, climate change and improper livestock management. Meanwhile, the status of pastures is largely unknown especially in poor accessible western parts on the TP. The aim of this case study was to assess the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to predict quality and amount of forage on the western TP. Therefore, 18 ground- based hyperspectral images taken along two transects on a winter pasture were used to estimate leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic-active vegetation cover (PV) and proportion of grasses. For calibration and validation purposes, chlorophyll content of 20 grass plants was measured in situ. From the images reference spectra of grass and non-grass species were collected. PV was assessed from similarity of images to mean vegetation spectra using spectral angle mapper and threshold classifications. A set of 48 previously published hyperspectral vegetation indices (VI) was used as predictors to estimate chlorophyll content and to discriminate grass and non-grass pixels. Separation into grass and non-grass species was performed using partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and chlorophyll content was estimated with PLS regression. The accuracy of the models was assessed with leave-one-out cross validation and normalised root mean square errors (nRMSE) for chlorophyll and contingency matrices for grass classification and total PV separation. Highest error rates were observed for discrimination between vegetated and non-vegetated parts (Overall accuracy = 0.85), whilst accuracies of grass and non grass separation (Overall accuracy = 0.98) and chlorophyll estimation were higher (nRMSE = 10.7).

  6. Industrial assessment of radiofrequency and microwave radiations: case study at electronic manufacturing industries in Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electronic manufacturing industry, the applications of an equipment emitting radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are numerous and Increasing. It is known that exposure to RFR at sufficiently high intensity and duration can produce a variety of adverse health effects. This paper presents some results from an extensive studies in the RFR field measurements at frequency range from 100 MHz to 1 GHz. All measurements were performed inside factories located at the Penang Free Trade Zone. In this case, the factories chosen are those that manufacture the electronic components whereby the applications of RFR equipment are likely to be intensive compared to other type of industries. The measurement system used in this study are the portable spectrum-analyzer, the passive log-periodic antenna and a desktop computer for data analysis. Results from this study have indicated that the RFR exposure levels in most factories are in the range of 7.7 x 10 sup -4 - 4.31 x 10 sup -3 Wm sup -2 and 0.01 - 0. 741 Vm sup -1 for power density and electric strength measurement respectively. These ranges are at least 100 times lower compared to the RFR protection guidelines proposed by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI). However, the exposure levels inside the factory are consistently 10 sup -3 - 10 sup -4 higher than the levels caused by natural sources and is about 10 sup 2 - 10 sup 6 higher than the levels measured at a distance of 30 m from a low-power output mobile phone transmitter. In the case of the health effect assessment, no sufficient evidence has been found to indicate the potential consequences resulting from excessive RFR exposure. Nonetheless, many factories surveyed are unaware of the existence of the international guidelines and codes on the safe use of radiofrequency energy even though, some measures are being taken to protect their employees against RFR

  7. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andy

    2002-10-01

    The contemporary food system provides consumers with convenience, extensive choice, and the year-round availability of fresh produce. In this paper these achievements are recognized within the context of the associated environmental impacts. While many analyses have considered the energy and material efficiency of various options for food production and packaging, very few studies have investigated the environmental impacts of the transport components of food supply chains. This is surprising, given that the global sourcing of food produce, centralized distribution systems, and shopping by car have become prevalent in recent decades and have contributed to an increase in the distance between producer and consumer or "food miles." In a case study the transport energy consumption is calculated for all possible ways in which dessert apples can be supplied to the UK consumer. The aim is to assess the environmental performance of the predominant fresh produce supply chains and to investigate claims that localized systems are more environmentally efficient. The main criteria used to compare the environmental efficiency in alternative food supply chains are the transport-related fossil-fuel energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions. Analysis of the empirical data shows that transportation is now responsible for a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption in the life cycle of fresh apples, and in most cases exceeds the energy consumed in commercial apple cultivation. By developing local production and marketing systems for fresh products, transport demand can be reduced and many of the environmental impacts associated with existing supply chains can be avoided. The results of the study are then discussed in relation to the wider issues of transport policy, international trade, food security, and product-related environmental information for consumers. PMID:12481922

  8. Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping: A Case Study of Functional Assessment in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Emerson C.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio

    2000-01-01

    Electromechanical mapping is a new diagnostic tool that can be used to identify viable myocardium. In the case reported here, the technique was used before intervention to map areas of viable myocardium; post-intervention mapping showed improved mechanical function of the revascularized areas. Electromechanical mapping offers the potential of assessing left ventricular function in the cardiac catheterization laboratory before and after interventional procedures.

  9. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  10. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  11. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  12. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on motivation as a…

  13. Assessment of human exposure to copper: a case study using the NHEXAS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Panos G; Wang, Sheng Wei; Georgopoulos, Ioannis G; Yonone-Lioy, Mary Jean; Lioy, Paul J

    2006-09-01

    Copper is an essential trace element and adverse health effects can potentially be associated with both very low and very high intakes. Accurate estimates of inhalation and ingestion (food and drinking water) exposures are therefore needed in order to realistically assess any effects of the distribution of copper intakes within the general population. The work presented here demonstrates an application of a customized subset of the MENTOR/SHEDS-4M computational system (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies, employing the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation approach, for Multimedia, Multipathway, Multiroute exposures to Multiple co-occurring contaminants. The application utilized data from the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) for USEPA Region V as well as from a variety of other available databases. The case study, using a statistical population-based modeling framework, was performed for Eaton County, MI. The results of the simulations, aggregated for six age subgroups of the general population, suggest that food intake is the major pathway for total copper exposure, while drinking water can have significant contributions at the tail of the distribution of intakes. Specifically, it was estimated that over 80% of the county population received potential doses of copper from food that were lower than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) value of 900 microg/day. Furthermore, the total combined potential dose from food and water was only about two times greater than the recommended value only for individuals with intakes in the range above the 99th percentile of both food and water intakes. The values were well below the upper tolerable intake value of 10,000 microg/day. The inhalation route consistently acted as only a minor contributor to the total exposure. PMID:16249795

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of mechanical biological pre-treatment of Municipal Solid Waste: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Vaxelaire, Stéphane; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Auvinet, Nicolas; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    The environmental performance of mechanical biological pre-treatment (MBT) of Municipal Solid Waste is quantified using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), considering one of the 57 French plants currently in operation as a case study. The inventory is mostly based on plant-specific data, extrapolated from on-site measurements regarding mechanical and biological operations (including anaerobic digestion and composting of digestate). The combined treatment of 46,929 tonnes of residual Municipal Solid Waste and 12,158 tonnes of source-sorted biowaste (as treated in 2010 at the plant) generates 24,550 tonnes CO2-eq as an impact on climate change, 69,943kg SO2-eq on terrestrial acidification and 19,929kg NMVOC-eq on photochemical oxidant formation, in a life-cycle perspective. On the contrary MBT induces environmental benefits in terms of fossil resource depletion, human toxicity (carcinogenic) and ecotoxicity. The results firstly highlight the relatively large contribution of some pollutants, such as CH4, emitted at the plant and yet sometimes neglected in the LCA of waste MBT. Moreover this study identifies 4 plant-specific operation conditions which drive the environmental impact potentials induced by MBT: the conditions of degradation of the fermentable fraction, the collection of gaseous flows emitted from biological operations, the abatement of collected pollutants and NOx emissions from biogas combustion. Finally the results underline the relatively large influence of the operations downstream the plant (in particular residuals incineration) on the environmental performance of waste MBT. PMID:25708404

  16. Avalanche risk assessment for mountain roads - a comparison of case studies from Iceland and the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastl, M.; Stötter, J.

    2009-04-01

    While the management of alpine natural hazards in settlements follows highly developed operational standardised procedures in many countries, there are very few approaches for a systematic survey and assessment of these natural hazard processes and the related risks and for a sustainable planning of measures for roads. This is even more surprising against the background of the ongoing increase of traffic in Europe and its economic importance. This contribution compares the results of a regional scale assessment of the avalanche risk on mountain roads for case studies from Austria, Italy and Iceland. It provides the first assessment of the natural hazard situation for roads outside closed settlements in Iceland and discusses the applicability of regional scale risk based approaches developed in the Alps to the specific natural, economic and social situation. It also compares the role of risk in the assessment and management of natural hazards in these countries. The assessment of the risk by natural hazard processes for roads follows approaches developed by Wilhelm (1997, 1998, 1999) and Borter (1999a, 1999b) in the Alps adapted to comply with the data availability of the regional scale. These approaches distinguish between the individual risk on the one hand and the collective risk for the society on the other hand for each process area as well as the cumulative risk for the investigated road section. As the spatial and temporal distribution of avalanches is relatively well documented in some of the Alpine countries practical approaches have been developed for the assessment of this natural hazard process. These have been successfully applied e.g. to roads in inner Oetz and inner Stubai Valley, Tyrol, Austria by Huttenlau (2004) and Gufler (2007) and Sulden road, Ortles Alps, Southern Tyrol, Italy by Zischg et al. (2004). On the basis of these investigations the individual, collective and cumulative death risk for avalanches was determined for Siglufjar

  17. Teachers’ Beliefs about Young EFL Learners’ Self-assessment: a Case Study of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    /Anžela Nikolovska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Macedonian primary EFL teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding self-assessment of young learners (10-12 year-olds. The study surveyed primary EFL teachers (n=30 who teach English to 5th and 6th graders. The results indicated that vocabulary, grammar and reading were more often the focus of self-assessment tasks than the other areas of language learning. This, along with the finding that the receptive language skills were more frequently self-assessed than the productive skills has been attributed to the impact of the external exam. The most frequently used self-assessment techniques were can-do statements and check-lists. The perceived benefits and challenges of self-assessment have been found to be compatible with the findings of other studies. In spite of their positive attitudes towards learner self-assessment, the teachers expressed awareness of certain problems underlying its implementation as well as uncertainty about how to train learners to self-assess. In line with the conclusions, recommendations have been made regarding the need for greater emphasis on self-assessment of the neglected language areas (speaking and writing, the necessity of using a variety of self-assessment formats and the need for learner training in self-assessment from an early age.

  18. From Seismic Scenarios to Earthquake Risk Assessment: A Case Study for Iquique, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, P.; Fortuno, C.; Martin, J. C. D. L. L.; Vasquez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Iquique is a strategic city and economic center in northern Chile, and is located in a large seismic gap where a megathrust earthquake and tsunami is expected. Although it was hit by a Mw 8.2 earthquake on April 1st 2014, which caused moderate damage, geophysical evidence still suggests that there is potential for a larger event, so a thorough risk assessment is key to understand the physical, social, and economic effects of such potential event, and devise appropriate mitigation plans. Hence, Iquique has been selected as a prime study case for the implementation of a risk assessment platform in Chile. Our study integrates research on three main elements of risk calculations: hazard evaluation, exposure model, and physical vulnerabilities. To characterize the hazard field, a set of synthetic seismic scenarios have been developed based on plate interlocking and the residual slip potential that results from subtracting the slip occurred during the April 1st 2014 rupture fault mechanism, obtained using InSAR+GPS inversion. Additional scenarios were developed based of the fault rupture model of the Maule 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake and on the local plate locking models in northern Chile. These rupture models define a collection of possible realizations of earthquake geometries parameterized in terms of critical variables like slip magnitude, rise time, mean propagation velocity, directivity, and other, which are propagated to obtain a hazard map for Iquique (e.g. PGA, PGV, PDG). Furthermore, a large body of public and local data was used to construct a detailed exposure model for Iquique, including aggregated building count, demographics, essential facilities, and lifelines. This model together with the PGA maps for the April 1st 2014 earthquake are used to calibrate HAZUS outputs against observed damage, and adjust the fragility curves of physical systems according to more detailed analyses of typical Chilean building types and their structural properties, plus historical

  19. Some aspects of metallurgical assessment of boiler tubes-Basic principles and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural changes in boiler tubes during prolong operation at high temperature and pressure decrease load bearing capacity limiting their useful lives. When the load bearing capacity falls below a critical level depending on operating parameters and tube geometry, failure occurs. In order to avoid such failures mainly from the view point of economy and safety, this paper describes some basic principles behind remaining life assessment of service exposed components and also a few case studies related to failure of a reheater tube of 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel, a carbon steel tube and final superheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and remaining creep life assessment of service exposed but unfailed platen superheater and reheater tubes of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Sticking of fly ash particles causing reduction in effective tube wall thickness is responsible for failure of reheater tubes. Decarburised metal containing intergranular cracks at the inner surface of the carbon steel tube exhibiting a brittle window fracture is an indicative of hydrogen embrittlement responsible for this failure. In contrast, final superheater tube showed that the failure took place due to short-term overheating. The influence of prolong service revealed that unfailed reheater tubes exhibit higher tensile properties than that of platen superheater tubes. In contrast both the tubes at 50 MPa meet the minimum creep rupture properties when compared with NRIM data. The remaining creep life of platen superheater tube as estimated at 50 MPa and 570 deg. C (1058 oF) is more than 10 years and that of reheater tube at 50 MPa and 580 deg. C (1076 oF) is 9 years

  20. Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA

  1. Environmental Performance of Electricity Generation Based on Resources: A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Günkaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine how to change the environmental performance of electricity generation depending on the resources and their shares, in order to support decision-makers. Additionally, this paper presents an application of life cycle assessment (LCA methodology to determine the environmental burdens of electricity generation in Turkey. Electricity generation data in Turkey for the years 2012 and 2023 were used as a case study. The functional unit for electricity generation was 1 kWh. The LCA calculations were carried out using CML-IA (v3.00 data and the results were interpreted with respect to Monte Carlo simulation analysis (with the Monte Carlo function built in SimaPro 8.0.1 software. The results demonstrated that the fossil fuel consumption not only contributes to global warming, but it also has effects on the elemental basis of abiotic depletion due to raw material consumption for plant infrastructure. Additionally, it was observed that the increasing proportion of wind power in the electricity mix would also increase certain life cycle impacts (such as the elemental basis of abiotic depletion, human ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity in Turkey’s geography compared to increasing the share of other renewable energy sources, such as hydropower, geothermal, as well as solar.

  2. IASI spectral radiance validation inter-comparisons: case study assessment from the JAIVEx field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Larar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Measurement system validation is crucial to achieving this goal and maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral and spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This manuscript focuses on validating infrared spectral radiance from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI through a case study analysis using data obtained during the recent Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx field campaign. Emphasis is placed upon the benefits achievable from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I since, in addition to IASI radiance calibration performance assessments, cross-validation with other advanced sounders such as the AQUA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS is enabled.

  3. Assessing Researcher Interdisciplinarity: A Case Study of the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Gowanlock, Michael G.; Gazan, Rich

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combine bibliometric techniques with a machine learning algorithm, the sequential Information Bottleneck, to assess the interdisciplinarity of research produced by the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute (UHNAI). In particular, we cluster abstract data to evaluate Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge subject categories as descriptive labels for astrobiology documents, assess individual researcher interdisciplinarity, and determine where collaboration opportunities m...

  4. Values as a Bridge between Sustainability and Institutional Assessment: A Case Study from BOKU University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Miguel; Hoover, Elona; Burford, Gemma; Buchebner, Julia; Lindenthal, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that values-focused assessment can provide a useful lens for integrating sustainability and institutional performance assessment in universities. Design/methodology/approach: This study applies a values elicitation methodology for indicator development, through thematic analysis of…

  5. Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…

  6. Information Literacy and Communication Research: A Case Study on Interdisciplinary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalle, Elizabeth J.; Crowe, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    This report offers an interdisciplinary approach for conducting assessment on learning outcomes in undergraduate communication research skills where information literacy is embedded in the expected outcome. A Communication Studies department and the University Library piloted a two-year program to develop strategies for coordinated assessment that…

  7. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  8. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  9. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  10. Sustainability assessment of farming in perspective of diminishing global emerge flows – A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne

    Central to the emergy world-view is the realization of a pulsing world with the modern civilization being characterised as a mega pulse fuelled by fossil fuels. However, this basic assumption is often neglected when emergy flows are used to assess sustainability. For instance, when emergy...... calculations are exclusively based on present data and conditions (e.g. transformity for labour and services), it is ignored that future national emergy flows will be reduced as non-renewable stocks deplete and become harder to extract. Sustainability assessments should in our opinion address the capacity...... of a system to sustain its integrity in a changing socio-ecological environment. We believe that an important objective is to identify and assess systems that can show a prosperous way down from the mega pulse. The case in our work is a dedicated organic stockless UK farming system with distribution...

  11. Assessment the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, A case study in Karaj River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    To show the performance of classification methods in water quality studies, linear discriminant, and Naïve Bayesian classification methods were applied at nine sampling stations with respect to four parameters including COD, nitrite, nitrate, and total coliforms (selected from ten water quality variables) in Karaj River, Iran. To fulfill the goals of this study, the sampling stations were first separated into two groups using cluster analysis. Rural wastewater was the main source of pollution in the first group, whereas the quality of water in the second group has been degraded mainly by organic and agricultural pollution. In order to have an independent group against which the performance of other classification methods is considered, three cross-validation methods including twofold, leave-one-out, and holdout methods were utilized to retain an independent test set. The results of cross-validation for the linear discriminant analysis show that, except for the leave-one-out method with 11.1 % misclassification error, the overall performance has been the same as that of the training data set. Therefore, it has outperformed compared with that of Naïve Bayesian classification method. However, even though in situations where the correlation coefficient among the parameters is low, the latest method can offer the same performance as that of linear discriminant analysis as well. A sensitivity analysis was implemented using ten water quality variables (pH, COD, EC, TDA, turbidity, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, TC, and FC) to find the most important variables in the classification of Karaj River showing that turbidity, next to COD, pH, nitrate, and sulfate, have had the most contribution in this field. PMID:26275762

  12. Design, Deployment and Assessment of a Movie Archive System for Film Studies - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlena Mohamad Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While most R&D activities in the multimedia field today focus on developing new algorithms and tools to automatically understand, index, manage and present media contents so that they could be used to help reduce people’s manual efforts in dealing with large amount of media contents, the issues of linking the developing or developed algorithms and tools to realistic end-user scenarios and applications have largely been relegated to other disciplines such as Human-Computer Interaction (HCI and Interaction Design. In this paper we present our reflection and interpretation of a multimedia project developing an end-to-end novel application incorporating a state-of-the-art “movie scene detection and classification” technique. Unlike any other technology-oriented projects in the multimedia community, this project attempted to bring usability engineering to the core of our experimental system development, extensively adopting the procedures, tools and methods available in usability engineering throughout all stages of the project – user study, ideation, interaction sketching, system implementation and deployment. Largest amount of effort was put to deployment stage, which involved facilitating the web-based system to 256 students in a film study course during a 3 month-long semester, during which the lecturers from the course provided necessary administration and coordination such as access to students, assignments and lab tutorials in order to fully integrate the system to the delivery of the course. Qualitative and quantitative data on the use of the system were recorded over time and analysed, to better understand the nature and characteristics of the developed system and its novel features afforded by the multimedia technology. We summarise the findings and the issues arising from trying to adopt user-centred HCI methods and procedures in developing nonconventional multimedia system throughout all stages of its development.

  13. Design, Deployment and Assessment of a Movie Archive System for Film Studies - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlena Mohamad Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While most R&D activities in the multimedia field today focus on developing new algorithms and tools to automatically understand, index, manage and present media contents so that they could be used to help reduce people’s manual efforts in dealing with large amount of media contents, the issues of linking the developing or developed algorithms and tools to realistic end-user scenarios and applications have largely been relegated to other disciplines such as Human-Computer Interaction (HCI and Interaction Design. In this paper we present our reflection and interpretation of a multimedia project developing an end-to-end novel application incorporating a state-of-the-art “movie scene detection and classification” technique. Unlike any other technology-oriented projects in the multimedia community, this project attempted to bring usability engineering to the core of our experimental system development, extensively adopting the procedures, tools and methods available in usability engineering throughout all stages of the project – user study, ideation, interaction sketching, system implementation and deployment. Largest amount of effort was put to deployment stage, which involved facilitating the web-based system to 256 students in a film study course during a 3 month-long semester, during which the lecturers from the course provided necessary administration and coordination such as access to students, assignments and lab tutorials in order to fully integrate the system to the delivery of the course. Qualitative and quantitative data on the use of the system were recorded over time and analysed, to better understand the nature and characteristics of the developed system and its novel features afforded by the multimedia technology. We summarise the findings and theissues arising from trying to adopt user-centred HCI methods and procedures in developing nonconventional multimedia system throughout all stages of its development.

  14. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  15. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO2eq. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  16. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  17. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  18. The importance of landscape attributes in biodiversity assessment. The Évora case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinta-Nova, L.C.; Batista, T.

    2001-01-01

    The study of wildlife communities to assess the landscape value is crucial in Landscape Ecology in order to develop bidiversity management strategies in rural landscapes and to assist land managers with their decision making processes. This poster reports the results achieved assessing biodiversity using landscape structural indicators. The main objective was to identify the landscape measures having a greater influence on the presence of avian communities in agrosystems located around Évora ...

  19. Design-Grounded Assessment: A Framework and a Case Study of Web 2.0 Practices in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesis's three theoretical perspectives, including sociocultural theory, distributed cognition, and situated cognition, into a framework to guide the design and assessment of Web 2.0 practices in higher education. In addition, this paper presents a case study of Web 2.0 practices. Thirty-seven online graduate students participated in…

  20. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  1. A Case Study of Student Assessment Programs in a College of Business Administration at a Southern HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Haynes, Janel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method sequential explanatory case study was to describe the relationship of a student outcomes assessment program, as measured by the Peregrine Academic Leveling Course, (ALC), to the academic performance, determined by scores on the Peregrine Common Professional Component (CPC) examination, of students enrolled during…

  2. Contradictions in the Practices of Training for and Assessment of Competency: A Case Study from the Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Gholamreza; Roth, Wolff Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the contradictions in the current maritime education and training system (MET), which is based on competency-based education, training and assessment, and to theorize the failure to make the training useful. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of education and training in the international…

  3. Transnational Comparison of Sustainability Assessment Programs for Viticulture and a Case-Study on Programs’ Engagement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Santiago-Brown; Andrew Metcalfe; Cate Jerram; Cassandra Collins

    2014-01-01

    This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape pro...

  4. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit-risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Andersen, R.; Antoine, J.-M.; Finglas, P.; Hoekstra, J.; Kardinaal, A.; Nordmann, H.; Pekcan, G.; Pentieva, K.; Sanders, T.A.; Berg, H. van den; Kranen, H. van; Chiodini, A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective examples, described in this paper, illustrate how the BRAFO-tiered approach, on benefit-risk assessment, can be tested on a wide range of case studies. Various results were provided, ranging from a quick stop as the result of non-genuine benefit-risk questions to continuation through

  5. A Case Study of Staff and Student Satisfaction with Assessment Feedback at a Small Specialised Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, Lindsey A.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback has been a major area of dissatisfaction according to the UK National Student Survey in recent years, despite general acceptance of its importance. A feedback strategy was implemented in October 2009 at a small specialised higher education institution (HEI). A case study was carried out to assess how satisfied staff and students are with…

  6. Emerging Theoretical Models of Reading through Authentic Assessments among Preservice Teachers: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboler, Eileen S.; Gupta, Abha

    2010-01-01

    This two-part study examines the emerging understanding of the reading process among preservice teachers (PTs), enrolled in a teacher preparation course on diagnostic reading. The study focuses on the use of reading assessment tools to understand the process of reading, while using reading inventories for diagnostic as well as pedagogical…

  7. Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Extreme Weather Events- A Case Study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S.; Mukand, M. S.; Kawasaki, A.; Webster, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of hazard, vulnerability and risk of extreme weather are essential in order to inform and implement appropriate adaptation/prevention/mitigation strategies. Due to complex nature and uncertainties in future climate change predictions, it is not feasible to detail assessment of vulnerability at detailed scales for potential hazard and risk. Though different approaches and methods exist for running hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, but still difficult to address all physical science, engineering, and social science research. In this study, we try to discuss on the human vulnerability and risk assessment approaches, tools and techniques of natural hazard due to extreme weather events (i.e. floods, cyclone). We analyzed different approaches and methods of vulnerability and risk assessment for flood hazard based on medium (1-10 days) and seasonal (1-3 months) ensembles probabilistic forecasts. The multiple weather ensembles (EPS) forecasts of European Center for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) and downscaled Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3) forecasts data were used to set up hydrological model. Due to high uncertainty in forecasts information, results summarized that data and inherent low resolutions of the information are major constrains for details comprehensive assessment. Risk and vulnerability rises to be based on multi-scale and cross-scale analyses, considering resilience dimensions and provide innovative tools for understanding, assessing and communicating probabilistic information to the users for decision making. The sectoral responses were developed with possible impacts scenarios based on uncertainty ranges to choose the most robust solution.

  8. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Movahed

    2013-01-01

    Development District, No. I, spring summer 2008Mahmoudi, B. (2005, Assessing demand for forest recreational parks in the city of Khorramabad brine and Velvet Mountains (research projects, Lorestan University Research Council, 57 p.Senseless, M. and Naserpour rare. (2003 Assessing barriers to tourism development in the province, Journal of Business Research, No. 28. FallClerk M., Rahmatullah Vmrady, A. (2005, the impact of religious tourism on the physical spaces in Mashhad Journal of Earth Sciences, No. 11.Movahed, A. (2007 Urban Tourism, University of martyr ChamranMehdizadeh, J., (2007, Principles and guidelines for the development of tourism in Iran, Journal of the House, No. 44.Mirabzadeh, P. (1997 Environmental Impact Assessment of Tourism Development, Environmental Issues, No. 2.Nhrly, David and pleasing Dawn (1996 and introduces the capacity range of resorts Journal of Environmental Studies No. 29 Summer 1996Deng, Jinyang, Brianking & Ihomas Bauer (2004: Evaluatig natural attractions for tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol.29, Issue2: 422438Garrod Brian and Roz Wornell, Rey youel (2006 Re- conceptualizing rural resources as countryside capital: the case rural tourism, journal of rural study, V.22 Kim, Yog – Kwam (1988: Tourism Impact Assessment: A Test of Vested Interests Model, A Ph.D Thesie presented to Texas A & M University, UnpublishedLee, Choong – Ki (1992: The Ecoomic Impact of International Inbound Tourism on the South Korean Economy and its Distributional Effects on Income Classes, ASehofield, Peter (1996: Cinematographic Images of a City, Tourism Management, and Vol. 17 No. 5Zahedi, SH (2004: Ecological understanding: a prerequisite of sustainable ecotourism. Department of Managmet, Allameh Tabataba, University, Iran.

  9. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  10. Effect of continuous assessment on learning outcomes on two chemical engineering courses: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning results after the adoption of continuous assessment in the courses. Also student feedback suggests higher quality in teaching after the adoption of more activating teaching methods which compel students to study effectively throughout the course.

  11. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    , Ychma and Inca. A test site has been selected to assess the capability of SAR satellite data for the identification of earthen archaeological features. UAV surveys have been performed to provide a very detail DEM enabling us to analyze and interpret the radar signal backscattering behaviour of archaeological microrelief and structures. In all the three applications UAV proved to be an effective, user-friendly, less time consuming, flexible tool for a number of applications and aims ranging from from the site detection to the risk evaluation of archaeological interest areas. References Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2012. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: From Visual Data Interpretation to Digital Data Manipulation, In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, pp. 3-16, doi : 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_1. Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2013, Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar in Archaeology and Cultural Landscape: An Overview. Archaeological Prospection, 20, 71-78, doi: 10.1002/arp.1452 Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G. 2016a. Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 Lasaponara R., Masini N., Pecci A., Perciante F., Pozzi Escot D., Rizzo E., Scavone M., Sileo M. 2016b, Qualitative evaluation of COSMO SkyMed in the detection of earthen archaeological remains: the case of Pachamacac (Peru)", Journal of Cultural heritage, 2016, in press. Leucci G., Masini N., Rizzo E., Capozzoli L., De Martino G. et al., Integrated Archaeogeophysical Approach for the Study of a Medieval Monastic Settlement in Basilicata, Open Archaeology 2015; 1: 236-246, doi: 10.1515/opar-2015-0014. F. Neitzel, J. Klonowski, Mobile 3d mapping with a low-cost UAV system, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf

  12. An integrated assessment method of urban drainage system:A case study in Shenzhen City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the urban drainage system in China is facing the dual pressure of renovation and construction.This requires that the integrated assessment for the planning and operation of the urban drainage system is obligatory.To evaluate the urban drainage system,an integrated assessment methodology based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP),integrated simulation,and fuzzy assessment is established.This method is a multi-criteria decision adding approach to the assessment of the urban drainage system comprehensively.Through the integration of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM),a simple wastewater treatment plant model,and a surface water quality model,an integrated modelling system for the urban drainage system is developed and applied as a key tool for assessment.Using the established method,a case study in Shenzhen City has been implemented to evaluate and compare two urban drainage system renovation plans,the distributed plan and the centralized plan.Because of the particularity of this case study,the established method is not applied entirely.Considering the water environmental impact,ecological impact,technological feasibility,and economic cost,the integrated performance of the distributed plan is better.As shown in this case study,the proposed method is found to be both effective and practical.

  13. Emergency assessment of seismic landslide susceptibility: a case study of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake affected area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Chuan; Zhu Jing; Liang Jingtao

    2009-01-01

    The 8.0 Mw Wenchuan earthquake triggered widespread and large scale landslides in mountainous regions.An approach was used to map and assess landslide susceptibility in a given area. A numerical rating system was applied to five factors that contribute to slope instability. Factors such as lithology, topography, streams and faults have an important influence as event-controlling factors for landslide susceptibility assessment. A final map is provided to show areas of low,medium, and high landslide susceptibility. Areas identified as having high landslide susceptibility were located in the central,northeastern, and far south regions of the study area. The assessment results will help decision makers to select safe sites for emergency placement of refuges and plan for future reconstruction. The maps may also be used as a basis for landslide risk management in the study area.

  14. Selecting controls for assessing interaction in nested case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for selecting controls in nested case-control studies, matching on X and counter matching on X, are compared when interest is in interaction between a risk factor X measured in the full cohort and another risk factor Z measured only in the case-control sample. This is important because matching provides efficiency gains relative to random sampling when X is uncommon and the interaction is positive (greater than multiplicative), whereas counter matching is generally efficient compared to random sampling. Matching and counter matching were compared to each other and to random sampling of controls for dichotomous X and Z. Comparison was by simulation, using as an example a published study of radiation and other risk factors for breast cancer in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and by asymptotic relative efficiency calculations for a wide range of parameters specifying the prevalence of X and Z as well as the levels of correlation and interaction between them. Focus was on analyses utilizing general models for the joint risk of X and Z. Counter-matching performed better than matching or random sampling in terms of efficiency for inference about interaction in the case of a rare risk factor X and uncorrelated risk factor Z. Further, more general, efficiency calculations demonstrated that counter-matching is generally efficient relative to matched case-control designs for studying interaction. Because counter-matched designs may be analyzed using standard statistical methods and allow investigation of confounding of the effect of X, whereas matched designs require a non-standard approach when fitting general risk models and do not allow investigating the adjusted risk of X, it is concluded that counter-matching on X can be a superior alternative to matching on X in nested case-control studies of interaction when X is known at the time of case-control sampling. (author)

  15. A life cycle assessment framework combining nutritional and environmental health impacts of diet: a case study on milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Heller, Martin C.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.;

    2016-01-01

    of less healthy foods (sugar-sweetened beverages). Further studies are needed to test whether this conclusion holds within a more comprehensive assessment of environmental and nutritional health impacts. Conclusions This case study provides the first quantitative epidemiology-based estimate......Purpose While there has been considerable effort to understand the environmental impact of a food or diet, nutritional effects are not usually included in food-related life cycle assessment (LCA). Methods We developed a novel Combined Nutritional and Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (CONE......-LCA) framework that evaluates and compares in parallel the environmental and nutritional effects of foods or diets. We applied this framework to assess human health impacts, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in a proof-of conceptcase study that investigated the environmental and nutritional...

