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Sample records for assessment analise ambiental

  1. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  2. The environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and natural gas exploration and production in the world and in Brazil: a comparative analysis considering the utilization of studies of the strategic environmental assessment; O processo de licenciamento ambiental das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural offshore no mundo e no Brasil: uma analise comparativa considerando a utilizacao de estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This study presents an analyses of the environmental licensing processes of the offshore oil and gas exploration and production of the following countries: USA, UK, Norway, Australia and Canada, and makes a comparison with the Brazilian case. This study also emphasizes the use of the Strategical Environmental Assessments (SEA) before the bid procedures. The SEA studies aim to predict and to evaluate the environmental implications of the adoption of sectorial policies and programs and are very useful to the decision making processes. They permit the exclusion of environmental sensitive areas and contribute to the improvement of the environmental management of the regions where the activities will take place. The selected countries use SEA as an environmental management tool and their experience is analysed so as to provide suggestions for the improvement of the current Brazilian environmental licensing process. (author)

  3. Identification and analysis of the environmental management documentation related to the activities of environmental and chemical analysis laboratories; Identificacao e analise da documentacao pertinente a gestao ambiental relacionada as atividades de laboratorios de analises quimicas e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otomo, Juliana Ikebe; Brandalise, Michele; Romano, Renato Lahos; Marques, Roberto; Szarota, Rosa Maria; Raduan, Rosane Napolitano; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina; Egute, Nayara dos Santos; Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br

    2009-08-15

    In the last years, many documents were elaborated by several countries and entities, concerning the environmental question. The implantation of and Environmental Management System requires specific documentation so that a company or laboratory can adjust themselves to the environmental quality. For laboratories of chemical, environmental analyses and also nuclear materials, the needs of attendance to the requirements of the following municipal, state and federal institutions were identified: Corpo de Bombeiros, CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, IBAMA - Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renovaveis, ANVISA - Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, PMSP - Prefeitura Municipal de Sao Paulo e a CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo. (author)

  4. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  5. Photovoltaic energy: environmental and economic analysis of axis solar trackers for photovoltaic installations; Energia fotovoltaica: analise economica ambiental de seguidores solares para instalacoes fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Andrea Galvao; Bertolon, Expedito; Pacca, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades. Curso de Gestao Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    In this work we present an economic assessment photovoltaic systems using single axis and dual axis solar trackers. The analysis was carried out for the city of Sao Paulo and the results show that in comparison with fixed installations, the single axis system and the dual axis system produce respectively 19.6% and 24.7% more power. The power output of the dual axis system is 4.3% greater than the power output of the single axis system. Considering an annual discount rate of 12% and the equipment cost, the cost of the surplus energy due to the use of the single axis and the dual axis trackers was R$0.25/kWh and R$0.18/kWh. Because the average cost of electricity produced by photovoltaic modules is R$3/kWh, we recommend the installation of solar trackers. (author)

  6. Environmental law in Brazil: analysis of environmental licensing of wind power plants in permanently preserved areas; Direito ambiental no Brasil: analise do licenciamento ambiental de usinas eolicas de preservacao permante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Cristiano Abijaode; Pedreira, Adriana Coli; Bleil, Julia Rechia [Associacao Brasileira dos Investidores em Autoproducao de Energia (ABIAPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@abiape.com.br, adriana@abiape.com.br, julia@abiape.com.br

    2011-04-15

    , legal and environmental doctrine, and interviews with agents and entrepreneurs in order to identify gaps in the regulatory acts or the inefficacy in the application of existing norms. We observed that the Forest Code and the Resolutions of the National Environment Council - CONAMA - confer legal feasibility to the establishment of wind power plants in these protection environmental areas in exceptional cases when it has been proved that there is no other option in terms of location, and that the enterprise is characterized as a public utility. However, despite extensive legal provision regarding the jurisdiction of the licensing agencies and concerning the type of environmental impact study to be required in the implementation of infrastructure works, judicial and administrative impediments have been occurring because these ventures are being established in environmentally sensitive areas in Brazil . Thus, it is essential to establish a clear and objective regulatory framework so as to make compatible the establishment of wind farms in Brazil and the protection of the environment, bearing in mind the legal standards and the economic viability of these projects. Among the findings of this study, we can highlight the following: the State agencies are responsible for the licensing of wind power plants in APPs; the Environmental Impact Assessment required in these cases may be the Simplified Environmental Report (RAS), since the environmental impact of these enterprises is small; due to the uniqueness of the environmental protection areas, specific studies that detail the impact on dunes, hills, mountains, salt marsh vegetation or coastal areas may be required; there is conflict of jurisdiction when the projects are located in the Coastal and APP areas concomitantly, so it is essential that the regulations of the Brazilian Federal Constitution may be amended through complementary law in order to avoid the interruption of legal licensing processes concerning wind power

  7. Energy assessment of nitrogen variable rate fertilization on wheat; Analise energetica da aplicacao de nitrogenio em taxa variavel em trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, A.F.; Karam, E.H.; Romanelli, T.L.; Molin, J.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Biossistemas], Email: andrecolaco@usp.br; Povh, F.P. [Fundacao ABC Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Agropecuario, Castro, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Precision Agriculture (PA) is a technique that can reduce the inputs utilization in agriculture production, including the nitrogen fertilizer consume. Great importance is given to this fertilizer, due to its contribution on energy input in agriculture. Methodologies based on the calculation of energy flow of agriculture systems are capable to identify management practices that use energy more efficiently. So, this study's objective is to evaluate the variable-rate nitrogen fertilization on wheat, using energy assessment. This study was carried on in two wheat fields, in which the fertilization was done adopting strips alternated by conventional method (single nitrogen dose) and by nitrogen variable-rate technology. Thus, the input and output energy in the system, energy balance, energy return on investment (EROI) and incorporated energy were determined for each geo-referenced point within the fields. Results showed that less energy was demanded when using variable-rate technology, due to the nitrogen saving, providing greater energy balance, EROI and lower incorporated energy on the areas managed using PA. The energy assessment showed to be an important tool to evaluate systems that use PA, because it is capable of monitoring crops energy potential. (author)

  8. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BESKRYWING VAI'l TEGNIEKE EN CHEMIESE ANALISES VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    afwykings en koefftsiente van variasie tussen monsters en tussen analises binne monsters verstrek. Tussen monsters verteenwoordig die verskille tussen diere en tussen ana- lises binne monsters verteenwoordig die verskille tussen herhalings binne dieselfde monstefS en dui dus die akku- raatheid van die analises aan.

  10. 76 FR 58509 - Release of Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead AGENCY... available for public review the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead: Risk and... and/or welfare effects in this review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead...

  11. Assessment of ambient-temperature, high-resolution detectors for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution, gamma- and x-ray spectrometry are used routinely in nuclear safeguards verification measurements of plutonium and uranium in the field. These measurements are now performed with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors that require cooling liquid-nitrogen temperatures, thus limiting their utility in field and unattended safeguards measurement applications. Ambient temperature semiconductor detectors may complement HPGe detectors for certain safeguards verification applications. Their potential will be determined by criteria such as their performance, commercial availability, stage of development, and costs. We have conducted as assessment of ambient temperature detectors for safeguards measurement applications with these criteria in mind

  12. Digital image color analysis compared to direct dental CIE colorimeter assessment under different ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Attin, Rengin; Jung, Klaus; Brunner, Edgar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Attin, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the concordance and repeatability of two in vivo methods for dental color assessment and to clarify the influence of different ambient light conditions and subject's head position on the assessed color variables. Color assessments were performed by two examiners on 16 arbitrarily selected subjects under two different, standardized conditions of illumination and at two different standardized head angulations. CIE (L*a*b*) data for upper and lower central incisors were recorded in two different ways: (1) by an intra-oral contact dental colorimeter and (2) by processing digital images for performing color calculation using Adobe Photoshop software. The influence of the different ambient conditions on both methods, as well as the concordance of measurements was analyzed statistically using several mixed linear models. Ambient light as a single factor had no significant influence on maxillary L*, a* and b* values, but it did have an effect on mandible assessments. Head angulation variation resulted in significant L* value differences using the photo method. The operator had a significant influence on values a* and b* for the photo method and on a* values for the colorimeter method. In fully lit ambient condition, the operator had a significant influence on the segregated L*, a*, and b* values. With dimmed lights, head angulation became significant, but not the operator. Evaluation of segregated L* values was error prone in both methods. Comparing both methods, deltaE values did not exceed 2.85 units, indicating that color differences between methods and recorded under varying ambient conditions were well below the sensitivity of the naked eye.

  13. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, W.J.; Cooley, D.R.; Tuttle, A.F.; Frenkel, M.A.; Bergweiler, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  14. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  15. GIS-based models for ambient PM exposure and health impact assessment for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, John R; Grice, Susannah; Kent, Andrew; Cooke, Sally

    2009-01-01

    GIS-based models have been developed to map ambient PM 10 and PM 25 mass concentrations across the UK. The resulting maps are used for the assessments of air quality required by the EU ambient air quality directives, health impact assessment and the development of UK air quality policy. Maps are presented for 2006 along with projections to 2020. The largest single contribution to the UK population-weighted mean annual mean background concentrations of PM 10 in 2006 is estimated to be from secondary PM (43%), followed by the contribution from primary PM (24%). Concentrations are predicted to decline by 15% for PM 10 and 13% for PM 25 over the period from 2006 to 2020. The extent of exceedence of the 24-hour limit value is predicted to decline from 1.9% to 0.1% of urban major roads over the same period. The potential health benefits of reductions in ambient PM are large. A reduction in concentration of 0.93 μg m -3 as a result of a possible package of measures has been estimated within the UK Air Quality Strategy to result in a reduction in life years lost of approximately 2 - 4 million over a period of 100 years.

  16. Failure data specialization in quantitative risk assessments of process plants; Especializacao de dados de falha em analise quantitativa de riscos de plantas de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio C.O. [Bayer S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the Bayesian inference in reliability studies, which are used to failures rates updating in safety analyses. It is developed the impact of its using in quantitative risks assessments for industrial process plants. With this approach we find a structured and auditable way of showing the difference between an industrial installation with a good project and maintenance structure from another one that shows a low level of quality in these areas. In general the evidence from failures rates and as follow the frequency of occurrence from scenarios, which the risks taken in account in ERA, are taken from generics data banks, instead of, the installation in analysis. When using the plant data we need special effort to develop a data bank, that is, a maintenance managing system, which allows the data insertion as for example the SAP{sup R} and its PM module. (author)

  17. Issues in assessing the economic benefits of ambient ozone control: some examples from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the economic benefits arising from alternative secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards can provide one measure of regulatory efficiency. If benefits assessments are to be used in assessing regulatory impacts of federal standards as recently ordered by President Ronald Reagan, the economic concept of benefits, the limitations of benefits analysis, and the validity of those estimates needs to be clarified. Some methodological and applied issues which can effect the validity of environmental economic assessments as they pertain to agriculture are reviewed. Recent studies from the assessment literature on agriculture are critiqued with respect to how well they address such issues. An attempt is made to identify potential sources of variability in estimates found within that literature. Finally, implications for performance of future assessments are discussed.

  18. Administrative protection of the environment and the actions of IBAMA in the framework of the petroleum industry: an analysis of Normative Instruction in IBAMA. 14/2009; A tutela administrativa do meio ambiente e a atuacao do IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis) no ambito da industria do petroleo: uma analise da instrucao normativa IBAMA no. 14/2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Gabrielle Trindade Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2009-08-15

    The Oil Industry includes the practice of activities that involve high costs and risks to the environment. Thus, there is a need to regulate, supervise and, when necessary, restrain the performance of the sector with the aim of avoiding any acts that impact the environment. According to the Federal Constitution which provides in its article 225, it is responsibility of the Government to apply the penal and administrative sanctions, regardless of the obligation to repair the damage, the responsible, be it natural or juridical person, the conduct and activities considered harmful to the environment. These sanctions are the means of protecting the environment, namely civil, criminal and administrative protection. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to address the administrative supervision of the environment, through the notions pertaining to the police power of environmental and administrative responsibility, emphasizing that theme in its assumptions and its legal nature. Then review the administrative sanctions under infra constitutional level, alluding to that available to the specific legal matters, ie, Law 9.605/98 and Decree No 6.514/08. Finally, we explain the performance of the Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA) in the defense of legal and common usage that is the environment.

  19. Assessment of ambient noise levels in the urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R

    2012-12-01

    Street of Alexandria have numerous unplanned, mixed, and noisy activities that may interfere with public health and comfort. The aim of this study was to assess A-weighted ambient noise levels in urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, from September 2010 to January 2011, with the objective of recommending corrective actions to minimize high noise levels. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, in which A-weighted ambient noise levels were measured on the basis of 24-h periods, using Ono sokki la-5120--precision integrating sound level meter, from September 2010 to January 2011. The measurements were taken on three streets, which were selected using stratified random sampling. Seven measurement sites, along the three streets under study, were selected by site visits according to predetermined criteria. A-weighted ambient noise levels (LAeq) were the highest [70.7 (24.2) dB] on high-traffic-density and high-human-activity streets followed by streets with moderate and low traffic density and human activity [67.5 (31.3) and 62.8 (38.2) dB], respectively. It varied significantly depending on means of transportation (road traffic, train, and/or tram) and human activities (parking lots, shops, and/or street merchants). The A-weighted ambient noise levels on urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, exceeded the Egyptian National Standards during the three periods of the day (daytime, evening, and night), except in some relatively quiet locations during the night. Consequently, remedial actions to reduce noise levels were recommended.

  20. GIS-based assessment of cancer risk due to benzene in Tehran ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabi, Farideh; Mirzahosseini, Seyed Alireza Hajiseyed

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to assess the risk of cancer due to benzene in the ambient air of gas stations and traffic zones in the north of Tehran. The cancer risk was estimated using the population distribution data for benzene levels and the unit risk for benzene proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Sixteen sampling locations were monitored, once every week, during 5 April 2010 to 25 March 2011. The results showed that the mean annual benzene concentration was 14.51±3.17 parts per billion (ppb) for traffic zones and 29.01±1.32 ppb for outside gas stations. The risk calculated was 1026×10(-6) for gas station 27 and 955×10(-6) for gas station 139. According to our results, the annual benzene level in Tehran ambient air is 2 to 20 times higher than the respective value specified in International Standard (1.56 ppb). Moreover, the results showed a notable increase of cancer risks, ranging from 10% to 56%, for the vicinity population close to the gas stations in comparison to the vicinity population in the traffic zones.

  1. Ambient Ozone Exposure in Czech Forests: A GIS-Based Approach to Spatial Distribution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hůnová, I.; Horálek, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Zapletal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) is an important phytotoxic pollutant, and detailed knowledge of its spatial distribution is becoming increasingly important. The aim of the paper is to compare different spatial interpolation techniques and to recommend the best approach for producing a reliable map for O3 with respect to its phytotoxic potential. For evaluation we used real-time ambient O3 concentrations measured by UV absorbance from 24 Czech rural sites in the 2007 and 2008 vegetation seasons. We considered eleven approaches for spatial interpolation used for the development of maps for mean vegetation season O3 concentrations and the AOT40F exposure index for forests. The uncertainty of maps was assessed by cross-validation analysis. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the map was used as a criterion. Our results indicate that the optimal interpolation approach is linear regression of O3 data and altitude with subsequent interpolation of its residuals by ordinary kriging. The relative uncertainty of the map of O3 mean for the vegetation season is less than 10%, using the optimal method as for both explored years, and this is a very acceptable value. In the case of AOT40F, however, the relative uncertainty of the map is notably worse, reaching nearly 20% in both examined years. PMID:22566757

  2. Analysis of the environmental impact study of PCH (small hydropower plant) Ninho da Aguia. Proposal for optimization of the environmental licensing process using a simplified matrix; Analise do estudo de impacto ambiental da PCH Ninho da Aguia. Proposta de otimizacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental utilizando uma matriz simplificada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Tania Aparecida de Souza

    2004-07-01

    This work intended to study the methodologies used for EIA - Study of Environmental Impact - and propose the adaptation of a simplified matrix for the assessment of environmental impacts regarding small hydropower plants. A case study of Ninho da Aguia SHP, located in the city of Delfim Moreira, MG, was used for elaborating the matrix. The methodology used the analysis of all the negative impacts and they were given combined weight based on a pre-established impact scale. The weights that were given to each impact were distributed according to the combination of features presented in the referred EIA. The results attained show that the environmental damage is reduced by 45% when the mitigating measures suggested by the EIA and by the analysis carried out by this study are applied. Besides, this preliminary proposal will make it possible for environmental licensing process to be accelerated. Today, this process is considered as an inhibiting investment because of it takes too much time. Also, the proposal may be used as initial guidelines regarding the environmental cost of the implementation of enterprises. The proposed matrix shows itself as efficient because it is easy to be used and it is a useful tool for the analysis of projects that will be implemented. (author)

  3. Hygienic assessment of ambient air quality and health risks to population of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Goryaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study fulfills the hygienic assessment of ambient air quality in the populated areas of the Krasnoyarsk Region. It is shown that the total number of emission sources in the region is more than 23 600 units, what is higher than in previous years. Around 90.7 % out of them correspond to the set standards of permissible emissions. Air monitoring was carried by the establishments of Roshydromet, Rospotrebnadzor and by other organizations at 94 observation posts in eight urban districts and 2 municipal districts of the region. The status of the ambient air in a sequence of the populated areas of Krasnoyarsk region, namely in the cities Achinsk, Kansk, Krasnoyarsk, Lesosibirsk, Minusinsk, Norilsk, is characterized by the presence of certain pollutants, the level of which exceeds the hygienic standards. Prioritized pollutants are benzo(apyrene, suspended solids, nitrogen, and sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and others. In the settlements the economic entities violate the legal requirements in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population. The probability of the population’s health deterioration grows along with the growth of risk factors. The risks of respiratory diseases, immune system, blood and blood-forming organs and the additional mortality are assessed as unacceptable. Ensuring air quality of the urban residential areas and municipal districts of the Krasnoyarsk Territory requires the introducing the complex measures to improve it. The established levels of human health risk associated with exposure to polluted air are an additional criterion for selection of the priority objects when planning the implementation of risk-based model for supervisory activities in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population.

  4. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  5. Embedding human annoyance rate models in wireless smart sensors for assessing the influence of subway train-induced ambient vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Huaping; Kim, Robin E.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of subway trains induces ambient vibrations, which may cause annoyance and other adverse effects on humans, eventually leading to physical, physiological, and psychological problems. In this paper, the human annoyance rate (HAR) models, used to assess the human comfort under the subway train-induced ambient vibrations, were deduced and the calibration curves for 5 typical use circumstances were addressed. An autonomous measurement system, based on the Imote2, wireless smart sensor (WSS) platform, plus the SHM-H, high-sensitivity accelerometer board, was developed for the HAR assessment. The calibration curves were digitized and embedded in the computational core of the WSS unit. Experimental validation was conducted, using the developed system on a large underground reinforced concrete frame structure adjoining the subway station. The ambient acceleration of both basement floors was measured; the embedded computation was implemented and the HAR assessment results were wirelessly transmitted to the central server, all by the WSS unit. The HAR distributions of the testing areas were identified, and the extent to which both basements will be influenced by the close-up subway-train’s operation, in term of the 5 typical use circumstances, were quantitatively assessed. The potential of the WSS-based autonomous system for the fast environment impact assessment of the subway train-induced ambient vibration was well demonstrated.

  6. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  7. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, S.; Bell, J.N.B.; Marshall, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O 3 . Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO 2 and SO 2 , the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O 3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions. - There is a large potential of phytotoxic risk on vegetation in Selangor State, Malaysia

  8. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  9. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Germán; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  10. Assessment of radiological health implicat from ambient environment in the Muar district, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Mhareb, Mohammad Hasan Abu; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to obtain baseline data of environmental terrestrial radiation and to assess the corresponding health risk in the ambient environment in Muar District, Johor, Malaysia in view of the possible construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the future. The external gamma dose rate (GDR), measured using two portable survey meters, was 151 nGy h-1. The activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were determined using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations were varied from 11±1 to 583±18 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 6±1 to 244±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, and 13±6 to 830±13 Bq kg-1 for 40K. Various types of water samples were analyzed using a Low Background Alpha Beta Series 5 XLB instrument at Nuclear Malaysia (NM). Gross alpha activity concentrations in tap water varied from 3±1 mBq L-1 to 34±6 mBq L-1 and gross beta activity concentrations varied from 58±5 mBq L-1 to 709±39 mBq L-1 which were lower than the recommended value by Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) and World Health Organization (WHO, 1993). The radiological health which are the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective effective dose, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index 0.220 mSv, 0.526×102 man Sv y-1, 359 Bq kg-1 and 0.969, respectively. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values and discussed accordingly.

  11. n Analise van die gemeente as deel van hierdie proses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phase of this subject is the analysis of the situation in the local church. The purpose of the analysis is to syste matically ... planned carefully. This study gives attention to a plan ned situation-analysis of the local church. 1. ...... 6.1.2.5 Die dinkskrum en 'swot'-analise. 'n Dinkskrum is 'n tegniek waar 'n groep soveel as moontlik ...

  12. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S; Schneider, T [Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P; Maximilien, R [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A [Centre Rhone-Alpes d` Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  13. Variability in exposure to ambient ultrafine particles in urban schools: Comparative assessment between Australia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Crilley, Leigh R; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Viana, Mar; Tobias, Aurelio; Alastuey, Andrés; Sunyer, Jordi; Querol, Xavier; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-03-01

    Ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) have inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distributions and depend on a number of different urban factors, including background conditions and distant sources. This paper quantitatively compares exposure to ambient ultrafine particles at urban schools in two cities in developed countries, with high insolation climatic conditions, namely Brisbane (Australia) and Barcelona (Spain). The analysis used comprehensive indoor and outdoor air quality measurements at 25 schools in Brisbane and 39 schools in Barcelona. PNC modes were analysed with respect to ambient temperature, land use and urban characteristics, combined with the measured elemental carbon concentrations, NOx (Brisbane) and NO2 (Barcelona). The trends and modes of the quantified weekday average daily cycles of ambient PNC exhibited significant differences between the two cities. PNC increases were observed during traffic rush hours in both cases. However, the mid-day peak was dominant in Brisbane schools and had the highest contribution to total PNC for both indoors and outdoors. In Barcelona, the contribution from traffic was highest for ambient PNC, while the mid-day peak had a slightly higher contribution for indoor concentrations. Analysis of the relationships between PNC and land use characteristics in Barcelona schools showed a moderate correlation with the percentage of road network area and an anti-correlation with the percentage of green area. No statistically significant correlations were found for Brisbane. Overall, despite many similarities between the two cities, school-based exposure patterns were different. The main source of ambient PNC at schools was shown to be traffic in Barcelona and mid-day new particle formation in Brisbane. The mid-day PNC peak in Brisbane could have been driven by the combined effect of background and meteorological conditions, as well as other local/distant sources. The results have implications for urban development

  14. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth of Trifolium subterraneum at four rural sites in the Netherlands with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, van C.J.

    1997-01-01

    To assess adverse effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth, EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated plants of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum cv. Geraldton) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands. In each of two successive experiments of eight weeks

  15. Assessment of radiological health implicat from ambient environment in the Muar district, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Mhareb, Mohammad Hasan Abu; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to obtain baseline data of environmental terrestrial radiation and to assess the corresponding health risk in the ambient environment in Muar District, Johor, Malaysia in view of the possible construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the future. The external gamma dose rate (GDR), measured using two portable survey meters, was 151 nGy h −1 . The activity concentrations of 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K were determined using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations were varied from 11±1 to 583±18 Bq kg −1 for 232 Th, 6±1 to 244±9 Bq kg −1 for 226 Ra, and 13±6 to 830±13 Bq kg −1 for 40 K. Various types of water samples were analyzed using a Low Background Alpha Beta Series 5 XLB instrument at Nuclear Malaysia (NM). Gross alpha activity concentrations in tap water varied from 3±1 mBq L −1 to 34±6 mBq L −1 and gross beta activity concentrations varied from 58±5 mBq L −1 to 709±39 mBq L −1 which were lower than the recommended value by Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (INWQS) and World Health Organization (WHO, 1993). The radiological health which are the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective effective dose, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index 0.220 mSv, 0.526×10 2 man Sv y −1 , 359 Bq kg −1 and 0.969, respectively. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values and discussed accordingly. - Highlights: • Activity concentration of 232 Th are four times world average. • 232 Th is found to be the main contributor to gamma ray dose in the Muar district. • Gross alpha and beta activity concentrations were lower than the value of WHO. • A digital map plotted for isodose

  16. Spatiotemporal prediction of daily ambient ozone levels across China using random forest for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua; Di, Baofeng

    2018-02-01

    In China, ozone pollution shows an increasing trend and becomes the primary air pollutant in warm seasons. Leveraging the air quality monitoring network, a random forest model is developed to predict the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations ([O 3 ] MDA8 ) across China in 2015 for human exposure assessment. This model captures the observed spatiotemporal variations of [O 3 ] MDA8 by using the data of meteorology, elevation, and recent-year emission inventories (cross-validation R 2  = 0.69 and RMSE = 26 μg/m 3 ). Compared with chemical transport models that require a plenty of variables and expensive computation, the random forest model shows comparable or higher predictive performance based on only a handful of readily-available variables at much lower computational cost. The nationwide population-weighted [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be 84 ± 23 μg/m 3 annually, with the highest seasonal mean in the summer (103 ± 8 μg/m 3 ). The summer [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be the highest in North China (125 ± 17 μg/m 3 ). Approximately 58% of the population lives in areas with more than 100 nonattainment days ([O 3 ] MDA8 >100 μg/m 3 ), and 12% of the population are exposed to [O 3 ] MDA8 >160 μg/m 3 (WHO Interim Target 1) for more than 30 days. As the most populous zones in China, the Beijing-Tianjin Metro, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Sichuan Basin are predicted to be at 154, 141, 124, and 98 nonattainment days, respectively. Effective controls of O 3 pollution are urgently needed for the highly-populated zones, especially the Beijing-Tianjin Metro with seasonal [O 3 ] MDA8 of 140 ± 29 μg/m 3 in summer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first statistical modeling work of ambient O 3 for China at the national level. This timely and extensively validated [O 3 ] MDA8 dataset is valuable for refining epidemiological analyses on O 3 pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Dynamic analysis of the Nova Target Chamber to assess alignment errors due to ambient noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallen, D.B.; Murray, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    We performed a study to determine the dynamic behavior of the Nova Target Chamber. We conducted a free vibration analysis to determine the natural frequencies of vibration and the corresponding modeshapes of the target chamber. Utilizing the free vibration results, we performed forced vibration analysis to predict the displacements of the chamber due to ambient vibration. The input support motion for the forced vibration analysis was defined by a white noise acceleration spectrum which was based on previous measurements of ground noise near the Nova site. A special purpose computer program was prepared to process the results of the forced vibration analysis. The program yields distances by which the lines of sight of the various laser beams miss the target as a result of ambient vibrations. We also performed additional estimates of miss distance to provide bounds on the results. A description of the finite element model of the chamber, the input spectrum, and the results of the analyses are included

  18. Personal and ambient PM2.5 exposure assessment in the city of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to fine particles can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. To investigate daily exposure characteristics to PM2.5 with ambient concentrations in an urban environment, a personal exposure measurements were conducted for school children, office workers and at their residents, in the city of Taj ‘Agra’, India. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during December 2013 to February 2014 were carried out. Personal environment monitors (PEM and APM 550 were used to measure PM2.5 concentration. The research findings provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels. Keywords: Personal exposure, PM2.5, Ambient concentration, Correlation analysis, Health effects

  19. Assessment of ambient air quality in Chidambaram a south Indian town

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balashanmugam; A.R. Ramanathan; V. Nehrukumar

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide preliminary studies in large number are advocated to create data base, to identify potential cities / towns that warrant “continuous ambient air quality monitoring and control mechanism” and to evolve priorities for clean air target. The results reported pertain to an eight hour random preliminary air sampling exercise carried out at each of the eight select locations in Chidambaram, a southern semi urban settlement in India. Criteria pollutants SPM, CO, SO2 and NO2 measured are fou...

  20. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Lennart; Schuetzle, Dennis; Autrup, Herman

    1994-01-01

    of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification......This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas...... techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out...

  1. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. APLICAÇÃO DO METODO DE ANÁLISE HIERARQUICA (MAH NA ANALISE E AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.

    ABSTRACT

    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  3. Assessment of ambient air quality in Chidambaram a south Indian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balashanmugam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide preliminary studies in large number are advocated to create data base, to identify potential cities / towns that warrant “continuous ambient air quality monitoring and control mechanism” and to evolve priorities for clean air target. The results reported pertain to an eight hour random preliminary air sampling exercise carried out at each of the eight select locations in Chidambaram, a southern semi urban settlement in India. Criteria pollutants SPM, CO, SO2 and NO2 measured are found to have either crossed or on the verge of crossing the limits, necessitating the immediate installation of a continuous monitoring and control mechanism. While transport related emissions are the major sources of air contamination, increasing civil construction activities also contribute to particulates. The exponential rise in volume of vehicles, disadvantageous traffic flow pattern, differing driving cycle pattern and human interceptions deserve due attention. It is concluded that Chidambaram town is a strong case for continuous monitoring of ambient air quality due to alarming and increasing level of pollutants.

  4. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  5. Assessing ambient ozone injury in olive (Olea europaea L.) plants by using the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, J M; Ismail, I M; Haiba, N S; Hassan, I A; Lorenzini, G

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant chemical, ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU), was applied as stem injections or soil drenches to 5-year-old containerized plants of olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar Kalamata) in growth chambers in order to assess its ameliorative effects against realistic ozone (O3) stress. Visible injury symptoms were reduced greatly in individuals treated with EDU, with injection applications having greater protection than soil drenches. EDU application caused increases in the measured ecophysiological parameters compared to untreated individuals. In particular, the stem injection protected plants against photosynthetic impairment (unchanged net photosynthetic rates and intercellular CO2 concentration, in comparison to plants grown in filtered air). EDU application increased the protection of PSII from ambient O3 oxidative stress, although it did not retain the proportion of redox state of QA, pigment composition of photosynthetic apparatus and size of light-harvesting complex of PSII. However, the stem injection of plants with EDU induced lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in comparison to ambient air (-2 %), indicating a better photoprotection of PSII in comparison to soil drench application. EDU application caused increases in the morphological and biometric parameters compared to individuals exposed to ambient air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the protection of Kalamata olive trees due to EDU in terms of growth, yield, visible injury, and photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, this study proved that EDU could be a low-cost and a low-technology efficient tool for assessing O3 effects on plant performances in the field in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Assessing the effects of oil sands related ozone precursor emissions on ambient ozone levels in the Alberta oil sands region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunny; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Spink, David; Cosic, Biljana; Davies, Mervyn; Jung, Jaegun

    2017-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether, and the extent to which, increased ground-level ozone (O3) precursor emissions from oil sands development have impacted ambient air quality in the north-eastern Alberta, Canada, over the period 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends in emissions of O3 precursors (NOx and VOC) and ambient air concentrations of O3 precursors, and O3 were examined using the Theil-Sen statistical analysis method. Statistically significant correlations between NOx emissions and ambient NOx concentrations were found mainly near surface (open-pit) mining areas where mine fleets are a large source of NOx emissions. No statistically significant trends in the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average O3 at any of the continuous and passive ambient air monitoring stations were found. A significant long-term decrease in monthly averaged O3 is observed at some ambient monitoring sites in summer. A visual examination of long-term variations in annual NOx and VOC emissions and annual 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentrations does not reveal any indication of a correlation between O3 concentrations and O3 precursor emissions or ambient levels in the study area. Despite a significant increase in oil sands NOx emissions (8%/yr), there is no statistically significant increase in long-term O3 concentrations at any of monitoring stations considered. This suggests that there is surplus NOx available in the environment which results in a titration of ambient O3 in the areas that have ambient monitoring. The limited ambient O3 monitoring data distant from NOx emission sources makes it impossible to assess the impact of these increased O3 precursor levels on O3 levels on a regional scale. As a precautionary measure, the increasing oil sands development O3 precursor emissions would require that priority be given to the management of these emissions to prevent possible future O3 ambient air quality issues.

  7. Analysis of the productive chain of Brazilian oil sector in the midst of ethics in the application of productive excess, social and environmental responsibility and ensuring the quality of life; Analise da cadeia produtiva do setor petrolifero brasileiro em meio a etica na aplicacao dos excedentes produtivos, a responsabilidade social e ambiental e a garantia da qualidade de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Liodoro de; Domingos, Sergio Ricardo; Santos, Adilson Francisco dos [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    The present work analyses the petroliferous productive chain, of the well you the rank. It shows the correlation with the ethics, the social responsibility and the guarantee of the quality of life human being. It considers it lives rational application of paid the resources preceding from royalties you the states and cities. With the reorganization of the petroliferous sector, in the second half of the decade of 90, lives specifically, with the edition of the Law n. 9.478/97, the decisions, until then, prevailed will be unilateral orientates of the federal government starts you count on the market, mediating agent of offers and demand. You the edition of the legal order, you the current days, the excellent facts ploughs dealt with transparency, the teams that if instituted the ANP, agency of regulating to character. The sector, with this, must give counterpart you the society, in the direction you reward the same one, will be possible damages or provoked aggressions, exactly that in involuntary way. Ethical The resolution of the conflicts follows an line of respect you the agents: companies, government and consumers. First with programs of professional qualification, the security, of institutional landmark, they stimulate the perfect competition and applies the exploratory balances in the form of royalties. And, the consumers, not less important, intent to ambient questions, demands quality US products. (author)

  8. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: A health-based economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changhong; Chen Bingheng; Wang Bingyan; Huang Cheng; Zhao Jing; Dai Yi; Kan Haidong

    2007-01-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM 10 -related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis

  9. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  10. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  11. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  12. Assessment of medical radiation exposure to patients and ambient doses in several diagnostic radiology departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, A.; Elhadi, T.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Alnaaimi, M.; Alduaij, M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    In many countries diagnostic medical exposures typically account for a very large fraction of the collective effective dose that can be assigned to anthropological sources and activities. This in part flags up the question of whether sufficient steps are being taken in regard to potential dose saving from such medical services. As a first step, one needs to survey doses to compare against those of best practice. The present study has sought evaluation of the radiation protection status and patient doses for certain key radiological procedures in four film-based radiology departments within Sudan. The radiation exposure survey, carried out using a survey meter and quality control test tools, involved a total of 299 patients their examinations being carried out at one or other of these four departments. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software and an Unfors -Xi-meter. The mean ESAK for x-ray examination of the chest was 0.30±0.1 mGy, for the skull it was 0.96±0.7 mGy, for the abdomen 0.85±0.01 mGy, for spinal procedures 1.30±0.6 mGy and for procedures involving the limbs it was 0.43±0.3 mGy. Ambient dose-rates in the reception area, at the closed door of the x-ray room, recorded instantaneous values of up to 100 μSv/h. In regard to protection, the associated levels were found to be acceptable in three of the four departments, corrective action being required for one department, regular quality control also being recommended.

  13. Open air mineral treatment operations and ambient air quality: assessment and source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pérez, P

    2012-11-01

    We present a methodology for evaluating and quantifying the impact of inhalable mineral dust resuspension close to a potentially important industrial point source, in this case an open air plant producing sand, flux and kaolin in the Capuchinos district of Alcañiz (Teruel, NE Spain). PM(10) levels at Capuchinos were initially high (42 μg m(-3) as the annual average with 91 exceedances of the EU daily limit value during 2007) but subsequently decreased (26 μg m(-3) with 16 exceedances in 2010) due to a reduced demand for minerals from the ceramic industry and construction sector during the first stages of the economic crisis. Back trajectory and local wind pattern analyses revealed only limited contribution from exotic PM sources such as African dust intrusions whereas there was clearly a strong link with the mineral stockpiles of the local industry. This link was reinforced by chemical and mineral speciation and source apportionment analysis which showed a dominance of mineral matter (sum of CO(3)(2-), SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, and Ti: mostly aluminosilicates) which in 2007 contributed 76% of the PM(10) mass (44 μg m(-3) on average). The contribution from Secondary Inorganic Aerosols (SIA, sum of SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) reached 8.4 μg m(-3), accounting for 14% of the PM(10) mass, similar to the amount of calcareous road dust estimated to be present (8 μg m(-3); 13%). Organic matter and elemental carbon contributed 5.3 μg m(-3) (9%) whereas marine aerosol (Na + Cl) levels were minor with an average concentration of 0.4 μg m(-3) (1% of the PM(10) mass). Finally, chemical and mineralogical analysis of stockpile samples and comparison with filter samples confirmed the local industry to be the major source of ambient PM(10) in the area.

  14. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  15. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  16. Environmental health risk assessment of ambient lead levels in Lisbon, Portugal: A full chain study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casimiro, E.; Philippe Ciffroy, P.; Serpa, P.

    2011-01-01

    to calculate the Pb levels in the various body systems. Our results showed a low health risk from Pb exposures. It also identified that ingestion of leafy vegetables (i.e. lettuce, cabbage, and spinach) and fruits contribute the most to total Pb blood levels. This full chain assessment approach of the 2FUN...

  17. Experimental assessment of the energy consumption of urban rail vehicles during stabling hours: Influence of ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.P.; González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rail has widely recognised potential to reduce congestion and air pollution in metropolitan areas, given its high capacity and environmental performance. Nevertheless, growing capacity demands and rising energy costs may call for significant energy efficiency improvements in such systems. Energy consumed by stabled rolling stock has been traditionally overlooked in the scientific literature in favour of analysing traction loads, which generally account for the largest share of this consumption. Thus, this paper presents the methodology and results of an experimental investigation that aimed to assess the energy use of stabled vehicles in the Tyne and Wear Metro system (UK). It is revealed that approximately 11% of the rolling stock's total energy consumption is due to the operation of on-board auxiliaries when stabled, and investigation of these loads is therefore a worthwhile exercise. Heating is responsible for the greatest portion of this energy, and an empirical correlation between ambient temperature and power drawn is given. This could prove useful for a preliminary evaluation of further energy saving measures in this area. Even though this investigation focused on a particular metro system in a relatively cold region, its methodology may also be valid for other urban and main line railways operating in different climate conditions. - Highlights: •Energy use of stabled vehicles in an actual metro system is experimentally examined. •Stabling hours account for about 11% of the vehicles' total energy consumption. •Heating is the major consumer during stabling hours. •An empirical correlation between ambient temperature and power drawn is derived. •The methodology described may also be applied to other urban and main line railways

  18. Integrated assessment of environment and health: America's children and the environment Avaliação integrada de saúde e ambiente: crianças americanas e o ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Kyle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for systematic approaches to assessment of environmental factors most relevant to health, health outcomes most influenced by the environment, and relationships between them, as well as for approaches to representing results of such assessments in policy deliberations. As a step in the development of such methods, we used findings and data from environmental protection and public health sectors to develop a set of measures representing topics relevant to children's environmental health. We used a definition of the environment that emphasized contaminants and a process that involved both analytic and deliberative elements. The steps in this process were to: a develop a conceptual framework to depict relationships between environment and health with relevant types of data and information, b select topic areas of significance for children, c identify best available data sources and devise measures, d assess possible surrogate data sources and measures when needed, e design and implement metrics for computation of measures; f select graphical representations of measures, g identify related measures, and h identify data gaps. Representatives of policy and stakeholder audiences participated in this process.No momento atual do conhecimento sobre o tema, existe a necessidade de avaliações sistemáticas a respeito dos fatores que mais contribuem para a saúde, das contribuições mais relevantes do setor saúde para o ambiente e das relações entre ambos os campos, assim como de abordagens sobre resultados das deliberações políticas sobre resultados dos estudos. Neste artigo, apresentamos achados e dados a respeito da proteção ambiental e de saúde visando desenvolver propostas a favor da saúde ambiental das crianças. Usamos uma definição de ambiente que enfatiza contaminantes e processos e envolvem elementos analíticos e deliberativos. As etapas do estudo foram: a desenvolver um marco conceitual que retratasse rela

  19. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  20. Petroleum refining fitness assessment to the sectoral approaches to address climate change; Analise da aptidao do setor refino de petroleo as abordagens setoriais para lidar com as mudancas climaticas globais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschmann, Paulo Roberto de Campos

    2010-03-15

    The climate agreement that will take place from 2013 onwards needs to address some of the concerns that were not considered in the Kyoto Protocol. Such concerns include the absence of emission targets for big emitters developing countries and the impacts of unequal carbon-policies on the competitiveness of Annex 1 energy-intensive sectors. Sectoral approaches for energy-intensive sectors can be a solution to both concerns, mainly if they address climate change issues involving all the countries in which these sectors have a significant participation. A sector is a good candidate to the sectoral approaches if it has some characteristics. Such characteristics are high impact to the competitiveness of Annex 1 enterprises derived of the lack of compromises of enterprises located in non Annex 1 countries, high level of opportunities to mitigate GHG emissions based on the application of sectoral approaches and easy sectoral approaches implementation in the sector. Then, this work assesses the petroleum refining sector fitness to the sectoral approaches to address climate change. Also, this dissertation compares the petroleum refining sector characteristics to the characteristics of well suited sectors to the sectoral approaches. (author)

  1. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM10-bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m-3). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m-3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m-3, respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM10-bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10-4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should be further

  2. Health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals in the ambient air PM10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Nadali; Geravandi, Sahar; Idani, Esmaeil; Behrooz, Hamid Reza Adeli; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Alamdari, Farzaneh Aslanpour; Dobaradaran, Sina; Farhadi, Majid; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad

    2018-06-01

    Heavy metals (HM) are one of the main components of urban air pollution. Today, megacities and industrial regions in southwest of Iran are frequently suffering from severe haze episodes, which essentially caused by PM 10 -bound heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health risk assessment on human exposed to heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the ambient air PM 10 in Ahvaz, southwest Iran. In this study, we estimated healthy people from the following scenarios: (S3) residential site; (S2) high-traffic site; (S1) industrial site in Ahvaz metropolitan during autumn and winter. In the current study, high-volume air samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters were used to sampling and measurements of heavy metal concentration. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was utilized for detection of heavy metal concentration (ng m -3 ). Also, an estimate of the amount of health risk assessment (hazard index) of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn of heavy metal exposure to participants was used. Result of this study showed that the residential and industrial areas had the lowest and the highest level of heavy metal. Based on the result of this study, average levels of heavy metal in industrial, high-traffic, and residential areas in autumn and winter were 31.48, 30.89, and 23.21 μg m -3 and 42.60, 37.70, and 40.07 μg m -3 , respectively. Based on the result of this study, the highest and the lowest concentration of heavy metal had in the industrial and residential areas. Zn and Pb were the most abundant elements among the studied PM 10 -bound heavy metals, followed by Cr and Ni. The carcinogenic risks of Cr, Pb, and the integral HQ of metals in PM 10 for children and adults via inhalation and dermal exposures exceeded 1 × 10 -4 in three areas. Also, based on the result of this study, the values of hazard index (HI) of HM exposure in different areas were significantly higher than standard. The health risks attributed to HM should

  3. An inexpensive setup for assessing the impact of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation on seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamse, P.; Reed, H.E.; Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Because of reductions in stratospheric ozone levels due to chlorofluoromethanes and other trace gases, there has been growing concern about the impact of possible increases in ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Until recently, most studies have focused on the effects of enhanced UV-B levels, however, these have inherent technical difficulties. Ultraviolet-B exclusion studies afford the investigator a rapid means of assessing the effects of present levels of solar UV-B radiation. Unlike UV-B enhancement, UV-B exclusion studies use the sun as the source of UV-B radiation and selective filters to transmit or absorb this portion of sunlight. This article describes a simple, inexpensive system that was used over a 3-yr period to determine seedling response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and New Zealand spinach ((Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pallas) Kuntze) to UV-B exclusion. Plants of all three species grown outdoors under UV-B absorbing polyester showed an increase in leaf enlargement and biomass accumulation in comparison to those grown under UV-B transmitting cellulose acetate filters. The bask materials used consist of plastic window boxes, plastic filters that transmit or absorb in the UV-B region, wire supports, and binder clips. This setup can be used to demonstrate bask principles of photobiology and stress physiology. It is ideal for students interested in conducting short-term science projects on the effects of solar UV radiation

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  5. Periodismo ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los periodistas toman el tema del medio ambiente cada vez más en serio. El uso de temas relacionados con el medio ambiente, debe estar ligado al análisis socio-económico y a las posibilidades de comunicación y educación de diferentes regiones del mundo. A continuación se presenta un resumen de la situación ambiental, las acciones de prensa y comunicación que se llevan a cabo en América Central (Panamá, El Salvador, Costa Rica y en Sudamérica Brasil,Colombia, Chile, México, y Perú. Se concluye en la necesidad de formar hábitos ecológicos. Los comunicadores deben presentar soluciones a los problemas, fomentar campañas comunes, compartir información y velar por el ambiente ambiente para que las generaciones futuras no tengan que perecer.

  6. Strategic Envrionmental Assessment (SEA; a preventive tool for environmental management Evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE; un instrumento preventivo de gestión ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Gómez Orea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is a first tool to integrate environment in the process of formulating policies, plans and programs (PPP hereafter and then verify the reality of it. The integration is to incorporate sensitivity, judgment, knowledge and environmental commitment to the PPP process from the beginning, so that the public decision is about as accurate as possible. Verification involves two facets: verification that they have actually been an effort of environmental integration in developing the PPP and evaluation of results achieved, and evaluation is performed through the identification, assessment, prevention and monitoring of impacts would occur in case they are running. Environmental integration begins at the moment that the idea of developing the PPP, and his assessment; then takes the form of a technical document (Environmental Sustainability Report: ESR which is an integral part of the PPP documentation and that unfolds while the draft PPP; then follows the process of integration by incorporating the determinations set forth in the Environmental Report, including the results of public participation in drawing up the final PPP. SEA is regulated at European Union by Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programs on the environment; in Spain, by Law 9/2006 and in the Autonomous Communities by the law itself. In the administrative procedure through which it is applied, technically there is a crucial phase: preparation of the Draft while the PPP and the ESR, so it could be interpreted as incorporating the environmental dimension into development process Draft PPP, verification of this and the identification, assessment, prevention and monitoring of impacts.La evaluación ambiental estratégica (EAE es un instrumento para integrar primero el medio ambiente en el proceso de formulación de políticas, planes y programas (PPP y verificar después la realidad de ello. La integraci

  7. Experimental Assessment of residential split type air-conditioning systems using alternative refrigerants to R-22 at high ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Khalid A.; Al-Amir, Qusay R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • R290, R407C and R410A in residential split A/C units at high ambient. • 1 and 2 TR residential air conditioners with R22 alternatives at high ambient. • Residential split unit performance at ambients up to 55 °C with R22 alternatives. - Abstract: Steady state performance of residential air conditioning systems using R22 and alternatives R290, R407C, R410A, at high ambient temperatures, have been investigated experimentally. System performance parameters such as optimum refrigerant charge, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity, power consumption, pressure ratio, power per ton of refrigeration and TEWI environmental factor have been determined. All refrigerants were tested in the cooling mode operation under high ambient air temperatures, up to 55 °C, to determine their suitability. Two split type air conditioner of 1 and 2 TR capacities were used. A psychrometric test facility was constructed consisting of a conditioned cool compartment and an environmental duct serving the condenser. Air inside the conditioned compartment was maintained at 25 °C dry bulb and 19 °C wet bulb for all tests. In the environmental duct, the ambient air temperature was varied from 35 °C to 55 °C in 5 °C increments. The study showed that R290 is the better candidate to replace R22 under high ambient air temperatures. It has lower TEWI values and a better coefficient of performance than the other refrigerants tested. It is suitable as a drop-in refrigerant. R407C has the closest performance to R22, followed by R410A

  8. Ambient Utopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Bosse, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    his chapter presents an analysis of the ambitions that lie behind the concept of Ambient Intelligence as it is presented by the advocates and researchers working in the field. In particular it looks at the ideas regarding the forms of natural and intuitive forms of interaction that are envisaged –

  9. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  10. Assessment of suspended particulate matters and their heavy metal content in the ambient air of Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazali Saririan Mobarakeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ambient air of Mobarakeh city is polluted by TSP. The high concentration of Fe and Ni in this area may be attributed to the nearby industrial emissions. Therefore, in industrial areas, efforts should be taken to control the atmospheric pollution in order to protect humans from hazardous health effects of these potentially toxic pollutants.

  11. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  12. Assessment of fast and thermal neutron ambient dose equivalents around the KFUPM neutron source storage area using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, P. O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Qureshi, M.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    A set of five {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources are utilized in research and teaching at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Three of these sources have an activity of 16Ci each and the other two are of 5Ci each. A well-shielded storage area was designed for these sources. The aim of the study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the KFUPM neutron source storage area. Poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) based fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters have been utilized side by side for 33 days to assess accumulated low ambient dose equivalents of fast and thermal neutrons at 30 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. Fast neutron measurements have been carried out using bare NTDs, which register fast neutrons through recoils of protons, in the detector material. NTDs were mounted with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters on their surfaces for thermal neutron detection via B10(n,{alpha})Li6 and Li6(n,{alpha})H3 nuclear reactions. The calibration factors of NTD both for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with and without a polyethylene moderator. The calibration factors for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were found to be 1.33 proton tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1} and 31.5 alpha tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1}, respectively. The results show variations of accumulated dose with the locations around the storage area. The fast neutron dose equivalents rates varied from as low as 182nSvh{sup -1} up to 10.4{mu}Svh{sup -1} whereas those for thermal neutron ranged from as low as 7nSvh{sup -1} up to 9.3{mu}Svh{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosimeter was able to detect dose rates as low as 7 and 182nSvh{sup -1} from accumulated dose for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, which were not possible to detect with the available active neutron

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of the Role of Ambient Nitric Oxide Exposure in Hospitalization with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuredin I. Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Some in vitro studies have indicated a possible link between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection and exposure to Nitric Oxide (NO. However, these studies used much higher NO concentrations than normally found in the ambient environment. This preliminary study explored whether an association was present with short-term exposure to NO in the environment. RSV-related admission data between November 2011 and February 2012 were obtained from Sheffield Children’s Hospital. The dates of admission were linked to contemporaneous ambient NO derived from sentinel air monitors. The case-crossover design was used to study the relationship between daily RSV admissions and NO, controlling for temperature and relative humidity. We found little evidence of association between daily RSV admission rates and exposure to ambient NO at different lags or average exposure across several lags. The findings should, however, be viewed with caution due to the low number of events observed during the time frame. It is possible that the apparent lack of association may be accounted for by the timing of the seasonal RSV epidemic in relation to peaks in NO concentrations. A larger study incorporating a wider range of RSV and NO peaks would determine whether said peaks enhanced the number of RSV hospitalizations in children.

  14. A class of non-linear exposure-response models suitable for health impact assessment applicable to large cohort studies of ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasari, Masoud M; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Chen, Hong; Crouse, Daniel; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Hubbell, Bryan; Fann, Neal; Cohen, Aaron; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stieb, David; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations. In this paper, we propose a new class of variable coefficient risk functions capable of capturing a variety of potentially non-linear associations which are suitable for health impact assessment. We construct the class by defining transformations of concentration as the product of either a linear or log-linear function of concentration multiplied by a logistic weighting function. These risk functions can be estimated using hazard regression survival models with currently available computer software and can accommodate large population-based cohorts which are increasingly being used for this purpose. We illustrate our modeling approach with two large cohort studies of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollution and mortality: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) cohort and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). We then estimate the number of deaths attributable to changes in fine particulate matter concentrations over the 2000 to 2010 time period in both Canada and the USA using both linear and non-linear hazard function models.

  15. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  16. Assessment and remediation of odor emissions from a complex industrial facility (Ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, T.; Reusing, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a review and presents examples of ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States. State and provincial odor regulations were reviewed and other metropolitan cities or counties (regions) that have separate odor regulations were also included. The key topics addressed in this paper include an assessment of the methods used for odor regulation and the methods used to evaluate the odor impact to determine compliance with the regulation. Three types of ambient air odor regulations were identified: 1. 28 States, Provinces and regions (jurisdictions) have specific odor regulations. These regulations generally define what constitutes an odor impact and typically provide requirements for remedial measures; 2. 25 jurisdictions regulate odors by a general prohibition regulation. These regulations define odor in ambient air as a condition of air pollution, nuisance or objectionable odor that would typically prevent persons from the enjoyment of life and property; and 3. 13 jurisdictions do not have specific or general prohibition regulations regarding odors. For the jurisdictions that have specific or general prohibition odor regulations, there are a number of different techniques used to define what constitutes an odor impact. Odor impacts are typically defined in a regulation by one (or more) of the following techniques: dilution to threshold, or odor unit limit; determination of odor emission rates; odor concentration limits for selected chemicals (ppm); comparison with the n-butanol intensity scale (1 to 8); and investigation by an agency investigator. Compliance with odor regulations is typically determined using one (or more) of the following field methods: odor stack testing and dispersion modelling; odor panel analysis of stack or ambient air samples; chemical monitoring (ppm); odor school certified / agency investigator; and scentometer. (author)

  17. Less is more: Parahippocampal resection or endoscopic assistance in ambient cistern surgery? Qualitative and quantitative assessment of subtemporal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Leonardo C; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Nakaji, Peter; Welling, Mariana S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-20

    The ambient cistern is an arachnoid complex that extends from the crural cistern to lateral border of cerebral colliculi. The subtemporal approach has been recognized as the best access to reach pathologies in the ambient cistern, however many disadvantages exist. The present work aims to analyze quantitatively the area of exposure provided by the subtemporal access. The objective is to evaluate if there are advantages of using the neuroendoscope in conventional subtemporal access when compared to the subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus. A subtemporal approach was performed in six brain hemispheres. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made. The linear exposition of the vascular structures and the surgical exposure area were evaluated. The linear exposure to the posterior cerebral artery was 5.95 for subtemporal access (ST) and 13.6 for subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus (STh) (p = 0.019). The total exposure area was 104.8 mm 2 for ST and 210.5 for STh (p = 0.0001). Regarding endoscope assistance the medial area, ST was 81.0 mm 2 , and STend was 176.2 mm 2 (p = 0.038). For the total area of exposure, we obtained a value of 210.5 mm 2 for ST and a value of 391.3 mm 2 for STend (p = 0.041). In conventional subtemporal access, the use of the neuroendoscopes avoids the need for resection of the parahippocampal gyrus for better visualization of the ambient cistern structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO₂ and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Shandas, Vivek; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2017-07-10

    Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants-and thus human health-is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO₂ is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO₂ observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO₂ with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO 2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO₂ and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO₂, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO₂ associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4-12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and -1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  19. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA, and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO2 associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4–12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and −1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  20. Health impact assessment of ambient fine particulate matter exposure in impacts by different vehicle control measures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, S.; Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Road transportation is the one of the largest emission sources contributing to ambient PM2.5 pollution in China. Since the 1990s, China has adopted comprehensive control measures to mitigate vehicle emissions. However, the effects of these measures on reducing emissions, improving air quality and avoiding negative health impacts have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, we combine emissions inventory, air quality modeling, and IER model to evaluate the effect of various vehicle control measures on premature deaths attributable to ambient PM2.5 at a spatial resolution of 36 km × 36 km across China. Our results show that, comparing to no control scenarios, the total vehicular emissions with the actual vehicle emission controls implemented have reduced the emissions of NOX, HC, CO, PM2.5 by 57%, 69%, 75%, 71% respectively; and reduced the national annual mean PM2.5 concentration by 2.5ug/m³ across China by 2010. The number of avoidable deaths associated with reducing PM2.5 level is 150 thousands (95% Confidence interval: 66 thousand - 212 thousand). The geographic distribution of the absolute number of avoidable deaths presents a distinct regional feature and is particularly evident in several regions. The most influential areas are mainly concentrated in Beijing and its south part, which formed a large area of continuous high value. Our results have important policy implications on prioritizing vehicular emission control strategy in China.