  16. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  17. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  18. Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seppelt, R.; Fath, B.; Burkhard, B.; Fisher, J.L.; Grêt-Regamey, A.; Lautenbach, S.; Pert, P.; Hotes, S.; Spangenberg, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Oudenhoven, van A.P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments (ESA) hold the promise of supporting the quantification and valuation of human appropriation of nature and its goods and services. The concept has taken flight with the number of studies published on the topic increasing rapidly. This development, and the variation of d

  19. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  20. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  1. Assessing Researcher Interdisciplinarity: A Case Study of the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Gowanlock, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we combine bibliometric techniques with a machine learning algorithm, the sequential Information Bottleneck, to assess the interdisciplinarity of research produced by the University of Hawaii NASA Astrobiology Institute (UHNAI). In particular, we cluster abstract data to evaluate Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge subject categories as descriptive labels for astrobiology documents, assess individual researcher interdisciplinarity, and determine where collaboration opportunities might occur. We find that the majority of the UHNAI team is engaged in interdisciplinary research, and suggest that our method could be applied to additional NASA Astrobiology Institute teams in particular, or other interdisciplinary research teams more broadly, to identify and facilitate collaboration opportunities.

  2. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Zhang; Jiquan Zhang; Liupeng Jiang; Xingpeng Liu; Zhijun Tong

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  3. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  4. AHP in Assessing Performance of Diploma Institutes – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sujit Kumar Goshal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Present paper shows application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP as potential tool in decision making in assessing performance of diploma institutes. Parameters for assessing diploma level institutes are used as example. A hierarchical structure is framed for the parameters and the diploma institutes from where feedback received against the parameters for this study. By applying the AHP, the parameters can be prioritized and a descending order list of diploma institutes can be made in order to identify the best performing institutes. A sensitivity analysis can be performed to check the sensitivity of the final selection (decision to minor changes in the judgement. Step by step approaches for applying AHP will be used by using AHP Calculation Software by CGI (web-based free software. It is hoped that this will encourage the application of the AHP in assessing institutional performance of similar institutions.

  5. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  6. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  7. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  8. Assessment of drought impacts on vegetation health: a case study in Kedah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M.; Ash'aari, Z. H.; Muharam, F. M.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Hamisan, H.; Mohamad, N. D.; Othman, N. H.

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged drought in the early of 2014 has caused Malaysia to experience water supply shortage which directly affects both health and growth of vegetation. Thus this study aims to assess the risk vegetation areas that were impacted during 2014’s drought by integrating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Normalized Differentiation Vegetation Index (NDVI) methods. These two methods were able to assess the risk areas for the vegetation by measuring its health and classifying them according to its severity while considering the rainfall reduction at the specific time and location. The results obtained from this study shows that the central and north west of Kedah was vulnerable to the occurrence of drought. Kedah was more impacted by the dry event during the northeast monsoon. This study is significant as a fundamental input for further research and as an alternative approach by the application of space technology.

  9. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  10. A Clinical Case Study of the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Matt eTilley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS compared to EMA. Following completion of the Y-BOCS interview, participants then recorded their OCD symptoms into a digital voice recorder across a twelve-hour period in reply to randomly sent mobile phone SMS prompts. The EMA approach yielded a lower number of symptoms of obsessions and compulsions than the Y-BOCS but produced additional types of obsessions and compulsions not identified by the Y-BOCS. We conclude that the EMA-OCD procedure may represent a worthy addition to the suite of assessment tools used when working with clients who have OCD. Further research with larger samples is required to strengthen this conclusion.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  12. Assessing the benefits of design for recycling for plastics inelectronics: A case study of computer enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-12-31

    With the emergence of extended producer responsibilityregulations for electronic devices, it is becoming increasingly importantfor electronics manufacturers to apply design for recycling (DFR) methodsin the design of plastic enclosures. This paper presents an analyticalframework for quantifying the environmental and economic benefits of DFRfor plastic computer enclosures during the design process, usingstraightforward metrics that can be aligned with corporate environmentaland financial performance goals. The analytical framework is demonstratedvia a case study of a generic desktop computer enclosure design, which isrecycled using a typical US "take-back" system for plastics from wasteelectronics. The case study illustrates how the analytical framework canbe used by the enclosure designer to quantify the environmental andeconomic benefits of two important DFR strategies: choosing high-valueresins and minimizing enclosure disassembly time. Uncertainty analysis isperformed to quantify the uncertainty surrounding economic conditions inthe future when the enclosure is ultimately recycled.

  13. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llera Sastresa, Eva; Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption - Polytechnic Centre, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  15. Local impact of renewables on employment: Assessment methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an integrated method that assesses the socio-economic impact of establishing renewable energy on a regional scale, in particular on the creation of jobs. The method proposed is based on the collection, critical analysis and presentation of the results obtained using primary information sources considering the jobs created as the most direct measure of the socio-economic potential of renewable energy sources. Its design includes contributions extracted from a prior analysis of the existing assessment methods, to lessen the uncertainty of the job ratios often used in these types of analysis. The integrated method implemented has been applied to the autonomous community of Aragon (Spain) as a pilot case, through which the method has been tested and the indicators selected to analyse the socio-economic impact of renewable energy sources on the jobs created, the quality of the jobs and other factors related to the socio-economic development of a territory: technological development, per capita income, territorial development and human capital. (author)

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  17. Assessing Service Quality in Cyprus Mobile Telecommunication industry: A case Study of CYTA and Areeba

    OpenAIRE

    STYLIANOU, KATERINA

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The imperative of Quality and its management are facts in modern business and have a great impact on both industrial and service sector enterprises. Moreover, these aspects have become of the most significant in pursuing business excellence, superior performance and global competitiveness. This is the reason why studies of service quality, service value and customer satisfaction have dominated the services marketing literature. The main purpose of this research paper is to assess...

  18. A checking method for probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment: case studies on three cities

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, HH; Yaghmaei-Sabegh, S; Anbazhagan, P.; Sheikh, MN

    2010-01-01

    The conventional Cornell's source-based approach of probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment (PSHA) has been employed all around the world, whilst many studies often rely on the use of computer packages such as FRISK (McGuire FRISK-a computer program for seismic risk analysis. Open-File Report 78-1007, United States Geological Survey, Department of Interior, Washington 1978) and SEISRISK III (Bender and Perkins SEISRISK III-a computer program for seismic hazard estimation, Bulletin 1772. Unite...

  19. Assessing the Role of Motivation on Teacher Performance: Case Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Irwandy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the role of motivation on teacher performance in Indonesia. This study in an assessment of this aim used deductive approach where a qualitative survey was conducted among students at Universitas Negeri Medan (UNIMED, Indonesia who are assumed to be future teachers. The survey was intended to get their responses on what they feel are the best factors that could motivate them as future teachers among a list of ten motivational factors. In the light of this the study sets to identify the most ranked factors among the ten motivational factors. The analysis from the empirical findings showed that Good Salary was the most ranked factor for both sub groups that made up the sample survey. However, a study from previous researches used in this study showed that different results could be obtained from different groups of already working employees. This study therefore can be seen as an introduction to a more detailed study to be carried by future researchers in the field of teachers’ motivation.

  20. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF TURKEY’S POSSIBLE CANDIDACY FOR WINTER OLYMPICS (A CASE STUDY OF ERZURUM)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeşim; Dursun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate modern Olympics in terms of organization, to analyze them financially, and to make an assessment about the sport venues in order to obtain tangible data for a possible Olympiad in our country. In this regard, Summer and Winter Olympiads which have been carried out for 2000 years were included in this study. Having evaluated the required sport venues and the financial sources of these Olympiads, the revenues and the expenditures of a possible Olympiad in Tu...

  2. Assessment of encroachment of urban streams in Ghana: a case study of Wa Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Aabeyir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed encroachment of streams due to physical development in Wa Urban Area of the Upper West Region of Ghana. The assessment was informed by the recognition that the roles played by streams in flood control are undermined by physical developments. This affects sustainable urban development and renders the urban area vulnerable to floods. The assessment was based on the 300m buffer zone standard set by the Ghana Water Resources Commission as a protective zone for such streams in the country. It is mandatory to offset all physical development from this zone but that is not the situation on the ground. For the purpose of this study each buffer zone was divided into sub-buffer zones of 100m in order to appreciate how far development has moved into the prohibited buffer zone. The streams and physical structures were mapped with a Trimble GPS receiver while land owners and tenants were purposively selected and interviewed. The buffer zone and sub-buffer zones were defined using GIS and overlaid with map of the physical structures. The categories of structures found in the buffer zones were residential (93.4 %, commercial (5.1%, public (1.3% and agriculture (0.2%. The results of the study indicates that more than 50 % of physical structures mapped are located in the inner buffer and the land acquisition process for development of these structures amongst others in Wa is mostly initiated by developers.

  3. Assessing shelf aggregate environmental compatibility and suitability for beach nourishment: a case study for Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigongiari, Nicola; Cipriani, Luigi E; Pranzini, Enzo; Renzi, Monia; Vitale, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    Beach nourishment practices are a key aspect in coastal management plans for stakeholders and communities. Stemming from a concrete case-study (Tuscany), this research analyzes: (i) principal problems of current law regulating dredging, (ii) gaps in technical guidelines, (iii) advantages of integrated approaches to the decision-making process, (iv) possible applicable nourishment options and their costs and benefits. Our results show that sand compatibility is driven mainly by grain-size stability due to the occurrence of lower pollution levels in off-shore deposits than in threatened beaches, thus current laws and guidelines should be improved to fill the evident gap in the evaluation process and to include a more complete approach to data evaluation and an integrated approach to ecotoxicity evaluation, which is relevant in cases of geochemical anomalies. The cost-benefit analysis performed indicates that only dredging intended to manage more than 1 million m(3) of aggregates would represent a real advantage for local communities.

  4. Seismic hazard assessment of the cultural heritage sites: A case study in Cappadocia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyrek, Evren; Orhan, Ahmet; Dinçer, İsmail

    2014-05-01

    Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Major earthquakes with the potential of threatening life and property occur frequently here. In the last decade, over 50,000 residents lost their lives, commonly as a result of building failures in seismic events. The Cappadocia region is one of the most important touristic sites in Turkey. At the same time, the region has been included to the Word Heritage List by UNESCO at 1985 due to its natural, historical and cultural values. The region is undesirably affected by several environmental conditions, which are subjected in many previous studies. But, there are limited studies about the seismic evaluation of the region. Some of the important historical and cultural heritage sites are: Goreme Open Air Museum, Uchisar Castle, Ortahisar Castle, Derinkuyu Underground City and Ihlara Valley. According to seismic hazard zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement these heritage sites fall in Zone III, Zone IV and Zone V. This map show peak ground acceleration or 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for bedrock. In this connection, seismic hazard assessment of these heritage sites has to be evaluated. In this study, seismic hazard calculations are performed both deterministic and probabilistic approaches with local site conditions. A catalog of historical and instrumental earthquakes is prepared and used in this study. The seismic sources have been identified for seismic hazard assessment based on geological, seismological and geophysical information. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level is calculated for different seismic sources using available attenuation relationship formula applicable to Turkey. The result of the present study reveals that the seismic hazard at these sites is closely matching with the Seismic Zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement. Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Probabilistic Approach

  5. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen F; Sørensen, Peter B; Baun, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Conducting environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials has been an extremely challenging endeavor thus far. Moreover, recent findings from the nano-risk scientific community indicate that it is unlikely that many of these challenges will be easily resolved in the near future, especially given the vast variety and complexity of nanomaterials and their applications. As an approach to help optimize environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials, we apply the Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model to identify best estimates for worst-case conditions of environmental risks of two case studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C(60) in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C(60) in these applications as well as demonstrate the use of worst-case conditions to optimize future research efforts for other nanomaterials. Through the application of the WCD model, we find that the most probable worst-case conditions for both case studies include i) active uptake mechanisms, ii) accumulation in organisms, iii) ecotoxicological response mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell membrane damage or disruption, iv) surface properties of nZVI and C(60), and v) acute exposure tolerance of organisms. Additional estimates of worst-case conditions for C(60) also include the physical location of C(60) in the environment from surface run-off, cellular exposure routes for heterotrophic organisms, and the presence of light to amplify adverse effects. Based on results of this analysis, we recommend the prioritization of research for the selected applications within the following areas: organism active uptake ability of nZVI and C(60) and ecotoxicological response end-points and response mechanisms including ROS production and cell membrane damage, full nanomaterial characterization taking

  6. Cradle-to-customer life cycle assessment for environmental conscious operations and product development: case study of two precision instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paju, M.; Tonteri, H.

    2009-12-15

    New emerging regulations and market rivalry has forced electronic manufacturers to assess their environmental impacts in order to decrease their environmental burden. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method has been used widely in industry to assess the product scale environmental impacts in order to enhance the environmentally conscious product design and product planning. However, the LCAs including product specific data collection can be resource extensive due to the complexity of electronic systems, which hinders the usability of LCA in the dynamic product planning process. This paper aims to present the main findings and challenges of an LCA of small-sized electronic products through a case study. Furthermore, the usability of LCA as a tool for eco-design is discussed. The LCA method was applied for two electronic products with the scope bounded to the cradle-to-customer phases through the life cycle. Due to the complexity of the products' end-of-life system and limited time for the study quantitative assessment of end-of-life was left with less attention in LCA. However, during the LCA process the end-of-life aspects of the case study products were studied separately on a qualitative basis (orig.)

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mohitey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Material and Methods: 150 patients, 75 with AMI and 75 with CHD were included in the study. Data on hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and alcohol consumption were recorded. AMI patients were clinically examined 3-4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Clinical examination of CHD patients was carried out during the hospital stay. All teeth excluding third molars were studied and clinical data were recorded regarding Plaque Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Depth and Clinical Attachment Loss. Results: Percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing and the number of sites with more probing depth were significantly higher among AMI patients than those with CHD (P=0.05 and p=0.001 respectively.There was abundant plaque and debris around all tooth surfaces in AMI patients (p=0.001. Conclusion: Overall result of this case control study showed an association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction.

  8. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  10. Case Study for Assessment of Environmental and Social Responsibility : Examining possible fuel suppliers for Pääkaupunkiseudun Kierrätyskeskus Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Kontkanen, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis study was to evaluate different methods for the assessment of corporate responsibility. Environmental and social responsibility were the main focus areas of research. A case study relating to the assessment of responsibility was also carried out. The case study gave some practical results which could be used in the evaluation of the different methods. The theory includes background information on the LCA method, which was not considered in the case study. Theory...

  11. FAULT TREE ANALYSIS FEATURES IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Iosif MORARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is useful both in designing new products/services or in dealing with identified problems in existing ones. In the quality planning process, the analysis can be used to optimize process features and goals and to design for critical factors and human error. As part of safety process improvement, as it is emphasized in the present paper, it can be used to help identify root causes of undesired events such as occupational injuries and illnesses. A case study of application in industrial safety systems illustrates the aim, principle and structure of the technique, allowing better prevention measures selection and implementation.

  12. Assessing embodied interpersonal emotion regulation in somatic symptom disorders: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep eOkur-Gueney

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation of patients with somatic symptom disorders (SSD during interactions with significant others (i.e. romantic partners. We presented two case couples for analysis. The first couple consisted of a patient with SSD and his healthy partner, whereas the second couple consisted of two healthy partners. The couples underwent an interpersonal experiment that involved baseline, anger interaction and relaxation phases. During each phase, partners’ cutaneous facial temperature, heart rate and skin conductance levels were measured simultaneously. Participants’ trait-emotion regulation, state-affect reports for self and other, and attachment styles were also examined. The experimental phases were successful in creating variations in physiological processes and affective experience. As expected, emotion regulation difficulties predicted higher increase in the course of temperature in each phase. Besides, the patient showed restricted awareness and reflection to emotions despite his higher autonomic activity compared to healthy controls. Both partners of the first couple revealed limited ability in understanding the other’s emotions, whereas the second couple performed relatively better in that domain. The temperature variations between the patient and his partner showed significant correlations while the correlations of temperature changes between the second couple were negligible except anger phase. The study supported the merits of an embodied interpersonal approach in clinical studies. The tentative results of the cases were discussed in the light of findings in emotion regulation and attachment research.

  13. Assessing embodied interpersonal emotion regulation in somatic symptom disorders: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur Güney, Zeynep; Sattel, Heribert; Cardone, Daniela; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation of patients with somatic symptom disorders (SSDs) during interactions with significant others (i.e., romantic partners). We presented two case couples for analysis. The first couple consisted of a patient with SSD and his healthy partner, whereas the second couple consisted of two healthy partners. The couples underwent an interpersonal experiment that involved baseline, anger and relaxation tasks. During each task, partners' cutaneous facial temperature, heart rate and skin conductance levels were measured simultaneously. Participants' trait-emotion regulation, state-affect reports for self and other, and attachment styles were also examined. The experimental phases were successful in creating variations in physiological processes and affective experience. As expected, emotion regulation difficulties predicted higher increase in the course of temperature at each phase. Besides, the patient showed restricted awareness and reflection to emotions despite his higher autonomic activity compared to healthy controls. Both partners of the first couple revealed limited ability in understanding the other's emotions, whereas the second couple performed relatively better in that domain. The temperature variations between the patient and his partner were significantly correlated while the correlations of temperature changes between the second couple were negligible except anger task. The study supported the merits of an embodied interpersonal approach in clinical studies. The tentative results of the cases were discussed in the light of findings in emotion regulation and attachment research. PMID:25713544

  14. Index for Assessing Water Trophic Status in Semi-Enclosed Cuban Bays. Case Study: Cienfuegos Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Seisdedo, Mabel; Arencibia, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the coastal environmental management by developing a new trophic status index of the water (TSIW). The index is tailored to semi-enclosed bays with estuarine characteristic like the Cienfuegos bay in Cuba. We also propose pressure indicators related to exporting and assimilation capacities as a tool to assess the vulnerability of the system to eutrophication. The TSIW is based on response indicators to eutrophication processes showing correspondence with the predefined pressure indicators and previous reports on water quality. Thus, the proposed trophic status index is a reliable scientific tool to measure the current stage of the water quality and to establish a baseline for further studies.

  15. Climate change impact assessment of extreme precipitation on urban flash floods – case study, Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Rosbjerg, Dan;

    Climate change is expected to cause more intense extreme rainfall events, which will have a severe impact on the risk of flash floods in urban areas. An assessment study was performed for the city of Aarhus, Denmark, analysing different methods of statistical downscaling of climate model...... derived from the estimated intensity-duration-frequency curves....... projections for estimation of changes in extreme rainfall characteristics. Climate model projections from 20 regional climate models (RCM) from the ENSEMBLES data archive were used in the analysis. Two different estimation methods were applied, using, respectively, a direct estimation of the changes...

  16. An Assessment of Blasting Vibrations: A Case Study on Quarry Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Giraudi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the major environmental concerns related to blasting operation in mining and civil engineering projects is ground vibration. Approach: This study presented an assessment of ground vibrations caused by the blasting experiments at a marlstone quarry in northern Italy. The primary goal of this study was to determine the vibration level in order to protect dwelling area adjacent to the quarry. Based on the data obtained from the field, a new equation for the level of ground vibrations was proposed. Results: A comparative analysis between the results obtained by the new equation and common empirical predictors currently used in blasting practice was also carried out. Conclusion: Results indicated that a new equation may be used as a reliable predictor of the vibration level for the studied quarry.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF TURKEY’S POSSIBLE CANDIDACY FOR WINTER OLYMPICS (A CASE STUDY OF ERZURUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate modern Olympics in terms of organization, to analyze them financially, and to make an assessment about the sport venues in order to obtain tangible data for a possible Olympiad in our country. In this regard, Summer and Winter Olympiads which have been carried out for 2000 years were included in this study. Having evaluated the required sport venues and the financial sources of these Olympiads, the revenues and the expenditures of a possible Olympiad in Turkey were tried to be estimated with a proactive approach. At the end of the study, it was found that Winter Olympics can be carried out with a less organizational expenditure than Summer Olympics and also it was concluded that it would be easier to be selected as the host country regarding the nomination process.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of radioactive materials during sea transportation: Case study of plutonium released in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the environmental impact assessments of radioactive materials are at first given. The NSPI (Nuclear Safety Protection Institut) is jointly involved in these assessments. Currently, the NSPI is studying the case of plutonium release. The summary of this study is given. Indeed, to perform this assessment, the marine environment has to be modelled on a large scale and the exposure path to be calculated. Hypothesis has been made on the release phenomena as well. The proposed model, the origin of contamination, the hypothesis for the calculation and the exposure pathway are then explained. All the sea products are supposed to be eaten within the European countries. Cumulated collective doses for European countries after 50 years should be 160 man Sv in the western part of the Channel and 4.47 man Sv in the north eastern part of the atlantic ocean. (O.M.)

  19. Assessing opinions in community leadership networks to address health inequalities: a case study from Project IMPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M P; Ramanadhan, S; Viswanath, K

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel approach that those engaged in promoting social change in health can use to analyze community power, mobilize it and enhance community capacity to reduce health inequalities. We used community reconnaissance methods to select and interview 33 participants from six leadership sectors in 'Milltown', the New England city where the study was conducted. We used UCINET network analysis software to assess the structure of local leadership and NVivo qualitative software to analyze leaders' views on public health and health inequalities. Our main analyses showed that community power is distributed unequally in Milltown, with our network of 33 divided into an older, largely male and more powerful group, and a younger, largely female group with many 'grassroots' sector leaders who focus on reducing health inequalities. Ancillary network analyses showed that grassroots leaders comprise a self-referential cluster that could benefit from greater affiliation with leaders from other sectors and identified leaders who may serve as leverage points in our overall program of public agenda change to address health inequalities. Our innovative approach provides public health practitioners with a method for assessing community leaders' views, understanding subgroup divides and mobilizing leaders who may be helpful in reducing health inequalities. PMID:26471919

  20. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, J.; Storey, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland`s social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Combining Learning and Assessment in Assessment-Based Gaming Environments: A Case Study from a New York City School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; VanWinkle, Waverely; Doyle, Bryan; Buteux, Alyssa; Bauer, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and demonstrate an evidence-based scenario design framework for assessment-based computer games. Design/methodology/approach: The evidence-based scenario design framework is presented and demonstrated by using BELLA, a new assessment-based gaming environment aimed at supporting student learning of…

  3. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Pedro P; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture) in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i) remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii) extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km) of the roads of our study area (7,000 km²). The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4%) than that of Google Street View (48.1%). However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100%) outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs) (62-95%). Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148): 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of cliffs

  4. Assessing species habitat using Google Street View: a case study of cliff-nesting vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available The assessment of a species' habitat is a crucial issue in ecology and conservation. While the collection of habitat data has been boosted by the availability of remote sensing technologies, certain habitat types have yet to be collected through costly, on-ground surveys, limiting study over large areas. Cliffs are ecosystems that provide habitat for a rich biodiversity, especially raptors. Because of their principally vertical structure, however, cliffs are not easy to study by remote sensing technologies, posing a challenge for many researches and managers working with cliff-related biodiversity. We explore the feasibility of Google Street View, a freely available on-line tool, to remotely identify and assess the nesting habitat of two cliff-nesting vultures (the griffon vulture and the globally endangered Egyptian vulture in northwestern Spain. Two main usefulness of Google Street View to ecologists and conservation biologists were evaluated: i remotely identifying a species' potential habitat and ii extracting fine-scale habitat information. Google Street View imagery covered 49% (1,907 km of the roads of our study area (7,000 km². The potential visibility covered by on-ground surveys was significantly greater (mean: 97.4% than that of Google Street View (48.1%. However, incorporating Google Street View to the vulture's habitat survey would save, on average, 36% in time and 49.5% in funds with respect to the on-ground survey only. The ability of Google Street View to identify cliffs (overall accuracy = 100% outperformed the classification maps derived from digital elevation models (DEMs (62-95%. Nonetheless, high-performance DEM maps may be useful to compensate Google Street View coverage limitations. Through Google Street View we could examine 66% of the vultures' nesting-cliffs existing in the study area (n = 148: 64% from griffon vultures and 65% from Egyptian vultures. It also allowed us the extraction of fine-scale features of

  5. Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2014-05-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

  6. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  7. Chernobyl case study increases confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from the ongoing international study (i.e., Chernobyl pilot site project) on characterization and modeling of fallout nuclear fuel particles dissolution behavior and subsequent radionuclide transport from the near-surface waste disposal site in Chernobyl zone to the geo-environment. The reported experimental work includes: - characterization of radionuclide physico-chemical speciation inside the waste site (trench); - evaluation of infiltration recharge regime through the trench body; and determination of waste soil matrix sorption parameters. In order to describe radionuclide releases from the waste, the multi-component source term model accounting for several types of fuel particles (UO2, UO2+X, and U-Zr-O matrix) was developed. Application of the source-term model to the Pilot Site data has given satisfactory and encouraging results. The modeling approach has proved to be capable of rather accurately reproducing independent field characterization and monitoring data relevant to 90Sr speciation inside the trench and radionuclide releases from the trench to the aquifer. The developed parameter database and modeling approach are of general value for radiological assessments of Chernobyl contaminated areas, and for possible similar accidental situations in future. Thus, acquired knowledge and data serve to increase the confidence level in radionuclide transport assessments from nuclear fuel source term to soils and geo-sphere. (orig.)

  8. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and

  9. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  10. Validating the Octave Allegro Information Systems Risk Assessment Methodology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Corland G.

    2014-01-01

    An information system (IS) risk assessment is an important part of any successful security management strategy. Risk assessments help organizations to identify mission-critical IS assets and prioritize risk mitigation efforts. Many risk assessment methodologies, however, are complex and can only be completed successfully by highly qualified and…

  11. Assessment of solar electrification in Cuba. A case study based on GIS for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, Irene; Dominguez, Javier [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Energy Dept.; Rodriguez, Maria [Solar Energy Research Center (CIES), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    A quarter of total world population, mainly in developing countries, are lacking of electricity. Due to social, economic and geographical differences, detail studies are needed in order to find the appropriate technology for each case. The rural electrification analysis of Guama municipality is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to define the best way of electrification using levelized electric cost (LEC) criterion to meet a particular demand. Applying SOLARGIS methodology, conventional and renewable energy technologies are compared in every non-electrified community. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the area and shows a very high potential of remote sites to be electrified by means of photovoltaic systems. (orig.)

  12. Personal Metabolism (PM) coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model: Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon;

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism (PM) patterns of residents living in urbanized areas of Denmark. Extending the PM analysis with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provided a clear picture of the per capita environmental and human health burdens, as well as resource consumptions, and the exact origin hereof. A generic PM-LCA Model...... in terms of environmental and health burdens, as well as resource consumptions. Analyzing consumer life styles in terms of consumption patterns in order to identify hotspots is hence the focus of this study. This is achieved by taking into account the entire value chain of the commodities consumed...... in the context of environmental and human health burdens,as well as resource consumptions. A systematic commodity consumption, commodity disposal, and life style survey of 1281 persons living in urbanized Danish areas was conducted. The findings of the survey showed new impact dimensions in terms of Personal...

  13. Vegetation assessment in a pipeline influence area: the case study of PETROBRAS ammonia pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basbaum, Marcos A.; Porciano, Patricia P.; Bonafini, Fabio L. [SEEBLA - Servicos de Engenharia Emilio Baumgart Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: mbasbaum.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: patriciapp.seebla@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: bonafini.seebla@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Ricardo Z.P.; Torggler, Bianca F.; Fernandes, Renato; Vieira, Elisa D.R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rzaluar@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: torggler@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: renatofer@petrobras.com.br, e-mail: elisav@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-19

    This ammonia pipeline is about 30 km long and links the Fertilizer Plant (FAFEN-BA) to the Urea Marine Terminal (TMU) at the Port of Aratu in Candeias (Bahia State, Brazil). In this study, we characterize the remnants of vegetation and quantify the Permanent Preservation Areas. Furthermore, we propose areas and techniques for their recovery and / or management. The methodology was based on the Rapid Ecological Assessment, which combines selection of areas through remote sensing image analysis, with rapid field campaigns in the selected points. This methodology, successfully applied in PETROBRAS refineries, is first applied in a pipeline influence area. During these campaigns, the main aspects of vegetation, such as phyto physiognomy and ecological succession stages, were registered in field data sheets prepared for this purpose. The most representative remnants of vegetation that could be quantified were Atlantic Forest fragments, as well as those in the Permanent Preservation Areas. (author)

  14. Assessment of environmental benefits of flyover construction over signalized junctions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K; Goel, Sangita; Tamhane, S M

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the flyover construction to curb traffic congestion problem has been assessed in terms of traffic decongestion, time saving, fuel saving and emission reduction. A flyover has also been constructed over four signalized junctions in the main commercial area in Nagpur city, India. It was found that about 35% of the total traffic is diverted to the flyover, which results in a reduction of about 32% in the total emission generation. Travel on the flyover resulted in as much as 60-70% saving in time, compared to the travel on the main road, particularly when all the four signals are found to be in the red phase. The loss of fuel for combustion and the associated cost resulting from waiting for the signal to change are also estimated, and these are found to be significant.