  1. Critical assessment of ionization patterns and applications of ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using FAPA-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) has gained growing interest during the last decade due to its high analytical performance and yet simplicity. Here, one of the recently developed ambient desorption/ionization MS sources, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source, was investigated in detail regarding background ions and typical ionization patterns in the positive as well as the negative ion mode for a variety of compound classes, comprising alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, organic peroxides and alkaloids. A broad range of signals for adducts and losses was found, besides the usually emphasized detection of quasimolecular ions, i.e. [M + H](+) and [M - H](-) in the positive and the negative mode, respectively. It was found that FAPA-MS is best suited for polar analytes containing nitrogen and/or oxygen functionalities, e.g. carboxylic acids, with low molecular weights and relatively high vapor pressures. In addition, the source was used in proof-of-principle studies, illustrating the capabilities and limitations of the technique: Firstly, traces of cocaine were detected and unambiguously identified on euro banknotes using FAPA ionization in combination with tandem MS, suggesting a correlation between cocaine abundance and age of the banknote. Secondly, FAPA-MS was used for the identification of acidic marker compounds in organic aerosol samples, indicating yet-undiscovered matrix and sample surface effects of ionization pathways in the afterglow region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Assessing older adults' perceptions of sensor data and designing visual displays for ambient environments. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, B; Chung, J; Le, T; Thompson, H; Demiris, G

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Using Data from Ambient Assisted Living and Smart Homes in Electronic Health Records". Our objectives were to: 1) characterize older adult participants' perceived usefulness of in-home sensor data and 2) develop novel visual displays for sensor data from Ambient Assisted Living environments that can become part of electronic health records. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with community-dwelling older adult participants during three and six-month visits. We engaged participants in two design iterations by soliciting feedback about display types and visual displays of simulated data related to a fall scenario. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes related to perceived usefulness of sensor data. Thematic analysis identified three themes: perceived usefulness of sensor data for managing health; factors that affect perceived usefulness of sensor data and; perceived usefulness of visual displays. Visual displays were cited as potentially useful for family members and health care providers. Three novel visual displays were created based on interview results, design guidelines derived from prior AAL research, and principles of graphic design theory. Participants identified potential uses of personal activity data for monitoring health status and capturing early signs of illness. One area for future research is to determine how visual displays of AAL data might be utilized to connect family members and health care providers through shared understanding of activity levels versus a more simplified view of self-management. Connecting informal and formal caregiving networks may facilitate better communication between older adults, family members and health care providers for shared decision-making.

  3. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Noh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10], a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3% in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7% than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.

  4. Assessment of hydrogen bonding effect on ionization of water from ambient to supercritical region–MD simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatla-Wojcik, D.; Mozumder, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based, strategy to analyze how the degree of hydrogen bonding may influence the ionization and dissociation of water upon heating from ambient to supercritical temperatures. Calculations show a negligible change in the ionization energy up to 200 °C. At higher temperatures the ionization energy increases due to the decreasing degree of hydrogen bonding. The influence of density (pressure) is pronounced in the supercritical region. The ionization is more energy consuming in the less dense fluid. We also show that high temperature and low density may promote dissociation of the electronically excited water molecules. Implications on the initial radiation chemical yields of the hydrated electron, hydrogen atom and hydroxyl radical are discussed. - Highlights: • Up to 200 °C changes in the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials are negligible. • At higher temperatures ionization is more energy consuming. • Ionization potential increases with decreasing density of supercritical water. • High temperature and low density promote dissociation of the excited molecules

  5. Ambient and personal dose assessment of a container inspection site using a mobile X-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.Y., E-mail: fyhsu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuangfu Rd., 300 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.F., E-mail: 005679@webmail.customs.gov.tw [Taichung Customs Office, Ministry of Finance, 2, Sec. 3, Chung-Chie Rd., Sha Lu, 435 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tung, C.J., E-mail: cjtung@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, 333 Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Peitou, 112 Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Wu, T.H., E-mail: tung@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155 Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Peitou, 112 Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Hsu, S.M., E-mail: smhsu@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd., 404 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Su, H.T., E-mail: edwardsu1027@hotmail.com [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.R., E-mail: trchen@csmu.edu.tw [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Image, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, 402 Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    Ambient monitor and phantom studies of absorbed and effective doses by TLDs were carried out in a non-intrusive inspection station for containers, Terminal I, of Taichung harbor, Taiwan. The doses from the X-ray scan in the control room and driver waiting room, located outside of the radiation control area, were quite small and could not be distinguished from the natural background radiation. The doses in the driver cab and the inspector cab of the X-ray scan car were also within background radiation levels. The protection wall, a 40-cm thick concrete barrier, can effectively attenuate the intensity of the primary X-ray scan. The possible effective dose of a person in the container or trailer is about 3.15{+-}0.23 {mu}Sv/scan and 2.31{+-}0.38 {mu}Sv/scan. This dose is below the annual background dose. If someone was to be scanned by the X-ray, the effective dose would be at an acceptable level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used TLDs to evaluate the dose in the environment and in the Rando phantom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbed dose in the container Terminal showed a natural background level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection wall effectively lowers the X-ray intensity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective dose of a person in the container or trailer is about 3 {mu}Sv/scan.

  6. Ambient Air Pollution and Risk for Ischemic Stroke: A Short-Term Exposure Assessment in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013–2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System. Daily particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and meteorological data were collected. The associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for stroke were examined using relative risks (RRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on time-series Poisson regression models, adjusting for temperature, public holiday, day of week, and temporal trends in stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions increased from 27,532 to 35,279 through 2013 to 2015, increasing by 28.14%. Parameter estimates for NO2 exposure were robust regardless of the model used. The association between same-day NO2 (RR = 1.0509, 95% CI: 1.0353–1.0668 exposure and stroke risk was significant when accounting for other air pollutants, day of the week, public holidays, temperature, and temporal trends in stroke events. Overall, we observed a borderline significant association between NO2 exposure modeled as an averaged lag effect and ischemic stroke risk. This study provides data on air pollution exposures and stroke risk, and contributes to better planning of clinical services and emergency contingency response for stroke.

  7. Mortality effects assessment of ambient PM2.5 pollution in the 74 leading cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Die; Wang, Qin'geng; Li, Huiming; Yu, Yiyong; Lu, Yan; Qian, Xin

    2016-11-01

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a most severe and worrisome environmental problem in China. However, current knowledge of the health effects of this pollution is insufficient. This study aims to provide an overall understanding regarding the long-term mortality effects of current PM2.5 pollution in China and the potential health benefits of realizing the goals stipulated in the ongoing action plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control (APPC) and the targets suggested by the WHO. Three typical causes and all-cause of PM2.5-related mortality were considered. The log-linear exposure-response function was adopted, and a meta-analysis was used to determine the exposure-response coefficients, based on newly available data in China and abroad. In the 74 leading cities of China, approximately 32% of the reported deaths, with a mortality rate of 1.9‰, were associated with PM2.5 in 2013, in which deaths from cardiovascular, respiratory and lung-cancer causes accounted for 20% of the reported deaths, with a mortality rate of 1.2‰. The regional difference is remarkable for the mortalities and proportions of the different causes. If the PM2.5 concentration goals of the APPC plan, the first interim and the guideline targets of the WHO could be achieved, the PM2.5-related all-cause mortality would be reduced by 25%, 64% and 95%, respectively, compared with that of 2013. PM2.5 pollution in China has incurred great health risks that are even worse than those of tobacco smoking. The health benefits of the APPC plan could be outstanding, although there is still great potential to improve future air quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; VandeVondele, J.; Kuo, I.W.; Sebastiani, D.; Siepmann, J.I.; Hutter, J.; Mundy, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

  9. Assessing the effect of marginal water use efficiency on water use of loblolly pine and sweetgum in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Stomata are the common pathways through which diffusion of CO2 and water vapor take place in a plant. Therefore, the responses of stomatal conductance to environmental conditions are important to quantify carbon assimilation and water use of plants. In stomatal optimality theory, plants may adjust the stomatal conductance to maximize carbon assimilation for a given water availability. The carbon cost for unit water loss, marginal water use efficiency (λ), depends on changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and pre-dawn leaf water potential. The relationship can be described by λ with no water stress (λ0) and the sensitivity of λ to pre-dawn leaf water potential (β0), which may vary by plant functional type. Assessment of sensitivity of tree and canopy water use to those parameters and the estimation of the parameters for individual plant functional type or species are needed. We modeled tree water use of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in ambient and elevated CO2 (+200 µmol mol-1) at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site with Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2), a demographic terrestrial biosphere model that scales up individual-level competition for light, water and nutrients to the ecosystem-level. Simulated sap flux density for different tree size classes and species was compared to observations. The sensitivity analysis with respect to the model's hydraulic parameters was performed. The initial results showed that the impacts of λ on tree water use were greater than other hydraulic traits in the model, such as vertical hydraulic conductivity and leaf and stem capacitance. With 10% increase in λ, modeled water flow from root to leaf decreased by 2.5 and 1.6% for P. taeda and by 7.9 and 5.1% for L. styraciflua in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, respectively. Values of hydraulic traits (λ0 and β0) for P. taeda and L. styraciflua in ambient an elevated CO2 conditions were also suggested.

  10. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  11. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ≤ 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack

  12. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech; Hajslova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  13. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, Jana, E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-10

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  14. Technological developments for environmental monitoring and assessment at PETROBRAS; O desenvolvimento de tecnologia de avaliacao e monitoramento ambiental na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Pedro Penido D.; Veiga, Leticia Falcao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Heloisa V.

    2004-07-01

    Since 2000 PETROBRAS adopted strategies and actions to establish excellence in Environmental Management and Operational Safety - PEGASO, having invested around 6.1 billions of reais in the last four years to reduce emissions, residues, effluents, and to improve prevention and accident control in its units. In this context, PETROBRAS Research and Development Center has been expanding knowledge about the ecosystems where the company operates, providing essential information to evaluate viability and sustainability on its enterprises, as well as for environmental licensing. Reinforcing its corporative strategy, it was created in 2002 the Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Section, a group that counts nowadays with 48 professionals. This group develops technology and methodology for monitoring in social and environmental context for the petroleum industry, gas and energy, evaluating the impacts of PETROBRAS activities and products life cycle, contributing for reduction of negative effects and to improve the company's environmental management. The research areas are: land, coastal and marine ecosystems monitoring, atmospheric monitoring and air quality, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, social and economic evaluation and environmental damage valuation. Working partnerships with the scientific community established several contacts with Brazilian and international universities. Among these various projects related to activities in the Brazilian offshore we present some aspects of the project Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Monitoring. (author)

  15. Preliminary assessment of BTEX concentrations in indoor air of residential buildings and atmospheric ambient air in Ardabil, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    BTEX concentrations in indoor and outdoor air of 50 homes were studied in Ardabil city and their influencing parameters including; heating system, using gas stove and samovar, tobacco smoking, the floors in which the monitored homes were located, and kitchen plan were considered in the study. Risk assessment analysis was carried out with the obtained concentrations based on EPA IRIS reference doses. BTEX compounds were sampled by charcoal tubes and the samples were analyzed by a GC-FID. Concentrations of benzene (15.18 μg/m3 vs. 8.65 μg/m3), toluene (69.70 μg/m3 vs. 40.56 μg/m3), ethylbenzene (12.07 μg/m3 vs. 4.92 μg/m3) and xylene (48.08 μg/m3 vs. 7.44 μg/m3) in indoor air were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the levels quantified for outdoor air. The obtained concentrations of benzene were considerably higher than the recommended value of 5 μg/m3 established by Iran environmental protection organization. Among the BTEX compounds, benzene (HQ = 0.51) and xylene (HQ = 0.47) had notable hazard quotient and were the main pollutants responsible for high hazard index in the monitored homes (HI = 1.003). The results showed considerably high cancer risk for lifetime exposure to the indoor (125 × 10-6) and outdoor (71 × 10-6) benzene. Indoor benzene concentrations in homes were significantly influenced by type of heating system, story, and natural gas appliances.

  16. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Kirenga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries’ cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and ozone (O3 pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja. PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3 and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3 but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3. In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  17. The State of Ambient Air Quality in Two Ugandan Cities: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Spatial Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirenga, Bruce J; Meng, Qingyu; van Gemert, Frederik; Aanyu-Tukamuhebwa, Hellen; Chavannes, Niels; Katamba, Achilles; Obai, Gerald; van der Molen, Thys; Schwander, Stephan; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-07-15

    Air pollution is one of the leading global public health risks but its magnitude in many developing countries' cities is not known. We aimed to measure the concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) pollutants in two Ugandan cities (Kampala and Jinja). PM2.5, O3, temperature and humidity were measured with real-time monitors, while NO2 and SO2 were measured with diffusion tubes. We found that the mean concentrations of the air pollutants PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were 132.1 μg/m3, 24.9 µg/m3, 3.7 µg/m3 and 11.4 μg/m3, respectively. The mean PM2.5 concentration is 5.3 times the World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off limits while the NO2, SO2 and O3 concentrations are below WHO cut-off limits. PM2.5 levels were higher in Kampala than in Jinja (138.6 μg/m3 vs. 99.3 μg/m3) and at industrial than residential sites (152.6 μg/m3 vs. 120.5 μg/m3) but residential sites with unpaved roads also had high PM2.5 concentrations (152.6 μg/m3). In conclusion, air pollutant concentrations in Kampala and Jinja in Uganda are dangerously high. Long-term studies are needed to characterize air pollution levels during all seasons, to assess related public health impacts, and explore mitigation approaches.

  18. Analysis of lichens for use in biomonitoring of environmental pollution; Analise de liquens para uso na biomonitoracao da poluicao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Lidia K.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Marcelli, Marcello P. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Micologia e Liquenologia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results of Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Th, V and Zn obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the analyses of epiphytic lichen samples collected in different sites of the States of Sao Paulo and Parana. These lichens were collected in the following sites: Cidade Universitaria, Campo Limpo Paulista, Sao Bernardo do Campo and Itanhaen situated in the State of Sao Paulo and one sample was from Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa of Parana State. The purpose of these analyses were to obtain preliminary information of air quality of these regions and also select a region of interest for biomonitoring studies. (author)

  19. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  20. Development of a YouTube videos feelings analiser = Desarrollo de un analizador de sentimientos de videos de Youtube

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Salas, José Miguel del

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Youtube is one of the most successful social networks, therefore it has more and more impact in our society. Due to this it's quite useful to know the sentiments that this platform videos produces. This project has been focused in the development of a tool able to analise this sentiments, which could be used for di�erent purposes like Market studies or emotional learning for people who has some functional diversity. The technologies used during the project development has b...

  1. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  2. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  3. Quantitative methods for stochastic high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear analysis: Assessing health effects of exposure to extreme ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander

    regionalization method algorithmically forms eight climatically homogeneous regions for Conterminous US from satellite Remote Sensing inputs. The relative risk of hospitalizations due to extreme ambient temperature varied across climatic regions. Difference in regional hospitalization rates suggests presence of an adaptation effect to a prevailing climate. In various climatic regions the hospitalizations peaked earlier than the peak of exposure. This suggests disproportionally high impact of extreme weather events, such as cold spells or heat waves when they occur early in the season. These findings provide an insight into the use of high frequency disjoint data sets for the assessment of the magnitude, timing, synchronization and non-linear properties of adverse health consequences due to exposure to extreme weather events to the elderly in defined climatic regions. These findings assist in the creation of decision support frameworks targeting preventions and adaptation strategies such as improving infrastructure, providing energy assistance, education and early warning notifications for the vulnerable population. This dissertation offers a number of methodological innovations for the assessment of the high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear impacts of extreme weather events on human health. These innovations help to ensure an improved protection of the elderly population, aid policy makers in the development of efficient disaster prevention strategies, and facilitate more efficient allocation of scarce resources.

  4. Licenciamento ambiental e sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Valinhas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sustentabilidade está apoiada principalmente nas dimensões econômica, ambiental e social. No entanto, sem a dimensão política ela não se constrói. Um dos principais instrumentos de comando e controle da política nacional de meio ambiente, o licenciamento ambiental é um processo contínuo de gestão ambiental pública e privada. Analisou-se o processo de licenciamento ambiental como acoplamento estrutural entre os sistemas social, econômico e ambiental. Apesar da constatação de críticas aos mecanismos de comando e controle dos últimos anos, foi verificado que o Estado do Rio de Janeiro tem buscado integrar a política ambiental do Estado à gestão ambiental privada e que esta integração busca atender às demandas dos sistemas sociais e econômicos para as questões ambientais. Em linhas gerais, este caminho segue as estratégias e ações propostas na Agenda 21 brasileira.

  5. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Weber, W.; Rabaey, J.M.; Aarts, E.

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the concept of ambient intelligence and discuss its relation with the domain of intelligent algorithms. By means of four examples of ambient intelligent systems, we argue that new computing methods and quantification measures are needed to bridge the gap between the class of

  6. Persuasion in Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Aarts, E.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of persuasive technologies has lately attracted a lot of attention, only recently the notion of ambient persuasive technologies was introduced. Ambient persuasive technologies can be integrated into every aspect of life, and as such have greater persuasive power than the

  7. Avaliando desempenho de espaços de trabalho sob o enfoque da ergonomia do ambiente construído: an ergonomic assessment of the constructed environment Measuring performance of work spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Villarouco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Representando segmento recente da ergonomia, os estudos que cuidam da adequabilidade do ambiente construído à realização das tarefas que abriga, vem agregando profissionais preocupados com a satisfação do usuário/trabalhador e com o incremento da produtividade focada em melhores condições de trabalho. Embora apresentando preocupações presentes em outras áreas do conhecimento, a ergonomia do ambiente extrapola as questões puramente arquitetônicas, focando seu posicionamento na adaptabilidade e conformidade do espaço ao trabalho que nele é desenvolvido. Nesse sentido, evoca elementos do conforto ambiental, da antropometria, da psicologia ambiental, da ergonomia cognitiva e da AET (Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho. Nesse contexto, este artigo propõe uma metodologia de Avaliação Ergonômica do Ambiente Construído, seguida de sua aplicação através de um estudo de caso, que busca inclusive a identificação da interferência da configuração espacial de ambientes de trabalho na produtividade de um sistema de produção, a partir de uma análise ergonômica do ambiente construído.Representing a recent segment of ergonomics, studies that address the suitability of the constructed environment to the tasks performed within it have been uniting professionals concerned with the user/worker satisfaction and increased productivity focused on better working conditions. Although it presents concerns from other fields of knowledge, environment ergonomics extrapolates purely architectural issues and focuses its positioning on the adaptability and conformity of the physical space to the work developed within it. It therefore addresses elements of environment comfort, anthropometry, environmental psychology, cognitive ergonomics and ergonomic work analysis. The present article proposes a methodology for an Ergonomic Assessment of the Constructed Environment, followed by its application through a case study that also aims to identify the

  8. An epidemiological assessment of the effect of ambient temperature on the incidence of preterm births: Identifying windows of susceptibility during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangrong; Zhang, Weishe; Lu, Chan; Norbäck, Dan; Deng, Qihong

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that exposure to thermal stress during pregnancy can lead to an increased incidence of premature births. However, there is little known regarding window(s) of susceptibility during the course of a pregnancy. We attempted to identify possible windows of susceptibility in a cohort study of 3604 children in Changsha with a hot-summer and cold winter climatic characteristics. We examined the association between PTB and ambient temperature during different timing windows of pregnancy: conception month, three trimesters, birth month and entire pregnancy. We found a U-shaped relation between the prevalence of PTB and mean ambient temperature during pregnancy. Both high and low temperatures were associated with PTB risk, adjusted OR (95% CI) respectively 2.57 (1.98-3.33) and 2.39 (1.93-2.95) for 0.5 °C increase in high temperature range (>18.2°C) and 0.5°C decrease in low temperature range (< 18.2°C). Specifically, PTB was significantly associated with ambient temperature and extreme heat/cold days during conception month and the third trimester. Sensitivity analysis indicated that female fetus were more susceptible to the risk of ambient temperature. Our study indicates that the risk of preterm birth due to high or low temperature may exist early during the conception month. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Representations of the Old and Ageing in the Design of the New and Emerging. Assessing the design of Ambient Intelligence technologies for older people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyses the way older people are conceived of, imagined, or, in the terms of this thesis, represented, as potential users of a new type of information technology (IT/ICT): ambient intelligence (AmI). These user representations matter as gerontechnological innovations are, in our ageing

  10. A design method to assess the accessibility of light on PV cells in an arbitraty geometry by means of ambient occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Willeke, G.; Ossenbrink, H.

    2007-01-01

    A design method has been developed by which the accessibility of light on PV cells in an arbitrary geometry can be quickly visualized and quantified. Modelling of irradiance in this method is based on ambient occlusion, which indicates the likelihood of shading of object’s surfaces due to

  11. Assessing the cytotoxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its relationship with the PM chemical composition and oxidative potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Plewa, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Ujjal Kumar; Verma, Vishal

    2018-04-01

    We assessed mammalian cell cytotoxicity of ambient PM2.5 and investigated its association with the oxidative potential (OP) and chemical composition of the particles. Sixteen PM samples spanning in various seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) were collected from an urban site in central Illinois. Cytotoxicity (LC50) in terms of the volume of air that kills 50% of the cells were calculated, which varied from 4.3 to 7.2 m3 of air. The OP was measured by two assays - the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the surrogate lung fluid (SLF) assay. In DTT assay, we measured two endpoints - hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generation and DTT consumption (the conventionally measured endpoint), while only •OH generation was measured in the SLF assay. Although, all three endpoints in the OP assays correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with LC50, the correlation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in DTT and SLF assays was much higher (r > 0.80 for •OH generation versus LC50) than the DTT consumption (r = 0.58). To further understand the components in PM that drive cytotoxicity and OP, concentration of water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Among all the chemical components, Fe, Cu and WSOC correlated most (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) with the cytotoxicity. DTT consumption correlated only with OC and WSOC (r > 0.80; P ≤ 0.01), while •OH generation in DTT and SLF assay correlated with both WSOC (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) and metals (i.e. Fe and Cu; r > 0.75; P ≤ 0.01). Our results suggest a strong link between the PM2.5 OP and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the synergistic interactions among the organic compounds (i.e. WSOC) and metals (Fe and Cu) to enhance the ROS generation, which are more effectively captured in •OH generation endpoints in DTT and SLF assay than the DTT consumption, appear to be largely responsible for the observed mammalian cell

  12. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  13. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  14. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  16. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the new paradigm for user-centered computing known as ambient intelligence and its relation with methods and techniques from the field of computational intelligence, including problem solving, machine learning, and expert systems.

  17. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  18. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  19. Data based ambient lighting control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    In controlling an ambient lighting element, a category of data being rendered by a host is identified, ambient lighting data associated with the identified category is retrieved, and the retrieved ambient lighting data is rendered in correspondence with the rendered data. The retrieved ambient

  20. Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate performance of an automatic survey meter as an instrument to quantify the presence of radiation in soils

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, E M; Okuno, E

    2002-01-01

    Those who work in radiation protection are faced with various quantities that were created to account for the effects of ionizing radiation in the human body. As far as the experimental point of view is concerned, each available equipment is planned to measure a distinct quantity, for a specific radiation protection application, and it is not always clear which one it is. This paper shows a series of tests, planned and applied to a portable gamma ray spectrometer, in order to assure that the monitoring low dose levels of radiation with it is reliable. The equipment is fully automated and does not allow modifications of the conversion factors from counts to ambient dose equivalent. It is therefore necessary to assure that the values provided by the equipment are correct and refer to the actual situation one expects to find in practice. The system is based on an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, mounted with its electronics in a portable case, suitable for field measurements. It measures ambient dose equivalent r...

  1. Source-oriented risk assessment of inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and contributions of non-priority isomers in urban Nanjing, a megacity located in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shaojie; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Ying; Du, Wei; Pan, Xuelian; Li, Tongchao; Han, Yang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Sixteen U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eleven non-priority isomers including some dibenzopyrenes were analyzed to evaluate health risk attributable to inhalation exposure to ambient PAHs and contributions of the non-priority PAHs in a megacity Nanjing, east China. The annual average mass concentration of the total 16 EPA priority PAHs in air was 51.1 ± 29.8 ng/m 3 , comprising up to 93% of the mass concentration of all 27 PAHs, however, the estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) due to inhalation exposure would be underestimated by 63% on average if only accounting the 16 EPA priority PAHs. The risk would be underestimated by 13% if only particulate PAHs were considered, though gaseous PAHs made up to about 70% of the total mass concentration. During the last fifteen years, ambient Benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly in the city which was consistent with the declining trend of PAHs emissions. Source contributions to the estimated ILCR were much different from the contributions for the total mass concentration, calling for the introduce of important source-oriented risk assessments. Emissions from gasoline vehicles contributed to 12% of the total mass concentration of 27 PAHs analyzed, but regarding relative contributions to the overall health risk, gasoline vehicle emissions contributed 45% of the calculated ILCR. Dibenzopyrenes were a group of non-priority isomers largely contributing to the calculated ILCR, and vehicle emissions were probably important sources of these high molecular weight isomers. Ambient dibenzo[a,l]pyrene positively correlated with the priority PAH Benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The study indicates that inclusion of non-priority PAHs could be valuable for both PAH source apportionment and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  3. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology: importance in the integration of the fuel cell technology type PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells); Metodologia da analise de ciclo de vida: importancia na insercao da tecnologia de celula a combustivel do tipo PEMFC (membrana polimerica trocadora de protons)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi; Seo, Emilia Satoshi Miyamaru [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais], e-mail: shfukuro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    To improve the standard of society's quality of life, it is necessary to improve the quality of distributed energy and its inherent services within a sustainability process. Among different technological routes that produce more sustainable energy are the fuel cells - also known as combustible batteries. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has identified the fuel cells as a potential technology to reduce, in the future, the effect of greenhouse gases in both developed and developing countries. Although there are various types of fuel cells, the most used technology for research studies on fuel cells is the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (FEMFC). However, economic issues - related to the high cost of the membrane's materials and of the catalysts of groups of platinum metals - are still some of the obstacles that need to be overcome for this technology to be more accessible. There are also socio-environmental aspects related to the impacts caused by the extraction, the use and the destination of these metals. Taking in consideration the challenges of complying with the demands of the market and the society as well as with the growing tendency of more rigid patterns of environmental control, the objective of the present work is to show the tool of environmental management - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - and its importance on the pursuit for socio-economic and environmental alternatives feasible to the recycling of the catalysts of platinum of the PEMFC. This way, it intends to collaborate to the progress of the knowledge about environmental and socio-economic subjects related to the productive process of the PEMFC. (author)

  5. Ambient versus traditional environment in pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patricia S; Green, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine the effect of exposure to an ambient environment in a pediatric emergency department. We hypothesized that passive distraction from ambient lighting in an emergency department would lead to reduction in patient pain and anxiety and increased caregiver satisfaction with services. Passive distraction has been associated with lower anxiety and pain in patients and affects perception of wait time. A pediatric ED was designed that optimized passive distraction techniques using colorful ambient lighting. Participants were nonrandomly assigned to either an ambient ED environment or a traditional ED environment. Entry and exit questionnaires assessed caregiver expectations and experiences. Pain ratings were obtained with age-appropriate scales, and wait times were recorded. A total of 70 participants were assessed across conditions, that is, 40 in the ambient ED group and 30 in the traditional ED group. Caregivers in the traditional ED group expected a longer wait, had higher anxiety pretreatment, and felt more scared than those in the ambient ED group. Caregivers in the ambient ED group felt more included in the care of their child and rated quality of care higher than caregivers in the traditional ED group. Pain ratings and administrations of pain medication were lower in the ambient ED group. Mean scores for the ambient ED group were in the expected direction on several items measuring satisfaction with ED experiences. Results were suggestive of less stress in caregivers, less pain in patients, and higher satisfaction levels in the ambient ED group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Seasonal variation, risk assessment and source estimation of PM 10 and PM10-bound PAHs in the ambient air of Chiang Mai and Lamphun, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengchai, Petch; Chantara, Somporn; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Wangkarn, Sunanta; Tengcharoenkul, Urai; Rayanakorn, Mongkon

    2009-07-01

    Daily PM10 concentrations were measured at four sampling stations located in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. The sampling scheme was conducted during June 2005 to June 2006; every 3 days for 24 h in each sampling period. The result revealed that all stations shared the same pattern, in which the PM10 (particulate matters with diameter of less than 10 microm) concentration increased at the beginning of dry season (December) and reached its peak in March before decreasing by the end of April. The maximum PM10 concentration for each sampling station was in the range of 140-182 microg/m(3) which was 1.1-1.5 times higher than the Thai ambient air quality standard of 120 microg/m(3). This distinctly high concentration of PM10 in the dry season (Dec. 05-Mar. 06) was recognized as a unique seasonal pattern for the northern part of Thailand. PM10 concentration had a medium level of negative correlation (r = -0.696 to -0.635) with the visibility data. Comparing the maximum PM10 concentration detected at each sampling station to the permitted PM10 level of the national air quality standard, the warning visibility values for the PM10 pollution-watch system were determined as 10 km for Chiang Mai Province and 5 km for Lamphun Province. From the analysis of PM10 constituents, no component exceeded the national air quality standard. The total concentrations of PM10-bond polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are calculated in terms of total toxicity equivalent concentrations (TTECs) using the toxicity equivalent factors (TEFs) method. TTECs in Chiang Mai and Lamphun ambient air was found at a level comparable to those observed in Nagasaki, Bangkok and Rome and at a lower level than those reported at Copenhagen. The annual number of lung cancer cases for Chiang Mai and Lamphun Provinces was estimated at two cases/year which was lower than the number of cases in Bangkok (27 cases/year). The principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA

  7. Using ambient vibration measurements for risk assessment at an urban scale: from numerical proof of concept to Beirut case study (Lebanon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Christelle; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Guillier, Bertrand; Harb, Jacques; Cornou, Cécile; Gérard, Jocelyne; Almakari, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Post-seismic investigations repeatedly indicate that structures having frequencies close to foundation soil frequencies exhibit significantly heavier damages (Caracas 1967; Mexico 1985; Pujili, Ecuador 1996; L'Aquila 2009). However, observations of modal frequencies of soils and buildings in a region or within a current seismic risk analysis are not fully considered together, even when past earthquakes have demonstrated that coinciding soil and building frequencies leads to greater damage. The present paper thus focuses on a comprehensive numerical analysis to investigate the effect of coincidence between site and building frequencies. A total of 887 realistic soil profiles are coupled with a set of 141 single-degree-of-freedom elastoplastic oscillators, and their combined (nonlinear) response is computed for both linear and nonlinear soil behaviors, for a large number (60) of synthetic input signals with various PGA levels and frequency contents. The associated damage is quantified on the basis of the maximum displacement as compared to both yield and ultimate post-elastic displacements, according to the RISK-UE project recommendations (Lagomarsino and Giovinazzi in Bull Earthq Eng 4(4):415-443, 2006), and compared with the damage obtained in the case of a similar building located on rock. The correlation between this soil/rock damage increment and a number of simplified mechanical and loading parameters is then analyzed using a neural network approach. The results emphasize the key role played by the building/soil frequency ratio even when both soil and building behave nonlinearly; other important parameters are the PGA level, the soil/rock velocity contrast and the building ductility. A numerical investigation based on simulation of ambient noise for the whole set of 887 profiles also indicates that the amplitude of H/ V ratio may be considered as a satisfactory proxy for site amplification when applied to measurements at urban scale. A very easy implementation

  8. Caffeine as an environmental indicator for assessing urban aquatic ecosystems Cafeína como indicador ambiental prospectivo para avaliar ecossistemas aquáticos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of caffeine and the extent of its influence as compared to other traditional water quality parameters (microbiological and physico-chemical in order to characterize it as an efficient indicator of anthropic pollution of urban aquatic environments. Caffeine is an ingredient in a variety of beverages (coffee, tea, and caffeinated soft drinks and numerous food products (chocolate, pastries, and dairy desserts. Although the human body metabolizes this stimulant efficiently, between 0.5 and 10.0% is excreted, mostly in the urine. Analysis of water samples from the Leopoldina Basin and Guanabara Bay revealed a significant difference between areas not commonly affected by nutrient enrichment or sewage inputs and areas chronically influenced by sewage discharges and elevated eutrophication. Monitoring caffeine will be fundamental in stressed urban aquatic environments where frequent accidental ruptures of sewer lines and discharges of untreated effluents impede effective water quality evaluation with traditional indicators.Este estudo visou avaliar a co-ocorrência de cafeína e a extensão de sua influência frente a outros parâmetros tradicionais de qualidade de água (microbiológicos e físico-químicos, de modo a caracterizá-la como um eficiente indicador de poluição de origem antrópica em ambientes aquáticos urbanos. Cafeína é um componente de uma variedade de bebidas (café, chá e bebidas cafeinadas e de numerosos produtos alimentícios (chocolate, massas e sobremesas. Embora o corpo humano seja eficiente na metabolização deste estimulante, entre 0,5-10,0% são excretados, principalmente na urina. A análise de amostras da Bacia Hidrográfica da Leopoldina e Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, revelou uma significante diferença entre áreas não comumente afetadas por enriquecimento de nutrientes ou esgoto, contra áreas cronicamente influenciadas por descargas de esgoto e

  9. Avaliação do desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior Environmental performance assessment of a public institution of technical and undergraduate education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Sessegolo Marques de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar um estudo de caso baseado em indicadores ambientais categóricos no qual foi avaliado o desempenho ambiental de uma instituição pública de ensino técnico e superior. A revisão incluiu a série de normas ISO 14000, o Prêmio Nacional de Qualidade em Saneamento (PNQS e o Ecoblock. O método usado foi adaptado do SBP, um conjunto de procedimentos para a mensuração do desempenho ambiental de uma atividade antrópica, que se vale de construtos latentes e indicadores categóricos que expliquem o desempenho. Os indicadores foram organizados em sete construtos. Segundo os avaliadores e o modelo, a instituição faz 56,7% do máximo possível em gestão ambiental. Os construtos mais carentes foram gestão de resíduos sólidos e poluição sonora. O resultado da avaliação pode ser usado para reformulação da política ambiental da instituição.This article reports a case study in which the environmental performance of a public institution of higher and technical education was evaluated, based on environmental indicators in spades. The following standards series were reviewed: ISO 14000, National Quality Award in Sanitation (PNQS and Ecoblock. The method was adapted from SBP, a set of procedures for measuring the environmental performance of an anthropic activity, composed by latent constructs and categorical indicators that explain the performance. The indicators were organized in seven constructs. According to the assessed respondents and the model, the institution reached 56.7% of the maximum possible in environmental management. Lower constructs were management of solid waste and noise pollution. The evaluation can be used for reshaping the environmental policy of the institution.

  10. Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia de los factores ambientales determinantes de los estados de salud, realizar comparaciones internacionales, elaborar políticas de acción, así como facilitar la comunicación con la ciudadanía. La OMS desarrolló una metodología para el desarrollo de estos indicadores dentro del marco conceptual de información ambiental DPSEEA (Fuerzas impulsoras, Presión, Estado, Exposición, Efecto, Acción y seleccionó un total de 55 indicadores (que incluyen 168 variables sobre 10 áreas de la salud ambiental. Durante la fase de viabilidad se predijo que podrían obtenerse el 89% de los indicadores. Sin embargo la recolección de los datos supuso muchas dificultades debido a la incompatibilidad de algunas variables en los sistemas de información españoles con las variables definidas por la OMS. A nivel de gestión del proyecto, la mayor dificultad radica en la disparidad de responsabilidades en materia de medio ambiente y salud entre las instituciones españolas. Además de la aportación técnica a la salud ambiental en España, un valor añadido de este proyecto ha sido el establecimiento de líneas de colaboración estrechas con los responsables de los diferentes Ministerios implicados.

  11. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  12. PhybalSIT — Fatigue Assessment and Life Time Calculation of the Ductile Cast Iron EN-GJS-600 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Benjamin; Klein, Marcus; Eifler, Dietmar

    This paper focuses on the ductile cast iron EN-GJS-600 which is often used for components of combustion engines. Under service conditions, those components are mechanically loaded at different temperatures. Therefore, this investigation targets at the fatigue behavior of EN-GJS-600 at ambient and elevated temperatures. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations were done to characterize the sphericity of the graphite as well as the ferrite, pearlite and graphite fraction. At elevated temperatures, the consideration of dynamic strain ageing effects is of major importance. In total strain increase, temperature increase and constant total strain amplitude tests, the plastic strain amplitude, the stress amplitude, the change in temperature and the change in electrical resistance were measured. The measured values depend on plastic deformation processes in the bulk of the specimens and at the interfaces between matrix and graphite. The fatigue behavior of EN-GJS-600 is dominated by cyclic hardening processes. The physically based fatigue life calculation "PHYBALSIT" (SIT = strain increase test) was developed for total strain controlled fatigue tests. Only one temperature increase test is necessary to determine the temperature interval of pronounced dynamic strain ageing effects.

  13. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Chaves Mimbrero, Blanca

    2007-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  14. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S.; S.C. Sommer

    1999-01-01

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B

  15. Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Costa, Paula L

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism, emotional reactions (i.e., fear and anger), and outcomes for sexual minority and heterosexual employees. Five hundred thirty-six restaurant employees (68% female, 77% White) completed an online survey assessing the variables of interest. Results showed that greater experiences of ambient workplace heterosexism were associated with heightened fear and anger and, in turn, with heightened psychological distress (for fear) and greater physical health complaints, turnover intentions, and lowered job satisfaction (for anger). Fear also mediated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and psychological distress. In addition, sexual orientation moderated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and fear such that sexual minority employees reported more fear than heterosexuals with greater ambient heterosexism. These effects occurred after controlling for personal experiences of interpersonal discrimination. Our findings suggest that ambient workplace heterosexism can be harmful to all employees, not only sexual minorities or targeted individuals. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. MEIO AMBIENTE E DESENVOLVIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Salgueiro Chacon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é resgatar elementos para subsidiar uma reflexão crítica sobre o modelo de desenvolvimento econômico prevalente na sociedade e as relações com o meio ambiente, sob a ameaça que ronda o destino da espécie humana, conforme afirmação de Lovelock (2006, p. 20 sobre o conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável: “uma ideia adorável se a tivéssemos aplicado 200 anos atrás, quando havia um bilhão de pessoas no mundo. Agora é tarde demais. Não há mais espaço para nenhum tipo de desenvolvimento. A humanidade tem que regredir”. Este artigo apresenta a evolução do conceito de desenvolvimento econômico sob a ótica da sustentabilidade, e interliga temas como: o ambientalismo, aglutinador de distintos pensamentos sobre as relações entre a sociedade e a natureza; o movimento ambiental, a fundamentar a disseminação do conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável, e a gestão ambiental, abordada como prática orientada pelo conceito de desenvolvimento sustentável.

  17. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality and Air Quality Index in Golden Corridor of Gujarat, India: A Case Study of Dahej Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren B. Soni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean air is the basic requirement of all living organisms. In recent times, due to population growth, urban sprawl, industrial development, and vehicular boom, the quality of air is deteriorating and being polluted. Pollutants of major public health concerns include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, which pose serious threats to human health and hygiene. In the present study, prime particulate pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants (SO2, and NO2 were estimated at seven stations in and around Dahej Port, Gujarat, India. The obtained values of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, and NO2 in all the studied stations (seven ranged from 67.39 to 98.75, 29.57 to 45.79, 17.76 to 22.29 and 28.29 to 32.42 mg/m3, respectively. The level of PM10 at all sampling locations, and that of PM2.5 at Station A3 (Lakhigam were found little higher than prescribed permissible limits of CPCB standards, while SO2 and NO2levels were within the acceptable range. The Air Quality Index (AQI score was found to be ranged from 76.50 to 97.75, which is at satisfactory level as per CPCB standards. Further, precautionary measures and management strategies to minimize the effect of particulate as well as gaseous pollutants have also been suggested for achieving its ambient levels in and around Dahej Port, Gujarat, India.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 28-41

  18. Number Size Distribution of Ambient Particles in a Typical Urban Site: The First Polish Assessment Based on Long-Term (9 Months Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Klejnowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results from the long-term measurements of particle number carried out at an urban background station in Zabrze, Poland. Ambient particles with aerodynamic diameters of between 28 nm and 10 μm were investigated by means of a DEKATI thirteen-stage electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI. The particle number-size distribution was bimodal, whilst its density function had the local maxima in the aerodynamic diameter intervals 0.056–0.095 μm and 0.157–0.263 μm. The average particle number in winter was nearly twice as high as in summer. The greatest number concentrations in winter were those of the particles with diameters of between 0.617 and 2.41 μm, that is, the anthropogenic particles from fossil fuel combustion. Approximately 99% of the particles observed in Zabrze had aerodynamic diameters ≤1 μm—they may have originated from the combustion of biomass, liquid, and gaseous fuels in domestic stoves or in car engines. The daily variation of particle number was similar for both seasons—the highest values were observed in the morning (traffic rush hour and in the afternoon/late evening (traffic and house heating emissions. An additional maximum (0.028–0.056 μm observed in the early afternoon in summer was due to the intensive formation of new PM particles from gas precursors.

  19. Ambient Air Pollution and Morbidity in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Lawrence, Wayne R; Liu, Yimin; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The rapid economic growth in China is coupled with a severe ambient air pollution, which poses a huge threat to human health and the sustainable development of social economy. The rapid urbanization and industrialization over the last three decades have placed China as one of countries with the greatest disease burden in world. Notably, the prevalence rate of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CND), including respiratory diseases, CVD, and stroke, in 2010 reaches 16.9%. The continuous growth of the incidence of CND urgent needs for effective regulatory action for health protection. This study aims to evaluate the impact of rapid urbanization on status of ambient air pollution and associated adverse health effects on the incidence and the burden of CND and risk assessment. Our findings would be greatly significant in the prediction of the risk of ambient air pollution on CND and for evidence-based policy making and risk management in China.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment of water planning: analisis of five experiences; La Evaluacion Ambiental Estrategica de la planificacion hidrologica: analisis de cinco experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachon de Mesa, J. [Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain); Espaol Echaniz, I. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    This article presents the conclusions drawn out of a review of five cases of environmental assessment of water planning in Europe. These conclusions are the starting point for the development of proposals. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. Tools for assessing the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. Application on the stage of The Cabril; Herramientas para evaluar el impacto medio ambiental de las radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A.; Robles, B.; Cancio, D.

    2011-07-01

    To carry out assessments of potential radiological risk in the fauna and flora, it is necessary to have adequate tools for this purpose. During the last two decades several countries and institutions have developed various approaches and tools to help assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. The two most complete tools and have been used by organizations other than those who developed it are RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA.

  2. Metodologia para avaliação de impacto ambiental de macrófitas em mesocosmos Methodology for assessing the environmental impact of macrophytes on mesocosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Guimarães

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a metodologia para avaliação do impacto ambiental causado pelo uso de herbicidas no controle de macrófitas. O desenho e a construção dos mesocosmos são descritos em detalhes, como também a forma como foram inseridos lâminas para coleta e medida da comunidade perifítica e sedimento para avaliação da comunidade bentônica. O método utilizado foi o de fluxo contínuo, e vários parâmetros de qualidade de água foram medidos, além da determinação de resíduos na coluna d'água e no sedimento. A intenção de se utilizar um método de fluxo contínuo foi buscar uma situação mais próxima da realidade, a fim de que os resultados obtidos possam espelhar com maior exatidão os possíveis riscos provenientes do uso de substâncias químicas no controle das macrófitas. Alguns ajustes devem ser feitos nessa metodologia para melhor caracterização dos efluentes e calibração do sistema.This experiment aimed to analyze the methodology applied to evaluate the environmental impact caused by the use of herbicide to control macrophytes. The design and construction of the tanks are described in detail as well as the insertion of blades for periphyton and sediment sampling to evaluate the bentonic comunities. The flow-through method was used and several parameters of water quality were measured and residues detected in the water colunm and sediment. The flow-through methodology was chosen to create a situation closer to reality so that the results obtained could more precisely reflect the likely risks caused by chemical control of macrophytes. Some adjustments need to be made in this methodology for a better characterization of the effluents and calibration of the system.

  3. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  4. Setting priorities for ambient air quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Alberta has ambient air quality objectives in place for several pollutants, toxic substances and other air quality parameters. A process is in place to determine if additional air quality objectives are required or if existing objectives should be changed. In order to identify the highest priority substances that may require an ambient air quality objective to protect ecosystems and public health, a rigorous, transparent and cost effective priority setting methodology is required. This study reviewed, analyzed and assessed successful priority setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. It proposed an approach for setting ambient air quality objective priorities that integrates the concerns of stakeholders with Alberta Environment requirements. A literature and expert review were used to examine existing priority-setting techniques used by other jurisdictions. An analysis process was developed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various techniques and their ability to take into account the complete pathway between chemical emissions and damage to human health or the environment. The key strengths and weaknesses of each technique were identified. Based on the analysis, the most promising technique was the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Several considerations for using TRACI to help set priorities for ambient air quality objectives were also presented. 26 refs, 8 tabs., 4 appendices

  5. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  6. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  7. Image analysis for assessing broiler breeder behavior response to thermal environment Análise de imagem para a avaliação de frangos de corte de resposta ao comportamento criador ambiente térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de A. Nääs

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research proposes a methodology for assessing broiler breeder response to changes in rearing thermal environment. The continuous video recording of a flock analyzed may offer compelling evidences of thermal comfort, as well as other indications of welfare. An algorithm for classifying specific broiler breeder behavior was developed. Videos were recorded over three boxes where 30 breeders were reared. The boxes were mounted inside an environmental chamber were ambient temperature varied from cold to hot. Digital images were processed based on the number of pixels, according to their light intensity variation and binary contrast allowing a sequence of behaviors related to welfare. The system used the default of x, y coordinates, where x represents the horizontal distance from the top left of the work area to the point P, and y is the vertical distance. The video images were observed, and a grid was developed for identifying the area the birds stayed and the time they spent at that place. The sequence was analyzed frame by frame confronting the data with specific adopted thermal neutral rearing standards. The grid mask overlapped the real bird image. The resulting image allows the visualization of clusters, as birds in flock behave in certain patterns. An algorithm indicating the breeder response to thermal environment was developed.Esta pesquisa propõe uma metodologia para avaliação da resposta de matrizes pesadas a mudanças no ambiente térmico de criação. A gravação contínua em vídeo de um grupo de aves, quando analisada, pode oferecer evidências interessantes de conforto térmico, bem como outras indicações de bem-estar. Um algoritmo foi desenvolvido para classificar o comportamento de matrizes de frangos de corte. Vídeos foram registrados sobre três boxes onde 30 matrizes foram alojadas. Os boxes foram montados dentro de uma câmara climática onde a temperatura ambiente variou de frio para quente. As imagens digitais foram

  8. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  9. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007.

  10. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  11. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part II: Would the replacement of fossil fuels improve ambient air quality and human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To determine if replacing fossil fuel combustion with biomass gasification would impact air quality, we evaluated the impact of a small-scale biomass gasification plant (BRDF) at a university campus over 5 scenarios. The overall incremental contribution of fine particles (PM2.5) is found to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the provincial air quality objectives. The maximum PM2.5 emission from the natural gas fueled power house (PH) could adversely add to the already high background concentration levels. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from the BRDF with no engineered pollution controls for NOx in place exceeded the provincial objective in all seasons except during summer. The impact score, IS, was the highest for NO2 (677 Disability Adjusted Life Years, DALY) when biomass entirely replaced fossil fuels, and the highest for PM2.5 (64 DALY) and CO (3 DALY) if all energy was produced by natural gas at PH. Complete replacement of fossil fuels by one biomass plant can result in almost 28% higher health impacts (708 DALY) compared to 513 DALY when both the current BRDF and the PH are operational mostly due to uncontrolled NO2 emissions. Observations from this study inform academic community, city planners, policy makers and technology developers on the impacts of community district heating systems and possible mitigation strategies: a) community energy demand could be met either by splitting emissions into more than one source at different locations and different fuel types or by a single source with the least-impact-based location selection criteria with biomass as a fuel; b) advanced high-efficiency pollution control devices are essential to lower emissions for emission sources located in a densely populated community; c) a spatial and temporal impact assessment should be performed in developing bioenergy-based district heating systems, in which the capital and operational costs should be balanced with not only the benefit to greenhouse gas emission

  12. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    With the ending of one-child policy since 2015, the number of newborns are expected to increase in China, where people are surviving from pool air quality. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5 have been confirmed as a top risk factor to cause birth defects including low birth weight (LBW). Motivated by the increasing demands of the newborns for cleaner air in China, we conducted the first national risk assessment study on LBW cases caused by PM2.5. We combined county-level PM2.5 concentrations in 2013-2015 and demographic data (including population counts, birth rates and etc.), province-level baseline incidences of LBW and multiple reference safety concentrations (0 μg/m3, WHO air quality guidelines and interim targets) to estimate the number of PM2.5-associated LBW in 31 provinces. The uncertainty was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on our results, in 2013 among 334,781 (95% CI: 313,024-344,568) cases of LBW, 122,684 (95% CI: 53,153-173,846, account for 37% of the total LBW) were attributed to PM2.5, when assuming the reference safety concentration as 0 μg/m3; while 53,917 (95% CI: 22,851-82,195, account for 16% of the total LBW) cases of LBW could have been protected, if the air quality met WHO WHO interim target-3, 35 μg/m3. Among 31 provinces, PM2.5-associated LBW were mostly distributed in Hebei (12.99%, 95% CI: 12.42%-17.30%), Henan (9.75%, 95% CI: 9.11%-13.50%) and Guangdong (8.60%, 95% CI: 6.98%-9.42%). During 2013 to 2015, air quality in China was reported to be improved by implement of emission-reduction policies. Similarly, we found significantly decreasing trends of infants weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in most heavily polluted areas, which protected 12,201 (95% CI: 4,749-20,503) and 24,637 (95% CI: 9,619-39,821) PM2.5-associated LBW in 2014 and 2015, account for 3.64% (95% CI: 1.46%-6.21%) and 7.36% (95% CI: 2.93%-12.07%) of that in 2013, respectively. The uncertainty of this study was mainly contributed by that in epidemiology

  13. Survey and analysis of environmental performance indicators applied to thermoelectric generation styles; Levantamento e analise de indicadores de desempenho ambiental aplicados a empreendimentos termeletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Bruno Moreno Rodrigo de; Cardoso Junior, Ricardo Abranches Felix [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Country economic growth is proportional bond to it electric generation increasing capacity. Brazil, which has a power matrix predominantly renewable, currently is increasing generation, from thermoelectricity, due, mainly, to major facilities in relation to environmental licensing. Since this new Thermal Power Plants operating, tied to the generation with those ones already installed, will result in environmental impacts that must be properly controlled. Such control should follow the Environmental Performance Evaluation guidance, standardized by ABNT NBR ISO 14031/04. Therefore, the following work presents the main Environmental Performance Indicators applied to several thermoelectric generation styles (Oil, Natural Gas, Diesel, Mineral Coal, Biomass, Waste, Solar and Nuclear). (author)

  14. Framework to development of applications to monitoring and analysis petroleum processes; Ambiente computacional para desenvolvimento de aplicacoes de monitoramento e analise de processos na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Bezerra, Clauber; Feijo, Rafael; Eidelwein, Maria Emilia; Cunha, Dannilo Martins; Costa, Bruno [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Computacao e Automacao; Souza, Alessandro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio Grande do Norte (CEFET/RN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a system for monitoring and visualization of plant process. The System is able to collects data from several data servers, like OPC Servers, SCADA systems and OLE DB data bases. The collected data are displayed to users using a fast human machine interface. The system has a library of software components which can be easily configured and used by users, allowing them to develop on demand their own applications. The system has other features that allow uses to easily share their applications to other users. In addition, users can access them from any computer connected to the company intranet. (author)

  15. Energy conservation analysis using Fuzzy logic considering technical and environmental aspects; Analise da conservacao de energia utilizando logica fuzzy considerando aspectos tecnicos e o meio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil; Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Guardia, Eduardo Crestana [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica; Reis, Alexandre de Souza Rodrigues dos; Pinto, Luiz Fernando do Monte [Furnas Centrais Eletricas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the results obtained in the Project of Research and Development of Furnas Centrais Eletricas, which was accomplished with the partnership of the Fundacao de Pesquisa e Assessoramento a Industria - FUPAI. This project analyzed technically and economically the pollution caused in the electric net by the use, in growing scale, of nonlinear loads, such as: compact fluorescent lamps, microwave ovens, VHS systems, DVD, sound systems, etc. It was also analyzed the environmental impact caused by these lamps due to the presence of the mercury; and as complement to the traditional theory of economical analysis, a tool of economical analysis was developed using the theory of fuzzy sets for the uncertainty variables or of difficult quantification. (author)

  16. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  17. Salud ambiental: conceptos y actividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La finalidad del trabajo es aportar información y propuestas conceptuales que faciliten la tarea de quienes tienen a su cargo la sistematización institucional de la salud ambiental. Se hace un análisis de la noción de "ambiente" para la cual se sugiere una definición, y se examina el lugar de la salud ambiental en el contexto de los problemas ambientales y sus vertientes "verde" y "azul". Se examinan denominaciones equivalentes de salud ambiental y se introducen los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proporcionan varias definiciones y se da la oficial de salud ambiental adoptada por la OMS en Sofía, Bulgaria (1993. A continuación se transcriben las áreas básicas que a la salud ambiental le han asignado diversas organizaciones o reuniones, como la OPS, la OMS, el Programa 21 y otros. A partir de aquí se construye un repertorio bastante completo de áreas y subáreas y se encuentra que todos los listados son, en realidad, una reunión asistemática de tres tipos de constituyentes: determinantes (factores o hechos de la realidad física, procesos (conjuntos de intervenciones y funciones (conjuntos de acciones de gestión, los cuales pueden enfocarse matricialmente y llevan a individualizar actividades de los servicios de salud ambiental. Se proponen unas reglas de operación que permiten, en una especie de álgebra, construir expresiones para especificar con precisión las actividades y sus agregados. De este modo se logra disponer de un lenguaje simbólico común que puede ayudar a la intercomunicación, enseñanza e investigación en el ámbito de la salud ambiental.

  18. Memory Tests with Ambient Odours "Make Scents"

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Marie

    2015-01-01

    An ambient odour of anise was used in a context-dependent memory study with three different memory tasks targeting both declarative and non-declarative memory functions. Declarative memory was assessed by means of two episodic memory tests; recall of a prose text and a complex figure. Priming was used to assess the non-declarative memory with word fragment completion. Memory was tested immediately and after 48 hours. The results showed a significant main effect of context (odour or not) for a...

  19. Accurate Ambient Noise Assessment Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Willian; Calafate, Carlos T.; Cano, Juan-Carlos; Manzoni, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, smartphones have become ubiquitous and one of the main communication resources for human beings. Their widespread adoption was due to the huge technological progress and to the development of multiple useful applications. Their characteristics have also experienced a substantial improvement as they now integrate multiple sensors able to convert the smartphone into a flexible and multi-purpose sensing unit. The combined use of multiple smartphones endowed with several types of sensors gives the possibility to monitor a certain area with fine spatial and temporal granularity, a procedure typically known as crowdsensing. In this paper, we propose using smartphones as environmental noise-sensing units. For this purpose, we focus our study on the sound capture and processing procedure, analyzing the impact of different noise calculation algorithms, as well as in determining their accuracy when compared to a professional noise measurement unit. We analyze different candidate algorithms using different types of smartphones, and we study the most adequate time period and sampling strategy to optimize the data-gathering process. In addition, we perform an experimental study comparing our approach with the results obtained using a professional device. Experimental results show that, if the smartphone application is well tuned, it is possible to measure noise levels with a accuracy degree comparable to professional devices for the entire dynamic range typically supported by microphones embedded in smartphones, i.e., 35–95 dB. PMID:28430126

  20. Analise dos efeitos de diferentes parametros na estabilidade de vitamina C em vegetais processados

    OpenAIRE

    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: O trabalho foi conduzido no sentido de se estudar a estabilidade e verificar a cinética de perda de vitamina C em diferentes processos, utilizando-se como, matéria prima, vegetais selecionados: couve, couve-flor e pimentão. Foram feitos diferentes tipos de cozimento (água, vapor e microondas) e estocagem (temperatura ambiente, refrigerada e congelada), variando-se os tempos e condições de processamento. Foi constatado que as perdas de vitamina C nos produtos, durante o cozimento em ág...