  15. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  16. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  17. Dynamics of national forests assessed using the Landsat record: Case studies in eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Goward, S.N.; Schleeweis, K.; Thomas, N.; Masek, J.G.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The national forests (NFs) in the United States are protected areas managed for multiple purposes, and therefore are subject to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Monitoring forest changes arising from such disturbances and the post-disturbance recovery processes is essential for assessing the conditions of the NFs and the effectiveness of management approaches. In this study, we used time series stacks of Landsat images (LTSS) to evaluate the dynamics of seven NFs in eastern United States, including the De Soto NF, the Talladega NF, the Francis Marion NF, and the Uwharrie NF in southeastern U.S., and the Chequamegon NF, the Hiawatha NF, and the Superior NF in northern U.S. Each LTSS consisted of 12-14 Landsat images acquired for the same location, spanning from 1984 to 2006 with a nominal interval of one image every 2??years. Each LTSS was analyzed using a vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to map forest disturbance. Accuracy assessments of the derived disturbance maps revealed that they had overall accuracy values of about 80%, with most of the disturbance classes having user's accuracies ranging from 70% to 95%. The producer's accuracies were generally lower, with the majority being in the range between 50% and 70%. While this may suggest that the disturbance maps could slightly underestimate disturbances, a more detailed assessment of the omission errors revealed that the majority of the disagreements were due to minor disturbances like thinning or storm damages that were identified by the image analysts but were not captured by the VCT algorithm. The derived disturbance year maps revealed that while each of the seven NFs consisted of 90% or more forest land, significant portions of the forests were disturbed since 1984. Mapped disturbances accounted for about 30%-45% of total land area in the four NFs in southeastern U.S. and about 10%-20% in the three NFs in northern U.S. The disturbance rates were generally higher in the buffer zones

  18. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality - A case study of Kondapur mandal, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramamohan Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose with respect to BIS: 10500-1991standards is assessed through statistical analysis of the data and on the basis of seasonal variation in the quality of groundwater. The study was undertaken during 2010-2011. The samples are collected during post monsoon period from bore wells being monitored by the Andhra Pradesh Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department. The study area comprises of Kondapur Mandal, which is one of the 46 mandals of Medak District lying in the semi-arid Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. The Mandal has 23 Revenue villages with no towns accounting to a total population of about 45000 as per census 2001. As per water quality index (WQI values, the groundwater in the study area during post monsoon ranging from “Good” to “Unfit for drinking” and no where it was found “excellent.” The poor quality of water is due to higher concentrations of fluoride and increased total hardness values. It is found that about 84% of the samples analyzed are suitable for drinking. Correlation amongst all the parameters was found to be positive but weak. Only fluoride showed negative correlation with other parameters but it is very weak. This indicates that there is no regionally extensive factor governing the water quality and it is varying with local conditions only.

  20. Disease mapping and risk assessment in veterinary parasitology: some case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Musella, V

    2005-03-01

    Disease mapping and risk assessment are important tasks in the area of medical and veterinary epidemiology. The development of methods for mapping diseases has progressed considerably in recent years. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS), and Spatial Analysis represent new tools for the study of epidemiology, and their application to parasitology has become more and more advanced, in particular to study the spatial and temporal patterns of diseases. The present review highlights the usefulness of GIS and RS in veterinary parasitology in order to better know the epidemiology of parasite organisms, causing either snail/arthropod borne diseases or direct transmissible diseases, mostly in small areas with a strong impact by man. It demonstrates the potential of these technologies to serve as effective tools for: data capture, mapping and analysis for the development of descriptive parasitological maps; studying the environmental features that influence the distribution of parasites; predicting parasite occurrence/seasonality based on their environmental requirements and as decision support for disease intervention; and surveillance and monitoring of animal diseases.

  1. Indoor Air Quality Assessment in a Radiantly Cooled Tropical Building: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Jie KWONG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have been conducted to assess the indoor air quality (IAQ of buildings throughout the world because it is closely related to comfort, safety and work productivity of occupants. However, there is still lack of available literature about IAQ in tropical buildings that apply radiant cooling systems in conditioning the indoor air.Methods: This paper reports the results obtained from an IAQ audit that was conducted in a new radiantly cooled building in Malaysia, by focusing on the IAQ and thermal comfort parameters.Results: It was identified that the measured concentration levels for the five indoor air contaminants (CO, CO2, TVOC, formaldehyde and respirable particulates were within the threshold limit values (TLVs specified in the IAQ guidelines. Besides, no significant difference was found between the contaminant levels in each floor of the studied building, and a majority of the respondents did not encounter any form of physical discomfort. There is a risk of condensation problem, judging from the measured RH level.Conclusion: An increase of airflow rate and more dehumidification work in the studied building can be made to improve IAQ and prevention of condensation problem. Nevertheless, these schemes should be implemented carefully to avoid occupants’ discomfort. Relocation of workstations was suggested, especially for the lower floors, which had higher occupancy levels. Keywords: Indoor air quality (IAQ, Radiant cooling systems, IAQ audit, Indoor air contaminants, Condensation 

  2. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  3. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  4. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); White, Lori D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Andrea S. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wilson, Vickie S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P. [National Center for Environmental Research Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Bioinformatics Center, Environmental Bioinformatics and Computational Toxicology Center (ebCTC), Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  5. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  6. ACADEMICS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WEB 2.0 ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezanu Ramona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is the way through which the universities demonstrate their own value, but also that of their graduates. Our present paper suggests a debate regarding the evaluation of students in economics in a web 2.0 world. More precisely, we are trying to offer an answer to the question: Do the students of economics have the necessary computer science abilities to learn and to be evaluated in a 2.0 web environment? The paper starts off with the presentation of fundamental principles of assessment and teaching done with Web 2.0 means and methods. The exemplifications are added to this structure as they had been presented in the specialized works of this domain. The paper then goes on to present the results of our prospective study. Through this prospective study we wanted to identify the attributes based on which we could create the next phases of our research into elaborating the behavior of the students as it is observed during the process of evaluation. This evaluation takes place in a world that is bombarded with synchronic and a-synchronic means of communication called according to acronyms such as web 2.0, 3.0 and maybe even 4.0. It is in this context that we consider that the main purpose of the present paper is to determine the state of being prepared/ unprepared characterizing the student in the use (acceptance of the evaluation and assessment of certain softs for socialization. In order to achieve our purpose, we have carried out a survey based on which we were intending to obtain the students’ level of perception regarding the evaluation system they are subjected to through web 2.0 means as well as their reaction to the web type of evaluation. The result we obtained demonstrated that the students are willing to participate at a declarative level, but they are not actually willing to be evaluated through web 2.0 means when it comes to practice. The end of the study is where we identified the need for a better means of informing and

  7. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  8. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  9. Assessment of contamination in water and soil surrounding a chlor-alkali plant: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of increasing industrialization without environmental governance, Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to water and soil pollution. Among these pollution types, pollution due to heavy metals is of serious concern due to their harmful effects on living organisms. In Pakistan, a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant (MCCAP), installed at Kala Shah Kaku industrial zone, is causing serious environmental degradation in nearby areas due to the direct discharge of its wastewater in the fresh water of Nullah Daik. The production capacity of the MCCAP is, approximately, 33 thousand metric tons per year. Furthermore, due to monsoon flomercuryoding every year, agricultural fields around the Nullah Daik are also suspected to significant contamination. Theefore, assessment of contamination in the waters of Nullah Daik as well as nearby agriculture fields is an important task to study. This study was conducted to analyse the mercury level in both water and soil samples surrounding MCCAP using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results confirm the presence of heterogeneous Hg contamination with concentrations ranging between 0.1 to 6.71 mu g L-1 in the water samples. Furthermore, significant Hg concentration, ranging between 0.1 - 14.8 mg kg-1, was also observed in the soil samples collected along the banks of Nullah Daik. However, water and soil samples collected from the upstream, from point of convergence of the MCCAP wastewater to the Nullah, do not show any Hg contamination. Hence, the study suggests the development of specific legislative instruments in Pakistan concerning with the surface and soil water pollution and application of treatment strategies in highly polluted areas in order to avoid potential health concern on communities dwelling banks of Nullah Daik and River Ravi. (author)

  10. Measuring Learning in Serious Games: A Case Study with Structural Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Pieter; van der Spek, Erik D.; van Oostendorp, Herre

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of serious games is often measured with verbal assessment. As an alternative we propose Pathfinder structural assessment (defined as measuring the learners' knowledge organization and compare this with a referent structure) which comprises three steps: knowledge elicitation, knowledge representation and knowledge evaluation. We…

  11. The Role of Leadership and Culture in Creating Meaningful Assessment: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Mitchell, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    With increased demands for institutional accountability and improved student learning, involvement in assessment has become a fundamental role of higher education faculty (Rhodes, 2010). However, faculty members and administrators often question whether assessment efforts do indeed improve student learning (Hutchings, 2010). This mixed methods…

  12. Alignment of World Language Standards and Assessments: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn Shemwell

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined world language classroom-based assessment practices as well as the impact of the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project, 1999) on practice. However, the extent to which K-12 teachers' assessment practices reflect national and state…

  13. Case Study: One Institution's Application of a Multiple Methods Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Jacqueline N.; Daniels, Jessica R.; Smulski, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Program assessment has been a topic of significance in higher education over the last decade. Initially, program assessment was implemented in response to concerns over the quality of college graduates' education and increasing competiveness in the job market for American college graduates. Recently, higher education institutions have been…

  14. Assessment challenges in competency-based education: A case study in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James T; Burkhardt, John C; Kasten, Steven J; Mullan, Patricia B; Santen, Sally A; Sheets, Kent J; Tsai, Antonius; Vasquez, John A; Gruppen, Larry D

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing demand for health sciences faculty with formal training in education. Addressing this need, the University of Michigan Medical School created a Master in Health Professions Education (UM-MHPE). The UM-MHPE is a competency-based education (CBE) program targeting professionals. The program is individualized and adaptive to the learner's situation using personal mentoring. Critical to CBE is an assessment process that accurately and reliably determines a learner's competence in educational domains. The program's assessment method has two principal components: an independent assessment committee and a learner repository. Learners submit evidence of competence that is evaluated by three independent assessors. The assessments are presented to an Assessment Committee who determines whether the submission provides evidence of competence. The learner receives feedback on the submission and, if needed, the actions needed to reach competency. During the program's first year, six learners presented 10 submissions for review. Assessing learners in a competency-based program has created challenges; setting standards that are not readily quantifiable is difficult. However, we argue it is a more genuine form of assessment and that this process could be adapted for use within most competency-based formats. While our approach is demanding, we document practical learning outcomes that assess competence.

  15. The application of resilience assessment - resilience of what, to what, with what? A case study based on Caledon, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience assessment can be used to determine major issues, stakeholders, vulnerabilities, and opportunities of a social-ecological system to enhance resilience. A resilience assessment was conducted on the Town of Caledon, Ontario between 2010 and 2011 using the Resilience Assessment Workbook for Practitioners (version 1. The assessment explores the following three questions: Resilience of what? Resilience to what? Resilience with what? The answer to the first question describes the history, main issues, and stakeholders of the focal system. The answers to the remaining two questions describe potential resilience threats and assets, respectively. The assessment results include (1 identified resilience threats and assets of Caledon as a social-ecological system in the context of urban growth; (2 a cross-scalar study of Caledon in its ecological, social, and economic domains; (3 interviews with 26 community members on the topics of urban growth and resilience; and (4 recommendations for Caledon to enhance its resilience in face of urban growth pressures. The results reveal the significance of continual learning, engaged citizenship, and cross-scalar collaboration between governmental bodies. The assessment results also highlight some particular features that would enhance the resilience of Caledon, such as nurturing the health of agroecosystems, developing trade-off rules for conflict resolution, and treating low-impact urban development as an opportunity. This research provides a case study of resilience assessment of a community that undergoes a rural-urban divide. Emerging themes of resilience are identified. Research limitations and suggestions are presented at the end of this paper.

  16. A Proposed Model for Examining the Organizational Readiness Assessment of Information Systems Development: A case study of a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Lagzian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The findings of several prior studies indicate high failure rate of Information systems implementation projects in different organizations. These studies also point to the fact that many of these failures are as a result of organizational issues as well as not paying attention to current situation of the organization in early stages of Information system development, rather than technical issues. In other words, successful implementation of an information system is directly depending on current situation of the organization. Considering high needed investment for implementing an information system project, it seems to be necessary to assess its current organizational readiness level. In this study, on the basis of a comprehensive reviewing various relevant models of readiness assessment for information systems development has been attempted to present a model about the existing realities and internal circumstances in public sector organizations and institutions emphasizing on universities and higher education institutions. Based on proposed model, to assess organizational readiness, six major dimensions (Strategic, Structural, Resources, Cultural, Managerial, and Legal were identified from the literature which was divided into 47 sub-dimensions and 142 indicators. The identified indicators can be used to assess organizational readiness in order to facilitate a purposeful and appropriate information system development and consequently to prevent the waste of organizational resources. The proposed model also was used in a public university as a case with the aim of determination of organizational readiness level, and finally several action plans were suggested based on the obtained research results.

  17. Assessment of post-operative pain in cats: a case study on veterinary students of Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mei Yan; Chen, Hui Cheng; Omar, Mohamed Ariff

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess and control pain is listed as one of the desired Day One competencies among veterinary graduates. As such, a study was conducted to examine the current status and effectiveness of a video-based training module on the attitude toward and knowledge of pain assessment in cats among fourth- and final-year veterinary students of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) in January of 2013. A total of 92 students participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.1%. Upon completion of a pre-training survey, the respondents undertook an interactive video-based presentation, followed by a post-training survey. The majority of the students (96.7%) agreed on the importance of pain management. Before the training, many (76.1%) disagreed that they had received adequate training, while 53.3% were not confident in their pain-recognition skills. After training, their knowledge and confidence in pain assessment increased. Responses to the survey were not associated with differences in gender, level of study, or field of interest. Students were found to have mistaken some physiologic parameters as good pain indicators after ovariohysterectomy. Their assessment of three standardized video cases revealed that they could recognize prominent signs of pain but failed to identify changes in behavior that were more subtle. Refinement to the training module is required to address the above deficiencies. PMID:24589865

  18. The Water Footprint of the Wine Industry: Implementation of an Assessment Methodology and Application to a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bonamente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An original methodology for the Water Footprint Assessment (WFA of a Product for the wine-making industry sector is presented, with a particular focus on the evaluation procedure of the grey water. Results obtained with the proposed methodology are also presented for an Italian case study. The product was analyzed using a life-cycle approach, with the aim of studying the water volumes of each phase according to the newly-released ISO 14046 international standard. The functional unit chosen in this study is the common 0.75 liter wine bottle. An in-house software (V.I.V.A. was implemented with the goal of accounting for all the contributions in a cradle-to-grave approach. At this stage, however, minor water volumes associated with some foreground and background processes are not assessed. The evaluation procedure was applied to a case study and green, blue, and grey water volumes were computed. Primary data were collected for a red wine produced by an Umbrian wine-making company. Results are in accordance with global average water footprint values from literature, showing a total WF of 632.2 L/bottle, with the major contribution (98.3% given by green water, and minor contributions (1.2% and 0.5% given by grey and blue water, respectively. A particular effort was dedicated to the definition of an improved methodology for the assessment of the virtual water volume required to dilute the load of pollutants on the environment below some reference level (Grey WF. The improved methodology was elaborated to assure the completeness of the water footprint assessment and to overcome some limitations of the reference approach. As a result, the overall WF can increase up to 3% in the most conservative hypotheses.

  19. Short-term shoreline evolution trend assessment: A case study in Glefe, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Y. Amoani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing economic, social and ecological importance of coastal areas in Ghana has increased the challenges associated with sustainably managing the coastal resources. The coastal areas have become more prone and vulnerable to natural and human-made hazards such as coastal erosion. Shoreline retreat is recognised as a burgeoning threat because of global climate change and other anthropogenic activities that alter the natural processes sustaining beaches and coasts. This article describes an application of Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS technology and digitising of shorelines from orthophotos to detect and analyse the spatial changes as well as quantify the result of shoreline change at Glefe, a suburb of Accra in Ghana. Shoreline positions from a 2005 orthophoto and a 2011 RTK-GPS survey were overlaid in MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory and the average rate of change determined using the endpoint rate (EPR method. The shoreline change rate determined for Glefe between 2005 and 2011 was 1.2 m/a ± 1.3 m/a, indicating a relatively high rate of erosion. Outcomes of the case study can be used as a basis for a sustainable integrated management plan for the coastal area.

  20. Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Fuzzy Logic: A Case Study in the Zayandehrood Aquifers, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farshad; Safavi, Hamid R.; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is an important source of water, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where surface water is scarce. Groundwater pollution in these regions is consequently a major concern, especially as pollution control and removal in these resources are not only expensive but at times impossible. It is, therefore, essential to prevent their contamination in the first place by properly identifying vulnerable zones. One method most commonly used for evaluating groundwater pollution is the DRASTIC method, in which the Boolean logic is used to rank and classify the parameters involved. Problems arise, however, in the application of the Boolean logic. In this paper, the fuzzy logic has been used to avoid the problems. For this purpose, three critical cases of minimum, maximum, and mean values have been considered for the net recharge parameter. The process has been performed on the Zayandehrood river basin aquifers. The fuzzy-DRASTIC vulnerability map thus obtained indicates that the western areas of the basin generally have the maximum pollution potential followed by the areas located in the east. The central parts of the study area are found to have a low pollution potential. Finally, two sensitivity analyses are performed to show the significance of each value of the net recharge parameter in the calculation of vulnerability index.

  1. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using fuzzy logic: a case study in the Zayandehrood aquifers, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farshad; Safavi, Hamid R; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater is an important source of water, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where surface water is scarce. Groundwater pollution in these regions is consequently a major concern, especially as pollution control and removal in these resources are not only expensive but at times impossible. It is, therefore, essential to prevent their contamination in the first place by properly identifying vulnerable zones. One method most commonly used for evaluating groundwater pollution is the DRASTIC method, in which the Boolean logic is used to rank and classify the parameters involved. Problems arise, however, in the application of the Boolean logic. In this paper, the fuzzy logic has been used to avoid the problems. For this purpose, three critical cases of minimum, maximum, and mean values have been considered for the net recharge parameter. The process has been performed on the Zayandehrood river basin aquifers. The fuzzy-DRASTIC vulnerability map thus obtained indicates that the western areas of the basin generally have the maximum pollution potential followed by the areas located in the east. The central parts of the study area are found to have a low pollution potential. Finally, two sensitivity analyses are performed to show the significance of each value of the net recharge parameter in the calculation of vulnerability index.

  2. Fire safety assessment of super tall buildings: A case study on Shanghai Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai Tower is an existing super high-rise building composed of mega frame-core-outrigger lateral resisting systems. Its structural safety in fire has been given great attention. This paper presents an independent review of the performance of Shanghai Tower in case of fire. Two fire scenarios: standard fires and parametric fires have been considered. The fire resistance of key component, including the concrete core, mega columns, the composite floor, outrigger trusses and belt trusses were examined first. Their real fire resistance periods proved to be far beyond the design fire resistance. The components with weak fire resistance such as peripheral steel columns and web members of belt trusses were then removed to study the resistance of the residual structure against progressive collapse. The results show that Shanghai Tower has a minimum of 3 h fire resistance against fire-induced progressive collapse. The concrete components have smaller residual displacements compared to the steel components. It is recommended, for the design of other similar structures, that effective fire protection should be provided for the outrigger trusses to guarantee the connection between the core and mega columns.

  3. Assessment of soil properties under degraded forests: Javor mountain in Republic of Srpska - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapović Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of soils under degraded beech forests on Mt. Javor and the possibility of the reintroduction of the spruce and fir that had been cut during previous negative human activity. Research into forest soil characteristics before reforestation is not common practice in the Republic of Srpska, and very often is not successful because it has not been established which soil environment conditions are most appropriate for a particular tree species. Soil degradation has been attributed to improper management and the unplanned deforestation of some parts of the Javor Mountain. Degraded parts were initially colonized by bushes and herbaceous vegetation, but despite this and due to the steep slopes, soil erosion has occurred. The restoration of degraded forests usually requires reforestation in order to reduce soil erosion and convert low to high forests. The aim of this study was the assessment of soil properties for the reintroduction of Picea abies (Karst. and Abies alba (Mill. on degraded parts of Mt. Javor, as one of the ways to protect the forest soil from erosion. According to the World Reference Base we determined the following soil types: Albic Acrisol, Dystric Cambisol and Mollic Leptosol. All analyzed soils can meet the demands of fir and spruce due to their characteristics.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Cockles (Anadara granosa Farming: A Case Study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Dina Razman Pahri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of the cockle farming activity in Malaysia. The study was conducted by a mid-point approach following the ISO 14040 series of standard and CML-IA Baseline V3.01 method using SimaPro 8 software. A total of ten impact categories were selected namely abiotic depletion (ABD, global warming potential (GWP, ozone layer depletion (OLD, human toxicity (HT, freshwater ecotoxicity (FET, marine aquatic ecotoxicity (MET, terrestrial ecotoxicity (TET, photochemical oxidation (PO, acidification (ACD, and eutrophication (EUT. Capital goods dominate the impact of HT (82.20%, ABD (81.72%, EUT (81.36%, FET (79.3%, PO (79.02%, MET (75.06%, TET (59.8%, and GWP (53.15%. Operational goods dominate OLD at 80.24% and ACD at 53%. Fiberglass material dominated almost the entire environmental impact except for the eutrophication which was dominated by polypropylene. Harvesting process was identified as the main process contributed to the potential environmental impact in cockle farming. LCA is potentially expanded not only to the entire chain of cockle production, but also to put into practice other aquaculture systems in Malaysia.

  5. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  6. Assessment of vegetation and naturalness: a study case in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Simone L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of vegetation and naturalness in the province of Benevento (southern Italy was conducted through a series of complementary steps starting from a preliminary phase of bibliographical research. To draw up the theme map, after the preparatory phase of GIS-based cartographic support, a photo-interpretation phase was conducted for the whole province of Benevento on the basis of orthophotos at a scale of 1:10.000 taken in 1997-1998 supplied by the Provincial Authority. We produced a map which chiefly takes account of the physiognomic features of vegetation alongside floristic data. Throughout the province of Benevento we identified 21 main floristic types grouped into four categories, which include three physiognomic categories and one category grouping the areas greatly affected by human impact. For each vegetation type we calculated the percentage of the area against the whole surface area of the province. Starting from the vegetation map, the vegetation types in the area were reclassified according to the scale of naturalness ordered according to the criterion of proximity to the mature vegetation phase. The conservation status of the plant landscape in the province of Benevento was thus assessed by using the ILC (Index of Landscape Conservation.

  7. Integrated assessment of urban vulnerability and resilience. Case study: Targu Ocna town, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Bănică, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment frequently emphasizes the internal fragility of a system in relation to a given hazard, when compared to similar systems or to a reference standard. This internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the ability to predict, to prepare for and cope with or to recover from the manifestation of a risk phenomenon. Thus, the vulnerability is highly related to resilience and adaptability. There is no single methodology for vulnerability and resilience analysis, their assessment can only be made by identifying and integrating indicators which are compatible with the analysis level and the geographic, economic and social features of a certain area. An integrated model of evaluating vulnerability and resilience capacity is being proposed in this paper for Targu Ocna, a small mining settlement in the Eastern Carpathians of Romania, that became in the last years a tourist town and acts within the surrounding territory as a dynamic local pole. Methodologically, the following steps and operations were considered: identifying potential hazards, identifying elements at risk, identifying proper indicators and integrating them in order to evaluate the general vulnerability and resilience. The inventory of elements at risk (the number of people potentially affected, residential or other functionalities buildings, roads and other infrastructure elements etc.) was made based on General Urban Plan, topographic maps (scale 1:5000), ortophotos from 2003 and 2008 and field mapping and researches. Further on, several vulnerability indicators were identified and included within the analytical approach: dependency ratio, income, quality of the habitat and technical urban facilities, environment quality showing differentiated sensitivity. Issues such as preparedness and preventive measures (priority areas within the risk prevention plans), coping ability (networks' geometry and connectivity, emergency utilities and services accessibility) and the

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC. The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates

  9. Integrated Earthquake Risk Assessment in the Kathmandu Valley - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Julia; Anhorn, Johannes; Khazai, Bijan; Nüsser, Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urban growth is a process which can be observed in cities worldwide. Managing these growing urban areas has become a major challenge for both governing bodies and citizens. Situated not only in a highly earthquake and landslide-prone area, but comprising also the cultural and political capital of Nepal, the fast expanding Kathmandu Valley in the Himalayan region is of particular interest. Vulnerability assessment has been an important tool for spatial planning in this already densely populated area. The magnitude 8.4 earthquake of Bihar in 1934 cost 8600 Nepalis their lives, destroyed 20% of the Kathmandu building stock and heavily damaged another 40%. Since then, Kathmandu has grown into a hub with over a million inhabitants. Rapid infrastructure and population growth aggravate the vulnerability conditions, particularly in the core area of Metropolitan Kathmandu. We propose an integrative framework for vulnerability and risk in Kathmandu Valley. In order to move towards a more systemic and integrated approach, we focus on interactions between natural hazards, physically engineered systems and society. High resolution satellite images are used to identify structural vulnerability of the building stock within the study area. Using object-based image analysis, the spatial dynamics of urban growth are assessed and validated using field data. Complementing this is the analysis of socio-economic attributes gained from databases and field surveys. An indicator-based vulnerability and resilience index will be operationalized using multi-attribute value theory and statistical methods such as principal component analysis. The results allow for a socio-economic comparison of places and their relative potential for harm and loss. The objective in this task is to better understand the interactions between nature and society, engineered systems and built environments through the development of an interdisciplinary framework on systemic seismic risk and vulnerability. Data

  10. Assessment of Urban Plantation Climate-Regulating Function based on Remote Sensing Data (Case Study Moscow)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlerskiy, Robert

    2010-05-01

    A variety of active surfaces in combination with various building levels forms a specific urban mode of atmospheric turbulence. The spatial combination of green plantings, asphalt and building defines a temperature and wind mode, and creates various air circulation systems. Influence of spatial structure and buildings height on a wind mode of urban territories is full enough studied in town-planning. Assessment of the input to formation of urban climate of surfaces with various heat capacity and, vegetation is not developed. This assessment can be based on the multispectral remote sensing data which contain information on energetic surface condition. Multispectral data development make possible a calculation of the basic energetic characteristics of surfaces: input and absorption of solar energy, energy consumption on evapotranspiration, thermal scattering and accumulation, a heat flux and temperature of surface. This technique gives a possibility to estimate a thermal mode of surface at various spatial scales. In world practice urban landscapes condition estimation based on remote data (Urban Remote Sensing) is underdeveloped, and focused, mainly, on temperature and heat flux estimation. For energetic characteristics estimation for Moscow territory we use Landsat 5 TM and 7 ETM + remote sensing data for three terms in the vegetational season: May (26/05/2003), July (21/07/2003), August (17/08/2007), with the spatial resolution 30х30 m for 6 channels in a short-wave range and 60х60 m - for the thermal channel. Mean values of calculated temperatures have been compared to daily temperatures on a municipal meteorological station. The calculated energetic characteristics have been analyzed to estimate independent factors which determine their spatial variation. Basing on the estimated factors we classify surface, and allocate surface types with a various temperature and energetic mode. Next we calculate mean values of energetic characteristics to each type. Type

  11. Assessing the Play Provisions for Children in Urban Neighborhoods of India: Case Study Nagpur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti D. Bhonsle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of satisfying urban environments calls for the planners, designers and policy makers to understand the structures that cause residents to feel satisfied with their environments. The paper focuses on qualitative aspects of the childrens play spaces in the urban neighborhoods of Nagpur which were analysed with the background of their daily activity schedule survey, their assement of the existing play provisions and their aspirations from their neighborhood environment quality. Apart from these studies, the childrens and their parents perceptions of the quality of urban residential environments was also studied. The literature review gave an extract of relevant attributes of environmental quality (EQ which became the theoritical basis for the work. The research generates an approach to assessing the child friendliness of our urban neighborhoods, which in certain ways is not even catering to the most fundamental right of the child to play; it also generates a matrix of children’s needs and parameters relevant to Indian context. A theoretical model of the residents satisfaction is also generated which forms the base for the qualitative questionnaire analysis in SPSS 20 with a set of dependent and independent variables which shows the correlation of the resident’s satisfaction with child friendliness of neighborhoods in the Indian context. The regression model and mathematical equation as an outcome of the qualitative analysis was also validated upon two other urban neighborhoods of the city of Nagpur. The research with all its tools used and the approach adopted can help in undertaking such child-centered researches in other cities of India which have their own unique issues and characteristics of urban growth.

  12. Assessment of bio-physical drought hazards. A case study of Karkheh River basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Bahareh; Abbaspour, Karim; Houshmand Kouchi, Delaram; Yang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Iran has been affected by frequent droughts. Climate change is expected to intensify the situation in the future. Extreme drought events have had serious impacts on hydrological and agricultural sector. Thus, identification of bio-physical drought hazard is critically important for formulating effective adaptive measures to improve water and food security. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial pattern of drought hazards in meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural (inclusively biophysical) sectors in the Karkheh River Basin of Iran in the historical and future climate change context. To do so, drought hazard indices were built based on the severity and frequency of standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), which represent the three aspects of drought hazards. Variables required for calculating these indices were obtained from SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model constructed for the basin. The model was calibrated based on monthly runoff using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm in SWAT-CUP. Based on the climate variability and drought analysis, three drought hazard classes, namely low, medium and high, were defined. This help identify how agricultural and hydrological sectors are related to meteorological droughts. Additionally, the bio-physical drivers of drought hazards were identified for each class. Comparing the results during historic and future scenarios revealed that the frequency of high- severity hazards will increase, whereas the same is not predicted for the area with medium hazard intensity. Inferred from findings of this study, the combined application of the SWAT model with bio-physical drought hazard concept helps better understanding of climate risks to water and food security. The developed approach is replicable at different scales to provide a robust planning tool for policy makers.

  13. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. PMID:20381331

  14. Multimethod and Interpersonal Assessment in Medical Settings: A Case Study from the Dermatology Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Vari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with multifactorial aetiology. The psychological impact of skin diseases is increasingly recognised, but only scant attention has been given to the possible role of couple relationships as protective factors for dermatology patients. This article presents a multimethod assessment conducted along with physical examination at a Dermatology Unit. Specifically, the assessment includes measures of emotion regulation and attachment. The first aim of the article is to support an integrated assessment of dermatological and psychological factors together. The second aim is to highlight the possible role of couple relationships in the management of skin diseases.

  15. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  16. Comparison of flood hazard assessments on desert piedmonts and playas: A case study in Ivanpah Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Colin R.; Buck, Brenda J.; Williams, Amanda J.; Morton, Janice L.; House, P. Kyle; Howell, Michael S.; Yonovitz, Maureen L.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate and realistic characterizations of flood hazards on desert piedmonts and playas are increasingly important given the rapid urbanization of arid regions. Flood behavior in arid fluvial systems differs greatly from that of the perennial rivers upon which most conventional flood hazard assessment methods are based. Additionally, hazard assessments may vary widely between studies or even contradict other maps. This study's chief objective was to compare and evaluate landscape interpretation and hazard assessment between types of maps depicting assessments of flood risk in Ivanpah Valley, NV, as a case study. As a secondary goal, we explain likely causes of discrepancy between data sets to ameliorate confusion for map users. Four maps, including three different flood hazard assessments of Ivanpah Valley, NV, were compared: (i) a regulatory map prepared by FEMA, (ii) a soil survey map prepared by NRCS, (iii) a surficial geologic map, and (iv) a flood hazard map derived from the surficial geologic map, both of which were prepared by NBMG. GIS comparisons revealed that only 3.4% (33.9 km 2) of Ivanpah Valley was found to lie within a FEMA floodplain, while the geologic flood hazard map indicated that ~ 44% of Ivanpah Valley runs some risk of flooding (Fig. 2D). Due to differences in mapping methodology and scale, NRCS data could not be quantitatively compared, and other comparisons were complicated by differences in flood hazard class criteria and terminology between maps. Owing to its scale and scope of attribute data, the surficial geologic map provides the most useful information on flood hazards for land-use planning. This research has implications for future soil geomorphic mapping and flood risk mitigation on desert piedmonts and playas. The Ivanpah Valley study area also includes the location of a planned new international airport, thus this study has immediate implications for urban development and land-use planning near Las Vegas, NV.

  17. Assessing health care needs and clinical outcome with Urological case complexity : A study using INTERMED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herms, AMRD; Pinggera, GM; De Jonge, P; Strasser, H; Sollner, W

    2003-01-01

    Urinary tract symptoms and, particularly, urinary incontinence are often chronic and complex conditions that cause diagnosis, treatment, and management problems. In many cases, psychosocial factors contribute to the development of a chronic condition. The authors investigated whether INTERMED, an in

  18. Integration of environmental assessment in a PLM context: a case study in luxury industry

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSNADJ, Djamel; JOUANNE, Guillaume; Maranzana, Nicolas; SEGONDS, Frédéric; Bouchard, Carole; AOUSSAT, Améziane

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the environment becomes a major issue in our society. It gives rise to regu-lations, market demand and stakeholder's pressure which are concerning companies. These latter have to reduce the negative impact of their new product by eco-design and adopting a continuous improvement for their existing product portfolio. To do so, environmental assessment system is needed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the most known and recognized. However, this method is complex, requires significant r...

  19. Flood Risk Assessment as a Part of Integrated Flood and Drought Analysis. Case Study: Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabnakorn, Saowanit; Suryadi, Fransiscus X.; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Flood and drought are two main meteorological catastrophes that have created adverse consequences to more than 80% of total casualties universally, 50% by flood and 31% by drought. Those natural hazards have the tendency of increasing frequency and degree of severity and it is expected that climate change will exacerbate their occurrences and impacts. In addition, growing population and society interference are the other key factors that pressure on and exacerbate the adverse impacts. Consequently, nowadays, the loss from any disasters becomes less and less acceptable bringing about more people's consciousness on mitigation measures and management strategies and policies. In general, due to the difference in their inherent characteristics and time occurrences flood and drought mitigation and protection have been separately implemented, managed, and supervised by different group of authorities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop an integrated mitigation measure or a management policy able to surmount both problems to acceptable levels and is conveniently monitored by the same group of civil servants which will be economical in both short- and long-term. As aforementioned of the distinction of fundamental peculiarities and occurrence, the assessment processes of floods and droughts are separately performed using their own specific techniques. In the first part of the research flood risk assessment is focused in order to delineate the flood prone area. The study area is a river plain in southern Thailand where flooding is influenced by monsoon and depression. The work is mainly concentrated on physically-based computational modeling and an assortment of tools was applied for: data completion, areal rainfall interpolation, statistical distribution, rainfall-runoff analysis and flow model simulation. The outcome from the simulation can be concluded that the flood prone areas susceptible to inundation are along the riparian areas, particularly at the

  20. Undisclosed chemicals--implications for risk assessment: a case study from the mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khareen; Oates, Christopher; Plant, Jane; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Many of the chemicals used in industry can be hazardous to human health and the environment, and some formulations can have undisclosed ingredients and hazards, increasing the uncertainty of the risks posed by their use. The need for a better understanding of the extent of undisclosed information in chemicals arose from collecting data on the hazards and exposures of chemicals used in typical mining operations (copper, platinum and coal). Four main categories of undisclosed chemicals were defined (incomplete disclosure; chemicals with unspecific identities; relative quantities of ingredients not stated; and trade secret ingredients) by reviewing material safety data sheet (MSDS) omissions in previous studies. A significant number of chemicals (20% of 957 different chemicals) across the three sites had a range of undisclosed information, with majority of the chemicals (39%) having unspecific identities. The majority of undisclosed information was found in commercially available motor oils followed by cleaning products and mechanical maintenance products, as opposed to reagents critical to the main mining processes. All three types of chemicals had trade secrets, unspecific chemical identities and incomplete disclosures. These types of undisclosed information pose a hindrance to a full understanding of the hazards, which is made worse when combined with additional MSDS omissions such as acute toxicity endpoints (LD50) and/or acute aquatic toxicity endpoints (LC50), as well as inadequate hazard classifications of ingredients. The communication of the hazard information in the MSDSs varied according to the chemical type, the manufacturer and the regulations governing the MSDSs. Undisclosed information can undermine occupational health protection, compromise the safety of workers in industry, hinder risk assessment procedures and cause uncertainty about future health. It comes down to the duty of care that industries have towards their employees. With a wide range of

  1. Assessment of airborne dust associated with chemical plant: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattajoshi P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of alumina production involves refining of bauxite ore into tri-hydrated alumina (Al2O3, 3H2O by chemical method followed by process of calcinations. This method possesses various kinds of dust hazards in its work environment amongst the people involved. Poor health of industrial employees in India is due to its occupational environment (Park & Park, 1970, which is a major concern now-a-days. Attempts have been made to recognize the potential sources of airborne dust and to assess the dust load upon exposed workers at different work sites of alumina plants by comparing the observations with the standard values called ′Threshold Limit Values′ (T.L.V. assigned by the international body ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists, USA, and also permissible exposure limit values prescribed in the second schedule Section F of Factories Act (Amendment, 1987. Alumina plant operation includes various physical operations like crushing, grinding, conveying, loading, transporting, etc., which generate finer particles. It can cause serious health hazards on inhalation, depending upon its size, shape, constituents and duration of exposure. Out of all these parameters, concentration of respirable fraction of airborne dust (0.5 to 5.0 micron size and its free silica content have been reported to cause lung fibrosis as well as occupational disorders. In the present study, attempts have been made to make a survey of respirable fraction of the airborne dust (that remains suspended in air for quite an appreciable time associated with various operations according to job profiles. It also outlines the probable control measures in order to provide a healthy working environment. Present work aims at identifying and evaluating the degree of workplace dust with special reference to respirable fraction and for recommending suitable suggestive control measures for an effective management of occupational environment.

  2. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  3. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  4. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With the revolution occurred in communication technologies at the beginning of 1990’s, network technologies have emerged as the challenging parameters accelerating improvements of instructional technologies. Online classrooms and management of them appeared as a new domain which necessitates a new paradigm different from the classical ones. User and instructor friendly learning context and management systems (LCMS have brought new approaches, techniques and tools for the assessment and measurement processes. These approaches, techniques and tools embedded in LCMS have redefined not only the way teachers teach but also students learn. WebCT, Blackboard and eCollege and many others as the online instructional environments have provided new opportunities to construct a coherent instructional system which has never been used as a unique environment any before. Assessment and measurement have been redefined within this framework. The successes of assessment and measurement methodologies or system inevitably depend on conceptualization and then implementation to different educational settings.

  5. Assessment of an iPad Loan Program in an Academic Medical Library: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; Sewell, Robin; Halling, T Derek; McKay, Becky; Pepper, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    An academic medical library expanded its iPad loan service to multiple campus libraries and conducted an assessment of the service. iPads loaded with medical and educational apps were loaned for two-week checkouts from five library campus locations. Device circulation statistics were tracked and users were invited to complete an online survey about their experience. Data were gathered and analyzed for 11 months. The assessment informed the library on how best to adapt the service, including what resources to add to the iPads, and the decision to move devices to campuses with more frequent usage.

  6. Assessing “gas transition” pathways to low carbon electricity – An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    industries may involve minimising energy sourced from gas, and increasing renewable generation. In the Australian case study considered, the modelling suggests it is appropriate to target renewable energy penetrations approaching 60% of energy by 2030 and 80–100% by 2050. In the lowest cost and lowest risk portfolios, firm capacity is provided primarily by the transition of existing coal-fired plant into a peaking role, and later by further investment in peaking open cycle gas turbine plant. These results are found to be robust to a wide range of assumptions around future carbon prices

  7. High Resolution Tsunami Modeling and Assessment of Harbor Resilience; Case Study in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Aytore, Betul; Gokhan Guler, Hasan; Kanoglu, Utku; Duzgun, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey; Arikawa, Taro; Tomita, Takashi; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2014-05-01

    Ports and harbors are the major vulnerable coastal structures under tsunami attack. Resilient harbors against tsunami impacts are essential for proper, efficient and successful rescue operations and reduction of the loss of life and property by tsunami disasters. There are several critical coastal structures as such in the Marmara Sea. Haydarpasa and Yenikapi ports are located in the Marmara Sea coast of Istanbul. These two ports are selected as the sites of numerical experiments to test their resilience under tsunami impact. Cargo, container and ro-ro handlings, and short/long distance passenger transfers are the common services in both ports. Haydarpasa port has two breakwaters with the length of three kilometers in total. Yenikapi port has one kilometer long breakwater. The accurate resilience analysis needs high resolution tsunami modeling and careful assessment of the site. Therefore, building data with accurate coordinates of their foot prints and elevations are obtained. The high resolution bathymetry and topography database with less than 5m grid size is developed for modeling. The metadata of the several types of structures and infrastructure of the ports and environs are processed. Different resistances for the structures/buildings/infrastructures are controlled by assigning different friction coefficients in a friction matrix. Two different tsunami conditions - high expected and moderate expected - are selected for numerical modeling. The hybrid tsunami simulation and visualization codes NAMI DANCE, STOC-CADMAS System are utilized to solve all necessary tsunami parameters and obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of flow depth, current velocity, inundation distance and maximum water level in the study domain. Finally, the computed critical values of tsunami parameters are evaluated and structural performance of the port components are discussed in regard to a better resilience. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Support by EU 603839 ASTARTE Project, UDAP-Ç-12

  8. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…

  9. An Embedded Multiple-Case Study on OSS Design Quality Assessment across Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzoglou, Apostolos; Gkortzis, Antonios; Charalampidou, Sofia; Avgeriou, Paris

    2013-01-01

    Context: Investing on Open Source Software (OSS) as a “code reuser”, involves certain risks, such as the difficulty in understanding the level of OSS design quality Aim: We investigate the levels of design quality of OSS projects, across different application domains. Method: We conducted a case stu

  10. Assessing the 24/5 Library: A Case Study in Data and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ken; McCallister, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The 24-hour/5-days-per-week (24/5) model at Belk Library & Information Commons has experienced multiple changes since first implemented in 2006. First the library started small, then expanded, then reduced, and finally expanded again. This article tells the story of a library's 24/5 evolution within the assessment cycle framework, describes…

  11. Assessment of land degradation using NASA GIMMS: a case study in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.; Bai, Z.G.

    2008-01-01

    Direct assessment of land degradation globally is constrained by limited spatial data~– soil data in particular (see also Chapter 7). As a proxy, biomass has been adopted as an integrated measure of productivity; its deviance from the norm may indicate land degradation or improvement. Biomass can be

  12. A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Teacher In-Service Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Luik, Krista; Nisan, Yael C.; Servant, Colleen

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the needs of two Quebec, Canada, elementary schools for educational technology for the classroom. Findings from 6 administrators and 21 teachers show that teachers currently use computers primarily for word processing and to prepare report cards. Teachers are interested in additional training in the use of educational technology. (SLD)

  13. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using...

  14. Productivity assessments in small ruminants improvement programmes. A case study of the West African Dwarf Goat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Livestock production in the tropics is characterised by a high degree of variability in terms of composition, setting and aims. A good understanding of these characteristics is a prerequisite for the planning of a successful improvement programme. A frequently used criterion to assess the suitabilit

  15. Eliciting and Assessing Reflective Practice: A Case Study in Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Kelly A.; Kajder, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of multimodal technologies in facilitating reflective processes and the subsequent assessment of reflectivity for students in pre-professional programs. Reflective practice has been established as a critical tool for developing identity in and on practice. This paper will focus firstly on reviewing salient literature…

  16. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a cou

  17. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  18. Health technology assessment and ill-structured problems: a case study concerning the drug mebeverine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moret-Hartman, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Grin, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The practical significance of health technology assessment (HTA) in policy decisions or clinical practice has been challenged. Possibly, problem definitions underlying HTA do not concur sufficiently with the problem definitions held by policy makers or clinicians. We performed an in-dept

  19. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  20. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... that are leaders in climate adaptation to understand and respond to climate risk. The public comment... this notice to the external peer-review panel prior to the meeting for their consideration. When... understand and respond to climate risk. The approaches taken by the different utilities to assess...

  1. Adoption of Technological Innovations: A Case Study of the ASSESS Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah; Brown, Shane; Davis, Denny; LeBeau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In engineering education, assessment instruments are often developed to evaluate programs and projects. Unfortunately, these innovations are not always adopted by intended audiences. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DI) Theory provides a framework to analyze characteristics of an innovation that will affect adoption. The Appraisal System for…

  2. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems : A case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, RS; Jansen, MJW

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  3. Ecological impact assessment in data-poor systems: a case study on metapopulation persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Vos, C.C.; Jansen, M.J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation on the protection of biodiversity (e.g., European Union Habitat and Bird Directives) increasingly requires ecological impact assessment of human activities. However, knowledge and understanding of relevant ecological processes and species responses to different types of impact are often

  4. Child Protection Assessment in Humanitarian Emergencies: Case Studies from Georgia, Gaza, Haiti and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…

  5. Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S.

    2007-01-01

    Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to…

  6. Assessing Extension Program Impact: Case Study of a Water Quality Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Montana State University conducted a voluntary, private well water test program (n=3400) to direct public attention to water quality education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents to an impact assessment questionnaire indicated that the program was moderately to very effective. Other results involved user awareness and understanding, and…

  7. Participatory impact assessment of agricultural practices using the land use functions framework: case study from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purushothaman, S.; Patil, S.; Francis, I.; König, H.; Reidsma, P.; Hegde, S.

    2013-01-01

    What do different stakeholders think of the changing trends in agricultural practices and related policies? We answer this and related questions with respect to Karnataka, an Indian state showing signs of agrarian distress. Using the participatory impact assessment (PIA) method involving farmers, re

  8. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA in...

  9. A watershed-based method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a method for environmental vulnerability assessment with a case study of the Mid-Atlantic region. The method is based on the concept of “self-/peer-appraisal” of a watershed in term of vulnerability. The self-/peer-appraisal process is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. The analysis provided insights on the environmental conditions, in general, and the relative vulnerability pattern, in particular, of the Mid-Atlantic region. The suggested method offers a simple but effective and objective way to perform a regional environmental vulnerability assessment. Consequently the method can be used in various steps in environmental assessment and planning. - Highlights: ► We present a method for regional environmental vulnerability assessment. ► It is based on the self-/peer-appraisal concept in term of vulnerability. ► The analysis is facilitated by two separate linear optimization programs. ► The method provides insights on the regional relative vulnerability pattern.

  10. Assessing adherence in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel HIV prevention trial: results of a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Weaver, Mark A; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Succop, Stacey; Majola, Nelisle; Taylor, Doug; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2014-05-01

    Adherence undeniably impacts product effectiveness in microbicide trials, but the connection has proven challenging to quantify using routinely collected behavioral data. We explored this relationship using a nested case-control study in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir (TFV) gel HIV prevention trial. Detailed 3-month recall data on sex events, condom and gel use were collected from 72 incident cases and 205 uninfected controls. We then assessed how the relationship between self-reported adherence and HIV acquisition differed between the TFV and placebo gel groups, an interaction effect that should exist if effectiveness increases with adherence. The CAPRISA 004 trial determined that randomization to TFV gel was associated with a significant reduction in risk of HIV acquisition. In our nested case-control study, however, we did not observe a meaningful decrease in the relative odds of infection-TFV versus placebo-as self-reported adherence increased. To the contrary, exploratory sub-group analysis of the case-control data identified greater evidence for a protective effect of TFV gel among participants reporting less than 80 % adherence to the protocol-defined regimen (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; 95 % CI 0.11-0.78) than among those reporting ≥ 80 % adherence (Odds Ratio 0.81; 95 % CI 0.34-1.92). The small number of cases may have inhibited our ability to detect the hypothesized interaction between adherence and effectiveness. Nonetheless, our results re-emphasize the challenges faced by investigators when adherence may be miss-measured, miss-reported, or confounded with the risk of HIV. PMID:24647763

  11. An Assessment of Consumer Satisfaction for Food Retail Chains: A Case Study from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Goksel; Gul, Mevlut; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    Consumer oriented marketing concept appeared to be effective in accordance to the shift from the traditional marketing approach to the modern marketing approach. This process brings about the concept of customer value in retail food sector as it is the case in other sectors. The rise in number and variety of shopping units that operate in the retail market drives firms into value based marketing concept. Due to the positive effect on the relationship between customer value and customer satisf...

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of a Virtual Tumor Board Program: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Christopher M.; Teal, Randall; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; McIntyre, Molly; Weiner, Bryan J.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Jacobs, Sara R; Mayer, Deborah K.; Young, Michael D.; Shea, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary tumor boards involve various providers (e.g., oncology physicians, nurses) in patient care. Although many Community Hospitals have local tumor boards that review all types of cases, many providers, particularly in rural areas and smaller institutions, still lack access to tumor boards specializing in a particular type of cancer (e.g., breast, gastrointestinal, hematologic). Videoconferencing technology can connect providers across geographic locations and institutions; howev...

  13. Assessing Jatropha curcas L. germplasm in-situ - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, N.; Varaprasad, K.S.; Sivaraj, N.; Abraham, Babu [National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station, Hyderabad 500 030 (India); Suresh Kumar, T. [Fruit Research Station, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Sangareddy, Andhra Pradesh (India); Prasad, R.B.N. [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2008-03-15

    A systematic collection of Jatropha curcas germplasm has been carried out from four distinct ecogeographic zones of peninsular India in 2005. This involved recording of passport data, documentation of important plant traits in-situ, ecogeographic parameters and assessment of variability. By using the Soxhlet method, the oil content of 162 collected accessions was estimated, which ranged from 22% to 42%. A method has been developed for identification of superior lines by assessing the phenotypic traits of plants recorded in-situ. This method facilitates selection of promising accessions for multi-location evaluation and hastens the process of utilization of germplasm. The traits for the plus trees of Jatropha have been discussed. (author)

  14. CrIS EDR Validation Assessment Model: test case study using IASI and AIRS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougatchev, N.; August, T.; Calbert, X.; Hultberg, T.; Oduleye, O.; Schluessel, P.; Stiller, B.; St Germain, K.; Bingham, G.

    2008-12-01

    Validation Assessment Model developed for the CrIS on NPP/NPOESS mission has been tested through its application to the validation of the EUMETSAT IASI temperature and water vapor retrievals against correlative radiosondes during July - August 2007. It has been also used to compare the IASI retrievals with the AIRS NOAA retrievals over Lindenberg for the same period. It has been demonstrated that IASI temperature retrievals perform to the expected accuracy. Averaging kernels adequately characterize the data. Assessed errors for water vapor are higher than expected but that may be caused by deficiency of radiosonde as the water vapor validation reference source. AIRS and IASI retrievals agree to the expected level of discrepancy caused by temporal non-coincidence of the overpasses.

  15. Automatic assessment of the motor state of the Parkinson's disease patient--a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostek Bozena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a novel methodology in which the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS data processed with a rule-based decision algorithm is used to predict the state of the Parkinson's Disease patients. The research was carried out to investigate whether the advancement of the Parkinson's Disease can be automatically assessed. For this purpose, past and current UPDRS data from 47 subjects were examined. The results show that, among other classifiers, the rough set-based decision algorithm turned out to be most suitable for such automatic assessment. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1563339375633634.

  16. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  17. Assessment of safety culture from the INB organization: A case study for nuclear fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article describes strategies, methodologies and first results on the Safety Culture Self-assessment Project under way at INB since August 2001. As a Brazilian Government company in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle activities,. the main purposes of the Project is to evaluate the present status of its safety culture and to propose actions to ensure continuous safety improvement at management level of its industrial processes. The proposed safety culture assessment describes INB's various production sites taking into account the different aspects of their activities, such as regional, social and technical issues. The survey was performed in March/2002 very good attendance (about 80%) the employees. The first global survey results are presented in item 4. (author)

  18. Performance Assessment of Feature Detection Algorithms: A Methodology and Case Study on Corner Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Rockett, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe a generic methodology for evaluating the labeling performance of feature detectors. We describe a method for generating a test set and apply the methodology to the performance assessment of three well-known corner detectors: the Kitchen-Rosenfeld, Paler et al. and Harris-Stephens corner detectors. The labeling deficiencies of each of these detectors is related to their discrimination ability between corners and various of the features which comprise the class of nonc...

  19. Automatic assessment of the motor state of the Parkinson's disease patient--a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kostek Bozena; Kaszuba Katarzyna; Zwan Pawel; Robowski Piotr; Slawek Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a novel methodology in which the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) data processed with a rule-based decision algorithm is used to predict the state of the Parkinson's Disease patients. The research was carried out to investigate whether the advancement of the Parkinson's Disease can be automatically assessed. For this purpose, past and current UPDRS data from 47 subjects were examined. The results show that, among other classifiers, the rough set-ba...

  20. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Armanini, D. G.; Monk, W.A.; Carter, L; Cote, D.; Baird, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification Syste...

  1. Risk assessment due to terrorist actions on public transportation networks : a case study in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed in collaboration with one of the largest Public Transportation Operator in Portugal and addresses the problem of risk assessment due to terrorist actions involving explosions at different levels. First, a region of the Operator is selected. The elements in the Operator's network with the highest associated risk are highlighted for each threat using the COUNTERACT guidelines. Subsequently, from the group of elements with the highest associated ris...

  2. CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ELT: IMPLICATIONS FROM A CASE STUDY IN A CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Ernest Mambu

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine some challenges of assessing character education in the context of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia (TEFLIN). Major sources of character education in Indonesia (e.g., Kurikulum 2013) seem to be religious values. However, there are two salient problems. First, in religiously inspired character education, there are concerns about religious values imposition. Second, it is oftentimes vague what types of, and how, character education can be evaluated i...

  3. Supervised extensions of chemography approaches: case studies of chemical liabilities assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikova, Svetlana I; Bykov, Arseniy A; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu.; Dyachkov, Evgeny P; Kireeva, Natalia V

    2014-01-01

    Chemical liabilities, such as adverse effects and toxicity, play a significant role in modern drug discovery process. In silico assessment of chemical liabilities is an important step aimed to reduce costs and animal testing by complementing or replacing in vitro and in vivo experiments. Herein, we propose an approach combining several classification and chemography methods to be able to predict chemical liabilities and to interpret obtained results in the context of impact of structural chan...

  4. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy).

    OpenAIRE

    Umberto Di Salvatore; Fabrizio Ferretti; Paolo Cantiani; Alessandro Paletto; Isabella De Meo; Ugo Chiavetta

    2013-01-01

    The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices i...

  5. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  6. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  7. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lisa Dent

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  8. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF, a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage.

    The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics.

    SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage.

    Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a or the cost of actions (b.

    For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved.

    We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas.

    The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  9. Portfolio assessments for future generation investment in newly industrializing countries – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses future electricity generation portfolios in Thailand in 2030 given uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing policies, electricity demand, and capital costs. Thailand faces challenges for generation investment given its rapid socio-economic progress and fast growing demand. A novel generation investment and planning decision-support tool which incorporates a Monte Carlo extension to conventional optimal generation mix methods combined with portfolio-based analysis techniques, is used. The tool can formally assess tradeoffs between expected future generation costs, cost uncertainties, and CO2 emissions for the range of different generation portfolios. Results highlight that different levels of future carbon pricing will have significant impacts on the most appropriate generation portfolios. The impact of carbon pricing, however, is not on the appropriate proportion of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in the mix but, instead, on the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. Compared with the current proposed 2030 generation mix, it is possible that there are other generation portfolios that offer lower expected costs, cost uncertainty, and CO2 emissions depending on future carbon pricing. Results suggest that this investment decision-support approach may have value for electric utilities and policy-makers contemplating significant generation investments under high future uncertainty and conflicting policy objectives. -- Highlights: ► Assess Thailand's future generation portfolios in 2030 under uncertainties. ► Future carbon prices have significant impacts on the appropriate generation mixes. ► Carbon pricing affects the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. ► There may be more appropriate alternatives than the proposed 2030 generation mix. ► This decision-support approach has value for utility and policy decision-making.

  10. Assessing Agricultural Sustainable Development Based on the DPSIR Approach:Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-dong; Felix Mueller; Benjamin Burkhard; CAO Xing-jin; HOU Ying

    2013-01-01

    According to the contemporary ecosystem approach, the linkages of human actions with their environment have to be assessed in an integrative manner. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model is applied to identify and describe processes and interactions in human-environmental systems. An example application from a research project dealing with the development of sustainable management strategies for the agriculture in Jiangsu, China, illustrates the potentials and limitations of its sustainable development. The concept and indicators of ecological integrity are used to assess the indicators in the dimensions of DPSIR between 2003 and 2006. The main drivers included population growth which caused increasing demand for food, growing environmental demands, and rapidly decreasing of land and other natural resources. The main environmental problem was water pollution. The results show that in the dimension of driver, total grain output and agricultural land productivity both increased. Labor intensive agriculture has been promoted to increase agricultural land productivity. In the dimension of pressure, on the positive side, infrastructure got greatly improved, the input level such as total power of machinery, and level of fertilizer use increased, and level of pesticides use decreased, but on the negative side, cultivated land per capita and irrigation rate decreased, natural resources keep decreased. Environmental pollution indicators such as industrial wastewater discharge and acid rain rate increased in Jiangsu Province. In the aspect of state, ecosystem state was improved, plant coverage index increased, biological abundance index increased, fertilizer productivity increased, eco-environmental quality index increased, but land degradation index also increased. In the aspect of impact, output level increased, output efficiency enhanced, farmer’s social economic benefit improved. In the aspect of response, social support was greatly improved, input

  11. A Support Analysis Framework for mass movement damage assessment: applications to case studies in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Gullã, G.

    2009-03-01

    The analysis of data describing damage caused by mass movements in Calabria (Italy) allowed the organisation of the Support Analysis Framework (SAF), a spreadsheet that converts damage descriptions into numerical indices expressing direct, indirect, and intangible damage. The SAF assesses damage indices of past mass movements and the potential outcomes of dormant phenomena re-activations. It is based on the effects on damaged elements and is independent of both physical and geometric phenomenon characteristics. SAF sections that assess direct damage encompass several lines, each describing an element characterised by a value fixed on a relative arbitrary scale. The levels of loss are classified as: L4: complete; L3: high; L2: medium; or L1: low. For a generic line l, the SAF multiplies the value of a damaged element by its level of loss, obtaining dl, the contribution of the line to the damage. Indirect damage is appraised by two sections accounting for: (a) actions aiming to overcome emergency situations and (b) actions aiming to restore pre-movement conditions. The level of loss depends on the number of people involved (a) or the cost of actions (b). For intangible damage, the level of loss depends on the number of people involved. We examined three phenomena, assessing damage using the SAF and SAFL, customised versions of SAF based on the elements actually present in the analysed municipalities that consider the values of elements in the community framework. We show that in less populated, inland, and affluent municipalities, the impact of mass movements is greater than in coastal areas. The SAF can be useful to sort groups of phenomena according to their probable future damage, supplying results significant either for insurance companies or for local authorities involved in both disaster management and planning of defensive measures.

  12. Incorporating natural hazard assessments into municipal master-plans; case-studies from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded

    2010-05-01

    The active Dead Sea Rift (DSR) runs along the length of Israel, making the entire state susceptible to earthquake-related hazards. Current building codes generally acknowledge seismic hazards and direct engineers towards earthquake-resistant structures. However, hazard mapping on a scale fit for municipal/governmental planning is subject to local initiative and is currently not mandatory as seems necessary. In the following, a few cases of seismic-hazard evaluation made by the Geological Survey of Israel are presented, emphasizing the reasons for their initiation and the way results were incorporated (or not). The first case is a seismic hazard qualitative micro-zonation invited by the municipality of Jerusalem as part of a new master plan. This work resulted in maps (1:50,000; GIS format) identifying areas prone to (1) amplification of seismic shaking due to site characteristics (outcrops of soft rocks or steep topography) and (2) sites with earthquake induced landslide (EILS) hazard. Results were validated using reports from the 1927, M=6.2 earthquake that originated along the DSR about 30km east of Jerusalem. Although the hazard maps were accepted by municipal authorities, practical use by geotechnical engineers working within the frame of the new master-plan was not significant. The main reason for that is apparently a difference of opinion between the city-engineers responsible for implementing the new master-plan and the geologists responsible of the hazard evaluation. The second case involves evaluation of EILS hazard for two towns located further north along the DSR, Zefat and Tiberias. Both were heavily damaged more than once by strong earthquakes in past centuries. Work was carried out as part of a governmental seismic-hazard reduction program. The results include maps (1:10,000 scales) of sites with high EILS hazard identified within city limits. Maps (in GIS format) were sent to city engineers with reports explaining the methods and results. As far as

  13. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  14. EDXRF as an analytical tool in art. Case studies from pigment identification and treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was employed for the identification of pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, and the assessment of the efficiency of a treatment with barium hydroxide applied to stone. Elements present in the colored areas of the figurines, as well as the treated stone was identified by EDXRF. These data together with complementary information obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) led to the identification of several precious pigments. As far as the treatment efficiency is concerned, EDXRF analysis revealed that barium is unevenly distributed on the treated surface and reaches a maximum depth of 2.5 mm. (author)

  15. Innovation Assessment of a Portuguese Railway branch of a foreign multinational - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Boavida, Nuno; Moretto, Susana Martins

    2010-01-01

    Paper developed for the unit “Innovation Economics and Management” of the PhD programme in Technology Assessment at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa in 2009-10 under the supervision of Prof. Maria Luísa Ferreira This paper analyses the application of the Innovation Scoring model and its results to the railway business branch of a foreign multinational. Results confirm some enrolment in non-core Research & Development connected to the commercial activity of selling trains. Two main determina...