  1. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  2. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  3. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  4. TERCEIRO SETOR E MEIO AMBIENTE

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, MARINA FÉLIX DE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivamos discutir, brevemente, como têm se dado as discussões sobre o Terceiro Setor brasileiro e, particularmente, sobre as ONGs que atuam em defesa do meio ambiente, levantando questionamentos acerca das limitações enfrentadas pelo Terceiro Setor neste contexto

  5. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  6. The persuasiveness of ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a novel concept for embedded computing that builds on the large-scale integration of electronic devices into peoples’ surroundings and the ubiquitous availability of digital information to the users of such environments. The concept however is not only concerned with

  7. Ambient intelligence : visualising the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence systems are aimed at making user-system interaction and content consumption a truly positive experience. The endless search for nifty information visualisation mechanism to squeeze yet one more piece of information onto a visual display is surpassed by the challenge to embed

  8. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).

  9. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich body of literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), and there is strong support for an important role of ultrafine (nanosized) particles. At present, relatively few human health or epidemiology ...

  10. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  11. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system. The ...... are flexible and scale up to general tree structures admitting powerful restructuring operations....

  12. Ambient intelligence, ethics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Kort, H.S.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Soede, M.

    2007-01-01

    Networked and ubiquitous information and communication technologies (ICTs) and ambient intelligence are increasingly used in the home environment to facilitate independent living for older adults. These systems collect and disperse a high volume of personal data, which is used for assistance and

  13. Construindo cidadania ambiental na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Schwanke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2013v10n16p14 O forte componente transversal da Educação Ambiental possibilita sua inserção em vários espaços e níveis de escolaridade. No ensino fundamental, constitui-se em uma importante ferramenta para criar espaços que permitam a abordagem de temáticas socioambientais atuais, de forma crítica e participativa. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar o Projeto Construindo Cidadania Ambiental, executado por bolsistas do Grupo PET - Conexões Gestão Ambiental em unidades escolares, explicitando sua filosofia de implantação e resultados obtidos até o momento. Verifica-se que sua natureza interdisciplinar e integrada permite uma efetiva interação com o corpo docente e discente da escola, bem como permite a prática de uma educação ambiental crítica e transformadora.

  14. A legislação ambiental como foco de conflitos: uma análise a partir das representações sociais da natureza dos pequenos agricultores em Minas Gerais, Brasil / Environmental legislation as focus of conflicts: an analysis based on the smallholders’ social..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Augustinus Laschefski,,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A legislação ambiental, frequentemente, não esta sendo respeitada por pequenos produtores rurais. Este trabalho busca entender as razões para este comportamento a partir da analise das representações sociais da natureza e do meio ambiente deste grupo social. Como resultado constatamos que as representações sociais que formam a base da legislação ambiental não levaram em conta as necessidades básicas para a sobrevivência dos agricultores familiares. Tais necessidades apenas podem ser satisfeitas através do uso de áreas consideradas de alto valor para a preservação do meio natural. Embora os agricultores familiares já incluíram a visão oficial da natureza refletida na legislação ambiental no seu imaginário - formando representações sociais híbridas entre visões de mundo modernas e tradicionais - são as materialidades dos seus modos de vida que explicam as aparentes contradições nos seus atos. Desta forma, consideramos a análise das representações sociais uma ferramenta importante na identificação das razões que levam a violações da legislação, que por sua vez podem indicar conflitos ambientais duradouros entre estes grupos e o aparelho repressivo do Estado.

  15. Exergetic analysis in petroleum primary separation plants; Analise exergetica em plantas de separacao primaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiorzi, Telmo Machado

    1997-07-01

    This dissertation presents a method for evaluate the efficiency of primary petroleum separation plants off-shore, using the concept of exergy. This concept is presented as a thermodynamic property and one shows how to calculate its value. A bibliographic revision is done, as well as, the necessary adaptations and considerations foe exergy application on off-shore plants: It is presented a way to evaluate efficiency on plants which part of the products is used as the drive-force of the process and it is presented the exergy calculation for mixtures, through departure functions. This calculation deserves special attention due to Equilibrium-Liquid-Vapour behavior of the mixtures when brought to ambient conditions. Some hypothetical cases, carried out using the Process Simulator HYSIM, are analyzed. The conclusions and recommendations are related to design and operation of off-shore plants and perspectives to follow on the subject exergy and the petroleum industry. (author)

  16. A educação ambiental e o turismo ecológico/The enviromental education and the ecological tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramon Lamadrid Marón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade turística no Brasil tem alcançado grande expansão, principalmente o segmento do turismo ecológico. Este artigo foi elaborado a partir das reflexões de Dias, em sua obra Educação Ambiental; princípios e práticas, e de Ruschman, em Turismo no Brasil; análise e tendências. Através dessas análises bibliográficas, foi possível observar a importância de se promover a educação ambiental, tanto no sentido formal quanto informal, e também de se relacionar a produção do conhecimento com a atividade turística empresarial. Trata-se, portanto, de uma reflexão sobre a valorização e utilização da ciência e do conhecimento como instrumento de orientação para se estabelecer as bases do desenvolvimento sustentável, que deve envolver diversas dimensões, tais como a econômica, a social, a cultural e a ambiental. Tourist activities in Brazil have attained great expansion, mainly in the areas of ecological tourism. This article Written based on Dias Considerations in enviromental Education; principles and practice and Ruschman’s book Tourism in Brazil; analysis and tendency, Though those bibliographic analises it was possible to observe the importance of promoting the enviromental Education either in the formal sense on the informal, and also relating the production of knowledge to the enterprising tourist activity. Thus, it a reflection on the value and use of science and knowledge as on orientation tool to establish the basis of sustainable development which must involve the various dimensions, such as, the economical, social, cultural and enviromental ones.

  17. IC design challenges for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented experiences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as contextual awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  18. ambient volatile organic compounds pollution and ozone formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUMAYEDE

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Volatile organic compound (VOC) species react at different rate and exhibit differences in reactivity with respect to ozone formation in polluted urban atmosphere. To assess this, the variations pattern, reactivity relative to OH radical and ozone creation potential of ambient VOCs were investigated in field.

  19. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  20. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  1. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  2. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  3. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    of materials is predictable using Raoult’s law. This report details the measurement of the effect of water vapor partial pressure on the volatility...empirical correlation taking into account nonideal behavior was developed to enable estimation of TEPO volatility at any combination of ambient...of the second component is expected to be one-half as much as in the absence of water vapor. Similarly, the measured volatility of the second

  4. Haciendas Locales y Medio Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    1997-01-01

    Junto a los medios puramente administrativos orientados a la protección del medio ambiente, cada día adquieren mayor protagonismo los que pueden adoptarse desde el ámbito del derecho financiero, del ingreso y gasto públicos. El trabajo se ha estructurado en cuatro apartados: aguas, residuos sólidos, polución atmosférica y contaminación acústica.

  5. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: a European cohort study (ESCAPE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M. J.; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F.; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Håberg, Siri E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. Methods We pooled data from 14 population-based

  6. Ambient Temperature and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events.

  7. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  8. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc. and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled. Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi, which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63 and carers (31 in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  9. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  10. Maquinas virtuais em ambientes seguros

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Bispo de Castro

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Desde o início da computação a idéia de máquinas virtuais vem sendo aplicada para estender o multiprocessamento, multi-programação e multi-acesso, tornando os sistemas multi-ambiente. O contínuo aumento no poder de processamento dos computadores fez com que máquinas muito rápidas estivessem ao alcance de qualquer usuário, surgindo PCs com processamento, espaço em disco e memória suficiente para comportar mais de um sistema compartilhando o mesmo hardware. Basicamente, o objetivo das m...

  11. educación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ojeda Barceló

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TICs pueden constituir una herramienta de primer orden para la Educación Ambiental para la Sostenibilidad (EApS, pero todavía existe cierta reticencia por parte de educadores ambientales a hacer un uso de ellas de forma habitual. El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es ofrecer una revisión del estado de la cuestión tanto a nivel nacional como internacional e intentar hacer una propuesta didáctica de trabajo colaborativo a través de Internet para estudiantes de secundaria.

  12. Pediatria ambiental: um tema emergente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M. Valenzuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os artigos mais relevantes sobre a pediatria ambiental, seus efeitos potenciais para a saúde e, especialmente, seus avanços na prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos de 1990 a 2010, além de capítulos de livros relacionados à pediatria ambiental. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há uma variedade significativa de fatores que tornam as crianças altamente vulneráveis à exposição a riscos ambientais, associados principalmente ao consumo comparativamente maior de água, comida e ar por parte da criança, em relação ao seu peso corporal. De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, mais de 3 milhões de crianças menores de 5 anos morrem devido a doenças relacionadas ao meio ambiente. Aproximadamente 30-40% das doenças pediátricas estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais. As crianças estão constantemente expostas a vários riscos ambientais para a saúde, dentre os quais se destacam: água contaminada, falta de condições adequadas de saneamento, poluição do ar, vetores de doenças, perigos químicos, injúrias e acidentes. CONCLUSÕES: Atualmente, os pediatras são desafiados a tratar das necessidades de saúde ligadas à pediatria ambiental. A história pediátrica deve ser mais abrangente, acrescentando-se questões pontuais que ajudem a identificar potenciais riscos ambientais. A conscientização e o entendimento sobre os efeitos nocivos das várias condições ambientais e o conhecimento sobre as medidas de prevenção relacionadas resultarão em intervenções oportunas e adequadas que melhorarão a saúde e o desenvolvimento das nossas crianças.

  13. A saúde no licenciamento ambiental: uma proposta metodológica para a avaliação dos impactos da indústria de petróleo e gás Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Macedo Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância dos impactos da indústria do petróleo sobre a saúde humana, este artigo apresenta uma proposta metodológica para a análise desses aspectos nos estudos de avaliação de impacto ambiental, a partir dos parâmetros legais estabelecidos e da adaptação de uma matriz validada para o setor hidrelétrico. A análise dos relatórios ambientais de 21 empreendimentos nacionais de produção de petróleo, licenciados no período de 1º de janeiro de 2004 a 31 de outubro de 2009, constatou a inexistência de evidências da incorporação de aspectos de saúde na maioria dos seus respectivos estudos de avaliação de impacto ambiental. A matriz mostrou-se um instrumento metodológico adequado para analisar a inserção da saúde no licenciamento ambiental e orientar a tomada de decisão e intervenções para a gestão socioambiental.Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management.

  14. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  15. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  16. Avaliação funcional do desenvolvimento psicomotor e ambiente familiar de crianças com síndrome de down/ Functional assessment of psychomotor development and family environment of children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Natália Santos da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento infantil abrange modificações no plano motor, intelectual, emocional e social. Nesse sentido, a síndrome de Down (SD é uma condição genética reconhecida há mais de um século, que constitui uma das causas mais frequentes de deficiência intelectual, podendo afetar também o desenvolvimento motor da criança, devido às características musculares (hipotonia e articulares (grande amplitude de movimento inerentes a esta síndrome. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o desenvolvimento funcional, psicomotor e o ambiente familiar de crianças com síndrome de Down. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, com caráter descritivo e delineamento transversal, realizado com crianças na faixa etária de 6 meses a 7 anos, em que foram utilizadas três avaliações: a Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor (EDM, o Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI e o Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME. Foi observado, quanto ao desenvolvimento motor, que as crianças apresentaram resultados muito baixos, assim como em sua funcionalidade; já na avaliação do ambiente familiar, foi constatado que os estímulos que essas crianças recebiam eram medianos. Os achados reforçam a importância da estimulação precoce em crianças com SD, visto que estas possuem potencial para se desenvolver com qualidade.

  17. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  18. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  19. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  20. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient di...

  2. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  3. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  4. Embedded systems design issues in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Roovers, R.L.J.; Basten, A.A.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The vision of ambient intelligence opens a world of unprecedented ex.periences: the interaction of people with electronic devices is changed as context awareness, natural interfaces and ubiquitous availability of information are realized. We analyze the consequences of the ambient intelligence

  5. Freedom and privacy in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient

  6. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  7. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  8. Contabilidade ambiental o passaporte para a competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Pereira Kraemer

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os problemas ambientais provocaram grandes danos irreversíveis, que incidiram e incidem agora em todos os países subdesenvolvidos e desenvolvidos, nasce, então, como necessidade imperiosa, introduzir nos nossos sistemas econômicos a Contabilidade Ambiental, pois as organizações, até alguns anos atrás, preocupavam-se apenas com a eficiência dos sistemas produtivos. Chegamos a "era da revolução ambiental", e o ambiente não somente aparece como um conjunto de problemas relativos ao controle da contaminação, mas representa um custo no crescimento econômico. Neste sentido, o contador precisa de uma formação que se estenda além dos limites das técnicas e dos procedimentos. É necessário acrescentar o registro contábil do meio ambiente, dada a velocidade de sua afetação e a influência do mundo atual na utilização e disposição dos recursos naturais. Deve ser considerado como um dos princípios contábeis, onde é um desafio para a contabilidade. Precisa ser considerada como uma ciência contábil integrada, pois com a ciência ecológica e outras ciências são responsáveis pela natureza onde devem ser aplicados critérios de proteção ambiental, demonstrando que os recursos naturais constituem nosso principal capital. Partindo dessa premissa é que este trabalho está enfocando os seguintes tópicos: Responsabilidade Social da Empresa; A Empresa e o Meio Ambiente; Gestão Ambiental; Sistema de Gestão Ambiental; Ações para Preservar o Meio Ambiente - O Protocolo Verde, A Contabilidade, Custos Ambientais, Ativo Ambiental, Passivo Ambiental, Patrimônio Ambiental, Contabilidade Ambiental e Contabilidade Ambiental - o Passaporte para a Competitividade.

  9. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G A.C. , [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  10. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  11. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Al-Aidaroos

    Full Text Available High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation. The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM 18.4±5.8% h(-1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM 12±5.6 h(-1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  12. MARA - methodology to analyze environmental risks; MARA - elaboracao de metodologia para analise dos riscos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Renato F; Yogui, Regiane [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Minniti, Vivienne [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Lopes, Carlos F [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Operacoes de Emergencia; Milaneli, Joao [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Ubatuba, SP (Brazil). Agencia Ambiental de Ubatuba; Torres, Carlos [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Rodrigues, Gabriela; Mariz, Eduardo [Consultoria Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, the environmental impact assessment of an accident is both multi and interdisciplinary and goes through several approaches and depths. Due to the enormous complexity of the environmental analyses issues, mainly for being a science in development and not technological consensus, a macro methodology is presented for the purpose of identify areas that can be impacted by pipeline leakages and recommend improvements are applicable working as a table top response plan. The methodology of the Environmental Risk Mapping-MARA for pipelines rows, describes its concept and justifies the adoption of the environmental mapping during Risk Analyses studies, for PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO new and existing pipelines. The development of this methodology is justified by the fact that it is a practical tool for identification, analysis and categorization of the more vulnerable environmental elements along a pipeline row and vicinities, during simulated occurrence of accidental spills of hydrocarbons in the environment. This methodology is a tool that allows Environmental Agencies and PETROBRAS a better way to manage in advance the Company emergencies. (author)

  13. Sustainability analysis in petroleum production facilities; Analise de sustentabilidade em instalacoes de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Jose Marcos Leite [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Adriano [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The global sustainability aspects are discussed and a method for sustainability analysis in oil and gas production surface facilities is presented. The proposed method requires a multidisciplinary viewpoint and considers social, economic and environmental sustainability aspects during the early design programming and planning phases. Traditionally, Feasibility (Technical and Economical), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and risk (Hazop) analysis are performed separately. On the other hand, the proposed methodology merges economical, environmental and social sustainability analysis; which allows deciding the most globally sustainable scenario. A checklist containing global sustainability aspects (Economical, Social, Environmental, Health, Safety, etc.) and a qualitative analysis of these aspects is suggested. The first step for applying the proposed method consists in checking the aspects and the corresponding suggestions for improving the global sustainability. Secondly, the impact of each aspect on sustainability is verified. Finally, the most important aspects are selected and different scenarios are simulated allowing choosing the most sustainable scenario. The results and conclusions are then presented in a Global Sustainability Report. The proposed analysis was applied to study the sustainability of a small offshore platform design. In this case study, several aspects that could potentially improve sustainability were identified. The simulated scenarios showed that some critical aspects contributed decisively to the global sustainability. These critical aspects are not easily identified if only the traditional economical, environmental and risk analysis are applied. (author)

  14. CONFLITOS INTERPESSOAIS NO AMBIENTE ORGANIZACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Paganini de Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa e confirma a existência de impactos ocasionados pelos conflitos em um ambiente organizacional, através de pesquisa de campo realizada a partir de um estudo de caso e a comparação com a literatura adotada. A empresa escolhida foi abordada a partir de questionários, que foram respondidos pelos colaboradores e também pelo gestor. Percebeu-se que esses impactos são complexos de mensurar, principalmente os financeiros, que normalmente ficam ocultos por muito tempo. Entretanto, não se pode negar sua existência, pois estes tendem à piorar quando não são considerados.  Foi observado com a pesquisa que a conduta adotada para intermediar os conflitos está diretamente ligada ao sucesso de impedir impactos negativos aos indivíduos e à organização como um todo. Essas condutas, quando bem aplicadas podem contribuir reverter o impacto de um conflito, fazendo com que ele seja um fator motivador de mudanças e um estímulo para que os indivíduos demonstrem seus potenciais.

  15. GENES, POBLACIONES, AMBIENTES Y NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noem\\u00ED Acreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura genética de 32 poblaciones de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay en función de las frecuencias génicas de ocho sistemas de grupos eritocitarios. Los sistemas incluidos son: ABO, MN, Ss, DI, P, Cc, Dd y Ee. En el caso de Bolivia, Paraguay y el Chaco Argentino, los datos fueron obtenidos de la bibliografía. La relación entre las poblaciones y diferentes criterios de agrupación (Ambiente, País, Grupo Lingüístico y Altitud fueron evaluadas por medio de Análisis Discriminante. Se consideró el porcentaje de casos correctamente clasificados como medida de la relación entre el conjunto de variables analizadas y el criterio de agrupación. Se encontró que tanto las categorías geoestructurales como lingüísticas establecidas tienen mayor relación con la estructura genética de las poblaciones incluidas en el análisis que las fronteras nacionales, por lo que se concluye que el aislamiento reproductivo entre poblaciones, necesario para la diferenciación, se produce por diferencias culturales o del territorio de ocupación antes que por las fronteras políticas establecidas.

  16. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy; Pedersen, Marie

    2017-07-01

    Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term (TLBW, air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups. Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women and no statistically significant effect modification was evident for the risk of TLBW associated with ambient air pollution. The current epidemiologic evidence is scarce, but suggests that pregnant women who are smoking, being underweight, overweight/obese or having lower SES are a vulnerable subpopulation when exposed to ambient air pollution, with and increased risk of having a child with TLBW. The limited evidence precludes for definitive conclusions and further studies are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published

  17. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  18. Modeling individual exposures to ambient PM2.5 in the diabetes and the environment panel study (DEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which can induce exposure error. The goal of this study was to improve ambient PM2.5 exposure assessments for a repeated measurements study with ...

  19. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  20. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. El dispositivo Problemática ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Di Pasquo; Tomas Busan; Gabriela Klier

    2018-01-01

    Se presenta y problematiza un dispositivo dirigido al tema de la problemática ambiental, del cual destaca su alcance global, su carácter de urgente y su capacidad para afectar a la viabilidad de la especie humana. A la vez, indicamos que esta caracterización de la crisis ambiental se encuentra asociada a una red institucional de corte internacional dirigida a la gestión de este tema. También, se señalan algunos intentos por utilizar a la problemática ambiental como coartada para el establecim...

  2. Impact of coal combustion from thermal power plant: estimates on ambient SO2 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Using a Gaussian dispersion model, ambient Ground Levels Concentrations (GLC) of SO 2 due to Nashik Thermal Power Plant have been computed. Annual GLC in 16 cardinal sectors and concentration levels in 6 atmospheric stability classes have been estimated as a function of down wind distance. The values are compared with national ambient air quality standard and risk involved due to the release of SO 2 from power plant has been assessed. (author). 8 refs., 2 appendixes

  3. Ambient air pollution and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah; Miller, Mark R

    2018-01-03

    Air pollution is a growing public health concern of global significance. Acute and chronic exposure is known to impair cardiovascular function, exacerbate disease and increase cardiovascular mortality. Several plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed for these associations, however, at present, the pathways are incomplete. A seminal review by the American Heart Association (2010) concluded that the thrombotic effects of particulate air pollution likely contributed to their effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The aim of the current review is to appraise the newly accumulated scientific evidence (2009-2016) on contribution of haemostasis and thrombosis towards cardiovascular disease induced by exposure to both particulate and gaseous pollutants.Seventy four publications were reviewed in-depth. The weight of evidence suggests that acute exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) induces a shift in the haemostatic balance towards a pro-thrombotic/pro-coagulative state. Insufficient data was available to ascertain if a similar relationship exists for gaseous pollutants, and very few studies have addressed long-term exposure to ambient air pollution. Platelet activation, oxidative stress, interplay between interleukin-6 and tissue factor, all appear to be potentially important mechanisms in pollution-mediated thrombosis, together with an emerging role for circulating microvesicles and epigenetic changes.Overall, the recent literature supports, and arguably strengthens, the contention that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity by promoting haemostasis. The volume and diversity of the evidence highlights the complexity of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which air pollution promotes thrombosis; multiple pathways are plausible and it is most likely they act in concert. Future research should address the role gaseous pollutants play in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution mixture and direct comparison of potentially

  4. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  5. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  6. Environmental assessment on PETROBRAS pipeline projects: case study of Cacimbas-Catu gas pipeline; Engenharia de avaliacao ambiental no processo de concepcao de projetos de dutos da PETROBRAS - estudo de caso do Gasoduto Cacimbas (ES) - Catu (BA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Pereira, Junior, Edson R; Fonseca, Renata A. Almeida; Rocha, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luis Felipe [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Avaliacao Ambiental

    2005-07-01

    The environmental assessment process is one of the most important phases in the implementation of pipeline projects. For that reason, new technologies and work procedures are used to perform the environmental assessment of areas where pipeways will be implemented. Since the quality of environmental assessment studies influences the social acceptance of projects and, consequently, the time required to obtain the environmental permits, PETROBRAS (Engenharia/IETEG/ETEG/EAMB) applies advanced technological tools to acquire remote sensing data (conventional / digital aero-surveys and satellite images), as well as software for digital image processing and integration and spatial analysis of information. Information about the physical, biological and socioeconomic environments are further verified and complemented through field trips using helicopters. This process makes it possible to identify environmentally favorable corridors to develop guidelines for the implementation of the pipeline, assuring its environmental feasibility, and produces relevant data to support the Environmental Impact Assessment Study, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report and the Risk Analysis Study. As an example of the application of this methodology, this paper presents results of the assessment of the Cacimbas / Catu gas pipeline, which is currently being permitted and is planned to be implemented in areas of high environmental complexity. (author)

  7. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  8. Games and Entertainment in Ambient Intelligence Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors,

  9. Unidades de Pediatría Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    PARÍS M, ENRIQUE; MOLINA M, HELIA; RÍOS B, JUAN CARLOS

    2007-01-01

    Se considera que una Unidad de Pediatría Ambiental es una estructura con roles claramente definidos, situada preferentemente en un centro de salud, especializada en afecciones pediátricas, relacionadas al ambiente. Estos centros pueden proporcionar asesoramiento, información y tratamiento, promover la investigación, entrenar a profesionales, educar al público e informar a las autoridades responsables. Su personal, especialmente entrenado en problemas ambientales, incluye: pediatras, toxicólog...

  10. Avaliação de uma cadeira de banho utilizada em ambiente hospitalar: uma abordagem ergonômica Evaluación de un hinodoro utilizado en el ambiente hospitalario: un abordaje ergonómico Assessment of a hospital bath chair: an ergonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estevam Comélio

    2005-08-01

    assess the ergonomic characteristics of a bath chair utilized in a hospital. Separate questionnaires were applied for the nurses and the patients. The bath chair accessories presented several ergonomic problems. The perceived physical exertion according to the Borg-CR10 Scale indicated that a high level of exertion was required to manipulate the equipment (8.33.

  11. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  12. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  13. Direcciones futuras de la ecotoxicología en Chile: implicancias para la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura Future directions of Chilean ecotoxicology: Implications for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary products used in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS H MEDINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación bidireccional de influencia que la acuicultura establece con el ambiente en el cual se desarrolla determina límites al crecimiento de esta actividad económica en Chile. Esto se ha traducido tanto en restricciones técnicas, como en conflictos ambientales y sociales. La creciente demanda de nuevos productos quimioterapéuticos y su consecuente vertido en ambientes acuáticos es considerado uno de los principales problemas ambientales que enfrenta la industria del salmón en Chile. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de los efectos que ejercen estas sustancias sobre especies no objetivo y, en general, sobre la estructura y función de los ecosistemas expuestos. Mediante la aplicación de teoría y métodos de ecología contemporánea, el trabajo aquí presentado busca contribuir oportunamente al desarrollo de una metodología que permita reducir el nivel de incertidumbre asociado a la evaluación de riesgo ambiental de productos veterinarios utilizados en acuicultura. Se revisa el estado actual de la evaluación de riesgo ambiental en Chile y se identifican aspectos críticos y factibles de corregir en el marco de los procedimientos utilizados. Finalmente, se entrega una propuesta metodológica general que contempla extender de un modo coherente las pruebas ecotoxicológicas estándar, combinando experimentación a niveles comunitario, poblacional e individual, junto a la modelización matemática de sistemas ecológicos.The bidirectional relationship that aquaculture has with the environment set limits to the growth this economic activity has in Chile. This condition has generated both technical constraints and environmental as well as social conflicts. The growing demand for new chemotherapeutic compounds and their reléase into aquatic environments is now considered one of the main problems being faced by the salmón industry in Chile. However, little is known about the effects these substances exert on non-target species and on the

  14. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  15. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...

  16. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  17. Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; McLin, Leon N; Rickman, J Michael; Manka, Michael A; Garcia, Paul V; Kinerk, Wesley T; Smith, Peter A

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000  cd·m -2 ). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600  μW·cm -2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.

  18. Environmental criteria to incorporate into civil engineering studies and projects to improve environmental impact assessment proceeding; Criterios ambientales a incorporar en proyectos de ingenieria civil para favorecer el procedimiento de Evaluacion de Impacto Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazano Valero, I.; Palacios Garcia de la Rosa, D.; Doncel Moratilla, A.; Iglesias Perez, L.; Ortega Santos, L.; Varela Nieto, J. M.; Garcia Sanchez-Colomer, M.

    2009-07-01

    This study fulfils the need of establishing a guideline for environmental conditions that could be used to designing stages in projects submitted to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), in order to consider minimal requirements not only to encourage EIA proceedings but also to reduce Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) contents. EIS from the last 10 year for different civil works projects (roads, railways, airports, dams, hidroelectrical power stations, river channelizations, pipelines, water transfers, ports and works in the coast) have been studied, extracting all the environmental conditions found. Effectiveness and real implementation of theses conditions have been analysed in different phases of the project development, which have allowed a characterization of a series of environmental conditions that could improve environmental assessments and authorities decisions for EIS. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Determination and evaluation of air quality control. Manual of ambient air quality control in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmann, E.

    1997-07-01

    Measurement of air pollution emissions and ambient air quality are essential instruments for air quality control. By undertaking such measurements, pollutants are registered both at their place of origin and at the place where they may have an effect on people or the environment. Both types of measurement complement each other and are essential for the implementation of air quality legislation, particularly, in compliance with emission and ambient air quality limit values. Presented here are similar accounts of measurement principles and also contains as an Appendix a list of suitability-tested measuring devices which is based on information provided by the manufacturers. In addition, the guide of ambient air quality control contains further information on discontinuous measurement methods, on measurement planning and on the assessment of ambient air quality data. (orig./SR)

  20. Ambient temperature and volume of perihematomal edema in acute intracerebral haemorrhage: the INTERACT1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Karpin, Anne; Yang, Jie; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    As no human data exist, we aimed to determine the relation between ambient temperature and volume of perihematomal 'cerebral' edema in acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) among Chinese participants of the pilot phase, Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT1). INTERACT1 was a multicenter, open, blind outcome assessed, randomized controlled trial of intensive (systolic target ambient temperature (mean, minimum, maximum, and range) on the day of each participant's ICH obtained from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System were linked to other data including edema volumes. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate association between ambient temperature and edema volumes. A generalized linear regression model with a generalized estimating equations approach (GEE) was used to assess any association of ambient temperature and change in edema volume over 72 h. A total of 250 of all 384 Chinese participants had complete data that showed positive associations between ambient temperature (mean and minimum temperatures) and edema volumes at each time point over 72 h after hospital admission (all P ambient temperature and perihematomal edema volume in acute spontaneous ICH. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  1. CNOSSOS-EU: Development of a common environmental noise assessment method in the European Union; CNOSSOS-EU: desarrollo de un metodo comun de evaluacion del ruido ambiental en la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspuru Soloaga, I.; Segues Echazarreta Segues, F.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the main aspects of the work undertaken in the development of the common european method of environmental noise assessment CNOSSOS-EU. It summarizes the design, structure and content, and the methodological basis on which it is based. Taking into account the experience gained in the first round of strategic noise mapping, some conclusions are settled about its applications for the third round, and tits implications for the Spanish case. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaco, Joseph M; Appel, Lawrence J; McGready, John; Cutting, Garry R

    2018-01-01

    Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health. To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1) in the general population. Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression. The NHANES III (1988-94) cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female) and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female), with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014). The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States. In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  3. The relationship of lung function with ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Collaco

    Full Text Available Lung function is complex trait with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to variation. It is unknown how geographic factors such as climate affect population respiratory health.To determine whether ambient air temperature is associated with lung function (FEV1 in the general population.Associations between spirometry data from two National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES periods representative of the U.S. non-institutionalized population and mean annual ambient temperature were assessed using survey-weighted multivariate regression.The NHANES III (1988-94 cohort included 14,088 individuals (55.6% female and the NHANES 2007-12 cohort included 14,036 individuals (52.3% female, with mean ages of 37.4±23.4 and 34.4±21.8 years old and FEV1 percent predicted values of 99.8±15.8% and 99.2±14.5%, respectively.After adjustment for confounders, warmer ambient temperatures were associated with lower lung function in both cohorts (NHANES III p = 0.020; NHANES 2007-2012 p = 0.014. The effect was similar in both cohorts with a 0.71% and 0.59% predicted FEV1 decrease for every 10°F increase in mean temperature in the NHANES III and NHANES 2007-2012 cohorts, respectively. This corresponds to ~2 percent predicted difference in FEV1 between the warmest and coldest regions in the continental United States.In the general U.S. population, residing in regions with warmer ambient air temperatures was associated with lower lung function with an effect size similar to that of traffic pollution. Rising temperatures associated with climate change could have effects on pulmonary function in the general population.

  4. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danni Zheng

    Full Text Available Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2 participants on an hourly timescale.INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150-220 mmHg assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs and 95% CI.Low ambient temperature (≤10°C was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99-1.91 for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31-2.81 for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89-5.19 for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30-14.42 for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses.Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079.

  5. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Gasparrini, Antonio; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lo, Serigne; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) participants on an hourly timescale. Methods INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150–220 mmHg) assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg) or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg) BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Results Low ambient temperature (≤10°C) was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99–1.91) for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31–2.81) for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89–5.19) for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30–14.42) for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079 PMID:26859491

  6. La protección internacional del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint del Tema 14 de la asignatura "Derecho Internacional Público". Curso 2017-18. Tema 14. La protección internacional del medio ambiente: 1.- El Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente: caracteres específicos. 2.- Principios fundamentales del Derecho Internacional del Medio Ambiente. 3.- Medio ambiente y Desarrollo: el Desarrollo Sostenible.

  7. A autoavaliação da aprendizagem de inglês como língua estrangeira em um ambiente tandem a distância Self-assessment of English as a foreign language learning in a distance tandem setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Marques Spatti Cavalari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa discutir as características do processo de autoavaliação da aprendizagem de inglês como língua estrangeira em um contexto tandem a distancia. Trata-se, mais especificamente, da apresentação de uma pesquisa na qual se analisam os dados coletados no ambiente teletandem (TELLES, 2005 por uma brasileira (aprendiz de inglês, durante suas interações via chat com dois parceiros norteamericanos (aprendizes de português. A análise enfoca as metas e estratégias de aprendizagem em relação aos parâmetros e critérios adotados pela brasileira em seu processo de autoavaliação.This work aims at discussing the characteristics of self-assessment process in a tandem language learning setting. It is the presentation of a study in which the data were collected by a Brazilian participant (learner of English as a foreign language during her interactions via chat with two North American teletandem (TELLES, 2005 partners (learners of Portuguese as a foreign language. The analysis focused on the learning goals and strategies in relation to the parameters and criteria defined by the Brazilian learner in her self-assessment process.

  8. História mensageira... computador mediador -: uma analise semiolingüística do discurso infantil na narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axt, Margarete

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao explorar recursos de programação em linguagem LOGO, criando ambientes informáticos de aprendizagem aplicados ao estudo da Língua Portuguesa, um dos nossos objetivos específicos foi de verificar os seus efeitos sobre a competência discursiva infantil. Um estudo de caso abrangendo 14 narrativas de uma criança com uma história pregressa de dificuldades na área de linguagem, mostrou-nos que, subjacente a idéias pouco desenvolvidas e estratégias verbais primitivas, essas histórias apresentavam estrutura textual e estrutura discursiva. Ao que tudo indica a criança havia sido estimulada, pelas condições desse ambiente particular, a ativar a capacidade de perceber e interpretar regras sócio-lingüísticas do contexto, de modo a produzir uma mensagem singular que tivesse um certo impacto sobre a situação de comunicação

  9. The Aesthetics of the Ambient Video Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Bizzocchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" [9]. This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.

  10. Ambient air pollution associated to domestic wood burning heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friboulet, I.; Durif, M.; Malherbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Main publications are considering effects of wood burning appliances on indoor air quality, which is a major issue in some countries. But impacts on ambient air, close environment and human exposure are rather poorly characterised so far. Besides, woods burning for domestic purpose may develop in the next years while promoting bio fuels. The aim of the ongoing study is to assess in which conditions associated air pollution and population exposure could be significant, this poster shows preliminary results of the impact of a village of 98 houses equipped with a wood burning heating system. (N.C.)

  11. Monitoring ambient air for mutagenicity using the higher plant Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schairer, L.A.; Sautkulis, R.C.; Tempel, N.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major emphasis for short-term bioassays has been placed on bacterial and mammalian cell lines. However, for increased perspective on the state-of-the-art of specific in vitro assays it is important to consider the environmental impact on whole organisms by reviewing the contributions made by in vivo assays. This paper will deal exclusively with somatic mutation in the Tradescantia stamen hair: describing the system briefly, demonstrating its relevance to environmental mutagen assessment and discussing its adaptation for in situ ambient atmosphere monitoring

  12. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  13. Strategic environmental assessment of Brazil's ethanol expansion: a methodological proposal and its preliminary application; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica da expansao de etanol no Brasil: uma proposta metodologica e sua aplicacao preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberling, Daniel Fontana

    2008-03-15

    The main objective of this dissertation is to adapt the methodology of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to the case of ethanol fuel production in Brazil. The results are be utilized in decision-making processes as well as in the discussion on future tendencies of risks and opportunities regarding the development of ethanol as the principal renewable liquid fuel. Taking into account the international experiences of countries with a tradition in sectoral planning, SEA is found to be the instrument in public environmental management that can most adequately consider the environmental variable - beginning already at the planning stage of the ethanol industry, a necessity that has strongly unfolded itself following the deregulation of the sector in Brazil. The conflicts that may emerge from large ethanol production surpluses for export are also identified through the application of specifically designed indicators. (author)

  14. Evaluación ambiental del PRMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una revisión constructiva de las actuales disposiciones sobre la evaluación ambiental de los planes reguladores, intentada con el propósito de contribuir a mejorar los procedimientos en práctica. En este sentido, aboga porque al plan regulador no se le exijan contribuciones ambientales que excedan a sus verdaderas competencias, para lo cual introduce el concepto de "efectos territoriales"; justifica que su evaluación ambiental deba ser realizda mediante una "declaración", y ahonda en la forma de elaborar y presentar esta declaración, acogiendo lo que a este respecto estipula el Art. 15° del Reglamento de la ley sobre Bases Generales del Medio Ambiente.

  15. Ambient Field Analysis at Groningen Gas Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Z.; Nakata, N.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze continuous ambient-field data at Groningen gas field (Netherlands) through cross-correlation processing. The Groningen array is composed of 75 shallow boreholes with 6 km spacing, which contain a 3C surface accelerometer and four 5-Hz 3C borehole geophones spaced at 50 m depth intervals. We successfully retrieve coherent waves from ambient seismic field on the 9 components between stations. Results show high SNR signal in the frequency range of 0.125-1 Hz, and the ZZ, ZR, RZ, RR and TT components show much stronger wave energy than other components as expected. This poster discuss the different type of waves retrieved, the utility of the combination of borehole and surface observations, future development as well as the importance to compute the 9 components of the Green's tensor to better understand the wave field propriety with ambient noise.

  16. Ocean Ambient Noise Measurement and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, William M

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the theory of ocean ambient noise mechanisms and measurements, and also describes general noise characteristics and computational methods.  It concisely summarizes the vast ambient noise literature using theory combined with key representative results.  The air-sea boundary interaction zone is described in terms of non-dimensional variables requisite for future experiments.  Noise field coherency, rare directional measurements, and unique basin scale computations and methods are presented.  The use of satellite measurements in these basin scale models is demonstrated.  Finally, this book provides a series of appendices giving in-depth mathematical treatments.  With its complete and careful discussions of both theory and experimental results, this book will be of the greatest interest to graduate students and active researchers working in fields related to ambient noise in the ocean.

  17. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    (TLBW, restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards...... on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite...... direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women...

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  19. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...

  20. Comercio Internacional y Medio Ambiente en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rincón, Mario Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX A portada: Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Ambientales, Opción Economía Ecológica y Gestión Ambiental A portada: Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA) Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Desde la perspectiva de la Economía Ecológica, el Comercio Internacional no es un juego de suma positiva donde todos los participantes resultan ganadores por el intercambio comercial, sino que es un juego de suma cero, donde hay beneficiados y perjudic...

  1. Territorios vulnerables e injusticia ambiental en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Lacabana; Clara Bressano

    2016-01-01

    Justicia ambiental es un concepto fructífero en tanto modificó la perspectiva clásica de análisis sobre el problema de la degradación ambiental al establecer como principal interrogante no tanto las "causas" que producen tal degradación sino que interroga el proceso político, económico y social que consolida la desigual distribución social de las cargas nocivas de la contaminación. El conurbano sur de Buenos Aires y dentro de este el Municipio de Quilmes condensan distintas situaciones se vul...

  2. Human-Centric Interfaces for Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajan, Hamid; Delgado, Ramon Lopez-Cozar

    2009-01-01

    To create truly effective human-centric ambient intelligence systems both engineering and computing methods are needed. This is the first book to bridge data processing and intelligent reasoning methods for the creation of human-centered ambient intelligence systems. Interdisciplinary in nature, the book covers topics such as multi-modal interfaces, human-computer interaction, smart environments and pervasive computing, addressing principles, paradigms, methods and applications. This book will be an ideal reference for university researchers, R&D engineers, computer engineers, and graduate s

  3. No queremos medio ambiente, lo queremos completo

    OpenAIRE

    Hederich G., Federico

    2018-01-01

    Sí bien es evidente la relación Hombre Medio Ambiente, no todos tenemos clara la manera como interactuamos interrumpiendo el desarrollo armónico de esta relación.El primer punto que vamos a tratar pretende esclarecer el significado de dos palabras básicas cuando se trata el tema del medio ambiente, en primera instancia, el término «basura» que se define como inmundicia, estiércol, y luego analizaremos «desperdicio» que significa derroche, residuo.Sí analizamos profundamente estas dos palabras...

  4. A RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL E O MEIO AMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELCYLENE VILLALBA SOARES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem por finalidade realizar uma análise sobre a evolução da responsabilidade civil e suas teorias, subjetiva e objetiva aplicadas ao meio ambiente. Dentro desta área, deve-se ressaltar que a responsabilidade civil ao meio ambiente, é um assunto de importante relevância para o efetivo controle da depredação ambiental, permitindo que sejam alcançadas as metas propostas como condição de sobrevivência da espécie humana, ou seja, a conservação do meio ambiente e o desenvolvimento econômico social, visando desta maneira, permitir a qualidade e a continuação da vida. Existe o entendimento, que somente com educação ambiental e normas reguladoras fortes, como a penalidade de ter que indenizar quando praticar algum dano ao meio ambiente conseguirá atingir o objetivo maior de preservação. Necessitam-se além de uma mudança na legislação que responsabilize poluidores do meio ambiente, atribuindo-lhes sanções que inibam a prática de tal conduta ilícita e realizando assim, a aplicabilidade da justiça.Palavras-chave:Responsabilidade Civil; Responsabilidade; Meio Ambiente ABSTRACTThis article have objective to realize a analysis about civil responsibility evolution and your theories, subjective and objective apply environment. Inside this area have to stand out that civil responsibility environment, it is a theme very important relevance for environment depredation control effective, permitting have been obtain proposals target like been human survival condition, therefore, environment conservation and social economic development objective permit quality and continuation of life. There is understanding, that only with environment education and strong regulation principle, like penalty has to indemnify when practice some injury of environment, will obtain more preservation. Demand a change on legislation that responsible environment polluter attribute him inhibit sanctions for practice this illicit conduct and

  5. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry; Avaliacao de modelos de impacto ambiental para deposicao de residuos solidos com radionuclideos naturais em instalacoes minero-industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-15

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  6. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2012 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Soil); Evaluación de la Intercomparación CSN/CIEMAT-2012 entre los Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Suelo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gascó, C.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2012) was soil, that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu and 238Pu) and contained natural radionuclides (234U, 238U, U-natural 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Ac, 234Th, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 208Tl and 40K) at environmental level of activity concentration. Two soil matrixes were prepared in order to separate 55Fe and 63Ni analysis. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories.

  7. Analise do movimento de arremessar em diferentes tarefas realizadas por crianças portadoras de Sindrome de Down

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Nabeiro

    1993-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar o comportamento motor, através do arremesso por cima, de crianças portadoras de Síndrome de Down, com deficiência mental em nível moderado. Tal situação visa verificar o nível de desenvolvimento e a influência do ambiente sobre o comportamento motor. Participaram do estudo 27 crianças portadoras de Síndrome de Down, com idade entre 8 e 12 anos, alunos do Setor Educacional do Centro de Habilitação da APAE, que foram filmadas na execução do movim...

  8. Impact of Ambient Humidity on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413

  9. Mobile Communication Devices, Ambient Noise, and Acoustic Voice Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Ysenbaert, Femke; Zarowski, Andrzej; Vanspauwen, Robby

    2017-03-01

    The ability to move with mobile communication devices (MCDs; ie, smartphones and tablet computers) may induce differences in microphone-to-mouth positioning and use in noise-packed environments, and thus influence reliability of acoustic voice measurements. This study investigated differences in various acoustic voice measures between six recording equipments in backgrounds with low and increasing noise levels. One chain of continuous speech and sustained vowel from 50 subjects with voice disorders (all separated by silence intervals) was radiated and re-recorded in an anechoic chamber with five MCDs and one high-quality recording system. These recordings were acquired in one condition without ambient noise and in four conditions with increased ambient noise. A total of 10 acoustic voice markers were obtained in the program Praat. Differences between MCDs and noise condition were assessed with Friedman repeated-measures test and posthoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, both for related samples, after Bonferroni correction. (1) Except median fundamental frequency and seven nonsignificant differences, MCD samples have significantly higher acoustic markers than clinical reference samples in minimal environmental noise. (2) Except median fundamental frequency, jitter local, and jitter rap, all acoustic measures on samples recorded with the reference system experienced significant influence from room noise levels. Fundamental frequency is resistant to recording system, environmental noise, and their combination. All other measures, however, were impacted by both recording system and noise condition, and especially by their combination, often already in the reference/baseline condition without added ambient noise. Caution is therefore warranted regarding implementation of MCDs as clinical recording tools, particularly when applied for treatment outcomes assessments. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2010 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Diet Ashes); Evaluacion de la Intercomparacion CSN/CIEMAT-2010 entre los Laboratorios Nacionales de Radiactividad Ambiental (Ceniza de Dieta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.; Llaurado, M.; Suarez, J. A.

    2012-06-08

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparison exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UAB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2010) was a diet ash obtained from the ashing of a whole fresh diet (breakfast, lunch and dinner), that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Co-60,Fe-55,Ni-63,Sr-90,Am-241,Pu-238,Pu-239,240 y C-14) and contained natural radionuclides (U-234, U-238, U-natural Th-230, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210, Pb-212, Pb-214, Bi-214, Ac-228, Tl-208, K-40) at environmental level of activity concentration. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The reference values obtained through the medians show a negative bias for Pb-210 and Th-234 when comparing to the given values of external qualified laboratories from ENEA and IRSN and positive one for K-40. (Author)

  11. The Utility of the Extended Images in Ambient Seismic Wavefield Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Active-source 3D seismic migration and migration velocity analysis (MVA) are robust and highly used methods for imaging Earth structure. One class of migration methods uses extended images constructed by incorporating spatial and/or temporal wavefield correlation lags to the imaging conditions. These extended images allow users to directly assess whether images focus better with different parameters, which leads to MVA techniques that are based on the tenets of adjoint-state theory. Under certain conditions (e.g., geographical, cultural or financial), however, active-source methods can prove impractical. Utilizing ambient seismic energy that naturally propagates through the Earth is an alternate method currently used in the scientific community. Thus, an open question is whether extended images are similarly useful for ambient seismic migration processing and verifying subsurface velocity models, and whether one can similarly apply adjoint-state methods to perform ambient migration velocity analysis (AMVA). Herein, we conduct a number of numerical experiments that construct extended images from ambient seismic recordings. We demonstrate that, similar to active-source methods, there is a sensitivity to velocity in ambient seismic recordings in the migrated extended image domain. In synthetic ambient imaging tests with varying degrees of error introduced to the velocity model, the extended images are sensitive to velocity model errors. To determine the extent of this sensitivity, we utilize acoustic wave-equation propagation and cross-correlation-based migration methods to image weak body-wave signals present in the recordings. Importantly, we have also observed scenarios where non-zero correlation lags show signal while zero-lags show none. This may be a valuable missing piece for ambient migration techniques that have yielded largely inconclusive results, and might be an important piece of information for performing AMVA from ambient seismic recordings.

  12. CUIDADO AMBIENTAL E RESPONSABILIDADE: POSSÍVEL DIÁLOGO ENTRE PSICOLOGIA AMBIENTAL E LOGOTERAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Arnaldo Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O cuidado ambiental vem sendo marcado pela tônica da conservação e da promoção da sustentabilidade. A premente necessidade de um dado compromisso e educação ambiental e de condutas pró-ambientais vem sendo defendida em vários contextos: na mídia, nas políticas públicas, por meio de campanhas sazonais. Todavia, pouco se descreve acerca do sentido presente nos modos de cuidado configurados a partir da inter-relação pessoa-ambiente. Nesta perspectiva, este estudo objetivou promover um possível diálogo a partir das contribuições da Psicologia Ambiental e da Logoterapia visando aproximar a noção de cuidado ambiental, delineada pela Psicologia Ambiental, à ideia de responsabilidade, como defendida pela Logoterapia, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. As articulações propositadas corroboraram, portanto, para acenar que a relação pessoa-ambiente pode ser arraigada em qualidade se a responsabilidade é reconhecida em sua propriedade de potencial humano, o que pode favorecer na emergência do sentido das atitudes e condutas pró-ambientais e explicitar o caráter de tarefa única e irrepetível inerente à vida.

  13. Nonsymbolic Gestural Interaction for Ambient Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    the addressee with subtle clues about personality or cultural background. Gestures are an extremly rich source of communication-specific and contextual information for interactions in ambient intelligence environments. This chapter reviews the semantic layers of gestural interaction, focusing on the layer...

  14. EXPERIENCIA INTEGRADORA PARA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Coronel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se relacionó la práctica experimental de laboratorio co n el análisis de problemas ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar una propuesta que vinculó el trabajo experimental con la situación del ambiente local para promover el cuidado de la naturaleza y su uso con sostenibilidad . Esta estrategia brindó un enfoque integrador aportando a los alumnos de profesorado una alternativa de aprendizaje con exper iencias sencillas para el estudio cualitativo de l ambiente local y motivar a l análisis de problemas asociad o s. Las experiencias permitieron caracterizar las muestras de suelo, agua y aire del lugar de residencia de los alumnos. La información experimental obtenida potenció la discusión de la situación ambiental actual. E l enfoque de enseñanza basado en problemas socio - científicos posibilit ó la visión interdisciplinar del tema , redimensionando valores y acciones para el cuidado ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable.

  15. Dynamical cognitive services for ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Lee, C.-S.; Wang, M.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence systems are more than a simple integration among computer technologies, indeed, their design can strongly depend upon psychology and social sciences aspects describing, analyzing and forecasting the human being status during the system's decision making. Consequently, if from a

  16. Visualizing ambient user experiences: any how

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, M.; Robben, S.; Veenstra, M.; Kröse, B.; Olivier, P.; Wright, P.

    2012-01-01

    As interactive systems become increasingly complex and entwined with the environment, technology is becoming more and more invisible. This means that much of the technology that people come across every day goes unnoticed and that the (potential) workings of ambient systems are not always clearly

  17. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  18. Ambient environment analysis by means of perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitterman, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Bhatt, M.; Schultz, C.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of an ambient environment by means of perception is described. The surveillance of an object by human, who watches a scene via a monitor that shows camera sensed information, is investigated. Although the camera sensing process is a deterministic process, human perception of a scene via

  19. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception

  20. Visualizing ambient user experiences : any how

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Robben, Saskia; Kröse, Ben; Veenstra, Mettina

    2012-01-01

    As interactive systems become increasingly complex and entwined with the environment, technology is becoming more and more invisible. This means that much of the technology that people come across every day goes unnoticed and that the (potential) workings of ambient systems are not always clearly

  1. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  2. Territorios vulnerables e injusticia ambiental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lacabana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Justicia ambiental es un concepto fructífero en tanto modificó la perspectiva clásica de análisis sobre el problema de la degradación ambiental al establecer como principal interrogante no tanto las "causas" que producen tal degradación sino que interroga el proceso político, económico y social que consolida la desigual distribución social de las cargas nocivas de la contaminación. El conurbano sur de Buenos Aires y dentro de este el Municipio de Quilmes condensan distintas situaciones se vulnerabilidad social ambiental donde los conflictos son acallados, ocultos o simplemente quedan latentes frente a la emergencia de mantener o crear nuevas fuentes de empleo. La cuestión ambiental no se constituyó durante años en un problema con relevancia pública si bien existieron tímidas políticas públicas que tendieron a regular los efectos de polución industrial y sus efectos sobre la calidad de vida de las personas.

  3. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  4. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  5. Preparation of heterogeneous networks for ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, van der P.D.V.; Basten, A.A.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Groot, de H.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence assumes the existence of ubiquitous networked computing. Networking is supported in the home by a so-called home network. Currently, the home network emerges from the purchase of a second PC in the home. Extending the home network confronts the prospective buyer with a multitude

  6. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  8. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  9. A Kleene analysis of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sagiv, M.

    2000-01-01

    We show how a program analysis technique originally developed for C-like pointer structures can be adapted to analyse the hierarchical structure of processes in the ambient calculus. The technique is based on modeling the semantics of the language in a two-valued logic; by reinterpreting...

  10. Dynamic services for open ambient intelligence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) [1] provides a wide-ranging vision on how the Information Society will evolve, since the goal is to conceive platforms for seamless delivery of services and applications making them effectively invisible to the user. This is possible by gathering best practices from

  11. Redox Toxicology of Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Millions of Americans live in areas in which levels of tropospheric ozone exceed air quality standards, while exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) alone results in 3.2 million excess deaths annually wor...

  12. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Hu, Q.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada

  13. Avaliação da degradação de macrófitas aquáticas descartadas em ambiente protegido Assessment of the degradation of aquatic macrophytes discarded into a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.S. Cezar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de buscar informações sobre a degradação de macrófitas aquáticas descartadas em pilhas, após ações do controle mecânico, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Recursos Naturais - Ciências Ambientais, UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. Para atender o objetivo proposto, foram montadas pilhas com volume de 2,25 m³, compostas, principalmente, por três espécies de macrófitas, retiradas do reservatório da UHE Americana/SP. Foram coletadas amostras na montagem das pilhas, aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias, para o acompanhamento da temperatura da pilha e do pH do material orgânico durante o processo, além de uma análise química do composto ao final dos 90 dias. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - somente plantas aquáticas e revolvimento da pilha a cada sete dias; T2 - somente plantas aquáticas e revolvimento a cada quatro dias; T3 - plantas aquáticas + permagel, com revolvimento a cada sete dias; e T4 - plantas aquáticas + permagel e revolvimento a cada quatro dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, sendo a análise estatística realizada para coleta aos 90 dias, empregando o programa SISVAR. Concluiu-se que os resultados de macro e micronutrientes, temperatura, umidade, pH, relação C/N e redução do volume das pilhas foram semelhantes aos observados quando se procedeu ao descarte em pilhas com volume de 4,5 m³ sobre o solo.An experiment was carried out at the Department of Natural Resources - Environmental Science, UNESP, Botucatu-SP to evaluate the degradation of aquatic macrophytes discarded in stacks, after mechanical control measures. Stacks of 2.25 m³ volume were set up, composed of three species of macrophytes collected from the Americana UHE reservoir in Sao Paulo. Stack samples were collected at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days, for temperature monitoring and organic material pH assessment during the process, besides compound chemical analysis at day 90. The treatments were: T1-only aquatic

  14. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  15. Automated Processing Workflow for Ambient Seismic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A. J.; Shragge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Structural imaging using body-wave energy present in ambient seismic data remains a challenging task, largely because these wave modes are commonly much weaker than surface wave energy. In a number of situations body-wave energy has been extracted successfully; however, (nearly) all successful body-wave extraction and imaging approaches have focused on cross-correlation processing. While this is useful for interferometric purposes, it can also lead to the inclusion of unwanted noise events that dominate the resulting stack, leaving body-wave energy overpowered by the coherent noise. Conversely, wave-equation imaging can be applied directly on non-correlated ambient data that has been preprocessed to mitigate unwanted energy (i.e., surface waves, burst-like and electromechanical noise) to enhance body-wave arrivals. Following this approach, though, requires a significant preprocessing effort on often Terabytes of ambient seismic data, which is expensive and requires automation to be a feasible approach. In this work we outline an automated processing workflow designed to optimize body wave energy from an ambient seismic data set acquired on a large-N array at a mine site near Lalor Lake, Manitoba, Canada. We show that processing ambient seismic data in the recording domain, rather than the cross-correlation domain, allows us to mitigate energy that is inappropriate for body-wave imaging. We first develop a method for window selection that automatically identifies and removes data contaminated by coherent high-energy bursts. We then apply time- and frequency-domain debursting techniques to mitigate the effects of remaining strong amplitude and/or monochromatic energy without severely degrading the overall waveforms. After each processing step we implement a QC check to investigate improvements in the convergence rates - and the emergence of reflection events - in the cross-correlation plus stack waveforms over hour-long windows. Overall, the QC analyses suggest that

  16. New Look at BTEX: Are Ambient Levels a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Ashley L; Kwiatkowski, Carol F; Colborn, Theo

    2015-05-05

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are retrieved during fossil fuel extraction and used as solvents in consumer and industrial products, as gasoline additives, and as intermediates in the synthesis of organic compounds for many consumer products. Emissions from the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels are the largest contributors to atmospheric BTEX concentrations. However, levels indoors (where people spend greater than 83% of their time) can be many times greater than outdoors. In this review we identified epidemiological studies assessing the noncancer health impacts of ambient level BTEX exposure (i.e., nonoccupational) and discussed how the health conditions may be hormonally mediated. Health effects significantly associated with ambient level exposure included sperm abnormalities, reduced fetal growth, cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, asthma, sensitization to common antigens, and more. Several hormones including estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, insulin, and serotonin may be involved in these health outcomes. This analysis suggests that all four chemicals may have endocrine disrupting properties at exposure levels below reference concentrations (i.e., safe levels) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data should be considered when evaluating the use of BTEX in consumer and industrial products and indicates a need to change how chemicals present at low concentrations are assessed and regulated.