  16. A methodology for risk assessment of municipal infrastructure due to climate change: a case study of London, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowering, E.; Peck, A.; Simonovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    Natural hazards are increasing in severity as a consequence of climate change. These hazards affect all aspects of municipal infrastructure. Thus a region must adapt its policies and procedures to mitigate the increasing risk to its infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a methodology for engineering assessment of risk to municipal infrastructure due to climate change. Proposed methodology includes climate, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling as input for engineering risk assessment. Climate analysis uses Weather Generator as a tool to combine Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with regional historical data to output plausible climate scenarios. The present study focuses on flooding and temperature extremes which are relevant to the region under consideration. Hydrologic analysis uses the climate scenarios as input to the HEC-HMS model to determine streamflows. These streamflows are input to the HEC-RAS and GeoHEC-RAS as part of the hydraulic analysis to generate floodplain maps in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. The engineering risk assessment comprises of both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Water elevations and municipal infrastructure maps are combined using GIS to determine flood inundation levels. These loads are used in combination with infrastructure capacities to evaluate quantitative risk indices. Fuzzy set theory is used to address uncertainties associated with subjective criteria in qualitative analysis. This is accomplished by using membership functions to model ambiguity in various impact data interpretation. These membership functions are created through interviews held with experts in the fields of transportation, water supply and distribution, wastewater management and critical infrastructure management. Membership functions are used in qualitative fuzzy risk assessment. Quantitative and qualitative analysis are combined into risk indices which are spatially represented in GIS as risk maps for each

  17. Assessing flow regime alterations in a temporary river – the River Celone case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Girolamo Anna Maria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to evaluate the hydrological alterations of a temporary river. In these rivers, it is expected that anthropogenic pressures largely modify low-flow components of the flow regime with consequences for aquatic habitat and diversity in invertebrate species. First, by using a simple hydrological index (IARI river segments of the Celone stream (southern Italy whose hydrological regime is significantly influenced by anthropogenic activities have been identified. Hydrological alteration has been further classified through the analysis of two metrics: the degree (Mf and the predictability of dry flow conditions (Sd6. Measured streamflow data were used to calculate the metrics in present conditions (impacted. Given the lack of data from pristine conditions, simulated streamflow time series were used to calculate the metrics in reference conditions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was used to estimate daily natural streamflow. Hydrological alterations associated with water abstractions, point discharges and the presence of a reservoir were assessed by comparing the metrics (Mf, Sd6 before and after the impacts. The results show that the hydrological regime of the river segment located in the upper part of the basin is slightly altered, while the regime of the river segment downstream of the reservoir is heavily altered. This approach is intended for use with ecological metrics in defining the water quality status and in planning streamflow management activities.

  18. The importance of benthos in weight of evidence sediment assessments--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy; Chapman, Peter M; Debruyn, Adrian M H; Cooper, Leah

    2008-05-15

    Sediment quality in a Texas reservoir subject to point and non-point sources of contaminants was assessed using the Sediment Quality Triad weight of evidence approach. Fifteen stations were sampled plus a reference station which, unfortunately, comprised a different habitat type than the other 15 stations. Accordingly, standard comparisons between reference and exposed stations were inappropriate. Interpretation of potential relationships between benthic community structure and sediment-associated contaminants was also confounded by differences in habitat-related characteristics (e.g., water depth and total organic carbon) within the reservoir. Multivariate analyses of the benthic community identified two station groupings separated primarily by habitat-related differences rather than contaminant-related toxicity. Laboratory toxicity tests and chemical analyses, including measures of bioavailability, did not differ consistently between the two community-based station groupings, indicating that toxicity resulting from chemical contamination was not the primary factor in observed community structure in the reservoir, although alterations to the benthos due to chemical contamination could not be ruled out in the absence of an appropriate reference comparison. Appropriately giving highest weight to resident benthic community structure, followed by the results of laboratory toxicity tests, then chemical analyses, provided the best possible assessment of chemical pollution in the absence of a suitable reference comparison. The alternative approach of relying on only sediment toxicity and chemistry data, without considering the full weight of evidence, would have provided misleading information.

  19. Long-Term Assessment of an Innovative Mangrove Rehabilitation Project: Case Study on Carey Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Motamedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

  20. Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Shervin; Hashim, Roslan; Zakaria, Rozainah; Song, Ki-Il; Sofawi, Bakrin

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest. PMID:25097894

  1. ERCB directive 038 noise impact assessment - noise monitoring follow-up approach and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Jonathan [Institute of Noise Control Engineering (United States)], Email: jccwmdj@gmail.com, email: jonathan.chui@auc.ab.ca; South, Don RET [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)], Email: Don.South@ercb.ca; Hann, Henk de [Golder Associates Ltd. (Canada)], Email: Henk_deHaan@golder.com; Molina, Carolina [Cenovus FCCL Ltd (Canada)], Email: Carolina.Molina@cenovus.com

    2011-07-01

    In any noise impact assessment, Directive 038 of the Alberta Energy Resource Conservation Board (ERCB) recommends the use of a noise model to predict noise emission from industrial buildings, but such a model can present discrepancies relative to actual noise emissions, and these can accumulate over the different building phases of a project. This paper focuses on steam-assisted gravity drainage in Alberta, and is intended to show the advantages of taking noise measurements in-between construction phases for better continuity and fewer uncertainties in theoretical noise predictions. Short term and long term measurements, especially of low frequency noise, were taken at different locations in and around the plant and then compared with theoretical predictions, based on manufacturer specifications and in accordance with Directive 038. Differences were observed, due mainly to erroneous model assumptions. Actual noise measurements are thus a useful means to ensure continuity in a multiple-phase noise impact assessment as well as to correct discrepancies in a noise model accurately, thus reducing prediction errors for present and future projects.

  2. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

  3. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: Pocahontas II – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT. The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant errors are related to syntax, spelling, style, length of sentences, lack of clarity, and gender-related issues. These errors though made by one subtitler who has translated the animation feature film Pocahontas II released in 2012, are still typical and therefore a thorough investigation has been done and a set of linguistic rules has been suggested as a guideline for the audiovisual industry. These rules are to be added to the technical and software requirements sent by subtitling companies (such as the number of characters per line, the font, the reading speed per minute, and punctuation. This set of rules helps monitor the quality of the subtitled target text (TT.    Keywords: audiovisual translation, subtitling, quality assessment, practical functional approach, Arabic-English simulation

  4. Earthquake Probability Assessment for the Active Faults in Central Taiwan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rui Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent high seismic activities occur in Taiwan due to fast plate motions. According to the historical records the most destructive earthquakes in Taiwan were caused mainly by inland active faults. The Central Geological Survey (CGS of Taiwan has published active fault maps in Taiwan since 1998. There are 33 active faults noted in the 2012 active fault map. After the Chi-Chi earthquake, CGS launched a series of projects to investigate the details to better understand each active fault in Taiwan. This article collected this data to develop active fault parameters and referred to certain experiences from Japan and the United States to establish a methodology for earthquake probability assessment via active faults. We consider the active faults in Central Taiwan as a good example to present the earthquake probability assessment process and results. The appropriate “probability model” was used to estimate the conditional probability where M ≥ 6.5 and M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes. Our result shows that the highest earthquake probability for M ≥ 6.5 earthquake occurring in 30, 50, and 100 years in Central Taiwan is the Tachia-Changhua fault system. Conversely, the lowest earthquake probability is the Chelungpu fault. The goal of our research is to calculate the earthquake probability of the 33 active faults in Taiwan. The active fault parameters are important information that can be applied in the following seismic hazard analysis and seismic simulation.

  5. Probabilistic and Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment: A Case Study in Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Tavakoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of earthquake ground motion parameters in seismic design of structures and Vulnerabilityand risk assessment of these structures against earthquake damage are important. The damages caused by theearthquake engineering and seismology of the social and economic consequences are assessed. This paperdetermined seismic hazard analysis in Babol via deterministic and probabilistic methods. Deterministic andprobabilistic methods seem to be practical tools for mutual control of results and to overcome the weaknessof approach alone. In the deterministic approach, the strong-motion parameters are estimated for the maximumcredible earthquake, assumed to occur at the closest possible distance from the site of interest, withoutconsidering the likelihood of its occurrence during a specified exposure period. On the other hand, theprobabilistic approach integrates the effects of all earthquakes expected to occur at different locations duringa specified life period, with the associated uncertainties and randomness taken into account. The calculatedbedrock horizontal and vertical peak ground acceleration (PGA for different years return period of the studyarea are presented.

  6. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller. PMID:26439649

  7. A methodological framework to assess the socio-economic impact of underground quarries: A case study from Belgian Limburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, A; Poesen, J; Duchateau, P; Vranken, L

    2016-01-15

    This study developed a methodology to assess the socio-economic impact of the presence and collapse of underground limestone quarries. For this we rely on case study evidence from Riemst, a village located in Eastern Belgium and use both secondary and primary data sources. A sinkhole inventory as well as data about the prevention costs provided by the municipality was used. To estimate the recreational values of the quarries, visitor data was obtained from the tourist office of Riemst. Next, two surveys were conducted among inhabitants and four real estate agents and one notary. The direct and indirect damages were assessed using respectively the repair cost and production and real estate value losses. The total yearly direct and indirect damage equals €415000 (±€85000) and more than half of it can be attributed to the depreciation of real estate (€230000). The quarries have recreational, cultural-historical and ecological values and thus generate societal benefits. The yearly recreational value was at least €613000 in 2012 values. The ecological and cultural-historical values augment to €180000 per year (in 2012 values). Further, our study indicates that the gains from filling up the quarries below the houses located above an underground limestone quarry outweigh the costs in the case study area. The net gain from filling up the underground quarry ranges €38700 to €101700 per house. This is only the lower bound of the net gain from filling up these underground quarries since preventive filling makes future collapses less likely so that future direct repair costs will be most likely smaller.

  8. Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Baviera-Puig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders.

  9. Life-cycle assessment of wind energy: a case study based on Baix Ebre windfarm, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life-Cycle Assessment is a tool for evaluating the environmental burdens of goods and services from the 'cradle to the grave'. Such an approach is applicable to the energy sector where different technologies often have contrasting environmental impacts and may have significant impacts outside generation, for example associated with the extraction and processing of raw material, the production of components or decommissioning. In this paper the life-cycle impacts of electricity generated from a wind farm in Spain are compared to those associated with the conventional fuel mix. The net environmental benefits of wind energy are calculated taking into account all materials and resources used and the emissions produced during all activities, including transport, across the complete life-cycle. Wind energy, as expected has significant benefits over conventional generation. (Author)

  10. Data collection form: the link between migration studies and performance assessment - Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermochemical databases of the NEA (TDB) are used in support of the determination of solubility values for performance assessment (PA). PA uses solubility to define the concentration limit at which radionuclides migrate from the near-field to the far-field of the repository. Being different from a thermodynamically defined solubility, a concentration limit can be equal to the solubility of pure phases but can also be imposed by other processes, e.g. formation of colloids or solid solutions. This paper illustrates a way that the TDB is utilised to interpret some migration experiments through geochemical and solute transport modelling. As a result, some meaningful migration parameters are derived based on both experimental observations and the application of the TDB. (author)

  11. Assessment and management of SCC in a liquid pipeline: case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Pablo; Tandon, Samarth; Gao, Ming; Krishnamurthy, Ravi [Blade Energy Partners, Houston, Texas (United States); Peverelli, Romina (PIMS of London, London (United Kingdom)); Moreno Ochoa, Carlos (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico)); Diaz Solis, Esau (Pemex Refinacion, Cd de Mexico, (Mexico))

    2010-07-01

    A 30-inch crude oil pipeline system was built between Nuevo Teapa to Venta de Carpjo from 1978 to 1980. It is owned by Pemex; its total length is 570 km, and it has strategic importance in Mexico's refining capability. In this oil pipeline, various degrees of external and internal corrosion have been found, and recent incidents occurred as a result of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper presents an approach for managing high pH SCC in such a pipeline: it includes a comprehensive verification excavation plan, a strict in-ditch NDT investigation protocol, statistical models to determine the probability of detection and identification, sizing tolerance analyses, and an assessment methodology that is backed up by the material testing program. All the results provided by the application of the approach lead to the development of integrity management strategies. An integrity management plan is established and refined before the next inspection.

  12. Assessing low quality water use policy framework: Case study from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Wilde Schou, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    We bought to understand the factors that have undermined the effective implementation of the low quality water reuse provision in Ghana's Irrigation Policy. Two Strategic Environmental Assessment tools (i.e. compatibility matrix and sustainability test) were used for the policy analyses......, which have been identified as key stakeholders for the policy implementation, not only lack the commitment to implement the policy but also perceive low quality water reuse as a practice that can endanger public health. We conclude that effective implementation of the low quality water reuse policy...... requires an integration of the policy into the broader water resources management context supported with legislation and regulations which spell out clearly institutional responsibilities, and rewards and punishments for compliance or otherwise. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Assessing the financial, operational, and social sustainability of a biobank: the Wales Cancer Bank case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Jones, Alison

    2014-12-01

    Biobank sustainability is a multi-faceted concept that many biobanks are wrestling with to justify their continued existence. After 10 years of operation, the Wales Cancer Bank is faced with a potential reduction in grant funding that will result in the need for a restructured approach to patient consenting, sample collection, and sample issue. A review is currently in progress, using evidence from the last 12 months, to inform the decisions that will be taken at the end of 2014 regarding the biobank's future. The information presented details the areas under consideration for revision with the perceived costs and benefits associated with the amendment. Not all outcomes are currently known, and some decisions will be made once the level of future funding is confirmed. The process of assessment has proved to be a valuable exercise and has highlighted the need for biobanks to regularly evaluate strategic principles and operating procedures using sustainability as a denominator.

  14. Information Technology Assessment on Hospital Information System Implementation: Case Study A Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Wuri Handayani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hospitals are required to improve their quality of health services to meet the higher standards. This improvement is supported by Ministry of Health which has launched electronic health (e-health program. Under this program, hospitals are required to have Hospital Information System (HIS or Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP for healthcare. However, to date only a few hospitals have implemented an integrated HIS. The purpose of this research is to asses the Information Technology (IT maturity of a teaching hospital in implementing HIS. This IT assessment observes from four layers namely business process, Information System (IS, Information Technology (IT and IS/IT management and organization. The result of this research is that teaching hospitals should prepare a plan to restructure their network with adequate infrastructure, create IT blue print and policy, IT organization restructuring, IT staff competency development and build integrated HIS.

  15. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the application of the KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River valley, in Switzerland. Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including the city of Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. After characterizing the peculiarities of the specific case study, risk maps have been developed under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as baseline) for six identified relevant targets, exposed to flood risk in the Sihl valley, namely: people, economic activities (including buildings, infrastructures and agriculture), natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map, which allows to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis tools, has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the area of study. By means of a tailored participative approach, the total risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of the relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores and weights related to the receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher relative risks are concentrated in the deeply urbanized area within and around the Zurich city centre and areas that rely just behind to the Sihl River course. Here, forecasted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and high presence of old (vulnerable) people; inundated buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, the majority of them referring to the Zurich main

  16. Alcoa North American Extrusions Implements Energy Use Assessments at Multiple Facilities: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Aluminum Assessment Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects

  17. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  18. A Study to Identify, Assess & Analyze the Incidence of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital at Davangere, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishnab S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poison is any substance that causes harmful effect when administered either accidently or intentionally. In India, as agriculture is the main occupation, pesticides are used to a greater extent and the poisoning with such products is far more common. The objective was to identify and assess the incidence of accidental or intentional poisoning and also to assess the relation between socio economic factors and poisoning. This prospective cohort study was conducted in the departments of medicine, paediatric, emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of 6 months. A total number of 150 cases were collected and categorized into different classes based on type of poisoning agents. In that organophosphate accounts more 31.3% (n=47, followed by snake bite 20% (n= 30. Male predominance were seen 58.7% (n=88, while comparing to female 41.3% (n= 62. Based on economic study, low socio economic peoples were more prone to poisoning i.e., 54.7% (n= 82. Rural people were far front in poisoning54.7% (n= 82 than urban and sub- urban. The literature status showed that 78.7% (n=118 was literate. Poisoning incidence are more in married subjects i.e., 50.7% (n=76. While considering occupation, farmers were most 30.7% (n= 46. The study highlighted the lacunae of poisoning information services in hospitals. Clinical pharmacist’s involvement can improve the identification of poison and toxicity rating.

  19. Assessing and Managing the Risks of Fuel Compounds: Ethanol Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Rice, D.W.

    2002-02-04

    We have implemented a suite of chemical transport and fate models that provide diagnostic information about the behavior of ethanol (denoted EtOH) and other fuel-related chemicals released to the environment. Our principal focus is on the impacts to water resources, as this has been one of the key issues facing the introduction of new fuels and additives. We present analyses comparing the transport and fate of EtOH, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and 2,2,4 trimethyl pentane (TMP) for the following cases (1) discharges to stratified lakes, subsurface release in a surficial soil, (3) cross-media transfer from air to ground water, and (4) fate in a regional landscape. These compounds have significantly different properties that directly influence their behavior in the environment. EtOH, for example, has a low Henry's law constant, which means that it preferentially partitions to the water phase instead of air. An advantageous characteristic of EtOH is its rapid biodegradation rate in water; unlike MTBE or TMP, which degrade slowly. As a consequence, EtOH does not pose a significant risk to water resources. Preliminary health-protective limits for EtOH in drinking water suggest that routine releases to the environment will not result in levels that threaten human health.

  20. Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy--a Danish case study on waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jannick H; Holm, Peter; Merrild, Anne; Christensen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The waste hierarchy is being widely discussed these days, not only by cost-benefit analysts, but a growing number of life cycle assessments (LCA) have also begun to question it. In this article, we investigate the handling of waste paper in Denmark and compare the present situation with scenarios of more waste being recycled, incinerated or consigned to landfill. The investigations are made in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and based on the newly launched methodology of consequential LCA and following the recent guidelines of the European Centre on Waste and Material Flows. The LCA concerns the Danish consumption of paper in 1999, totalling 1.2 million tons. The results of the investigation indicate that the waste hierarchy is reliable; from an environmental point of view recycling of paper is better than incineration and landfilling. For incineration, the reason for the advantage of landfilling mainly comes from the substitution of fossil fuels, when incinerators provide heat and electricity. For recycling, the advantage is related to the saved wood resources, which can be used for generating energy from wood, i.e., from renewable fuel which does not contribute to global warming.

  1. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  2. Geochemical assessment of a subtropical reservoir: a case study in curitiba, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Hirata, Patricia Y.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Cunha, Cynara L.N.; Soares, Ana P.K.; Gobbi, Eduardo F. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bitterncourt, Andre V.L. [Department of Geology, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Jafelicci, Miguel Jr.; Santos, Francisco J. dos; Bini, Rafael [Chemistry Institute, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zara, Liuz F.; Gardolinski, Jose E.F.C.; Reis Neto, Jose M. [University of Brasilia, Planaltina, DC (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rotondo, Giuliana Gatto; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Suspended particles and dissolved substances in water provide reactive surfaces, influence metabolic activity and contribute to the net sediment deposition. It therefore plays an important part in the ecology and quality of the water mass. The water quality in reservoirs is crucial and it is naturally maintained by flushing and sedimentation, which continuously remove phosphorus from the water. In some reservoirs, however, these removal processes are countered by recycling of ions which could play a key role to start and/or maintain the eutrophic state. The combination of macro-, trace- and microanalysis techniques can be useful to trace pollution sources through a chemical fingerprint, whether be during an acute environmental disaster or a long-term release of pollutants. The water quality and total metal content of reservoir sediments were assessed in a reservoir, situated in the capital of the Parana State, in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The goal of this paper was to determine the metal presence in the sediment and metal and ionic speciation in the Green River reservoir water. Water and bed sediment samples, collected from various sites during 2008 and 2009, were investigated using XRF, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRD and zeta potential measurements. Based on the results, the heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the suspended matter in the water samples, as well as the sediment's chemical composition will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Linking Ecological and Perceptual Assessments for Environmental Management: a Coral Reef Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dinsdale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information from a range of community members in environmental management provides a more complete assessment of the problem and a diversification of management options, but is difficult to achieve. To investigate the relationship between different environmental interpretations, I compared three distinct measures of anchor damage on coral reefs: ecological measures, perceptual meanings, and subjective health judgments. The ecological measures identified an increase in the number of overturned corals and a reduction in coral cover, the perceptual meanings identified a loss of visual quality, and the health judgments identified a reduction in the health of the coral reef sites associated with high levels of anchoring. Combining the perceptual meanings and health judgments identified that the judgment of environmental health was a key feature that both scientific and lay participants used to describe the environment. Some participants in the survey were familiar with the coral reef environment, and others were not. However, they provided consistent judgment of a healthy coral reef, suggesting that these judgments were not linked to present-day experiences. By combining subjective judgments and ecological measures, the point at which the environment is deemed to lose visual quality was identified; for these coral reefs, if the level of damage rose above 10.3% and the cover of branching corals dropped below 17.1%, the reefs were described as unhealthy. Therefore, by combining the information, a management agency can involve the community in identifying when remedial action is required or when management policies are effectively maintaining a healthy ecosystem.

  4. Audit of IT Governance Based on COBIT 5 Assessments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Fernandes Andry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Training Center in Jakarta offers a certification program for the individuals and companies who wish to search for or complement international scale IT certifications. The certification program consists of training certification exam preparation and certification exams. The purpose of this research is to get an overview of the performance of information technology governance in order to determine the extent of the capabilities of information technology governance in the Training Center which is currently running, with a few aspects to consider such as effectiveness, efficiency, functional unit of information technology within an organization. Implementing IT governance, however, is a challenge to organizations. To ensure IT alignment with business goals use standard COBIT. COBIT 5 Framework is a service for auditing IS/IT are the most commonly used to audit information systems in a rapid, accurate, and interactive. The result of this audit training center is business and IT management are aware of the impact of not managing performance and capacity. Performance needs are generally met based on assessments of individual systems and the knowledge of support and project teams. In this paper the method to be used is COBIT 5 is focused on the domain of DSS (Deliver, Service, and Support.

  5. Life cycle assessment of the waste hierarchy--a Danish case study on waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jannick H; Holm, Peter; Merrild, Anne; Christensen, Per

    2007-01-01

    The waste hierarchy is being widely discussed these days, not only by cost-benefit analysts, but a growing number of life cycle assessments (LCA) have also begun to question it. In this article, we investigate the handling of waste paper in Denmark and compare the present situation with scenarios of more waste being recycled, incinerated or consigned to landfill. The investigations are made in accordance with ISO 14040-43 and based on the newly launched methodology of consequential LCA and following the recent guidelines of the European Centre on Waste and Material Flows. The LCA concerns the Danish consumption of paper in 1999, totalling 1.2 million tons. The results of the investigation indicate that the waste hierarchy is reliable; from an environmental point of view recycling of paper is better than incineration and landfilling. For incineration, the reason for the advantage of landfilling mainly comes from the substitution of fossil fuels, when incinerators provide heat and electricity. For recycling, the advantage is related to the saved wood resources, which can be used for generating energy from wood, i.e., from renewable fuel which does not contribute to global warming. PMID:17112716

  6. REFLECTIVE TEACHING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN TEACHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI ASTIKA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical reflective teaching has been a goal of English teacher preparation program. Although many English educators have promoted and carried out reflective teaching in their methodology courses, success of such practice has been limited, not sufficiently reflecting what has been desired. Questions have been raised whether reflective teaching within pre-service English teacher education is a realistic aim. One argument for this has been: reflective teaching can only be learned by beginning teachers working in schools with experienced teachers who value critical reflection. This article examines 40 journals of teaching reflection produced by 40 pre-service English teachers after they completed teaching practicum in schools over a period of three months. The journals were analyzed using a theoretical model developed by Smith (2011 which encompasses different purposes with different forms of reflection: personal, interpersonal, contextual, and critical. The analysis shows that the teaching journals contained more reflection on the personal and contextual domains of teaching, indicating that the pre-service teachers were more concerned with the contextual aspects of teaching which influenced their practices in the classroom. It is recommended that a more balanced reflection be created as an alternative form of assessment in English teacher education involving personal as well as social aspects of teaching.

  7. Assessment of Reservoir Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques: A Case Study of Qiandao Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiandao Lake (Xin’an Jiang reservoir plays a significant role in drinking water supply for eastern China, and it is an attractive tourist destination. Three multivariate statistical methods were comprehensively applied to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water quality as well as potential pollution sources in Qiandao Lake. Data sets of nine parameters from 12 monitoring sites during 2010–2013 were obtained for analysis. Cluster analysis (CA was applied to classify the 12 sampling sites into three groups (Groups A, B and C and the 12 monitoring months into two clusters (April-July, and the remaining months. Discriminant analysis (DA identified Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, permanganate index and total phosphorus as the significant variables for distinguishing variations of different years, with 79.9% correct assignments. Dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll-a were determined to discriminate between the two sampling periods classified by CA, with 87.8% correct assignments. For spatial variation, DA identified Secchi disc depth and ammonia nitrogen as the significant discriminating parameters, with 81.6% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA identified organic pollution, nutrient pollution, domestic sewage, and agricultural and surface runoff as the primary pollution sources, explaining 84.58%, 81.61% and 78.68% of the total variance in Groups A, B and C, respectively. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated use of CA, DA and PCA for reservoir water quality evaluation and could assist managers in improving water resources management.

  8. Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhuis, A.S.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Driessen, M.; Luijten, M.; Delft, van J.H.M.; Ven, van der L.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have employ

  9. Case study for the assessment of the biogeophysical effects of a potential afforestation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gálos, B.; Hagemann, S.; Haensler, A.; Kindermann, G.; Rechid, D.; Sieck, K.; Teichmann, C.; Jacob, D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A regional-scale sensitivity study has been carried out to investigate the climatic effects of forest cover change in Europe. Applying REMO (regional climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology), the projected temperature and precipitation tendencies have been analysed for summer, based on the results of the A2 IPCC-SRES emission scenario simulation. For the end of the 21st century it has been studied, whether the assumed forest cover increase could reduce the effect...

  10. Phylodynamic inference and model assessment with approximate bayesian computation: influenza as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ratmann

    Full Text Available A key priority in infectious disease research is to understand the ecological and evolutionary drivers of viral diseases from data on disease incidence as well as viral genetic and antigenic variation. We propose using a simulation-based, Bayesian method known as Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC to fit and assess phylodynamic models that simulate pathogen evolution and ecology against summaries of these data. We illustrate the versatility of the method by analyzing two spatial models describing the phylodynamics of interpandemic human influenza virus subtype A(H3N2. The first model captures antigenic drift phenomenologically with continuously waning immunity, and the second epochal evolution model describes the replacement of major, relatively long-lived antigenic clusters. Combining features of long-term surveillance data from The Netherlands with features of influenza A (H3N2 hemagglutinin gene sequences sampled in northern Europe, key phylodynamic parameters can be estimated with ABC. Goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the irregularity in interannual incidence and H3N2's ladder-like hemagglutinin phylogeny are quantitatively only reproduced under the epochal evolution model within a spatial context. However, the concomitant incidence dynamics result in a very large reproductive number and are not consistent with empirical estimates of H3N2's population level attack rate. These results demonstrate that the interactions between the evolutionary and ecological processes impose multiple quantitative constraints on the phylodynamic trajectories of influenza A(H3N2, so that sequence and surveillance data can be used synergistically. ABC, one of several data synthesis approaches, can easily interface a broad class of phylodynamic models with various types of data but requires careful calibration of the summaries and tolerance parameters.

  11. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments...... as a first step in improving decision making. Project activities are not implemented in isolation from the global context and are therefore not the only drivers of adaptation for local communities. One of our main findings is that new external stimuli, such as markets, may be highly influential, potentially......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  12. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  13. Assessing the costs of land degradation: a case study for the Puentes catchment, South East Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas many studies point out the economic benefits of controlling land degradation through sustainable land management (SLM) approaches, there is often a lack of local adoption of SLM techniques. Analysis of the local impacts and costs of land degradation is critical for understanding farmers' res

  14. Assessment of PM2.5 concentrations on Human Health: A case study of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P.; Mishra, D.

    2015-12-01

    Connection of air quality with human health is well established in the literature. However the associated health risks due to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is not well known in India, while the assigned mean threshold values are 60 μg/m3 for 24-hour period and 40 μg/m3 for annual period. Both are considered safe concentration limits regarding human health effects. However, the daily and annually concentrations of PM2.5 were observed more than three times of NAAQS in the present study for a year. This study relates the incessant exposure to significant levels of PM2.5 to deleterious health effects, such as heart and lung diseases. The relation between environmental air quality and human health has been studied through different parameters e.g., hazard quotient (HQ), lifetime incremental cancer risk (LICR), and individual risk for different groups of ages in Delhi, the capital city of India. These analysis lead to additional insights into health disparities and may suggest that more rigorous strategies. This may be application to other urban areas across the nation. In this study, we propose to quantify such impacts through estimation of different health risk factors.

  15. Assessing Gender Vulnerability within Post-earthquake Reconstruction: Case Study from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yumarni, Tri; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding types of gender vulnerability and its determinants within disaster management context is useful to protect women and men from greater destabilization, to achieve better process of disaster management, to enhance sustainability of reconstruction and to build community resilience. Using mixed method combining qualitative and quantitative data analysis, this study reveals various dimensions of gender vulnerability within post-earthquake reconstruction at Yogyakarta provinc...

  16. Assessment of the Research Learning Needs of University of Saskatchewan Librarians: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Alvin M.; Shiri, Ali; Williamson, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    As academic librarians with faculty status increasingly embrace research engagement as a core value and requirement, one of the little-studied questions is the extent to which they possess the requisite knowledge and skills to conduct high-quality research and scholarship and what further learning needs they might have within the organizational…

  17. Integrating a health-related-quality-of-life module within electronic health records: a comparative case study assessing value added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology (HIT applications that incorporate point-of-care use of health-related quality of life (HRQL assessments are believed to promote patient-centered interactions between seriously ill patients and physicians. However, it is unclear how willing primary care providers are to use such HRQL HIT applications. The specific aim of this study was to explore factors that providers consider when assessing the value added of an HRQL application for their geriatric patients. Methods Three case studies were developed using the following data sources: baseline surveys with providers and staff, observations of staff and patients, audio recordings of patient-provider interactions, and semi-structured interviews with providers and staff. Results The primary factors providers considered when assessing value added were whether the HRQL information from the module was (1 duplicative of information gathered via other means during the encounter; (2 specific enough to be useful and/or acted upon, and; (3 useful for enough patients to warrant time spent reviewing it for all geriatric patients. Secondary considerations included level of integration of the HRQL and EHR, impact on nursing workflow, and patient reluctance to provide HRQL information. Conclusions Health-related quality of life modules within electronic health record systems offer the potential benefit of improving patient centeredness and quality of care. However, the modules must provide benefits that are substantial and prominent in order for physicians to decide that they are worthwhile and sustainable. Implications of this study for future research include the identification of perceived "costs" as well as a foundation for operationalizing the concept of "usefulness" in the context of such modules. Finally, developers of these modules may need to make their products customizable for practices to account for variation in EHR capabilities and practice

  18. Assessment of Trend and Seasonality in Road Accident Data: An Iranian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zolala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. Results The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Conclusion Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  19. Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology: lysine maize as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the area of biotech crops modified for agronomic input traits (e.g., herbicide tolerance and insect protection) has increased to 90 million halyear, grown by over 8 million farmers in a total of 17 countries. As adoption of these improved agronomic trait biotech crops has grown, so has interest in biotech crops that have improved nutritional characteristics for use as feed and food. A previous publication by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) reported on the principles and concepts proposed for the nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology. In this paper, the guidelines and principles recommended in the earlier publication are discussed relative to a specific case study, Lysine maize. Lysine maize is a feed ingredient with enhanced nutritional characteristics for poultry and swine and provides an alternative to the need for addition of supplemental lysine to some diets for these animals. The 2004 Task Force of the ILSI has also applied the concepts from that report to 4 other case studies: sweet potato enriched in provitamin A (2 examples, one using biotechnology and one using conventional breeding); Golden Rice 2; double-embryo maize; and ASP-1 enhanced protein sweet potato. PMID:17955996

  20. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

  1. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. PMID:27357562

  2. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A case study in Yan’an, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianqi Zhuang; Jianbing Peng; Yonglong Xu; Qiang Xu; Xinghua Zhu; Wei Li

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation frequently triggers shallow landslides in the Loess Plateau of Shaanxi, China, resulting in loss of life, damage to gas and oil routes, and destruction of transport infrastructure and farmland. To assess the possibility of shallow landslides at different precipitation levels, a method to draw slope units and steepest slope profiles based on ARCtools and a new method for calculating slope stability areproposed. The methods were implemented in a case study conducted in Yan’an, north-west China. High resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) images, soil parameters from in-situ laboratory measurements and maximum depths of precipitation infiltration were used as input parameters in the method. Next,DEM and reverse DEM were employed to map 2146 slope units in the study area, based on which the steepest profiles of the slope units were constructed. Combining analysis of the water content of loess, strength of the sliding surface, its response to precipitation and the infinite slope stability equation, a newequation to calculate infinite slope stability is proposed to assess shallow landslide stability. The slope unit stability was calculated using the equation at 10-, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods of antecedent effective precipitation. The number of slope units experiencing failure increased in response to increasing effective antecedent rainfall. These results were validated based on the occurrence of landslides in recent decades. Finally, the applicability and limitations of the model are discussed.