  17. Sistemas de gestión ambiental normalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Fronti de García, Luisa; Pahlen, Ricardo José María; D’Onofrio, Paula Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    La contabilidad ambiental presupone la existencia de un sistema de gestión ambiental. Dentro del sistema integral de la organización, el sistema de gestión ambiental permite la obtención de información oportuna y segura. Podríamos definir el sistema de gestión ambiental de un ente como el conjunto de medidas destinadas a prevenir el impacto negativo de las actividades del ente sobre el medio ambiente. El sistema de gestión ambiental (SGA) es aquella parte del sistema de gestión total que incl...

  18. The unconstitutionality of the environmental compensation: an analyse of the ADIn (Direct Action of Unconstitutionality) 3378; A inconstitucionalidade da compensacao ambiental: uma analise da ADIn (Acao Direta de Inconstitucionalidade) 3378

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcio Monteiro; Masseli, Sandro [Siqueira Castro Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor Regulatorio e Ambiental

    2008-07-01

    The following paper aims to analyze the judgment of a specific Direct Action of Unconstitutionality ('ADI') filed by the Brazilian National Industry Confederation regarding the constitutionality of environmental compensation fee as disposed by Law 9.985. Such ADI was also sponsored by the Brazilian Oil, Gas and Biofuels Institute ('IBP') as 'amicus curiae'. In light of this, an environmental compensation timeline will be presented in order to support its charging evolution. By doing this we will be in a position to balance economic development and environment. (author)

  19. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  20. The SHP's environmental licensing and the social communication: case study analysis of Funil and Carangola; O licenciamento ambiental de PCH e a comunicacao social: analise dos estudos de caso de Funil e Carangola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Camila Rocha

    2007-07-01

    Lately, concepts and paradigms have gone through constant alterations, due to high-speed growth the globe faces the dilemma of how to keep this growing and guarantee the survival conditions for next generations. Consequently, it comes into view the requirement for the discussion towards environment preservation and sustainability. In addition to this, humanity has been seeking for solutions to this impasse and the Brazilian Electric Sector equally has looked for alternatives since the beginning of electrification in the country, in early 19{sup th} Century, when the first Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) were installed to provide energy to the industrial development period. Moreover, at present, this same category of energy generation plant represents a good opportunity, for the reason that they are framed as one of the sources of energy that is considered renewable or less pollutant. In the past years, technological evolution has been accompanied by the national industry of equipment and also the environmental legislation has created tools to mitigate the impacts of a Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs). The present research has aimed not only to present in its bibliographical revision the evolution of SHPs concept associated with the environmental aspects but also the application of techniques of social communication in the environmental license process. Furthermore it has looked for new communicative applicable tools in search of a larger public participation among the involved players, which results in important premises for the sustainability course of action. In order to attend those goals, two processes of SHP licensing were analyzed in Minas Gerais State, with main focus in the included Social Communication Program in the Plan of Environmental Control foreseen by the resolution number 006/87 of CONAMA (National Environmental Council). Finally, this research intended to present communicative feasible tools in the dimensioning of the participating actions in the process of SHP environmental licensing. (author)

  1. The SHP's environmental licensing and the social communication: case study analysis of Funil and Carangola; O licenciamento ambiental de PCH e a comunicacao social: analise dos estudos de caso de Funil e Carangola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Camila Rocha

    2007-07-01

    Lately, concepts and paradigms have gone through constant alterations, due to high-speed growth the globe faces the dilemma of how to keep this growing and guarantee the survival conditions for next generations. Consequently, it comes into view the requirement for the discussion towards environment preservation and sustainability. In addition to this, humanity has been seeking for solutions to this impasse and the Brazilian Electric Sector equally has looked for alternatives since the beginning of electrification in the country, in early 19{sup th} Century, when the first Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) were installed to provide energy to the industrial development period. Moreover, at present, this same category of energy generation plant represents a good opportunity, for the reason that they are framed as one of the sources of energy that is considered renewable or less pollutant. In the past years, technological evolution has been accompanied by the national industry of equipment and also the environmental legislation has created tools to mitigate the impacts of a Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs). The present research has aimed not only to present in its bibliographical revision the evolution of SHPs concept associated with the environmental aspects but also the application of techniques of social communication in the environmental license process. Furthermore it has looked for new communicative applicable tools in search of a larger public participation among the involved players, which results in important premises for the sustainability course of action. In order to attend those goals, two processes of SHP licensing were analyzed in Minas Gerais State, with main focus in the included Social Communication Program in the Plan of Environmental Control foreseen by the resolution number 006/87 of CONAMA (National Environmental Council). Finally, this research intended to present communicative feasible tools in the dimensioning of the participating actions in the process of SHP environmental licensing. (author)

  2. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  3. Environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: analysis and optimization proposals for Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas: analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.brT

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPP). Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. It also highlights the importance of environmental zoning as a tool of environmental management for the procedure to obtain these licenses. The results show that 80% of the cases, the institutions do not respect the deadlines, 40% of the studies presented by the enterprises are insufficient, 60% there is lack of human resource and technical capacities of the environment institutions, and 80% non-fulfilment of the laws and non-integration of the institutions. Finally, the study concludes that the difficulties to obtain these licenses are based on the facts mentioned which are, the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, it is suggested that deadlines should be imposed for the institutions and the enterprises. There should be training, fund raising for the hiring of technicians, fulfillment of the law and above all, transparency in order to supply the electrical energy demand and guarantee the sustainable development. (author)

  4. Radiometric analysis performed by the Environment Monitoring Service from IPEN (Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research), Brazil, between 1988 and 1991; Analises radiometricas realizadas pelo Servico de Monitoracao Ambiental do IPEN de 1988 a 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, L; Nisti, M B; Pecequilo, B R.S.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the radiometric analyses made by the Environmental Monitoring Service from the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Brazil, in the period 1988-1991. The experimental procedures, the products analysed and their respective quantities are described. (F.E.). 11 refs, 3 tabs.

  5. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis; Comercializacao de energia no novo ambiente do setor eletrico brasileiro. Uma metodologia para analise de estrategias de alocacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorelam@cesp.com.br; Lima, Wagner da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: wagner@pea.usp.br; Castro, Roberto [ELEKTRO - Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: castro@mt2net.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  6. Investment decisions in environment of uncertainties integrated to the viability analysis of the distribution and transmission projects; Decisao de investimentos em ambiente de incertezas integrada a analise de viabilidade de projetos de transmissao e distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzi, L.M.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Ramos, D.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work intends to support the necessary investment decisions to the expansion of the network of 138/88 kV, belonging to the electric energy distribution companies. In the economic and financial analysis, are considered the needs of the Regulator for the tariff recognition of an investment, using economic engineering techniques to evaluate the feedback of the invested capital but considering an uncertainty environment, where the best decision depends on exogenous variables to the traditional planning process. In order to make viable the inclusion of the main variables of random behavior that condition the economic and financial performances of the analyzed alternatives for decision making, it was chosen the utilization of the methodology based on 'Real Options', which is an used technique in the financial market for some time.

  7. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  8. Diagnóstico ambiental no córrego Bacaba, Talismã - TO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Mota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os aspectos e impactos ambientais na mata ciliar do córrego Bacaba, localizada no município de Talismã -TO. O diagnóstico foi feito através de visita in loco e com registro fotográfico das características da degradação, para analise quantitativa dos impactos utilizou-se uma matriz de aspectos e impactos. Os principais problemas encontrados foram à inexistência da mata ciliar nas duas margens do córrego, o transporte de sedimentos do solo para a calha, a compactação da camada superficial do solo, afugentamento da fauna local, surgimento de ravinas e voçorocas de erosão e afugentamento da fauna local. As causas desses impactos são devido à intensificação da agropecuária juntamente com manejo inadequado do solo necessitando de medidas mitigatórias urgentes como isolamento da área e plantio de mudas nativas onde a área foi degradada.Environmental diagnosis stream Bacaba, Talisman - TOAbstract: This study aimed to assess the environmental aspects and impacts on riparian Bacaba stream, located in the municipality of Talisman. The diagnosis was done through on-site visit and photographic record of the characteristics of degradation, to quantitative analysis of impacts we used an array of aspects and impacts. The main problems encountered were the lack of riparian vegetation on both sides of the stream, the sediment transport from the ground to the gutter, compaction of topsoil, the resulting disappearance of local fauna, emergence of ravines and gullies of erosion and the resulting disappearance of local wildlife. The causes of these impacts are due to the intensification of agriculture along with inadequate soil management requiring urgent preventive/corrective measures such as isolation of the area and planting of native seedlings where the area was degraded.

  9. Microbiological Studies of Semi-Preserved Natural Condiments Paste Stored in Refrigerator and Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, H. A.; Montolalu, R. I.; Mentang, F.; Mandang, A. S. K.; Rahmi, A. D.; Berhimpon, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this studies were to prepare juice and raw condiment to be come semipreserve pastes, and to do microbial assessments on the both pastes during storing in refrigerator and ambient temperatures. For both pastes in refrigerator, samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 days, and in ambient temperature samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days. Assessment were done for TPC, total coliform and E. coli, Salmonella sp, Staphylococcus sp., Vibrio sp., pH and water content. The results shown that juice paste stored in refrigerator still good until 30 days (TPC 1,5x104 CFU/g), and in ambient temperature still good until 6 days (2x104 CFU/g). Condiment paste stored in refrigerator still good until 30 days (6.5x103 CFU/g), and in ambient temperature still good until 6 days (1.17x104 CFU/g). However, recommended that condiment paste stored in ambient temperature only until 4 days (7.3x103CFU/g), while that juice paste until 5 days (7.8x103CFU/g). There were no pathogenic bacteria found in all samples.

  10. The importance of ambient sound level to characterise anuran habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Goutte

    Full Text Available Habitat characterisation is a pivotal step of any animal ecology study. The choice of variables used to describe habitats is crucial and need to be relevant to the ecology and behaviour of the species, in order to reflect biologically meaningful distribution patterns. In many species, acoustic communication is critical to individuals' interactions, and it is expected that ambient acoustic conditions impact their local distribution. Yet, classic animal ecology rarely integrates an acoustic dimension in habitat descriptions. Here we show that ambient sound pressure level (SPL is a strong predictor of calling site selection in acoustically active frog species. In comparison to six other habitat-related variables (i.e. air and water temperature, depth, width and slope of the stream, substrate, SPL had the most important explanatory power in microhabitat selection for the 34 sampled species. Ambient noise was particularly useful in differentiating two stream-associated guilds: torrents and calmer streams dwelling species. Guild definitions were strongly supported by SPL, whereas slope, which is commonly used in stream-associated habitat, had a weak explanatory power. Moreover, slope measures are non-standardized across studies and are difficult to assess at small scale. We argue that including an acoustic descriptor will improve habitat-species analyses for many acoustically active taxa. SPL integrates habitat topology and temporal information (such as weather and hour of the day, for example and is a simple and precise measure. We suggest that habitat description in animal ecology should include an acoustic measure such as noise level because it may explain previously misunderstood distribution patterns.

  11. Significance and influence of the ambient temperature as a rate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , undoubtedly is dependent even on the level of the ambient temperature. Therefore, the ambient temperature seems to be an important factor of the corrosion rate and the durability of the reinforced concrete structures in aggressive ...

  12. The assessment of ambient air pollution pattern in Shah Alam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study implements the statistical analysis to establish the association between air pollution trends with the industrial activities in Shah Alam, Selangor. PCA used to identify most significant parameters contributing to air pollution and it sources of pollutions, whereas SPC used to determine the pattern and contribution ...

  13. Separating underwater ambient noise from flow noise recorded on stereo acoustic tags attached to marine mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Samarra, F.I.P.; Beerens, S.P.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the

  14. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Doelwit: Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die persepsies van vroedvroue, wat voorgeboortesorg aan swanger vrouens bied, te ondersoek en te beskryf sover dit hulle persepsies oor psigososiale risiko-assessering en psigososiale aangaan. Metode: ’n Interpretatiewe en beskrywende kwalitatiewe benadering is gevolg. Drie fokusgroep-onderhoude is deur middel van ‘n gestruktureerde onderhoudsgids gevoer met verloskundiges wat in drie voorgeboorteklinieke in die Gauteng Provinsie werksaam is. ’n Benadering tot data-analise wat van voortdurende vergelyking gebruik maak, is gevolg. Resultate: Die studie het aan die lig gebring dat verloskundiges bewus is van psigososiale probleme onder swanger vroue en dat die prevalensie van sulke probleme onder swanger vroue hoog is. Vroedvroue erken die belang van psigososiale sorg aan swanger vroue alhoewel hulle nie toereikend toegerus is om psigososiale assessering en -sorg te verleen nie. Gevolgtrekking: Die bevindinge stel ’n basis daar vir die insluiting van psigososiale sorg in roetine voorgeboortesorg.

  15. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature.......Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature....

  16. Saúde Ambiental: uma Análise dos Resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Meio Ambiente, Saúde e Saúde Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Maury de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A representação nas políticas públicas do conceito de saúde ambiental, como expressão do equilíbrio da rede de conexões entre a sociedade humana e a natureza é discutida neste trabalho, no intuito de demonstrar o status quo da saúde ambiental nas políticas públicas no país. Primeiro foi traçado o histórico da “ambientalização na saúde”, do conceito de saúde ambiental e da institucionalização das políticas ambientais e de saúde ambiental no âmbito dos Ministérios do Meio Ambiente e da Saúde. As interações entre as políticas de Saúde e de Meio Ambiente para a efetivação de uma Política Nacional de Saúde Ambiental e as intersecções dos resultados das Conferências Nacionais de Saúde, Meio Ambiente e Saúde Ambiental foram analisadas; concluindo- se com os avanços conseguidos pelos dois setores, os desafios para a articulação intersetorial e a participação social para a construção de políticas públicas de saúde ambiental.

  17. MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Caroline Lopes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho intitulado “MODIFICANDO O AMBIENTE ESCOLAR ATRAVÉS DO PROJETO MEIO AMBIENTE: CULTIVANDO E CONHECENDO AS PLANTAS” tem como desígnio apresentar o desenvolvimento do projeto “meio ambiente: cultivando e conhecendo as plantas”, no qual teve como proposta sensibilizar os alunos sobre a importância e preservação do meio ambiente através da prática e modificação do ambiente escolar, onde procurou-se utilizar materiais reciclados, tais como, garrafas pet, pneus velhos, carreteis de fios de eletricidade, e também mudas de arvore, plantas e hortaliças. Desta forma buscou se utilizar da criatividade dos envolvidos no processo para a transformação do ambiente escolar seco e vazio, para uma ambiente alegre, e acolhedor. O projeto foi elaborado pelas professoras da Extensão Betel, e aplicado em parceria com acadêmicos do sexto semestre do curso de Licenciatura em Pedagogia da Universidade do Estado do Mato Grosso (UNEMAT, campus de Sinop. Tendo como proposta a interdisciplinaridade, o projeto foi divido em três eixos orientados pelas professoras Edneuza Alves Trugillo, Sinóvia Rauber e Mariza Kreinner, abrangendo assim alunos e professoras de duas turmas de 2º Ano do Ensino Fundamental, e acadêmicos e professores da Universidade, os eixos foram arborização, jardinagem e horta, onde teve a duração de aproximadamente dois meses. A finalização das práticas obteve resultados satisfatórios e objetivos alcançados, tanto pela sensibilização dos alunos sobre a preservação e importância do meio-ambiente, quanto pela prática de intervenção pelos acadêmicos envolvidos no processo, que em coletividade conseguiram modificar o ambiente escolar através do objetivo do projeto, meio-ambiente, proporcionando assim um enriquecimento na formação acadêmica enquanto práticas pedagógicas.

  18. Densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lianqing; An Qi; Fu Rongshan; Ni Sidao; Luo, S.-N.

    2006-01-01

    We show that densification of silica glass at ambient pressure as observed in irradiation experiments can be attributed to defect generation and subsequent structure relaxation. In our molecular dynamics simulations, defects are created by randomly removing atoms, by displacing atoms from their nominal positions in an otherwise intact glass, and by assigning certain atom excess kinetic energy (simulated ion implantation). The former forms vacancies; displacing atoms and ion implantation produce both vacancies and 'interstitials'. Appreciable densification is induced by these defects after equilibration of the defective glasses. The structural and vibrational properties of the densified glasses are characterized, displaying resembling features regardless of the means of densification. These results indicate that relaxation of high free-energy defects into metastable amorphous structures enriched in atomic coordination serves as a common mechanism for densification of silica glass at ambient pressure

  19. Next generation intelligent environments ambient adaptive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nothdurft, Florian; Heinroth, Tobias; Minker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book covers key topics in the field of intelligent ambient adaptive systems. It focuses on the results worked out within the framework of the ATRACO (Adaptive and TRusted Ambient eCOlogies) project. The theoretical background, the developed prototypes, and the evaluated results form a fertile ground useful for the broad intelligent environments scientific community as well as for industrial interest groups. The new edition provides: Chapter authors comment on their work on ATRACO with final remarks as viewed in retrospective Each chapter has been updated with follow-up work emerging from ATRACO An extensive introduction to state-of-the-art statistical dialog management for intelligent environments Approaches are introduced on how Trust is reflected during the dialog with the system.

  20. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  1. Some measurements of ambient air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, H.R.; Memon, A.A.; Behan, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Ambient air pollution arising from different sources in Karachi and its surroundings has been studied. The urban centres like Karachi are mostly confronted with eye-irritation, reduce visibility, heart-diseases, nervous disorder, smog and other unpleasant experiences. In this paper quantitative estimations of some air-pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and particular matters are presented with their hazardous effects. The remedial measures for the control of major air emissions are also discussed. (author)

  2. ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL URBANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Minaki

    2012-01-01

    mostrando que, a pesar de ser una pequeña ciudad, sus características de la ocupación son suficientes para generar una disminución en la calidad ambiental. En este trabajo, también fue posible proponer ideas para mejorar la calidad de estos espacios, desde el punto de vista de la Planificación del Paisaje.

  3. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  4. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  5. Preservation of Biospecimens at Ambient Temperature: Special Focus on Nucleic Acids and Opportunities for the Biobanking Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rolf; Betsou, Fay; Barnes, Michael G; Harding, Keith; Bonnet, Jacques; Kofanova, Olga; Crowe, John H

    2016-04-01

    Several approaches to the preservation of biological materials at ambient temperature and the relative impact on sample stability and degradation are reviewed, with a focus on nucleic acids. This appraisal is undertaken within the framework of biobank risk, quality management systems, and accreditation, with a view to assessing how best to apply ambient temperature sample storage to ensure stability, reduce costs, improve handling logistics, and increase the efficiency of biobank procedures.

  6. 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Pereira, António; González, Gabriel; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2015), held in Salamanca, Spain on June 3th-5th at the University of Salamanca. After a careful review, 27 papers from 10 different countries were selected to be presented in ISAmI 2015 at the conference and published in the proceedings.  ISAmI has been running annually and aiming to bring together researchers from various disciplines that constitute the scientific field of Ambient Intelligence to present and discuss the latest results, new ideas, projects and lessons learned, namely in terms of software and applications, and aims to bring together researchers from various disciplines that are interested in all aspects of this area. Ambient Intelligence is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human comput...

  7. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  8. LA DIMENSION AMBIENTAL Y LA EDUCACION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Humberto Arias Pabón

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El evidente deterioro ambiental al cual se enfrenta nuestra civilización, constituye una seria amenaza para la supervivencia de la especie humana por cuanto afecta sustancialmente la disponibilidad de recursos para mante ner el ritmo de producción de bienes y el avance tecnológico, característicos de la sociedad actual. Tal situación es causada no solamente por un equivocado modelo de desarrollo que considera incompatibles los conceptos de progreso material y conservación, sino por la ignorancia generalizada sobre la dinámica de los diversos procesos ecológicos que de forma natural buscan mantener el equilibrio ambiental del entorno. Ante este fenómeno la Fundación UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL plantea una estrategia educativa como parte de la solución al problema con el ofrecimiento del programa de Ingeniería en Recursos Hídricos, a través del cual busca integrar la Dimensión Ambiental con la formación universitaria de las juventudes colombianas.

  9. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baikie, Iain D., E-mail: iain@kptechnology.ltd.uk; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metals. • Rastered photon energy scan overcomes inelastic scattering. • Relationship between photoemission threshold and contact potential difference. - Abstract: We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30–50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1–3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu{sub 2}O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  10. A realistic in vitro exposure revealed seasonal differences in (pro-)inflammatory effects from ambient air in Fribourg, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system. Cells were exposed on up to three consecutive days each 12 h to ambient air from Fribourg, Switzerland, during summer and winter seasons. Higher particle number, particulate matter mass, and nitrogen oxide levels were observed in winter ambient air compared to summer. Good cell viability was seen in cells exposed to summer air and short-term winter air, but cells exposed three days to winter air were compromised. Exposure of summer ambient air revealed no significant upregulation of oxidative stress or pro-inflammatory genes. On the opposite, the winter ambient air exposure led to an increased oxidative stress after two exposure days, and an increase in three assessed pro-inflammatory genes already after 12 h of exposure. We found that even with a short exposure time of 12 h adverse effects in vitro were observed only during exposure to winter but not summer ambient air. With this work we have demonstrated that our simple, fast, and cost-effective approach can be used to assess (adverse) effects of ambient air.

  11. Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the global IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Landes, M.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brown, D.

    2011-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a global network of infrasound arrays, which is designed to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet. The infrasound network also has potential application in detection of natural hazards such as large volcanic explosions and severe weather. Ambient noise recorded by the network includes incoherent wind noise and coherent infrasound. We present a statistical analysis of coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS network. We have applied broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing systematically to the multi-year IMS historical dataset (2005-present) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm in log-frequency space. We show that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind-noise levels permit. Multi-year averaging of PMCC detection bulletins emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, or anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining or industrial activity). While many of these continuous or repetitive signals are of interest in their own right, they may dominate IMS array detection bulletins and obscure or complicate detection of specific signals of interest. The new PMCC detection bulletins have numerous further applications, including in volcano and microbarom studies, and in IMS data quality assessment.

  12. Burden of disease attributed to ambient air pollution in Thailand: A GIS-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayut Pinichka

    Full Text Available Growing urbanisation and population requiring enhanced electricity generation as well as the increasing numbers of fossil fuel in Thailand pose important challenges to air quality management which impacts on the health of the population. Mortality attributed to ambient air pollution is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs. We estimated the spatial pattern of mortality burden attributable to selected ambient air pollution in 2009 based on the empirical evidence in Thailand.We estimated the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution based on the comparative risk assessment (CRA framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD. We integrated geographical information systems (GIS-based exposure assessments into spatial interpolation models to estimate ambient air pollutant concentrations, the population distribution of exposure and the concentration-response (CR relationship to quantify ambient air pollution exposure and associated mortality. We obtained air quality data from the Pollution Control Department (PCD of Thailand surface air pollution monitoring network sources and estimated the CR relationship between relative risk (RR and concentration of air pollutants from the epidemiological literature.We estimated 650-38,410 ambient air pollution-related fatalities and 160-5,982 fatalities that could have been avoided with a 20 reduction in ambient air pollutant concentrations. The summation of population-attributable fraction (PAF of the disease burden for all-causes mortality in adults due to NO2 and PM2.5 were the highest among all air pollutants at 10% and 7.5%, respectively. The PAF summation of PM2.5 for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were 16.8% and 14.6% respectively and the PAF summations of mortality attributable to PM10 was 3.4% for all-causes mortality, 1.7% for respiratory and 3.8% for cardiovascular mortality, while the PAF summation of mortality

  13. Burden of disease attributed to ambient air pollution in Thailand: A GIS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinichka, Chayut; Makka, Nuttapat; Sukkumnoed, Decharut; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Inchai, Puchong; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2017-01-01

    Growing urbanisation and population requiring enhanced electricity generation as well as the increasing numbers of fossil fuel in Thailand pose important challenges to air quality management which impacts on the health of the population. Mortality attributed to ambient air pollution is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). We estimated the spatial pattern of mortality burden attributable to selected ambient air pollution in 2009 based on the empirical evidence in Thailand. We estimated the burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution based on the comparative risk assessment (CRA) framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD). We integrated geographical information systems (GIS)-based exposure assessments into spatial interpolation models to estimate ambient air pollutant concentrations, the population distribution of exposure and the concentration-response (CR) relationship to quantify ambient air pollution exposure and associated mortality. We obtained air quality data from the Pollution Control Department (PCD) of Thailand surface air pollution monitoring network sources and estimated the CR relationship between relative risk (RR) and concentration of air pollutants from the epidemiological literature. We estimated 650-38,410 ambient air pollution-related fatalities and 160-5,982 fatalities that could have been avoided with a 20 reduction in ambient air pollutant concentrations. The summation of population-attributable fraction (PAF) of the disease burden for all-causes mortality in adults due to NO2 and PM2.5 were the highest among all air pollutants at 10% and 7.5%, respectively. The PAF summation of PM2.5 for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease were 16.8% and 14.6% respectively and the PAF summations of mortality attributable to PM10 was 3.4% for all-causes mortality, 1.7% for respiratory and 3.8% for cardiovascular mortality, while the PAF summation of mortality attributable to

  14. Contribuições para a construção de uma matriz para avaliação de projetos de educação ambiental Contributions to the construction of an assessment matrix for environmental education projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Guanabara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoje em dia, presenciamos uma grande proliferação de projetos de educação ambiental, mas não se observa esse mesmo desenvolvimento em relação aos métodos para avaliação destes. O presente artigo teve por objetivo colaborar com a construção de uma matriz para avaliação de tais projetos. Foram utilizados, como exemplo de avaliação, dois projetos desenvolvidos no município de Petrópolis (RJ, que apresentam os resíduos sólidos como tema central. A matriz analisou a adequação dos projetos Araras sem lixo e Petrópolis recicla com as principais políticas públicas que regem a região e o tema escolhido. Foram elaboradas 13 questões para avaliar se os projetos estavam ou não de acordo com os propostos pelas políticas públicas escolhidas. No total, cada projeto poderia pontuar um máximo de 39 e um mínimo de 13 pontos, podendo ser avaliados como: (i não de acordo com as políticas públicas analisadas (pontuação entre 13-21; (ii parcialmente de acordo (entre 22 e 30 pontos; e (iii de acordo (entre 31-39 pontos. Segundo a avaliação, o projeto Araras sem lixo tem seus princípios e objetivos parcialmente de acordo com aqueles propostos pelas políticas públicas analisadas. Já o projeto Petrópolis recicla mostrou-se inadequado aos propostos por essas políticas públicas. A matriz de avaliação mostrou ser um instrumento adequado para avaliação e posterior comparação de projetos de educação ambiental, podendo ser adaptada aos mais diferentes temas e realidades.Nowadays we witness a huge proliferation of environmental education projects, but a similar development cannot be observed with respect to the methods employed to evaluate these projects. The present article seeks to contribute to the process by constructing a matrix to evaluate this kind of project. Two projects developed in Petrópolis (RJ having solid waste as their main issue were taken as test cases. The matrix analyzed the adherence of the projects

  15. New Council of State degree on ambient air quality is in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnasto, O.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of the Environment is currently preparing a new Council of State decree on ambient air quality to implement EC directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for SO 2 , NO 2 , particulate matter and lead in the ambient air, the EC directive 2000/69/EC relating to benzene and carbon monoxide in the ambient air, and regulations in EC directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management. The national legislation will come into force in July 2001. Current studies based on measurements and calculations show that the SO 2 concentrations in ambient air are generally low and clearly below the limit values. The same holds good for lead. However, the new limit values for NO 2 are exceeded in the largest towns, and the 2010 limit values for particulate matter presented in the guidelines are generally exceeded in small towns, too. The 2005 limit values for particulate matter are not so strict, and it is estimated that they will be exceeded especially in years when spring dust problems are serious. The limit values for CO may at times be exceeded in areas with heavy traffic. The limit values intended to protect the vegetation and the ecosystems are not exceeded in background areas to the implementation. As for benzene, it is assumed that the concentrations will generally be below the limit value in other parts of the world as well

  16. Ambiente e justiça: sobre a utilidade do conceito de racismo ambiental no contexto brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lays Helena Paes e

    2013-01-01

    A ideia de crise ambiental suscita discussões a respeito de distintas concepções de natureza e de ambiente e das disputas simbólicas e materiais neste meio. Uma concepção que toma sociedade e ambiente como pares inseparáveis levou à emergência, nos Estados Unidos, de movimentos que introduziram conceitos como justiça ambiental e racismo ambiental. No Brasil, surgiram movimentos e estudos focados nas mesmas bandeiras de luta e nos mesmos conceitos. Considerando as especificidades do racismo no...