  3. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND—USE PLANNING—A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYan; SHANGJin-cheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    The study centers on the necessity,the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Compo-nent Analysis(PCA),Andytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Fuzzy Comprerhensive Evaluation(FCE)of strategic environ-ment assessment(SEA)on land-use planning.The whole article includes three main parts:firstly,some attribute database,graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix,which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern,can be ob-tained by GIS technique;secondly,adopting fitting method of trend-suface analysis will convert environment monitoring data from scattered spots to regular control spots,based on which we can perform regional environment impact assess-ment;finally,Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows:1)according to transform matrix,the possibility of transforma-tion from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out;2)environment ruality would change as a result of the change of land-use pattern;3)the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use pattern more reasonable.

  4. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND-USE PLANNING-A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The study centers on the necessity, the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Component Analysis(PCA), AndyticalHierarchyProcess(AHP) andFuzzy ComprerhensiveEvaluation(FCE)) of strategic environment assessment (SEA) on land-use planning. The whole article includes three main parts: firstly, some attributedatabase, graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix, which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern, can be obtained by GIS technique; secondly, adopting fitting method of trend-surface analysis will convert environment monitoringdata from scattered spots to regular control spots, based on which we can perform regional environment impact assessment; finally, Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows: 1 ) according to transform matrix, the possibility of transformation from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out; 2) environment quality would changeas a result of the change of land-nsc pattern; 3) the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use patternmore reasonable.

  5. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system.

  6. Assessment and analysis of indices of urban sustainable development in small cities (case study of Soran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Irandegani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available density and villagers migrate to the cities attention and emphasis was planning to strengthen and grow small towns. The study by researchers in different countries shows that small towns are one of the most successful examples of settlement in the area of sustainable development. Soran and the social and physical areas of urban sustainability indicators in urban areas is presented. The research method of this study is survey method and the data has been obtained from the questionnaire. The results of findings show that in terms of urban sustainability indices, the city of Soran has not a desirable situation in relation to the medium of urban system but it is in the same state in terms of more social, economic and physical indices in relation to urban system of country which it is noticeable clearly.

  7. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kesten, Joanna May; Cameron, Noel; Griffiths, Paula Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the fir...

  8. CASE STUDY TO ASSESS IMPLICATIONS OF INTERLANGUAGETHEORY IN PRACTICAL APPLICATION TO A CHINESE SETTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LǖQiuning

    2004-01-01

    In the light of the lnterlanguage theory, errors are nolonger seen as“unwanted forms”, but as evidence of learners active contribution to second language acquisition. The focus ofthis paper is the interlanguage of learners at Belting Institute ofTechnology (BIT) and the learner strategies employed asindicated in their interlanguage. Studying of these strategies mayenrich our understanding of the nature of learners' interlanguageand explore perspectives of English in a more efficient way.

  9. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Julian Matthew; Vakili Abouzar; Jakubowski Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM), which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located...

  10. Life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management options: a case study of Asturias (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Río, J. del; Rodríguez Iglesias, Jesús Avelino; Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Marañón Maison, María Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses six strategies for managing the MSW generated in Asturias (Spain) in terms of their environmental impacts applying the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. To this end, the effect of these strategies on Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, Global Warming and Resource Depletion is studied. The analysed management options include direct landfill with recovery of biogas (S-0), direct incineration with energy recovery (S-1), biomethanization of the source-separated organic fraction wi...

  11. Performance Assessment of Maintenance Practices in Government Office Buildings: Case Study of Parcel E, Putrajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awg Husaini A.I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance practices must be taken into consideration by building facility managers or building owners. They involve daily operations to ensure that end users can work or live comfortably and safely. Through effective maintenance practices, the functions of the existing building facilities can be maintained and meet the needs of the building users. Maintenance practices must be effective in aspects such as planning, organization and supervision in order to maintain the building at a satisfactory level of performance all the time. A study was conducted on a Federal government office building in Parcel E, Putrajaya to determine the maintenance aspects of the management of the facility. To achieve the objectives of this study a questionnaire survey was used to obtain the required data. The outcomes indicate that the aspects of building maintenance practice and the effectiveness of the maintenance management in government office buildings can influence the satisfaction of the end user. However, some aspects of the current building maintenance practices seem to need improvements in order to enhance the building maintenance management. The recommendations of this study will help in the effective management of the facility and maintenance management practices.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA of Gas Pipeline Transmission (Case Study: Duzduzan – Ahar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Karimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The national gas transmission Ahar – Duzduzan, transmit fresh gas in the West north of Iran. According to Iran’s environmental regulation, construction and operation of pipelines is required EIA studies. Due to this linear project it is required to develop a particular EIA methodology on this kind of projects. Therefore at first we attempted to get a real knowledge about environmental endnotes of project with library and field studies. Along with reviewing the technical resources of the project, attempted to identify all of the construction and operation activities. Finally two methods of explanatory checklist and simplified matrix selected for EIA. In The construction phase 19 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 12 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the construction phase, activities such as; excavation, embankment and excavation show the greatest negative impact on the whole environment of area. And the most important activity with positive effects on the aforementioned factors is manpower recruitment. Also In the operation phase 15 micro activities have evaluated in front of about 15 environmental factors (in the various environments. In the Operation phase activities such as; grazing, vehicle traffic and wastewater production can have negative effects. Most positive impacts on environmental factors are revenue and welfare, employment levels, commerce and manning activities, immigration control and air quality. Most of the Operation phase effects are positive which involve; exploitation of gas or natural gas transportation and gas pipeline monitoring. According to the developed methodology it is necessary to use RS and GIS tools in the study current environment situation, routing environmental alternatives and make land use maps of transmission path. With regard to all issues presented in explanatory checklist of this project and also previous clauses from the standpoint of environmental compliance

  13. Metabolites in safety testing assessment in early clinical development: a case study with a glucokinase activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Litchfield, John; Atkinson, Karen; Eng, Heather; Amin, Neeta B; Denney, William S; Pettersen, John C; Goosen, Theunis C; Di, Li; Lee, Esther; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Dalvie, Deepak K; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2014-11-01

    The present article summarizes Metabolites in Safety Testing (MIST) studies on a glucokinase activator, N,N-dimethyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (PF-04937319), which is under development for the treatment of type 2 diametes mellitus. Metabolic profiling in rat, dog, and human hepatocytes revealed that PF-04937319 is metabolized via oxidative (major) and hydrolytic pathways (minor). N-Demethylation to metabolite M1 [N-methyl-5-((2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yl)oxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide] was the major metabolic fate of PF-04937319 in human (but not rat or dog) hepatocytes, and was catalyzed by CYP3A and CYP2C isoforms. Qualitative examination of circulating metabolites in humans at the 100- and 300-mg doses from a 14-day multiple dose study revealed unchanged parent drug and M1 as principal components. Because M1 accounted for 65% of the drug-related material at steady state, an authentic standard was synthesized and used for comparison of steady-state exposures in humans and the 3-month safety studies in rats and dogs at the no-observed-adverse-effect level. Although circulating levels of M1 were very low in beagle dogs and female rats, adequate coverage was obtained in terms of total maximal plasma concentration (∼7.7× and 1.8×) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC; 3.6× and 0.8× AUC) relative to the 100- and 300-mg doses, respectively, in male rats. Examination of primary pharmacology revealed M1 was less potent as a glucokinase activator than the parent drug (compound PF-04937319: EC50 = 0.17 μM; M1: EC50 = 4.69 μM). Furthermore, M1 did not inhibit major human P450 enzymes (IC50 > 30 μM), and was negative in the Salmonella Ames assay, with minimal off-target pharmacology, based on CEREP broad ligand profiling. Insights gained from this analysis should lead to a more efficient and focused development plan for fulfilling MIST requirements with

  14. CT ASSESSMENT OF BRAIN VENTRICULAR SIZE BASED ON AGE AND SEX: A STUDY OF 112 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CT being the primary modality of choice in many centers for the diagnosis of brain pathology, normal brain ventricular size measurem ents is an important parameter for the diagnosis of conditions like hydrocephalus, age related atrophic changes and also other brain pathologies producing ventriculomegaly. It is also important for knowing the normal upper and lower limits of the brain ven tricular system in the different age groups, and in both sexes so as to diagnose brain pathology.The ventricular system of the brain undergoes changes with aging and varies with gender.Our study consists of 48 female, and 64 male patients. Apart from the v entricular measurements, two ratios and two indices were also calculated – which included the right and left Evan’s ratio, CM index, and ventricular size inde

  15. Assessing office automation effect on Innovation Case study: Education Organizations and Schools in Esfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Safari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Today organizations act in a dynamic, very ambiguous and changing environment. So each organization has to deliver high quality services and benefit from innovative systems to be successful in such an environment. This research aims to explore the relationship between implementation of office automation and innovative using structural equitation modeling method (SEM. Aim of this research is applied and its method is survey-descriptive. Statistical society is managers of education organizations and schools in Esfahan and Lenjan cities. 130 individuals were selected as sample by randomly sampling method. Content and construct validity were used In order to evaluate validity of questionnaire and relations between variables of this research have been confirmed based on results of SEM method. Regarding obtained results, effectiveness amount of office automation on innovation is measured equal to estimated standard amount as 0/24. Obtained results from main hypothesis test of this research completely conform which there is about office automation in studied organization.

  16. Groundwater Potential Assessment Using Geographic Information Systems and Ahp Method (case Study: Baft City, Kerman, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinolabedini, M.; Esmaeily, A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to use Geographical Information Systems (GISs) for determining the best areas having ground water potential in Baft city. To achieve this objective, parameters such as precipitation, slope, fault, vegetation, land cover and lithology were used. Regarding different weight of these parameters effect, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used. After developing informational layers in GIS and weighing each of them, a model was developed. The final map of ground waters potential was calculated through the above-mentioned model. Through applying our developed model four areas having high, average, low potential and without required potential distinguished. Results of this research indicated that 0.74, 41.23 and 45.63 percent of the area had high, average and low potential, respectively. Moreover, 12.38% of this area had no potential. Obtained results can be useful in management plans of ground water resources and preventing excessive exploitation.

  17. An Assessment on Destination Characteristics: The Case Study of Pulau Perhentian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhibudin Masitah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of tourism in the small island has brought both positive and negative impacts towards the environment particularly. However, the growth seems disregard with the limited natural resources, facilities, accessibilities and others. Pulau Perhentian, one of the well known islands in Malaysia that is struggling with many physical carrying capacity related issues such as waste management, supply of accommodation, utilities, facilities and environmental protection. Consequently, this study aims to evaluate the destination characteristics that contribute to the management of physical carrying capacity using the criteria matrix. Finding shows that the physical development has marked the island into a yellow colour that indicates the condition of current development. This evaluation is hoped to contribute and assist in future tourism activities and physical developments in Perhentian.

  18. Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weisheng; Yang, Liang; Deng, Dongcheng; Ye, Jing; Clarke, Keith; Yang, Zhijun; Zhuang, Wenming; Liu, Jianxiong; Huang, Jichun

    2016-04-01

    Urban underground spaces (UUS), especially those containing natural resources that have not yet been utilized, have been recognized as important for future sustainable development in large cities. One of the key steps in city planning is to estimate the quality of urban underground space resources, since they are major determinants of suitable land use. Yet geological constraints are rarely taken into consideration in urban planning, nor are the uncertainties in the quality of the available assessments. Based on Fuzzy Set theory and the analytic hierarchy process, a 3D stepwise process for the quality assessment of geotechnical properties of natural resources in UUS is presented. The process includes an index system for construction factors; area partitioning; the extraction of geological attributes; the creation of a relative membership grade matrix; the evaluation of subject and destination layers; and indeterminacy analysis. A 3D geological model of the study area was introduced into the process that extracted geological attributes as constraints. This 3D geological model was coupled with borehole data for Foshan City, Guangdong province, South China, and the indeterminacies caused by the cell size and the geological strata constraints were analyzed. The results of the case study show that (1) a relatively correct result can be obtained if the cell size is near to the average sampling distance of the boreholes; (2) the constraints of the 3D geological model have a major role in establishing the UUS quality level and distribution, especially at the boundaries of the geological bodies; and (3) the assessment result is impacted by an interaction between the cell resolution and the geological model used.

  19. An assessment of landscape changes in Mediterranean region. A case study of Algarve, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Helena; Martins, Fernando; Valín, Maria Isabel; Moreno, Ângela; Pedras, Celestina

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the application of remote sensing techniques is a key factor for the planning and land management to ensure a sustainable development of the regions. Algarve, the most southern region of Portugal is characterized by its Mediterranean climate. This climate is described by irregular precipitation throughout the year with drought during summer months. The regional climate has a profound influence on its particular vegetation and wildlife turning it in a unique habitat for many species. Since the 1970s, increases in tourism have greatly affected the coastal region. This has led to great landscape pressure and urban growth, resulting in population increases due to local economic prosperity. Across Algarve, in recent decades, lawns areas have grown dramatically. Landscape water use has increased mainly because homeowners seldom pay the 'true' cost of water. Continued expansion of water supply is not, therefore, a viable management option in the future, particularly given the anticipated increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in Portugal. There's a need to change the perception of landscape relative to water consumption. Algarve needs a sustainable, 'demand-led' approach to water resource management, focusing on conserving water and using it more efficiently. The water resources available in the Algarve are limited, and decisions regarding sustainability must consider the environment. The aim of this study is to apply the remote sensing techniques to analyse the landscape changes in three municipalities of Algarve (Portugal): Albufeira, Loulé and Faro. The three Landsat images, from April 9th 1973 (Landsat1), March 23th 1989 (Landsat5) and April 26th 2013 (Landsat8) were used. The images were classified based on the radiometric information and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). These range of dates of the Landsat images used allowed for the differentiation between classes of the landscape. Land use and water resources are closely

  20. Satellite assessment of sea spray aerosol productivity: Southern Ocean case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Marcin L.; Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite many years of observations by multiple sensors, there is still substantial ambiguity regarding aerosol optical depths (AOD) over remote oceans, in particular, over the pristine Southern Ocean. Passive satellite retrievals (e.g., Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and global aerosol transport models show a distinct AOD maximum around the 60°S latitude band. Sun photometer measurements performed by the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), on the other hand, indicate no increased AODs over the Southern Ocean. In this study elevated Southern Ocean AODs are examined from the modeling perspective. The primary aerosol component over the Southern Ocean is sea spray aerosol (SSA). Multiple simulations of SSA concentrations and optical depths are carried out using a single modeling framework, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model. Several SSA emission functions are examined, including recently proposed formulations with sea surface temperature corrections. The differences between NAAPS simulations are primarily due to different SSA emission formulations. The results are compared against satellite-derived AODs from the MISR and MODIS instruments. MISR and MODIS AOD retrievals are further filtered to eliminate retrievals potentially affected by cloud contamination and cloud adjacency effects. The results indicate a very large impact of SSA emission parameterization on the simulated AODs. For some scenarios, the Southern Ocean AOD maximum almost completely disappears. Further MISR and MODIS AOD quality screening substantially improves model/satellite agreement. Based on these comparisons, an optimal SSA emission function for global aerosol transport models is recommended.

  1. Sinkhole risk assessment by ERT: The case study of Sirino Lake (Basilicata, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Capozzoli, L.; Grimaldi, S.; Rizzo, E.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of natural or artificial lakes and reservoirs that can drain because of natural phenomena can generate catastrophic events affecting urban and agricultural areas next to the source area. Therefore, geophysical prospecting techniques have been applied in the study of Sirino Lake, which, during the last century, was affected by the sudden opening of small sinkholes, resulting in the almost total draining of the lake and in the sudden increase of water flow rates of distal springs. Two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out across the lake, using electrode arrays located on land and across the water body. Self-potential (SP) data were acquired around the lake shore and the surrounding area. The geophysical prospecting contributed significant data toward explaining the unique hydrogeological characteristics of the lake. Integration of geophysical, geological, hydrogeological, and geomorphological data allowed us to estimate the thickness of the lacustrine deposits beneath the lake, to describe the main patterns of the subsurface fluid flows in the area, and to identify possible water escape routes causing the piping phenomena.

  2. Assessing the Potential of Hybrid HPC Systems for Scientific Applications: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Marquez, Andres

    2007-05-01

    We have conducted a detailed study to understand the potential of hybrid CPU/FPGA High-Performance Computers for improving the performance of scientific applications. In particular, we have focused on an application in proteomics (Polygraph ), which is representative of many types of computational analysis applications in the life sciences: it focuses on extracting useful information from a large body of experimentally collected data (identifying observed peptide spectra collected from a mass spectrometer against a well-known protein database). Our preliminary analysis of Polygraph found that more than half (> 51%) of the computation was spent in three routines. We have implemented an FPGA version of the most computationally-intensive routine on a Cray XD-1 system, and measured the overall speedup achieved in comparison to an optimized software version of the routine running on the Cray XD-1’s native Opteron processors. We have achieved computational speedups of up to 9.16. When we include data movement costs, the overall speedups is reduced to 1.78. We discuss the design and implementation strategies that led to these results, as well as advantages and limitations we found on the Cray XD-1 platform. We also address the advantages and limitations of current development environments, as well as discuss relevant issues we found in our experience as hybrid CPU/FPGA programming model “users”.

  3. Geoelectrical investigation for the assessment of groundwater conditions: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakhaei

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An electrical resistivity survey involving Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES was carried out in the Shooro Basin in Southeast Iran in order to study groundwater conditions such as depth, thickness and aquifer boundaries. Vertical electrical soundings by Schlumberger array were conducted in this area. The resistivity Schlumberger soundings which have a maximum current electrode spacing (AB ranging from 200 m to 600 m were carried out at 207 positions in 19 profiles. Interpretation of these soundings indicates the presence of an alluvial aquifer. This aquifer is divided into eastern and western parts by the Shooro River, which comprises a variable thickness and resistivity of deposits. The average permeability coefficient and resistivity in the western part, especially southwest is higher than the eastern part of the aquifer. Therefore, it seems that Shooro River follows a fault zone in the region. The high resistivity of west part is due to the water quality and the existence of alluvial fan with coarse grain materials. Low aquifer resistivities in the east are associated with finer materials and also brackish water infiltration from the adjacent basin mainly in the central part of the aquifer. Furthermore, zones with high yield potential have been determined in this research based on the resistivity data.

  4. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  5. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored.

  6. Assessment of environmental impact on air quality by cement industry and mitigating measures: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, G; Madugu, A I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, environmental impact on air quality was evaluated for a typical Cement Industry in Nigeria. The air pollutants in the atmosphere around the cement plant and neighbouring settlements were determined using appropriate sampling techniques. Atmospheric dust and CO2 were prevalent pollutants during the sampling period; their concentrations were recorded to be in the range of 249-3,745 mg/m3 and 2,440-2,600 mg/m3, respectively. Besides atmospheric dust and CO2, the air pollutants such as NOx, SOx and CO were in trace concentrations, below the safe limits approved by FEPA that are 0.0062-0.093 mg/m3 NOx, 0.026 mg/m3 SOx and 114.3 mg/m3 CO, respectively. Some cost-effective mitigating measures were recommended that include the utilisation of readily available and low-cost pozzolans material to produce blended cement, not only could energy efficiency be improved, but carbon dioxide emission could also be minimised during clinker production; and the installation of an advance high-pressure grinding rolls (clinker-roller-press process) to maximise energy efficiency to above what is obtainable from the traditional ball mills and to minimise CO2 emission from the power plant. PMID:19067202

  7. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Kamala Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district is an indicative of excessive soil loss in the monsoonal wet-dry type of climate. Slope erosion and channel erosion have generated huge amount of sediment from the small watersheds during intense monsoonal rainfall (June–September). The adjoining areas of Rampurhat I Block, Birbhum (West Bengal) and Shikaripara Block, Dumka (Jharkhand) have lost the lateritic soil cover at a rate of 20–40 ton/ha/year (Sarkar et al. 2005). In order to estimate the progressive removal of soil particles from the gully-catchments of the above-mentioned area, different morphometric parameters, soil parameters, hydrologic parameters and empirical models are employed. Side by side, the study is carried out to categorize the gully-catchments into different magnitude of erosion risk using several multivariate statistical techniques.

  8. Assessing the economic aspects of biogas plants. A case study in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crisis has become one of the most concerning issues throughout the world including emerging developing country like Bangladesh. Scientific community has unequivocally agreed that renewable energy is the only solution to face this challenge. A number of researches on renewable energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro energy and biogas) have been carried out in Bangladesh. So far, biogas and solar energy has been proved to be the best alternative to meet the daily energy demand. However, Bangladesh could achieve more success with biogas in rural areas if socioeconomic, technical and regulatory issues were addressed appropriately. This study analyzed not only these factors but also (i) the present situation of the biogas production, (ii) ways to improve the efficiency and economic benefits of small-scale or farm-scale biogas production, (iii) existing problem associated with small-scale/farms-scale biogas production, (iv) reason behind not using and not using of biogas by the people nearby the user of biogas, (v) economic benefits of small biogas plants and (vi) the ways to improve efficiency by intervening feed stock quality and composition of the small-scale/farms-scale biogas plants.

  9. Landslide risk assessment for individual buildings. A case study from the Prahova Subcarpathians, ROMANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the landslide risk for individual buildings using spatial data in a GIS environment. To document the efficiency of the method, a landslide prone area along Prahova Subcarpathian Valley was chosen, where landslide hazard interacts with human settlement and activities. The bivariate landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was used to calculate the spatial probability of landslides occurrence. LSI is a bivariate statistical approach that compares the spatial distribution of landslides with each individual factor that is being considered. The Landslide Susceptibility Index map was produced by numerically adding the weighted thematic maps for slope gradient and aspect, watertable, soil texture, lithology, built environment and land use. The values obtained were in good agreement with the field observations. Validation curves were obtained using the random-split strategy for two combinations of variables: (a) all seven variables and (b) three variables which showed highest individual success rates with respect to landslides occurrences (slope gradient, watertable and land use). The principal pre-disposing factors were found to be slope steepness and groundwater table. Vulnerability was established as the degree of loss to individual buildings resulting from a potential damaging landslide with a given return period in an area. Risk was calculated by multiplying the spatial probability of landslides by the vulnerability for each building and summing up the losses for a 10 years return period.

  10. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  11. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Maria J; Jafvert, Chad T; Nies, Loring F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July-October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods. PMID:26363391

  12. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  13. Flood frequency analysis with uncertainty estimation and its application for hazard assessment - a case study in the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Viet, Dung; Apel, Heiko; Merz, Bruno; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    In many flood-prone regions on earth, the nature of the floods calls for a multivariate approach as analyzing flood frequency, which provides a basic for a sound flood hazard and risk assessment. That is because the flood severity is determined not only by the peak flood discharge as usually considered but also by other aspects such as the volume and even the hydrograph shape of the flood. However, the multivariate flood frequency analysis taking into account its associated uncertainty sources has rarely been studied. The Mekong Delta is one of the largest and most densely populated deltas on Earth. It witnesses annual large scale inundations which are associated to the SE-Asian monsoons. These floods are the basis for the livelihoods of the population of the Delta, but they are also the major hazard. This hazard has, however, not been studied within the frame of a probabilistic flood hazard analysis. Thus this study focuses on the identification of a suitable statistical model for the estimation of flood frequencies considering two important flood aspects peak Q and volume V and exemplifies its applicability for a sound flood hazard assessment for the case study in the Mekong Delta. A copula-based bivariate statistical model with bootstrapping-based uncertainty estimation is, hence, developed for a flood frequency analysis of peak flow and volume. The analysis reveals that even with the available - in a hydrological context - quite long data series (e.g. 88 years in the Mekong Delta), large uncertainties are associated to the bivariate quantiles (Q, V), even for rather frequent events. The main uncertainty source is the sampling uncertainty, thus a direct consequence of the limited length of the data series. However, we still advocate for applying the proposed bivariate frequency method for flood frequency estimation in the Mekong Delta because a) it reflects the essential aspects of floods in this region, b) the uncertainties are inherent for every multivariate

  14. An Examination of Using Self-, Peer-, and Teacher-Assessment in Higher Education: A Case Study in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of implementing self-, peer- and teacher-assessment in teacher education in order to examine the ways of applying these assessment practices and specifically aims at finding out the level of agreement among pre-service teachers' self-, peer- and teacher-assessments of presentation performances. Pre-service…

  15. Exploring Alternative Ways of Assessing Prior Knowledge, Its Components and Their Relation to Student Achievement: A Mathematics Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailikari, Telle; Nevgi, Anne; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates how different types of prior knowledge influence student achievement and how different assessment measures influence the observed effect of prior knowledge. We introduce a model of prior knowledge that distinguishes between different types of prior knowledge and uses different assessment measures to assess different types…

  16. Using Plant Clinic Registers to Assess the Quality of Diagnoses and Advice Given to Farmers: A Case Study from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Boa, Eric; Mafabi, Moses; Mutebi, Emmanuel; Reeder, Robert; Kabeere, Flavia; Karyeija, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed a framework for quality assessment of diagnoses and advice given at plant clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Clinic registers from five plant clinics in Uganda (2006-2010) were used to develop quality assessment protocols for diagnoses and advice given by plant doctors. Assessment of quality of diagnoses was based…

  17. Potential Distribution of Alien Invasive Species and Risk Assessment: a Case Study of Erwinia amylovora in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; CHEN Juan; HU Bai-shi; JIANG Ying-hua; LIU Feng-quan

    2007-01-01

    Alien invasive species represent a severe risk to biodiversity and economy, as in the case of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), a bacterial disease that originated in North America, which may be released into new locations by means of fruit trade. On the basis of the knowledge of Erwinia amylovora's biophysical characteristics and environmental data, the geographic information system (GIS) has been applied to determine areas where Erwinia amylovora can potentially invade China. Temperature and precipitation, during the blossoming period, are considered to be two critical factors affecting the Erwinia amylovora's suitable climatic zones. This spatial modeling approach was validated from a case study in Europe, where the occurrence of Erwinia amylovora has been proven. The model prediction agreed with the occurrence of the bacteria recorded in Europe, and the same procedure has been applied to produce a potential establishment area in China's two preferential apple cultivation regions, Bohai Bay region and Huangtu Altiplano region. It has been found that areas belonging to the high-risk category are more or less the main apple producing areas, accounting for their great economic importance in China. This methodology provides an initial baseline for assessment, prevention, and management of alien species that may become invasive under certain environmental conditions. In addition, this modeling approach provides a tool for policy makers to use, in making decisions on management practices where alien species are involved.

  18. Assessment and regulation of ocean health based on ecosystem services:Case study in the Laizhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; SHI Honghua; DING Dewen; WANG Zongling

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem-based management of nearshore waters requires integrated assessment of ocean health and scientific guidance on artificial regulations to promote sustainable development. Quantitative approaches were developed in this paper to assess present and near-term ocean health based on ecosystem services. Results of the case study in the Laizhou Bay of China showed that the index score of ocean health was 0.785 6 out of 1.0 at present and was expected to range from 0.555 1 to 0.804 1 in the near-term future depending on different intensities of artificial regulation of negative pressures. Specifically, the results of ocean health at present mainly indicated that cultural services and provisioning services performed essentially perfectly while supporting services and regulating services functioned less well. It can be concluded that this nearshore ecosystem would partially lose supporting and regulating services in the near-term future if the increasing pressures were not well-regulated but that all of these categories of ecosystem services could be slightly improved if the negative pressures were fully controlled. Additionally, it is recommended that publicity and education on ecosystem services especially on cultural services and regulating services should be further strengthened. The analytical process and resulting quantification provide flexible tools to guide future development of regulations so as to facilitate ecosystem-based management in the coastal zone.

  19. KULTURisk regional risk assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of the KULTURisk regional risk assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River basin, in northern Switzerland. Flood-related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in an urban area, by calibrating the methodology to the site-specific context and features. Risk maps and statistics have been developed using a 300-year return period scenario for six relevant targets exposed to flood risk: people; economic activities: buildings, infrastructure and agriculture; natural and semi-natural systems; and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the target area and, therefore, to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tools. Through a tailored participatory approach, risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores weighting for the different receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher (relative) risk scores are spatially concentrated in the deeply urbanized city centre and areas that lie just above to river course. Here, predicted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and to the presence of vulnerable people; flooded buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, most of them in regards to the Zurich central station (Hauptbahnhof) are at high risk of inundation, causing severe indirect damage. Moreover, the risk pattern for agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage is relatively

  20. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  1. A Case Study on a Trial Site in Western Austria to Assess Benefits of Railway Lineside Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lineside vegetation along railways can provide a wide range of ecosystem services and benefits. At the same time, there are several specific demands on the vegetation systems ensuring maintenance of highest standards of safety and operational performance. As a first step of the study, these demands on lineside vegetation but also their potentials for both rail specific internal and external benefits were summarized. For further analyses a case study was performed. A trial site, located in Austriás western federal state of Vorarlberg, was selected. The overall trial corridor was 22 km long and offered a large diversity in geomorphology, embankment types and surrounding land cover. A GIS-based classification of location types was conducted by using available open source geodata. Additionally, images, taken every fifty meters by a camera, mounted on a locomotive, supported the classification process. Following parameter were assessed: type of the track body, geomorphology, site conditions, technical facilities and surrounding land cover. Along railway infrastructure facilities, ecosystem services, provided by the lineside vegetation, are closely associated with improvement of the stability and resilience of embankments and cuttings. At the same time, specific criteria that must be fulfilled at every location type. These are safety and technical issues, such as keeping the railway clearance profile, economical issues respectively avoiding additional maintenance costs by strong plant growth. Supplementary ecosystem services are strongly related to the position in the landscape and the surrounding land cover. Along urban structures, that can be noise- or sight protection, provided by the lineside vegetation. On location types along agricultural land, lineside vegetation can provide ecological corridors or enhance the landscape structure. In this context, ecosystem services were derived to the previously assigned location types. The result of the case study is a GIS

  2. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  3. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  4. Development of Relative Risk Model for Regional Groundwater Risk Assessment: A Case Study in the Lower Liaohe River Plain, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled wit...

  5. Energy–environment–economy assessment of waste management systems from a life cycle perspective: Model development and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model that integrates life cycle energy, environment, and economy is developed. • The most important inconsistencies between LCC and LCA are unified. • The methodology improvement of MCDM is supplemented to be more logical. • A two-step sensitivity analysis is added to overcome subjectivity by decision makers. • MSW landfill and incineration are compared for model application. - Abstract: How to choose an energy-efficient, environmentally friendly and economically affordable municipal solid waste (MSW) management system has been a major challenge to be taken up by decision makers. Although life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used for the evaluation of energy consumption and environmental burden, the economic factor is not considered yet in LCA procedures. Thus, in the present study life cycle 2E (energy and environment) assessment is extended to a 3E (energy, environment, and economy) model. To evaluate economic performance, life cycle cost (LCC) is adjusted in accordance with LCA. Afterwards, multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is improved to integrate 3E factors. Besides, a two-step weight factor analysis is added, not only to test the robustness of the model, but also to adopt different preferences proposed by different stakeholder groups. This novel 3E model is then applied for the comparison of different MSW treatment technologies: (1) landfill; (2) landfill with biogas conversion to electricity; (3) incineration with energy recovery. Results show that incineration scores 0.944/1 and performs best among all scenarios; landfill with biogas to electricity, with final score 0.722/1, ranks second; and landfill without energy recovery (score: 0/1) is the worst choice. Furthermore, the weight factor analysis also shows a highly credibility of the results: when changing each factor’s weight from 0 to 1, less than 30% of the cases exhibit the variation in ranking order; almost no change in ranking order occurs when

  6. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: ► LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. ► The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. ► Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. ► Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. ► This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  7. An assessment of patient education and self-management in diabetes disease management--two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Karen; Greenwood, Deborah; Payne, Hildegarde; Thomson, John; Vukovljak, Lana; McCulloch, Amber; Specker, James E

    2008-12-01

    Diabetes affects 7.8% of Americans, nearly 24 million people, and costs $174 billion yearly. People with diabetes benefit from self-management; disease management (DM) programs are effective in managing populations with diabetes. Little has been published on the intersection of diabetes education and DM. Our hypothesis was that diabetes educators and their interventions integrate well with DM and effectively support providers' care delivery. A literature review was conducted for papers published within the past 3 years and identified using the search terms "diabetes educator" and "disease management." Those that primarily addressed community health workers or the primary care/community setting were excluded. Two case studies were conducted to augment the literature. Ten of 30 manuscripts identified in the literature review were applicable and indicate that techniques and interventions based on cognitive theories and behavioral change can be effective when coupled with diabetes DM. Better diabetes self-management through diabetes education encourages participation in DM programs and adherence to recommended care in programs offered by DM organizations or those that are provider based. Improved health outcomes and reduced cost can be achieved by blending diabetes education and DM. Diabetes educators are a critical part of the management team and, with their arsenal of goal setting and behavior change techniques, are an essential component for the success of diabetes DM programs. Additional research needs to be undertaken to identify effective ways to integrate diabetes educators and education into DM and to assess clinical, behavioral, and economic outcomes arising from such programs.

  8. The assessment of land exploitation by enumerating microbial population: Case study in several locations at Dieng Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumarsih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification program in Indonesia which is carried out by using high yield variety, high chemicals use and soil disturbances tends to trigger land exploitation. Land exploitation, performed without considering the land’s capability can generate degradations on the land itself. Various methods have been used to determine land exploitation level, including evaluation of soil microbe resources as on soil component. This research is aimed to assess land exploitation level, based on the amount of microbial population. The result of this research is expected to add the soil quality standard criteria. In the case study performed in Dieng plateau, representative soil sampling method was used. The amount of microbial population can be enumerated using plating and MPN method. Based on nutrient availability to indicate the soil biological characteristics, the soil under the trees, shrub, and Colocasia were classified as “below normal”, and the soil under the grass, tobacco, cabbage and potato were classified as “normal”. It shows that the land exploitation at the agricultural soils were still in the range of its land capability.

  9. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  10. Assessing District-Heating Sustainability. Case Studies of CO{sub 2} Mitigation Strategies and Environmental Cost Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Elsa

    2012-11-01

    impacts of air pollution may strongly influence least-cost operations of DH systems, especially in systems that include combined heat and power plants. However, case study results show that effects on cost-effectiveness of annual DH generation are generally minor. Applying life cycle thinking to economic and environmental analyses of energy systems proves to be of great importance to the outcome and reliability of DH assessments. This thesis emphasises the importance of paying attention to environmental impacts of airborne emissions other than CO{sub 2}, including emissions from upstream processes. As life cycle processes, pollutants and impact categories are covered in external cost accounting to a greater extent, the more accurate the results will be, while the accounting process will be more complex and time-consuming. However, this thesis illustrates that an external cost accounting based on a simplified approach may be as accurate as employing a more comprehensive approach HIT.

  11. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Anna Francina, E-mail: Francina.Jackson@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Recio, Leslie, E-mail: lrecio@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waters, Michael D., E-mail: mwaters@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Lambert, Iain B., E-mail: Iain.Lambert@carleton.ca [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  12. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  13. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urban development-a case study of land readjustment project,Hyogo District, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian(葛坚); LU Jiang(陆江); HOKAO Kazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO2 were also presented and the relevant environmental effects were simulated.

  14. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urban development--a case study of land readjustment project, Hyogo District, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Lu, Jiang; Hokao, Kazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO(2) were also presented and the relevant environmental effects were simulated.

  15. The Fear of Being Assessed: An Auto-Ethnographic Case Study on Attempts to Engage and Motivate an Individual Disaffected Access Student

    OpenAIRE

    Lebor, Merv

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how a tutor engaged an individual student who was abusive to teachers and would not carry out coursework assessments which tutors had set him in the Lifelong Learning Sector. It offers strategies to overcome barriers to achievement, particularly where a student resists carrying out required assessment tasks. It is a self-reflexive, auto-ethnographic case study. The research is based on observation, interview and a narratology of the researcher’s own involvement in the situ...

  16. Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urbandevelopment--a case study of land readjustment project,Hyogo District, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛坚; 陆江; HOKAOKazunori

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO2 were also presented and the relevant environmental ef-fects were simulated.

  17. Reshaping teacher thinking, planning and practice using embedded assessment: Case studies of three middle school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeranyama, Letina Ngwenya

    At the dawn of the 21st century the science education community is seeking ways of improving science education to produce a scientific literate citizenry. They have put forth new goals. Teachers are key to all efforts to improve schools, that without their full participation, any move to reform education nor matter how well intentioned is doomed to failure. The changes in the goals of science education imply that teachers have to change the way they teach science. Some scholars have suggested that one way to help teachers attain the reform goals is by using embedded assessment. Embedded assessment is defined as a cyclical and ongoing process whereby teachers gather data about students' understanding as they teach, they analyze the data formally or informally and use the analysis to plan or adjust teaching immediately, for the next hour, day, topic, unit or year. The next day's activities also include embedded assessment and so the cycle repeats itself. This study investigates how teachers make sense of embedded assessment, how embedded assessment looks in practice, how it influences teachers and their classroom environments and the challenges teachers face as they use embedded assessment. Three middle school science teachers were involved in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions, participant observations and professional development conversations. Data were analyzed using the qualitative method of constant comparative analysis. The findings indicate that teachers passed through different stages in conceptualizing embedded assessment. This conceptualization influenced the way embedded assessment looked in the classroom. Embedded assessment took many forms and shapes in the teachers' classrooms. Embedded assessment influenced the teachers' perspectives about the curriculum, students, teaching, assessment, planning and reflection in ways that enabled the teachers to be investigators of their students' understanding

  18. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics:A case study of mobile phones in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Y. Wu; Y. C. Chan; A. Middendorf; X. Gu; H. W. Zhong

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg-1. The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg-1, respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  19. Assessment of toxicity potential of metallic elements in discarded electronics: a case study of mobile phones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B Y; Chan, Y C; Middendorf, A; Gu, X; Zhong, H W

    2008-01-01

    The electronic waste (e-waste) is increasingly flooding Asia, especially China. E-waste could precipitate a growing volume of toxic input to the local environment if it was not handed properly. This makes the evaluation of environmental impact from electronics an essentially important task for the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the end-of-life management of electronic products. This study presented a quantitative investigation on the environmental performance of typical electronics. Two types of disposed mobile phones (MPs), as a representative of consumer electronics, were evaluated in terms of toxicity potential indicator (TPI) with an assumption of worst-case scenario. It is found that the composition and the percentages of constituents in MPs are similar. More than 20 metallic elements make up 35 wt.%-40 wt.% of the total weight, of which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. With the TPI technique, the environmental performance of Pb is attributed to be 20.8 mg(-1). The total TPIs of metallic elements in the old and new type MP is 255,403 and 127,639 units, respectively, which is equivalent to the effect of releasing 6.14 and 12.28 g Pb into the environment. The average TPI of the old and new type MP is 4.1 and 4.5 mg(-1), respectively, which suggests a similar eco-efficiency per unit mass. The new model of MP is more eco-effective than the old one, which is not due to a reduction in the type of hazardous elements, but rather due to a significant miniaturization of the package with less weight. A single MP can have a considerable toxicity to the environment as referred to Pb, which suggests a major concern for the environmental impact of the total e-waste with a huge quantity and a heavy mass in China.

  20. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  1. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N.G. Agomoh

    2013-01-01

    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  2. The use of simulated whole effluents in toxicity assessments: A review of case studies from reverse osmosis desalination plants

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenberg, L. J.; Styan, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is an increasingly common means to meet the demand for freshwater. Resulting wastewater discharges can, however, impact biota of the surrounding environment. Concern exists that interactive effects specific to the outputs of each desalination plant may result in unique impacts difficult to predict by studying existing plants or assessing the effects of individual chemicals found in waste streams. Given this, we highlight an alternative approach to assess potential toxici...

  3. How objective are protected area management effectiveness assessments? A case study from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton Carbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of protected area management effectiveness was developed out of a genuine desire to improve the way protected areas are managed and reported on, in relation to a formalised set of conservation objectives. For monitoring and reporting purposes, a number of participatory methods of rapidly assessing management effectiveness were developed. Most rapid assessment methods rely on scoring a range of protected area-related activities against an objective set of criteria documented in a formal questionnaire. This study evaluated the results of two applications of the same management effectiveness assessment tool applied to the same protected area, namely the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. The manner in which the assessments were undertaken differed considerably and, not unexpectedly, so did the results, with the national assessment scoring significantly higher than the provincial assessment. Therefore, a further aim was to evaluate the operating conditions applied to each assessment, with a view to determining which assessment was more closely aligned with best practice and hence which score was more credible. The application of the tool differed mainly with respect to the level of spatial detail entered into for the evaluation, the depth and breadth of the management hierarchy that was consulted, the time in which the assessment was undertaken and the degree of peer review applied. Disparate scores such as those obtained in the assessments documented here are likely to bring the discipline of management effectiveness assessment into disrepute unless an acceptable and standardised set of operating procedures is developed and adopted. Recommendations for such a set of ‘indispensable constants’ were made in this article to ensure that management effectiveness assessments remain robust and reputable, thereby ensuring an honest picture of what is happening on the ground. Conservation implications: We proposed that standard

  4. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Susan L., E-mail: makris.susan@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gray, L. Earl [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, (MD-72), Highway 54, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, (Mail code 8P-W), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Foster, Paul M.D. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233 (MD K2-12), Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

  5. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  6. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method-A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingzhang Chen; Hui Chen; Yong You; Jinfeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6%of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are clas-sified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  7. Fully exploitation of SBAS-DInSAR deformation time series for assessing structural damage: the case study of Rome, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, Manuela; Arangio, Stefania; Calò, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Maria; Marsella, Maria; Manunta, Michele

    2014-05-01

    those situations where a quick analysis of a large number of buildings is needed. Finally, such an integrated method is valuable to carry out accurate back-analyses on the conditions of the investigated buildings over time and, in some cases, also predictive studies to estimate their future structural conditions. References Arangio, S., Calò, F., Di Mauro, M., Bonano, M., Marsella, M., Manunta, M, 2013, An application of the SBAS-DInSAR technique for the assessment of structural damage in the city of Rome (Italy), Structure and Infrastructure Engineering: Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle Design and Performance, DOI: 10.1080/15732479.2013.833949 Bonano, M. Manunta, M. Marsella, and R. Lanari, 2012, Long-term ERS/ENVISAT deformation time-series generation at full spatial resolution via the extended SBAS technique, Int. J. Remote Sens., 33, 15, pp. 4756-4783, doi:10.1080/01431161.2011.638340. Finno R.J., Voss F.T., Rossow E., Blackburn J.T., 2005, Evaluating damage potential in building affected by excavations, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 1199-1210. Lanari, R., Mora, O., Manunta, M., Mallorquí, J.J., Berardino, P., Sansosti E., 2004, A small baseline approach for investigating deformations on full resolution differential SAR interferograms, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 42, 1377-1386.

  8. Bayesian approach to the assessment of the population-specific risk of inhibitors in hemophilia A patients: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ji Cheng,1,2 Alfonso Iorio,2,3 Maura Marcucci,4 Vadim Romanov,5 Eleanor M Pullenayegum,6,7 John K Marshall,3,8 Lehana Thabane1,2 1Biostatistics Unit, St Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Geriatrics, Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 5Baxter HealthCare, Global Medical Affairs, Westlake Village, CA, USA; 6Child Health Evaluation Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, 7Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, 8Division of Gastroenterology, Hamilton Health Science, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Developing inhibitors is a rare event during the treatment of hemophilia A. The multifacets and uncertainty surrounding the development of inhibitors further complicate the process of estimating inhibitor rate from the limited data. Bayesian statistical modeling provides a useful tool in generating, enhancing, and exploring the evidence through incorporating all the available information.Methods: We built our Bayesian analysis using three study cases to estimate the inhibitor rates of patients with hemophilia A in three different scenarios: Case 1, a single cohort of previously treated patients (PTPs or previously untreated patients; Case 2, a meta-analysis of PTP cohorts; and Case 3, a previously unexplored patient population – patients with baseline low-titer inhibitor or history of inhibitor development. The data used in this study were extracted from three published ADVATE (antihemophilic factor [recombinant] is a product of Baxter for treating hemophilia A post-authorization surveillance studies. Noninformative and informative priors were applied to Bayesian standard (Case 1 or random-effects (Case 2 and Case 3 logistic models. Bayesian probabilities of satisfying three meaningful thresholds of the risk of developing a clinical

  9. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops. PMID:18296343

  10. Assessing the magnitude of recent compositional changes in marine ecosystems: a conservation paleobiology case study from the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Nearly every modern marine ecosystem has experienced major changes due to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat modification, pollution, overexploitation and climate change. However, our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics in a historical time-frame (decades to few centuries) is restricted by the lack of direct, recorded human observations: properly designed ecological surveys have been conducted for comparatively short durations in the last few decades only, and in merely a few localities, poorly representative of large-scale phenomena. A unique but under-exploited source of information is hidden in death assemblages (DAs), the taxonomically identifiable, dead or discarded organic remains in a seabed. Due to the slow degradation of hard skeletal parts such as shells in the sea, DAs represent archives that accumulate information on species composition and community states over time and are inert to recent changes. Assessing the degree in compositional and ecological similarity between living (LAs) and death assemblages can be used to reconstruct the degree of recent community disturbances. Previous studies have shown that live-dead (LD) agreement tends to be poorer in anthropogenically disturbed settings, because LAs respond faster than DAs to pressures, thus increasing the LD disagreement in composition. As a complementary approach, age dating of shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization) allows identifying the timing of ecosystem change. These approaches help recognize community shifts in time, overcoming the lack of direct observation. As a case study, we present the results of applying these techniques to the impacts of oil platforms on the benthic assemblages in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. This semi-enclosed basin originated 12,500 years ago and currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, it has been affected by major oil spills. Contaminants show a weak gradient within each

  11. Dynamic assessment of existing soft catenary systems using modal analysis to explore higher train velocities: a case study of a Norwegian contact line system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnquist, Anders; Nåvik, Petter

    2015-06-01

    Significant advances made on the rolling stock have considerably increased the possibility of higher speeds in existing railways. Thus, it is important to explore higher speeds and potential limiting factors of existing soft catenary systems. The present paper investigates procedures to assess the dynamic behaviour of these systems using response sampling and modal analysis. The assessment evaluates and quantifies dynamic response along the section. To verify the approach, a case study is conducted and the following assessment methods are used: lengthwise track correlation estimating dynamic predictability, power spectral density estimations before and after passage and short-time Fourier transforms and spectrograms. The combination provides detailed information on the dynamic behaviour. The first part introduces necessary considerations for suggested modal analysis. The second part describes an existing Norwegian section. The case study is conducted using a finite element model including a straight and a given section between Oslo-Trondheim, providing detailed evaluations and system limitation detections.

  12. Low-Wind and Other Microclimatic Factors in Near-road Black Carbon Variability: A Case Study and Assessment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne black carbon from urban traffic is a climate forcing agent and has been associated with health risk to near-road populations. In this paper, we describe a case study of black carbon concentration and compositional variability at and near a traffic-laden multi-lane highw...

  13. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government intere

  14. Using combined eye tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Salgado, A.; Spence, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data ob

  15. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Assessment of technical specifications for the reactor protection system instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study presents a methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of alternative plant technical specifications regarding system surveillance frequencies and out-of-service times. The methodology is applied to the reactor protection systems of a 4 loop BWR-RESAR-3S type nuclear power plant. The effect of the statistical characteristics of the system on the relative comparison of various sets of technical specifications is examined through sensitivity studies and an uncertainty analysis. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Can the use of clickers or continuous assessment motivate critical thinking? A case study based on Corporate Finance students

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of clickers as a tool to support, encourage and motivate critical thinking in higher education students. A case study was carried out with a cohort of undergraduate students undertaking the BSc. in Accounting and Finance during the academic year 2009/10, were corporate finance was a major component. Since the students in this sample had previously demonstrated passivity during their corporate finance classes, it was proposed that clickers would help motivate them t...

  17. Using Dust Assessment Technology to Leverage Mine Site Manager-Worker Communication and Health Behavior: A Longitudinal Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Emily J.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Hoebbel, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Research continues to investigate barriers to managing occupational health and safety behaviors among the workforce. Recent literature argues that (1) there is a lack of consistent, multilevel communication and application of health and safety practices, and (2) social scientific methods are absent when determining how to manage injury prevention in the workplace. In response, the current study developed and tested a multilevel intervention case study at two industrial mineral mines to help m...

  18. Assessing Landscape Change in a Mining Area of the Peruvian Andes. A Case Study in The Yanacocha Mine, Cajamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios-Berrios, Hildebrando

    2006-01-01

    This study examines physical and perceived landscape change in a mining area in northern Peru. Mining conflicts between companies and local people have intensified; this highlights the necessity of a better understanding of environmental and social consequences of mining activities. Landscape studies could be relevant to understand such problematic. I aim to assess the landscape change in a mining area by (1) mapping the physical landscape change and (2) surveying the local lan...

  19. Assessment of Challenges facing Small and Medium Enterprises towards International Marketing Standards: a Case Study of Arusha Region Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Paluku Kazimoto

    2014-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) new or existing, often face challenges when approach products providers for both enterprise fixed capital investment and market standards. The insufficient supply of microloans is a major issue, particularly where business creators are unemployed persons. This study aims to assess challenges facing Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) towards international marketing standards. Study findings show that SME’s face challenges to access international marketing unawa...

  20. How to use mechanistic effect models in environmental risk assessment of pesticides: Case studies and recommendations from the SETAC workshop MODELINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Forbes, Valery; Grimm, Volker; Preuss, Thomas G; Thorbek, Pernille; Ducrot, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic effect models (MEMs) are useful tools for ecological risk assessment of chemicals to complement experimentation. However, currently no recommendations exist for how to use them in risk assessments. Therefore, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) MODELINK workshop aimed at providing guidance for when and how to apply MEMs in regulatory risk assessments. The workshop focused on risk assessment of plant protection products under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 using MEMs at the organism and population levels. Realistic applications of MEMs were demonstrated in 6 case studies covering assessments for plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. From the case studies and their evaluation, 12 recommendations on the future use of MEMs were formulated, addressing the issues of how to translate specific protection goals into workable questions, how to select species and scenarios to be modeled, and where and how to fit MEMs into current and future risk assessment schemes. The most important recommendations are that protection goals should be made more quantitative; the species to be modeled must be vulnerable not only regarding toxic effects but also regarding their life history and dispersal traits; the models should be as realistic as possible for a specific risk assessment question, and the level of conservatism required for a specific risk assessment should be reached by designing appropriately conservative environmental and exposure scenarios; scenarios should include different regions of the European Union (EU) and different crops; in the long run, generic MEMs covering relevant species based on representative scenarios should be developed, which will require EU-level joint initiatives of all stakeholders involved. The main conclusion from the MODELINK workshop is that the considerable effort required for making MEMs an integral part of environmental risk assessment of pesticides is worthwhile, because

  1. Assessing the Influence of Fashion Clothing Advertising on Women's Consumer Behaviour in Finland; a case study of H&M

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Abu Adab, Sari

    2012-01-01

    This study will provide a framework for analysing the current advertising and marketing patterns in women’s consumer behaviour in Finland. Swedish clothing retailer Hennes&Mauritz (H&M) was chosen as a case study since it is considered to be well-known in Finland; in 2010 average sales were astonishingly around 243million euros (H&M 2012). As this research is considered to be a broad topic, this study will focus on women in Finland aged 16-35 and above. This study will use various research m...

  2. Program plan for performing social impact assessment: a case study of coal development in the Powder River region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, M.; Greene, M.

    1976-06-01

    A program plan for conducting a social impact assessment for the Powder River Basin has been developed to provide guidelines for a comprehensive document; one that identifies the impacts as they are perceived by the affected communities and indicates how such information may best be used to manage adverse impacts. We have attempted to give a comprehensive overview of existing studies, resources, and descriptions of the potential methodologies that may be used in carrying out the impact assessment and in developing management strategies. Also, we briefly outlined the steps that should be included in the social impact assessment process. This outline and a flow diagram of the steps involved are a concise description of the suggested program plan.

  3. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  4. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Peter B.;

    2011-01-01

    studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C60 in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C60 in these applications as well as demonstrate...

  5. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

  6. Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Hydrology : Development of a Methodology through a Case Study in the Andes of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Walter; Deeb, Alejandro; Leino, Irene; Kitoh, Akio; Escobar, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of study of the impacts of climate change on mountain hydrology is to develop a methodology to assess the net impacts of climate change on the hydrological response in mountainous regions. This is done through a case study in the Peruvian Andes. There are few examples of predictions of the impact of climate change on resource availability and even fewer examples of the applic...

  7. Assessing Microfinance: The Bosnia and Herzegovina Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneWelle-Strand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance is often hailed both as a tool for fighting poverty and as atool for post-conflict reconciliation. This paper explores the use of microfinancein post-civil war Bosnia and Herzegovina, assessing its resultsin terms of both goals. As it combined high unemployment witha highly educated population in an institutionally open context, Bosniaand Herzegovina provides a crucial test of the effect of microfinance. Ifunambiguous signs of success cannot be found in a case with such favorableconditions, this would raise serious questions about the potentialbenefits of microfinance. The paper draws together evidence froma series of independent reviews of microfinance in Bosnia and Herzegovina,to assess its impact in terms of economic performance, theeconomic system, social welfare and post-conflict integration. Basedon this case study, microfinance appears a better tool for dealing withpoverty than with social integration or institution building.

  8. Empirical Assessment of Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms Designs under Aggressive Savings Goals: Case Study of a Kansas"Super-Utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2009-08-03

    Achieving significant reductions in retail electric sales is becoming a priority for policymakers in many states and is echoed at the federal level with the introduction of legislation to establish a national energy efficiency resource standard. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. In response to an information request from the Kansas Corporation Commission staff, we conducted a financial analysis to assess the utility business case in Kansas for pursuing more aggressive energy efficiency that complies with recent state legislation. Kansas' utilities are vertically integrated and don't face retail competition. With historically low retail rates and modest experience with energy efficiency, the achievement of rapid and substantial sales reductions from energy efficiency will require a viable utility business model. Using a conglomerate of the three largest utilities in Kansas, we quantitatively illustrate the tradeoff between ratepayer and shareholder interests when a 1percent reduction in incremental sales is achieved through energy efficiency both with and without the impact of future carbon regulation. We then assess if the utility can be compensated in a manner that produces a sufficient business case but leaves an adequate amount of net resource benefits for ratepayers at a cost that is not overly burdensome. Finally, we show how several common shareholder incentive mechanisms would be designed to achieve this balance.

  9. Rigorous uncertainty assessment in contaminant transport inverse modelling: a case study of fluoride diffusion through clay liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L S J; Binning, P J; Kuczera, G; Kau, P M H

    2002-07-01

    Inverse methods used in assessing landfill liner design have not yet taken advantage of current developments in inverse procedures. Here, a method for inverting contaminant transport models is presented including a general error model and procedures for differentially weighted multiple response regression. General error models are employed in cases where the residuals are heteroscedastic and correlated, and lead to valid inference on model parameter and predictive uncertainty. The Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm is used to optimise model parameters. Model parameter uncertainty is assessed by exploring the posterior probability distribution with the Metropolis algorithm, a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The inverse method is applied to simultaneously determine the sorption and diffusion parameters from laboratory diffusion cell experiments. In these experiments, fluoride migration through kaolin clays was measured by sampling the source and collector cells over time. To uniquely determine the transport model parameters, it was necessary to simultaneously fit the observed data from two independent diffusion cell experiments with different initial concentrations. The jointly fitted transport model parameters compared well with those fitted to independent batch experiments. PMID:12143989

  10. Assessing barriers to expansion of farm-to-chef sales: a case study from upstate New York

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Hadcock, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Columbia County Bounty is a local organization made up of farmer and culinary business members, with a mission that includes promoting connections between local agricultural producers and culinary businesses. A case study was conducted to address questions raised by CCB related to expanding farm-to-chef marketing in their area. Common barriers for restaurants included larger time commitments, inconvenience, and consistency in product volumes and quality; however, satisfaction with local whole...

  11. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Enthesitis in HLA-B27 Positive Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, a Matched Case-Only Study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Mera-Varela; Aida Ferreiro-Iglesias; Eva Perez-Pampin; Marisol Porto-Silva; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Antonio Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HLA-B27 has a modifier effect on the phenotype of multiple diseases, both associated and non-associated with it. Among these effects, an increased frequency of clinical enthesitis in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) has been reported but never explored again. We aimed to replicate this study with a sensitive and quantitative assessment of enthesitis by using standardized ultrasonography (US). METHODS: The Madrid Sonography Enthesitis Index (MASEI) was applied to the US as...

  12. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljevic, Boris; Lantuit, Hugues; Pollard, Wayne; Overduin, Paul; Couture, N. J.; Sachs, Torsten; Helm, Veit; Fritz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settl...

  13. The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State

    OpenAIRE

    Dayang Norwana, A.A.B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R.

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research process assessing the local economic, social and environmental impacts from feedstock expansion for the growing biofuel sector (see German et al. 2011). Nonetheless, in the Malaysian context, biofuel production volumes are negligible despite government interest in promoting sector expansion. Since Malaysia is the second largest palm oil producer in the world, palm oil is slated to become the primary feedstock for biofuel production in the country. Sinc...

  14. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Donglong Li; Hongbo Zhang; Shixiang Cai; Xiaodong Li; Tianqi Ao

    2015-01-01

    The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study a...

  15. The importance of population susceptibility for air pollution risk assessment: a case study of power plants near Washington, DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Greco, Susan L; Spengler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the magnitude and distribution of health benefits associated with emission controls at five older power plants in the Washington, DC, area. We used the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model to determine the primary and secondary fine-particulate-matter (< ...

  16. Risk assessment of tobacco, alcohol and diet in cancers of base tongue and oral tongue--a case control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao D; Desai P

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective case-control study of male tongue cancer patients seen at Tata memorial Hospital, Bombay, during the years 1980-84. The purpose of the study was to identify the association of tobacco, alcohol, diet and literacy status with respect to cancers of two sub sites of tongue namely anterior portion of the tongue (AT) (ICD 1411-1414) and base of the tongue (BT) (ICD 1410). There were 142 male AT patients and 495 BT patients interviewed during the period. 635 interviewed male ...

  17. Government Crisis Assessment and Reputation Management. A Case Study of the Vietnam Health Minister's Crises in 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuong-Minh Ly-Le

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, many government announcements have gathered negative receptions from the public. Among them, Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Tien, Vietnam Minister of Health, has received more of it. Through the case study of Ms. Kim Tien’s many scandals during the 2013-2014 period, this study is interested to see if the health scandals eventually elevated into a government crisis, how they affected the minister’s reputation, and what she could have done to better respond to the public. This study examined news articles on such health scandals to confirm whether the health scandals indeed escalated to be a government crisis. It also identified the advantages and disadvantages of Ms. Kim Tien’s responses in restoring her reputation to the public to understand what factors contributed to public dissatisfaction toward the minister. This study concluded that poorly-managed health scandals eventually elevated into a government crisis and greatly affected the minister’s reputation. It is suggested that PR is what the government needs to deal with such situations. The research also leaves room for a quantitative approach to the case to increase the result’s validity and representativeness. Until now, as the health issues and the resignation appeals are still needed, the crisis management effort should get more attention from the government, and such study is needed to better understand the situation.

  18. Self-Assessment of Adherence to Medication: A Case Study in Campania Region Community-Dwelling Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Menditto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess self-reported medication adherence measure in patients selected during a health education and health promotion focused event held in the Campania region. The study also assessed sociodemographic determinants of adherence. Methods. An interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the Italian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Participants older than 18 years were interviewed by pharmacists while waiting for free-medical checkup. Results. A total of 312 participants were interviewed during the Health Campus event. A total of 187 (59.9% had low adherence to medications. Pearson’s bivariate correlation showed positive association between the MMAS-8 score and gender, educational level and smoking (P<0.05. A multivariable analysis showed that the level of education and smoking were independent predictors of adherence. Individuals with an average level of education (odds ratio (OR, 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.08–4.52 and nonsmoker (odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–3.35 were found to be more adherent to medication than those with a lower level of education and smoking. Conclusion. The analysis showed very low prescription adherence levels in the interviewed population. The level of education was a relevant predictor associated with that result.

  19. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill.

  20. Assessment of quality and relevance of curricula development in health training institutions: a case study of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbo, Hazel M; Kinaro, Joyce W

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization lists Kenya among African countries experiencing health workforce crisis catalysed through immigration, underproduction, inconsistent quality of production and unequal distribution. Strengthening health training institutions to increase production of high-quality health workers is acknowledged as a measure to mitigate the crisis.IntraHealth International's USAID-funded FUNZOKenya Project (2012-2017) undertook an assessment to identify the bottlenecks to increasing the number and quality of pre-service graduates in Kenya. The assessment, a cross-sectional descriptive study, collected data through structured respondent interviews among faculty, students in health training institutions, key informants and desk review. The assessment purposively selected 14 institutions from 18 institutions identified for initial collaboration with the project towards strengthening health workforce training. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) application helped analyse quantitative data and quotes used to illustrate perceptions on the quality of curricula.The findings revealed major gaps in quality and adequacy of curricula in the training institutions. A national standard framework to guide curricula review process is lacking. Further, curricula did not adequately prepare students for clinical placement, as most failed to directly respond to national health needs. The study recommended reviews of curricula to ensure their responsiveness to emerging issues in the health sector, the formation of curriculum committees to review curricula, development of official curricula review standards and an integrated mechanism to disseminate policies and guidelines. PMID:26268602

  1. A Comparative Assessment of Wind Turbine Innovation and Diffusion Policies. Historical Case Studies of Energy Technology Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neij, Lena; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines have become a mainstream technology, a first choice for many when investing in new electricity generation facilities. This comparative case study addresses how governmental policy has been formulated to support the wind turbine innovation and diffusion process. Three innovation stages...... be summarised as: • support diversity in technology and market formation • research, development and demonstration (R,D&D) is necessary but not sufficient • quality assurance is essential for new technologies • support interaction and networking • ensure support is stable, continuous and flexible Taken together......, these elements of a successful innovation approach show that government policy needs to support the development of the entire innovation system: not just the development of turbines and associated infrastructure, but also the involvement of actors, networks, and market institutions. The case of wind energy...

  2. How can sludge dewatering devices be assessed? Development of a new DSS and its application to real case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanza, Giorgio; Papa, Matteo; Canato, Matteo; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Pedrazzani, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    A key issue in biological Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) operation is represented by the sludge management. Mechanical dewatering is a crucial stage for sludge volume reduction; though, being a costly operation, its optimization is required. We developed an original experimental methodology to evaluate the technical (dewatering efficiency) and financial (total treatment costs) performance of dewatering devices, which might be used as a DSS (Decision Support System) for WWTP managers. This tool was then applied to two real case studies for comparing, respectively, three industrial size centrifuges, and two different operation modes of the same machine (fixed installation vs. outsourcing service). In both the cases, the best option was identified, based jointly on economic and (site-specific) technical evaluations. PMID:24603031

  3. Ecological service assessment of human-dominated freshwater ecosystem with a case study in Yangzhou Prefecture,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ya-ping; WANG Ru-song; REN Jing-ming; HU Dan; YUAN Shao-jun; WANG Min

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide a host of services to humanity. These services are now rapidly being lost, not least because of the inability of making the impacts measurable. To overcome this obstacle, assessment frameworks for freshwater ecosystem services are needed. A simple water equivalent framework to assess the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems was developed in this study. It translated the occupation of freshwater ecosystem services into biologically freshwater volumes and then compares this consumption to the freshwater throughput, that is, the ecological capacity available in this region. In this way, we use the example of Yangzhou Prefecture, to account the main categories of human occupation of water ecosystem services. The result showed that there is a huge gap between the consumption and the supply of freshwater ecosystem services. This must encourage local government to make land-use and water management decisions both economically rational and environmentally sound.

  4. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt;

    2013-01-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM......) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM–LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts...... through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM–LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining...

  5. Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Patients with Psoriasis: Risk Profile Including Carotide Ultrasonography Assessed in Hospital-based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, Jana; Juzlova, Katerina; Dzambova, Martina; Hercogova, Jana; Gopfertova, Dana

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its comorbidities have attracted serious interest in recent years. The evidence that psoriasis is associated with systemic inflammation and significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors has already been described. The results of published studies are highly variable, the conclusions are ambiguous, and further epidemiological studies are needed for validation of published data. Therefore, we initiated a project aimed at identifying the association with cardiovascular risk factors, including early stages of atherosclerosis, that represent important comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study on 189 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis enrolled as cases. The control group consisted of 378 patients with other skin diseases complying with the same exclusion criteria who were recruited to the study as the controls. All participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, and measuring of blood pressure and waist circumference. Furthermore, we evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a subset of 117 cases and controls (matched 1:2) with no history of cardiovascular disease. The results showed higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, waist circumference, weight, body-mass index (BMI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with psoriasis than in controls. These parameters have been clearly demonstrated to be risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The associations between psoriasis and diastolic blood pressure, BMI value, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were statistically significant in the binary data logistic model as well. CIMT was not significantly higher in patients compared with controls. PMID:27663919

  6. Is There Value in Asking the Question “Do you think you would be better off dead?” in Assessing Suicidality? A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The author of the widely used suicidality scale, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale, has repeatedly made the claim that asking the question, “Do you think you would be better off dead?” in suicidality assessment delivers false positive results. This case study investigates the value of this question as an immediate antecedent to impulsive suicidality and as a correlate of functional impairment.

  7. Integrated health and environmental risk assessment and risk management in large industrial areas. Case study Zagreb (CSZ). Final report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of the Phase 1 of the research within the Case Study Zagreb co-financed by the IAEA according to the project YUG/9/029. The basic long term aim of the project is the reduction in hazards to human health and to the environment in the area of Zagreb. This project is about risk assessment and risk management to achieve the environment protection goals

  8. Assessing levels of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" in psychodynamic psychotherapy with children: a case study approach (preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the degree of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" during the first year of two children's once-weekly psychodynamic psychotherapy.Methods: This study used a longitudinal, descriptive, repeated-measures design based on the systematic case study method. Two male school children (here referred to as Walter and Peter and their therapists took part in the study. All sessions were video and audio recorded. Ten sessions from each case were selected for analysis in this preliminary study. Trained examiners (randomly selected in pairs independently and blindly evaluated each session using the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ. Experts in psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy from several countries rated each of the 100 CPQ items with regard to how well it characterized a hypothetical ideal session of either treatment modality. A series of paired t tests comparing analogous adherence scores within each session were conducted.Results:There were no significant correlations between time elapsed and adherence to the prototypes. Walter's treatment adhered to both prototypes and Peter's treatment did not adhere to either prototype.Conclusion:Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.

  9. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk. PMID:26020518

  10. Applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) in occupational heat stress assessment: a case study in brick industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatani, Javad; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Yousefi, Azam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as an innovative and science-based index in public health researches, in occupational heat stress assessment. All indoor and outdoor workers (200 people) of Brick industries of Shahroud, Iran participated in the research. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity and relative humidity were measured; then UTCI and WBGT (wet-bulb globe temperature) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oral temperature, skin temperature, tympanic temperature and heart rate of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT indices were 34.2 ± 2°C, 21.8 ± 1.8°C in the outdoor environments and 38.1 ± 4.4°C, 24.7 ± 3.3°C at the indoor environments, respectively. There were the weak inverse relationships between UTCI and WBGT indices at the outdoor environments and physiological responses such as systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. However, there were no similar results for indoor environments. The significant relationships were found between UTCI and WBGT at both indoor and outdoor environments. Both UTCI and WBGT indices are suitable for assessing the occupational heat stress. Although, UTCI index seems more appropriate for heat stress assessment in the environments with low humidity and air velocity. PMID:26320731

  11. Positional Accuracy Assessment of the Openstreetmap Buildings Layer Through Automatic Homologous Pairs Detection: the Method and a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is currently the largest openly licensed collection of geospatial data. Being OSM increasingly exploited in a variety of applications, research has placed great attention on the assessment of its quality. This work focuses on assessing the quality of OSM buildings. While most of the studies available in literature are limited to the evaluation of OSM building completeness, this work proposes an original approach to assess the positional accuracy of OSM buildings based on comparison with a reference dataset. The comparison relies on a quasi-automated detection of homologous pairs on the two datasets. Based on the homologous pairs found, warping algorithms like e.g. affine transformations and multi-resolution splines can be applied to the OSM buildings to generate a new version having an optimal local match to the reference layer. A quality assessment of the OSM buildings of Milan Municipality (Northern Italy), having an area of about 180 km2, is then presented. After computing some measures of completeness, the algorithm based on homologous points is run using the building layer of the official vector cartography of Milan Municipality as the reference dataset. Approximately 100000 homologous points are found, which show a systematic translation of about 0.4 m on both the X and Y directions and a mean distance of about 0.8 m between the datasets. Besides its efficiency and high degree of automation, the algorithm generates a warped version of OSM buildings which, having by definition a closest match to the reference buildings, can be eventually integrated in the OSM database.

  12. What constitutes success in preventive health care? A case study in assessing the benefits of hip protectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, G; Quine, S; Cameron, I D

    2004-10-01

    The economic success of preventive health programs is typically assessed by the net health-related utility gain or loss to society relative to the cost. Issues relating to the positive or negative utility associated with participating in a preventive health program are often ignored. However, it is likely that calls for informed consumer choice and respect for patient autonomy will provide an impetus to examine utility associated with the process and outcomes of preventive health programs. In this paper, we outline the nature of the ex ante and ex post perspective in evaluating benefits and the presence of process utility and the utility of gambling in individual's utility function for preventive health care. The implications of including process attributes and psychological states when assessing benefits to society are discussed in relation to an empirical study on the value of external hip protectors for the prevention of hip fractures. We demonstrate that wearing hip protectors and the psychological outcomes of being a participant in the program can have a significant impact on individual's assessment of the benefits. Furthermore, point of reference plays a crucial role in their valuation. Individuals who did not consent to participate in a trial of hip protectors valued all states significantly lower than those who did participate in the trial. We argue that the utility associated with adherence to the intervention is an important issue for preventive health policy. From the viewpoint of applied welfare economics, evaluation of preventive health programs should allow for both process and outcome utility when assessing benefits. In this context, success might be viewed as maximising the opportunity for individuals to make an informed choice. PMID:15279918

  13. Application of the BRAFO tiered approach for benefit–risk assessment to case studies on dietary interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhagen, Hans; Andersen, Rikke; Antoine, Jean-Michel;

    2011-01-01

    for the individual effects done by others; no new risk or benefit evaluations were made. The following case studies were thoroughly analysed: an example of food fortification, folic acid fortification of flour, macronutrient replacement/food substitution; the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids...... with carbohydrates; the replacement of saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids; the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages containing mono- and disaccharides with low calorie sweeteners and an example of addition of specific ingredients to food: chlorination of drinking water....

  14. Assessing molecular docking tools for relative biological activity prediction: a case study of triazole HIV-1 NNRTIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Tomasz; Siwek, Agata; Paneth, Piotr

    2013-12-23

    Molecular docking is a technique widely used in drug design. Many studies exist regarding the general accuracy of various docking programs, but case studies for a given group of related compounds are rare. In order to facilitate identification of novel triazole HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), several docking and scoring programs were evaluated for their ability to predict relative biological activity of 111 known 1,2,4-triazole and 76 other azole type NNRTIs. Glide, FlexX, Molegro Virtual Docker, AutoDock Vina, and Hyde were used. Different protocols, settings, scoring functions, and interaction terms were analyzed. We have found that the programs performance was dependent on the data set, indicating the importance of choosing good quality target data for any comparative study. The results suggest that after optimization and proper validation, some of the molecular docking programs can help in predicting relative biological activity of azole NNRTIs. PMID:24266618

  15. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area. PMID:27075311

  16. A Gate-to-gate Case Study of the Life Cycle Assessment of an Oil Palm Seedling

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Surif, Salmijah; Ai, Tan Yew; May, Choo Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The palm oil industry has played an important role in the economic development of Malaysia and has enhanced the economic welfare of its people. To determine the environmental impact of the oil palm seedling at the nursery stage, information on inputs and outputs need to be assessed. The oil palm nursery is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. A gate-to-gate study was carried out whereby the system boundary was set to only include the process of the oil palm seedling. The starting poin...

  17. Assessing Computer Knowledge in Senior High School: A Case Study of the Upper East Region in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Oladejo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study contracted with assessing the knowledge of computer in Senior High Schools of the Upper East Region in Ghana. Approach: Data collected by means of administration of questionnaire brings out the level of computer knowledge expected from a student completing a Senior High School in the Upper East Region in Ghana. 140 sample students from 8 districts were selected for the study. Results: Hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 while the analyses of data were presented through SAS and SPSS. General Linear Model (GLM, post ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD were also used. Conclusion: The study revealed that an average student in Senior High School of the Upper East Region can not pass in computer subject. The research further revealed that gender has no influence on the level of computer knowledge of a student. This indicates that the level of computer knowledge of males and females is not significantly different.

  18. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  19. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system. PMID:19209604

  20. Rapid biodiversity assessment and monitoring method for highly diverse benthic communities: a case study of mediterranean coralligenous outcrops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Kipson

    Full Text Available Increasing anthropogenic pressures urge enhanced knowledge and understanding of the current state of marine biodiversity. This baseline information is pivotal to explore present trends, detect future modifications and propose adequate management actions for marine ecosystems. Coralligenous outcrops are a highly diverse and structurally complex deep-water habitat faced with major threats in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its ecological, aesthetic and economic value, coralligenous biodiversity patterns are still poorly understood. There is currently no single sampling method that has been demonstrated to be sufficiently representative to ensure adequate community assessment and monitoring in this habitat. Therefore, we propose a rapid non-destructive protocol for biodiversity assessment and monitoring of coralligenous outcrops providing good estimates of its structure and species composition, based on photographic sampling and the determination of presence/absence of macrobenthic species. We used an extensive photographic survey, covering several spatial scales (100s of m to 100s of km within the NW Mediterranean and including 2 different coralligenous assemblages: Paramuricea clavata (PCA and Corallium rubrum assemblage (CRA. This approach allowed us to determine the minimal sampling area for each assemblage (5000 cm(2 for PCA and 2500 cm(2 for CRA. In addition, we conclude that 3 replicates provide an optimal sampling effort in order to maximize the species number and to assess the main biodiversity patterns of studied assemblages in variability studies requiring replicates. We contend that the proposed sampling approach provides a valuable tool for management and conservation planning, monitoring and research programs focused on coralligenous outcrops, potentially also applicable in other benthic ecosystems.

  1. An Assessment of Competencies of the Adult Education Facilitators Through Valid Pack: A Case Study of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adinarayana Reddy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available India being the most populous countries, has taken initiatives to qualify the human resources by implementing various educational programmes from time to time. Adult education is in operation at different levels for different sections of the population. The Saakshar Bharat is an Adult Education Programme which is an extension of National Literacy Mission intended to impart functional literacy to 70 million illiterates in the age group of 15 years and beyond. In addition, it is to cover 1.5 million adults under basic education programme and an equal number under vocational (skill development programme. The functionaries involved are of heterogeneous in their qualifications and competencies. The functionaries involved in Saakshar Bharat are administrators (Director, Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors, Project Officers etc., facilitators (Supervisors, Mandal Coordinators, Adult Literacy Teachers (Literacy Educators, Village Coordinators. There are no clear-cut prescriptions for the qualifications/ competencies for the functionaries working at grass root level viz., facilitators and adult teachers. Very few attempts have been made to develop the tools for assessment of the competencies of adult education facilitators and to measure them. The present paper provides an insight into the assessment of the adult education facilitators competencies by using valid pack, an instrument developed in the European context. It also study the competencies of the facilitators based on self ratings, external observer’s ratings and consolidated ratings i.e., and studied the relationship be-tween competencies and personal characteristics of the Adult Education Facilitators.

  2. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  3. Assessment of hydraulic fish habitat condition using integrated toolkit: a case study of the Geum river basin, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangyoung; Kim, Jeongkon; Ko, Ick Hwan; Arthington, Angela; Jones, Gary; Yum, Kyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    Artificial changes of rivers, including construction and operation of dams, inevitably lead to physical and ecological changes throughout waterways and their floodplains. In this study, a conceptual model coupled with integrated numerical modeling is presented for hydraulic fish habitat assessment of the Geum River basin, Republic of Korea. Based on the major events which might have affected the ecological system, a conceptual model was formulated to guide desktop and field studies, modeling and scenario evaluations. The result of hydraulic fish habitat assessment indicated that the construction of the Daecheong Multipurpose Dam (DMD) in the Geum River basin has altered flow magnitudes and reduced the river's flow variability. Changes are evident in the magnitude of medium and small flows and the river experiences increased low flows during the dry season. Black shiner, an endangered fish species in Korea, was selected and analyzed to explore relationships between flow regime change by dams and changes to its preferred habitats. As a result, fewer sensitive riffle-benthic species were observed in the reaches downstream of DMD due to the reduction of suitable habitat conditions such as riffle-pool sequences. The proposed conceptual model and integrated toolkit would allow river managers to isolate the physical and biological effects associated with dam operation and could be useful for developing river management strategies.

  4. A Comparison of deterministic and probabilistic approaches for assessing risks from contaminated aquifers: an Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, Maria Fernanda; Fallico, Carmine; Guerra, Ignazio; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    In this article we consider the methods of deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis regarding the presence of chemical contaminants in soil, water and air, with a broader meaning than usual for the latter, as we extended the probabilistic treatment to the parameters that influence the transport to a greater extent, in particular hydraulic conductivity and partition coefficient. These parameters, to which only one value is assigned, are considered here as random variables. The objective of the study reported herein was to demonstrate that application of the probabilistic method of risk assessment is preferable to the use of the deterministic method. Both methods yield contaminant removal levels that will reduce adverse effects on human health and the environment, but results from the deterministic method are typically more conservative than necessary, and are thus more costly to achieve. In addition, we found it essential to consider the importance of random variables (the parameters influencing the flow and the transport), such as the hydraulic conductivity and the partition coefficient, when assessing health risks. Both methodologies of health risk analysis, deterministic and probabilistic, were applied to a site in southern Italy, contaminated by heavy metals. The results obtained confirm the purposes of this study. PMID:24293229

  5. Demographic Data Assessment using Novel 3DCCOM Spatial Hierarchical Clustering: A Case Study of Sonipat Block, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Malik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection is a tool employed by GIS scientists who specialize in the field of spatial analysis. This study employed a combination of GIS, RS and a novel 3DCCOM spatial data clustering algorithm to assess the rural demographic development strategies of Sonepat block, Haryana, India. This Study is undertaken in the rural and rural-based district in India to demonstrate the integration of village-level spatial and non-spatial data in GIS environment using Hierarchical Clustering. Spatial clusters of living standard parameters, including family members, male and female population, sex ratio, total male and female education ratio etc. The paper also envisages future development and usefulness of this community GIS, Spatial data clustering tool for grass-root level planning. Any data that showsgeographic (spatial variability can be subject to cluster analysis.

  6. Lean assessment for manufacturing of small and medium enterprises (SMEs: A case study of electronics industry in the Northeast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Laoha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at assessing for manufacturing a small and medium enterprise of electronic industry case study in the Northeast of Thailand. Electronic industry produces integrated circuits products (IC. We use lean assessment tools with 14 lean technique and tools. The value of lean assessment are scoring system derived from the malcolm baldrige national quality award, the two-dimensioned scoring system composing of the process; approach, deployment, learning, and integration. There are reveal operations of each of lean techniques and tools, and the performance; the 0 - 4 level needed to be improved in depth and hence would reflect operations requiring sustainable outcomes. This lean assessment is a systematic approach, assessor come to sit, examine operations from a lean perspective and assessed the situation as prior. The purposes of this visit were to introduced to production or factory manager or window person of SMEs who gave assessor a tour of the plant. Assessor also got a chance to explain lean assessment criteria on the shop floor. Assessor selects a value streaming line that produce most goods or main production line to assess. Assessor takes 1 day to assess and discuss the lean assessment. As a result, the lean assessment survey should be adjusted to fit the systems adaptively. Three plants of electronic industries were leanness of 1.06 or 26%. Five plants of garment industry were leanness of 1.13 or 28%. Four plants of shoe industry were leanness of 1.39 or 34%. Shoe industry had high leanness all unless quick changeover and multi skill. The quick changeover and multi skill were high score on garment industry. Electronics industry has not the lead but second in visual management, 5s, operation base layout, quick changeover, multi skill, standard operation procedures, and policy deployment.

  7. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Fritz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settlement on Herschel Island, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate site. The resulting map may help local stakeholders devise management strategies to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. We analyzed shoreline movement using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) after digitizing shorelines from 1952, 1970, and 2011. Using these data, forecasts of shoreline positions were made for 20 and 50 years into the future. Flooding risk was assessed using a cost-distance map based on a high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level estimates. Widespread erosion characterizes the study area. The rate of shoreline movement for different periods of the study ranges from -5.5 to 2.7 m·a-1 (mean -0.6 m·a-1). Mean coastal retreat decreased from -0.6 m·a-1 to -0.5 m·a-1, for 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively, and increased to -1.3 m·a-1 in the period 2000-2011. Ice-rich coastal sections, and coastal sections most exposed to wave attack exhibited the highest rates of coastal retreat. The geohazard map resulting from shoreline projections and flood risk analysis indicates that most of the area occupied by the historic settlement is at extreme or very high risk of flooding, and some buildings are vulnerable to coastal erosion. The results of this study indicate a greater threat by coastal flooding than erosion. Our assessment may be applied in other locations where limited data are available.

  8. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design. PMID:18406517

  9. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  10. Ultrasonographic assessment of enthesitis in HLA-B27 positive patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a matched case-only study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mera-Varela

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HLA-B27 has a modifier effect on the phenotype of multiple diseases, both associated and non-associated with it. Among these effects, an increased frequency of clinical enthesitis in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA has been reported but never explored again. We aimed to replicate this study with a sensitive and quantitative assessment of enthesitis by using standardized ultrasonography (US. METHODS: The Madrid Sonography Enthesitis Index (MASEI was applied to the US assessment of 41 HLA-B27 positive and 41 matched HLA-B27 negative patients with longstanding RA. Clinical characteristics including explorations aimed to evaluate spondyloarthrtitis and laboratory tests were also done. RESULTS: A significant degree of abnormalities in the entheses of the patients with RA were found, but the MASEI values, and each of its components including the Doppler signal, were similar in HLA-B27 positive and negative patients. An increase of the MASEI scores with age was identified. Differences in two clinical features were found: a lower prevalence of rheumatoid factor and a more common story of low back pain in the HLA-B27 positive patients than in the negative. The latter was accompanied by radiographic sacroiliitis in two HLA-B27 positive patients. No other differences were detected. CONCLUSION: We have found that HLA-B27 positive patients with RA do not have more enthesitis as assessed with US than the patients lacking this HLA allele. However, HLA-B27 could be shaping the RA phenotype towards RF seronegativity and axial involvement.

  11. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Qingjie; Deng Jun; Xiang Yunchuan; Wang Qingfei; Yang Liqiang

    2008-01-01

    Pollution index is a powerful tool for ecological geochemistry assessment. The commonly used pollution indices by heavy metals in soils and sediments were classified as two types of single index and integrated index in an algorithm point of view. Four single indices of contamination factor (or concentration factor), ecological risk factor, enrichment factor, and index of geo-accumulation were illustrated, and the reference values for calculating single indices were distinguished into background levels and threshold pollution values. Eight integrated indices were divided into two groups. One group is suitable for the normal distribution single indices including the sum, average, weighted average,vector modulus, and Nemerow pollution indices, and the other for log-normal distribution including the product, root of product, and weighted power product pollution indices. Using background levels as reference values, five contamination classes were divided, and the terminologies are suggested for the single and integrated indices to unify the assessment results. Software of EGAPI was developed in a single document interface to calculate the four single and eight integrated indices by heavy metals to assess the quality of soil and sediment ecological geochemistry. Pollution indices by heavy metals of Cu,Pb, and Zn in soils in parks of Beijing were calculated using EGAPI software, and these five contamination classes and terminologies suggested in this study were evaluated and used. Results ofintegrated indices of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils indicated that the soil qualities are unpolluted as a whole and varied from low polluted to unpolluted status from the center to the outskirts of Beijing City.

  12. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Lai, F Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca(2+) release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins. PMID:27500320

  13. Genetic and Biochemical Approaches for In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of Protein Oligomerization: The Ryanodine Receptor Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanczyk, Paulina J; Lai, F Anthony; Zissimopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization is often a structural requirement for proteins to accomplish their specific cellular function. For instance, tetramerization of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) is necessary for the formation of a functional Ca(2+) release channel pore. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the assessment of protein self-association, including yeast two-hybrid (Y2H), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and chemical cross-linking assays. In the Y2H system, protein self-interaction is detected by β-galactosidase assay in yeast co-expressing GAL4 bait and target fusions of the test protein. Protein self-interaction is further assessed by co-IP using HA- and cMyc-tagged fusions of the test protein co-expressed in mammalian HEK293 cells. The precise stoichiometry of the protein homo-oligomer is examined by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis following expression in HEK293 cells. Using these different but complementary techniques, we have consistently observed the self-association of the RyR N-terminal domain and demonstrated its intrinsic ability to form tetramers. These methods can be applied to protein-protein interaction and homo-oligomerization studies of other mammalian integral membrane proteins.

  14. Indicator-based model to assess vulnerability to landslides in urban areas. Case study of Husi city (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    In the last three or four decades, vulnerability evolved from physical fragility meanings to a more complex concept, being a key element of risk assessment. In landslide risk assessment, there are a large series of studies regarding landslide hazard, but far fewer researches focusing on vulnerability measurement. Furthermore, there is still no unitary understanding on the methodological framework, neither any internationally agreed standard for landslide vulnerability measurements. The omnipresent common element is the existence of elements at risk, but while some approaches are limited to exposure, other focus on the degree of losses (human injuries, material damages and monetary losses, structural dysfunctions etc.). These losses are differently assessed using both absolute and relative values on qualitative or quantitative scales and they are differently integrated to provide a final vulnerability value. This study aims to assess vulnerability to landslides at local level using an indicator-based model applied to urban areas and tested for Husi town (Eastern Romania). The study region is characterized by permeable and impermeable alternating sedimentary rocks, monoclinal geological structure and hilly relief with impressive cuestas, continental temperate climate, and precipitation of about 500 mm/year, rising to 700 m and even more in some rainy years. The town is a middle size one (25000 inhabitants) and it had an ascending evolution in the last centuries, followed by an increasing human pressure on lands. Methodologically, the first step was to assess the landslide susceptibility and to identify in this way those regions within which any asset would be exposed to landslide hazards. Landslide susceptibility was assessed using the logistic regression approach, taking into account several quantitative and qualitative factors (elements of geology, morphometry, rainfall, land use etc.). The spatial background consisted in the Digital Elevation Model and all derived

  15. Assessing Site Availability of Aspen and Northern Hardwoods for Potential Feedstock Development in Michigan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wood and wood byproducts as biomass feedstocks is of increasing interest as a source of ethanol and electricity. Second generation woody feedstock sources in Michigan, e.g., hybrid poplar and hybrid willow (Populus spp., and native forests, particularly aspen and northern hardwoods, are a potential source of woody biomass for these uses. This study provides a geographic information system (GIS framework for assessing the current spatial extent of aspen and northern hardwoods and their proximity to roads. Additionally, the potential for expanding the area of these feedstock sources based on pre-European settlement vegetation cover is assessed. Utilizing GIS technology to compile, edit and analyze available geospatial data (e.g., present day and pre-European settlement land use/cover, soils, road infrastructure, and land ownership for counties located in the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula and northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan provides a robust framework for various management scenarios to be evaluated in a cost effective manner and foster better decision making.

  16. Slope stability assessment of weathered clay by using field data and computer modelling: a case study from Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Görög

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A future development site of a housing estate, an abandoned-brick yard with clayey slopes was studied in details to assess slope stability and to calculate the factor of safety. The Oligocene clay, the former raw material, is divided into two different geotechnical units in the clay pit. The lower one consists of grey impermeable clays while the upper unit is characterised by yellowish weathered clay having a limited permeability. At some localities the topmost weathered clay layers are covered by loess, and slope debris. Parts of the former pit were also used as a landfill site. The slope stability analyses were performed based on borehole information and laboratory analyses in order to provide necessary engineering geological data for further site development and urban planning. Two geotechnical codes Plaxis and Geo4 were used to model the slope failures and assess the slope stability. The aim of using two different approaches was to compare them since Plaxis uses finite elements modelling while Geo4 uses conventional calculation methods to obtain circular and polygonal slip surfaces. According to model calculations and field data, the main trigger mechanisms of landslides seem to be high pore pressure due to rainwater and small slope debris covered springs. The slip surface is located at the boundary zone of yellow weathered and grey unaltered clay. Two computer models gave very similar results; although Plaxis provides combined safety factor which is slightly more pessimistic when compared to the safety factor obtained by using Geo4.

  17. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  18. Ecosystem health assessment of urban rivers and lakes-Case study of "the six lakes" in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of the ecosystem health of urban rivers and lakes is the scientific basis for their management and ecological restoration.This study developed a three-level indicator system for its assessment.The results indicated that:Zhonghai and Nanhai are in the state of transition from unhealthy to critical state and all the other lakes are in unhealthy states.Water environmental quality,structure and function of the aquatic ecosystem,and the structure of waterfront areas were the constraints.Nanhai was ranked as poor and the others were all ranked as very poor.However,the ecological environment of Zhonghai and Nanhai were better than the others,the sums of the degree of membership to the healthy state and critical state were all close to 0.6.and the restorations of these lakes were moderate.The sums of the degree of membership to the healthy state and critical state of the other lakes were under 0.3,as it was difficult to restore these lakes.Some suggestions on scientific management and ecological restoration of the six lakes were improve the water quality of six lakes and the water ecosystem and waterfront areas.

  19. Comparison between three different LCIA methods for aquatic ecotoxicity and a product Environmental Risk Assessment – Insights from a Detergent Case Study within OMNIITOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pant, Rana; Van Hoof, Geert; Feijtel, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective. In the OMNIITOX project 11 partners have the common objective to improve environmental management tools for the assessment of (eco)toxicological impacts. The detergent case study aims at: i) comparing three Procter & Gamble laundry detergent forms (Regular Powder......) with results from an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA). Material and Methods. The LCIA has been conducted with EDIP97 (chronic aquatic ecotoxicity) [1], USES-LCA (freshwater and marine water aquatic ecotoxicity, sometimes referred to as CML2001) [2, 3] and IMPACT 2002 (covering freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity......) [4]. The comparative product ERA is based on the EU Ecolabel approach for detergents [5] and EUSES [6], which is based on the Technical Guidance Document (TGD) of the EU on Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of chemicals [7]. Apart from the Eco-label approach, all calculations are based on the same...

  20. The application of resilience assessment - resilience of what, to what, with what? A case study based on Caledon, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Ting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Resilience assessment can be used to determine major issues, stakeholders, vulnerabilities, and opportunities of a social-ecological system to enhance resilience. A resilience assessment was conducted on the Town of Caledon, Ontario between 2010 and 2011 using the Resilience Assessment Workbook for Practitioners (version 1). The assessment explores the following three questions: Resilience of what? Resilience to what? Resilience with what? The answer to the first question describes the histor...