  17. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  18. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  19. Ambient water quality criteria for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1993-08-13

    Ambient water quality criteria are established for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in British Columbia. Major sources of PAH in the atmosphere and aquatic environments include, for the atmosphere, forest and prairie fires, agricultural burning, refuse burning, enclosed incineration, and heating and power, and for the aquatic environment, petroleum spillage, atmospheric deposition, wastewaters, surface land runoff, and biosynthesis. Details are presented of PAH and their characteristics, forms and transformations, occurrence in the environment, drinking water concerns, aquatic life concerns, wildlife concerns, livestock water supply concerns, and irrigation concerns. Application of criteria for aquatic life is discussed including phototoxic vs long term criteria, assessment of existing water quality, setting water quality objectives, and PAH levels in smoked fish. 221 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. The Use of Ambient Humidity Conditions to Improve Influenza Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Kandula, S.; Yang, W.; Karspeck, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing. These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast and provide further evidence that humidity modulates rates of influenza transmission.

  1. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2013-07-01

    The annual report 2011 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B; Current data and their evaluation: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. The Appendix includes Explanations of terms, radiation doses and related units, external and internal radiation exposure, stochastic and deterministic radiation effects, genetic radiation effects, induction of malignant neoplasm, risk assessment, physical units and glossary, laws, ordinances, guidelines, recommendations and other regulations concerning radiation protection, list of selected radionuclides.

  2. The use of ambient humidity conditions to improve influenza forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Kandula, Sasikiran; Yang, Wan; Karspeck, Alicia

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3.8% more peak week and 4.4% more peak intensity forecasts are accurate than with no forcing) and that forecasts generated using daily climatological humidity forcing generally outperform forecasts that utilize daily observed humidity forcing (4.4% and 2.6% respectively). These findings hold for predictions of outbreak peak intensity, peak timing, and incidence over 2- and 4-week horizons. The results indicate that use of climatological humidity forcing is warranted for current operational influenza forecast.

  3. La Educación Ambiental una herramienta clave de la Gestión Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María josé Esteves Ivanissevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que el objeto de la educación ambiental no es el ambiente como tal, sino nuestra relación con él; la multiplicidad y diversidad de objetivos y la necesidad de anclar la intervención en cada contexto específico, hace de ésta una tarea inmensa y compleja. La provincia del Chubut registra desde el año 1999 un historial importante. Éste trabajo, toma lo realizado en la temática de eliminación de bolsas de polietileno en los espacios públicos, de forma interinstitucional y en ámbitos educativo formal y no formal. Con la hipótesis de que la educación ambiental constituye un instrumento de política ambiental preventivo atendiendo los problemas que afecten o pudieran afectar al ambiente; nos planteamos como objetivos: construir una ciudadanía ambientalmente responsable; Impulsar la formación y capacitación de docentes y actores sociales con una mirada ambiental; Contribuir a la conservación ambiental disponiendo de las nuevas tecnologías. La metodología se sustenta en una concepción que hace eje en el aumento de la participación de la sociedad. Desde el ámbito formal se trabajó durante el 2007-2011 con capacitaciones presenciales y a distancia, para docentes de nivel inicial y primario (434 capacitados, en forma conjunta con el Ministerio de Educación. El equipo de trabajo consta de cuatro profesionales del Ministerio de Ambiente y la colaboración de especialistas según el lugar y la temática. En el ámbito no formal se realizaron charlas y talleres con la comunidad (5826 capacitados; comunicación extrainstitucional por medios masivos de comunicación; campañas ambientales, trabajando en forma conjunta con organismos municipales, provinciales, no gubernamentales y privados. Se cubrieron 28 localidades en todo el territorio provincial. Se abarcó un gran número de docentes, quedando el trabajo con directores y supervisores, para pensar en la inclusión de las temáticas como los residuos sólidos urbanos, en el

  4. La economía ambiental y la política ambiental.

    OpenAIRE

    Caraballo, Leonardo Javier

    2007-01-01

    Presentación. Ramos Jiménez, Alfredo Los círculos bolivarianos. El mito de la unidad del pueblo. Arenas, Nelly y Gómez Calcaño, Luis Lo massmediático y las sociedades contemporáneas. Un acercamiento a la relación medios-democracia. Briceño Romero, Ysabel La economía ambiental y la política ambiental. Caraballo, Leonardo Javier Veinte años de democracia en la Argentina. ¿Qué democracia? Kers, Mercedes y Leiras, Santiago C. La ciencia de la política. Bolívar ...

  5. Auditoria Operacional Ambiental: Instrumento para Efetivação do Direito Fundamental ao Meio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azor El Achkar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de ressaltar a importância e competência dos tribunais de contas brasileiros em realizar auditorias publicas com enfoque na questão ambiental. Trata dos primórdios da lida com o tema, ressalta o destaque conferido pela Constituição Federal de 1988, evidencia a responsabilidade do Poder Publico com o assunto e observa que as cortes de contas tem missão constitucional de avaliar as acoes empreendidas para preservação e conservação do meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado.

  6. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  8. Pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental: tendencias en la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Tovar-Gálvez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda el problema del currículo de educación ambiental en la educación superior, para lo que se centra en los conceptos pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental. La metodología consiste en realizar un estado del arte para identificar las tendencias existentes sobre pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental, para desde allí diseñar una encuesta que es dirigida a profesores y estudiantes de programas con formación en lo ambiental, de algunas universidades en Bogotá, con el objetivo de identificar sus opiniones como expertos en lo ambiental. Los resultados muestran un especial énfasis en las tendencias sobre la complejidad, pero así mismo plantean la posibilidad de múltiples modelos según los contextos y necesidades.

  9. Effects of Ambient Temperature and Forced-air Warming on Intraoperative Core Temperature: A Factorial Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lijian; Huang, Yuguang; Xu, Yiyao; Zheng, Yongchang; Sang, Xinting; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Li, Shanqing; Mao, Guangmei; Mascha, Edward J; Sessler, Daniel I

    2018-05-01

    The effect of ambient temperature, with and without active warming, on intraoperative core temperature remains poorly characterized. The authors determined the effect of ambient temperature on core temperature changes with and without forced-air warming. In this unblinded three-by-two factorial trial, 292 adults were randomized to ambient temperatures 19°, 21°, or 23°C, and to passive insulation or forced-air warming. The primary outcome was core temperature change between 1 and 3 h after induction. Linear mixed-effects models assessed the effects of ambient temperature, warming method, and their interaction. A 1°C increase in ambient temperature attenuated the negative slope of core temperature change 1 to 3 h after anesthesia induction by 0.03 (98.3% CI, 0.01 to 0.06) °Ccore/(h°Cambient) (P ambient temperature with passive insulation, but was unaffected by ambient temperature during forced-air warming (0.02 [98.3% CI, -0.04 to 0.09] °Ccore/°Cambient; P = 0.40). After an average of 3.4 h of surgery, core temperature was 36.3° ± 0.5°C in each of the forced-air groups, and ranged from 35.6° to 36.1°C in passively insulated patients. Ambient intraoperative temperature has a negligible effect on core temperature when patients are warmed with forced air. The effect is larger when patients are passively insulated, but the magnitude remains small. Ambient temperature can thus be set to comfortable levels for staff in patients who are actively warmed.

  10. Arrefecimento evaporativo de ambientes e elementos construtivos

    OpenAIRE

    Vidigal, Filipa Vitória Santana

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Perfil de Construção A presente dissertação foi preparada no âmbito do Convénio existente entre o Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC) e a Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCT-UNL), tendo sido realizada no LNEC. A presente dissertação discute a capacidade dos materiais de construção porosos para promoverem o arrefecimento evaporativo de ambientes. A evaporação pode ser ...

  11. MESIANISMO EN EL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Buitrago Dairo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Se procura mostrar las formas de autoritarismo simbólico con las cuales las ideologías mesiánicas presentes en el pensamiento ambiental latinoamericano mantienen su cohesión ideológica, evidenciando las configuraciones simbólicas y las acciones que muestran la manera como estas simbologías se observan. Para ello, se argumentará la distinción y la coevolución entre el sentido antropocéntrico y el sentido diferenciado no­antropocéntrico.

  12. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Cao, R.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-02-01

    In this paper a dynamic system is presented which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO[sub 2] in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO[sub 2]. For forecasting a mixed model is used which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. Confidence intervals are also constructed for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Sêneca e o ambiente hebraico de Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Silva de Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enquanto ocupante de um cargo importante no Império Romano do I século, Sêneca certamente conheceu vários dos ensinamentos e práticas da comunidade hebraica de Roma, conforme observamos em alguns trechos de sua obra e de autores posteriores. Se por um lado seu pensamento parece se aproximar da doutrina e prática hebraicas, embora por razões diversas, por outro lado se afasta. Todavia ele soube, como nenhum outro escritor latino, manifestar o devido respeito e reserva ao ambiente hebraico da Urbs.

  14. Las cuentas nacionales y el medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Torres Pérez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales (SCN vigente, medido a través del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB soslaya todos los activos ambientales, así como su deterioro y depreciación de los recursos naturales por lo que refleja tasas que sobreestiman el crecimiento económico En el presente documento se discute sobre el SCN, sus limitaciones para cuantificar el deterioro del capital natural e impacto ambiental. Se presentan las experiencias desarrolladas en otros países y se promueve la posibilidad de desarrollar un sistema de cuentas nacionales en México que incluya los recursos naturales.

  15. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Sônia de Fátima; Vieira Júnior, Hélio

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Ann...

  16. Cognitive assisted living ambient system: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijiao Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The demographic change towards an aging population is creating a significant impact and introducing drastic challenges to our society. We therefore need to find ways to assist older people to stay independently and prevent social isolation of these population. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide various solutions to help older adults to improve their quality of life, stay healthier, and live independently for a time. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is a field to investigate innovative technologies to provide assistance as well as healthcare and rehabilitation to impaired seniors. The paper provides a review of research background and technologies of AAL.

  17. Ambientes de aprendizaje en el siglo xxi

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, PhD Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    El papel de la educación en la sociedad ha cambiado debido al surgimiento de paradigmas y nuevas mediaciones que exigen las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación. Los ambientes de aprendizaje, entendidos como los espacios en los cuales se desarrollan los procesos de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, también están evolucionando de forma rápida y efectiva. Las nuevas generaciones son afectadas cada vez desde más temprana edad, por la inclusión de las diferentes tecnologías en su vida cotidi...

  18. 7th Ambient Assisted Living Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Klausing, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    In this book, leading authors in the field discuss developments of Ambient Assisted Living. The contributions have been chosen and invited at the 7th AAL congress, Berlin. It presents new technological developments which support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs. As the technological innovation raises also social issues, the book addresses micro and macro economical aspects of assistive systems and puts an additional emphasis on the ethical and legal discussion. The presentation is supported by real world examples and applications.

  19. Aspectos socioeconómicos de la evaluación de impacto ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echavarren, José Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the methodology and background of the socioeconomic dimension in environment impact evaluations. This text examines the pertinence of Social Sciences in the study of environmental assessment. Likewise, the article deals with the main techniques applied to this field. Special attention is drawn to the concept and research of landscape as a social factor of environment as well as to public participation in the processes of Environmental Impact Assessment research.

    El presente artículo revisa la metodología y el fundamento del estudio de los aspectos socioeconómicos de las Evaluaciones de Impacto Ambiental. Se examina la pertinencia de las Ciencias Sociales dentro de los estudios de impacto ambiental, así como las técnicas principales que se aplican en la práctica investigadora al respecto. Se presta atención especial al concepto y al estudio del paisaje como elemento social del medio ambiente, así como a los mecanismos de participación dentro de las dinámicas de las Evaluaciones de Impacto Ambiental.

  20. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): A meta-analytic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaozhong; Wang Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen Shuai; Wang Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O 3 ) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O 3 -caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O 3 ] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.

  1. Ambient-temperature incubation for the field detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Stauber, C; Murphy, J L; Khan, A; Mu, T; Elliott, M; Sobsey, M D

    2011-04-01

     Escherichia coli is the pre-eminent microbiological indicator used to assess safety of drinking water globally. The cost and equipment requirements for processing samples by standard methods may limit the scale of water quality testing in technologically less developed countries and other resource-limited settings, however. We evaluate here the use of ambient-temperature incubation in detection of E. coli in drinking water samples as a potential cost-saving and convenience measure with applications in regions with high (>25°C) mean ambient temperatures.   This study includes data from three separate water quality assessments: two in Cambodia and one in the Dominican Republic. Field samples of household drinking water were processed in duplicate by membrane filtration (Cambodia), Petrifilm™ (Cambodia) or Colilert® (Dominican Republic) on selective media at both standard incubation temperature (35–37°C) and ambient temperature, using up to three dilutions and three replicates at each dilution. Matched sample sets were well correlated with 80% of samples (n = 1037) within risk-based microbial count strata (E. coli CFU 100 ml−1 counts of 1000), and a pooled coefficient of variation of 17% (95% CI 15–20%) for paired sample sets across all methods.   These results suggest that ambient-temperature incubation of E. coli in at least some settings may yield sufficiently robust data for water safety monitoring where laboratory or incubator access is limited.

  2. Pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental como fundamentos del currículo para la formación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Tovar-Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    Se trata el problema de la fundamentación del currículo para la formación ambiental en la educación superior, frente a lo cual es necesario construir los conceptos de pedagogía ambiental y de didáctica ambiental. El marco teórico permite definir las categorías "lo pedagógico" y "lo didáctico", a partir de lo cual se analiza la literatura y con ello definir pedagogía ambiental y didáctica ambiental. El estado del arte permite establecer que existen dos sustentos teóricos: a) uno que se cimenta...

  3. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  4. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  6. Study and development of a risk assessment model for intra skull radiosurgery; Estudo e desenvolvimento de um modelo de analise de risco para radiocirurgia intracraniana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia Cristina da Silva

    2015-11-01

    The reported events in radiotherapy that constitute accidents or incidents have increased worldwide in the last 25 years. Most of these events resulted from human failure and have happened in radiotherapy centers that use high technologies. The radiotherapy Quality Management needs a prospective approach through risk analysis. This approach is supported by recent publications as this actually extremely needed due the large number of accidents. Because of the complexity of the process in radiotherapy, the search for quality of care in order to ensure patient safety is one of the most discussed topics worldwide. Although only 14% of radiotherapy centers in Brazil offer treatments with intracranial radiosurgery technique (SRS), studies about the quality of care related to the safety of patients undergoing this technique is of great importance. Any deviations from the prescribed dose using SRS technique is considered more critical than in other methods of radiation treatment, as the delivered doses in SRS are higher, in the range of 10 Gy to 40 Gy, to lesions up to 50 mm in diameter, which are delivered in a single fraction or in five fractions. In view of those information, this work aims to satisfy the new Quality Management paradigm by developing a risk analysis model, and a Quality Index for SRS in Brazil, through the techniques of Process Map and FMEA used in the TG100/AAPM. The study was performed in three high technology reference radiotherapy centers, two located in Rio de Janeiro city and one in Sao Paulo city. A SRS Process Map was identified for each radiotherapy center, and then FMEA technique was applied in every subprocesses identified on the map. >From NPR values obtained by the FMEA a ranking of failure modes was held. Failure modes with NPR ≥ 100 and S ≥ 7 were chosen as priority to implement safety strategies. From the scores assigned to the S parameter in the implementation of FMEA a Severity Index (SI) and a Quality Index (QI) were created from an association between the NPR and the SI. The result of this study indicates that safety strategies should be implemented for the first 10 failure modes of the ranking, and a new evaluation of the process should occur every year. In addition, it is also indicated that the QI shows a minimum improvement of 9 % after the re-evaluation of the process. Overall, the study showed that the adoption of the FMEA tool together with the QI are justified as they minimize the risks to the patient, improving the quality of care and enhancing the safety Taken together the FMEA and the QI create mechanisms for ensuring that the dose will be delivered more precisely and accurately, and consequently, this increases the chances of cure or local control of the tumor, improving quality of life of the patients. (author)

  7. Indicative criteria for assessing the feasibility of hydrogenerators modernization services; Criterios indicativos para analise da viabilidade de servicos de modernizacao de hidrogeradores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Luciano Lopes [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Mestrado de Engenharia da Energia; Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: lucianol@furnas.com.br; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br; Gregati, Augusto Cezar Mileo [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: agregatti@baesa.com.br

    2010-10-15

    Aiming at helping the generating agents in direct actions for the development of new feasibility studies for implementation of the modernization of hydrogenerator, with the technological age over 30 (thirty) years, it presents evaluation criteria based on strategic parameters, operating income and availability. This criterion allows the analysis of the technical, operational, commercial and environmental issues involved in the feasibility study for modernization of hydrogenerator information available for the application of the theory, consolidated through diagnostic director. (author)

  8. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  9. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  10. Proposal of an integrated methodology for environmental assessment of risks and impacts to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies for the oil and natural gas sector in offshore areas; Proposta de metodologia de avaliacao integrada de riscos e impactos ambientais para estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica do setor de petroleo e gas natural em areas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza

    2007-03-15

    This thesis aims to purpose an integrated methodology of environmental risk and impact assessment of the exploration and production oil and natural gas activities, to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies. It also analyzes the environmental issues associated with the upstream segment of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry after the market opening, occurred in 1997. In this context, and under the international experience of countries that also have an open market, the strategic environmental assessment demonstrates to be the more suitable tool of public environmental management to consider the environment already during the planning phase of the oil and natural gas sector. (author)

  11. socio-ec(h)o: Ambient Intelligence and Gameplay

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkary, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The socio-ec(h)o project aims to research a generalized ambient intelligent software platform and design models for responsive environments based on the concept of ambient intelligent "ecologies" and group gameplay. The benefits of the research include a software-architecture, ambient intelligence inference engine, and interaction design models for gameplay and responsive environments. The paper will discuss the results of our prototypes for games in responsive environments. These prototypes ...

  12. Improving Energy Saving Techniques by Ambient Intelligence Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristani, Matteo; Karafili, Erisa; Tomazzoli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is one of the most challenging aspects of modern ambient intelligence technologies, for both domestic and business usages. In this paper we show how to combine Ambient Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence techniques to solve the problem of scheduling a set of devices under a given...... for Ambient Intelligence to a specific framework and exhibit a sample usage for a real life system, Elettra, that is in use in an industrial context....

  13. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  14. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Ambient pressure sensitivity of microbubbles investigated through a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on microbubbles clearly indicate a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behavior of two microbubbles corresponding to two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20...... found, although the reduction is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  16. Simulation of microbubble response to ambient pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    The theory on microbubbles clearly indicates a relation between the ambient pressure and the acoustic behavior of the bubble. The purpose of this study was to optimize the sensitivity of ambient pressure measurements, using the subharmonic component, through microbubble response simulations....... The behaviour of two different contrast agents was investigated as a function of driving pulse and ambient overpressure, pov. Simulations of Levovist using a rectangular driving pulse show an almost linear reduction in the subharmonic component as pov is increased. For a 20 cycles driving pulse, a reduction...... is not completely linear as a function of the ambient pressure....

  17. Crisis ambiental, desastre natural y la "sociedad desierto"

    OpenAIRE

    Reynol Díaz Coutiño

    2010-01-01

    La crisis ambiental y los "desastres naturales" se muestran como un conjunto que está definido por la sensibilidad de los factores de correlación. La crisis ambiental se entiende como los cambios "inesperados" delos procesos de aquellos factores que forman el ambiente local. La transición silenciosa de tales cambios altera, cuando va más allá de ciertos límites, el frágil balance del medio ambiente, hasta que emerge el desastre. En este sentido, el desastre nos es natural, pero sí los fenómen...

  18. Incidents in nuclear research reactor examined by deterministic probability and probabilistic safety analysis; Incidentes em reatores nucleares de pesquisa examinados por analise de probabilidade deterministica e analise probabilistica de seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential risks submitted by the incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, were used, the Incident Report System for Research Reactor and Research Reactor Data Base. For this type of assessment was used the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), within a confidence level of 90% and the Deterministic Probability Analysis (DPA). To obtain the results of calculations of probabilities for PSA, were used the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC - 636. The development of the calculations of probabilities for PSA was used the program Scilab version 5.1.1, free access, executable on Windows and Linux platforms. A specific program to get the results of probability was developed within the main program Scilab 5.1.1., for two distributions Fischer and Chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90%. Using the Sordi equations and Origin 6.0 program, were obtained the maximum admissible doses related to satisfy the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, and were also obtained these maximum doses graphically (figure 1) resulting from the calculations of probabilities x maximum admissible doses. It was found that the reliability of the results of probability is related to the operational experience (reactor x year and fractions) and that the larger it is, greater the confidence in the outcome. Finally, a suggested list of future work to complement this paper was gathered. (author)

  19. COMPLEJIDAD AMBIENTAL: PROPUESTAS ÉTICAS EMERGENTES DEL PENSAMIENTO AMBIENTAL LATINOAMERICANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera de Echeverri Ana Patricia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se recogen las propuestas ético ambientales más importantes de la Escuela de Pensamiento Ambiental Latinoamericano, que ha ido construyéndose desde hace 30 años. Se destacan autores de primera línea en el campo de la construcción de Pensamiento Ambiental filosófico, como el Filósofo y Pensador Colombiano, de trascendencia latinoamericana, Augusto Ángel Maya, quien plantea la posibilidad de construir una Filosofía Ambiental Ético estética, dado que la Filosofía Moderna ha sido Metafísica, aún en sus corrientes empiristas, positivistas y neopositivistas. Se destaca la obra de Enrique Leff, mexicano, que propone los conceptos de Complejidad y Saber Ambiental, como puntos de partida de una ética en la educación, la ciencia y la tecnología, dentro de unas relaciones sistémicas y holísticas. Igualmente la propuesta ético estética compleja de Julio Carrizoza, colombiano, se hace presente en este ensayo, como una propuesta política fundamental ante problemas colombianos como son la violencia y la exclusión. Las propuestas de Filósofos colombianos de gran importancia en el campo de la Filosofía Política y Moral, que han desembocado en la propuesta de una Ética Ambiental, Pública y Comunicativa, como es el caso de Guillermo Hoyos Vásquez y de otros pensadores tanto de Colombia como de otros países latinoamericanos, se presentan en este espacio, con el fin de recoger de manera crítica nuestras ideas acerca de la posibilidad de una ética ambiental, es decir una ética descentrada, sin sujeto y sin objeto, una ética sistémica, donde los valores se construyen en las relaciones y donde la intricada trama de la vida, que ha venido construyéndose desde hace más de 2.500 millones de años, y de la cual somos meros hilos, pasa de ser objeto a ser valor primero en su más genuino sentido.

  20. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Meio Ambiente e Estado Constitucional Cooperativo

    OpenAIRE

    Campello, Lívia Gaigher

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo partiu da percepção de que há, na atualidade, uma perspectiva integrativa, fundamentada no princípio do desenvolvimento sustentável, que requer como seu pressuposto a realização de valores éticos e solidários. Assim, esta noção tem refletido nos parâmetros da busca pelo crescimento econômico, que deve ocorrer em consonância com a preservação dos direitos das presentes e futuras gerações. Nesse sentido, buscou-se desvendar os fundamentos e finalidades do Direito Ambiental no âmbito...

  3. EL GIRO AMBIENTAL DE LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretenden problematizar aquí las ciencias sociales desde el efecto que la metáfora del sur ha generado en nuestra comprensión de lo social y desde el reconocimiento de las reflexiones que buscan articularse con la condición am - biental de la cultura. En un primer momento se retoma el dibujo América invertida de Joaquín Torres para insistir en el despliegue metafórico del sur, y en una segunda parte se repasa la noción de contrato natural para resignificar las prácticas discursivas de las ciencias sociales. Se concluye con la urgencia del giro ambiental como un nuevo escenario para este campo de investigación.

  4. Ambient Assisted Living : Italian forum 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Siciliano, Pietro; Germani, Michele; Monteriù, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered, and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation, and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety, and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation, and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface desig...

  5. Can Ambient Scent Enhance the Nightlife Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferstein, Hendrik N J; Talke, Katrin S S; Oudshoorn, Dirk-Jan

    2011-06-01

    Ever since smoking was prohibited in restaurants, bars, and clubs, undesirable smells that were previously masked by cigarette smoke became noticeable. This opens up opportunities to improve the dance club environment by introducing pleasant ambient scents that mask the unwanted odors and to allow competing clubs to differentiate themselves. A field study was conducted at three dance clubs using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with pre- and post-measurements of no-scent control conditions. The three scents tested were orange, seawater, and peppermint. These scents were shown to enhance dancing activity and to improve the evaluation of the evening, the evaluation of the music, and the mood of the visitors over no added scent. However, no significant differences were found between the three scents.

  6. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  7. Ambient and Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruser, Christoph; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Wartzek, Tobias; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring vital signs through unobtrusive means is a goal which has attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. This review provides a systematic and comprehensive review over the current state of the field of ambient and unobtrusive cardiorespiratory monitoring. To this end, nine different sensing modalities which have been in the focus of current research activities are covered: capacitive electrocardiography, seismo- and ballistocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography (PPG) and PPG imaging, thermography, methods relying on laser or radar for distance-based measurements, video motion analysis, as well as methods using high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Current trends in these subfields are reviewed. Moreover, we systematically analyze similarities and differences between these methods with respect to the physiological and physical effects they sense as well as the resulting implications. Finally, future research trends for the field as a whole are identified.

  8. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aquino-Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study.

  9. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  10. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  11. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  12. UNCED : La Cumbre Ambiental de Brasil /92

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    El mundo está a las puertas de celebrar una de las más importantes cumbres políticas, en la cual podrían tomarse decisiones de suma trascendencia que repercutirán en forma directa en la dinámica futura de la vida en el planeta. UNCED-92 (Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo que se realizará en Río de Janeiro), es la convocatoria a las más altas esferas de decisión política de los países miembros para concertar acuerdos que definirán, en buena parte, el perfil d...

  13. Quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy approach for spatiotemporal modeling of ambient air quality levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-02-05

    Understanding the daily changes in ambient air quality concentrations is important to the assessing human exposure and environmental health. However, the fine temporal scales (e.g., hourly) involved in this assessment often lead to high variability in air quality concentrations. This is because of the complex short-term physical and chemical mechanisms among the pollutants. Consequently, high heterogeneity is usually present in not only the averaged pollution levels, but also the intraday variance levels of the daily observations of ambient concentration across space and time. This characteristic decreases the estimation performance of common techniques. This study proposes a novel quantile-based Bayesian maximum entropy (QBME) method to account for the nonstationary and nonhomogeneous characteristics of ambient air pollution dynamics. The QBME method characterizes the spatiotemporal dependence among the ambient air quality levels based on their location-specific quantiles and accounts for spatiotemporal variations using a local weighted smoothing technique. The epistemic framework of the QBME method can allow researchers to further consider the uncertainty of space-time observations. This study presents the spatiotemporal modeling of daily CO and PM10 concentrations across Taiwan from 1998 to 2009 using the QBME method. Results show that the QBME method can effectively improve estimation accuracy in terms of lower mean absolute errors and standard deviations over space and time, especially for pollutants with strong nonhomogeneous variances across space. In addition, the epistemic framework can allow researchers to assimilate the site-specific secondary information where the observations are absent because of the common preferential sampling issues of environmental data. The proposed QBME method provides a practical and powerful framework for the spatiotemporal modeling of ambient pollutants.

  14. Ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando realidad aumentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nancy Martínez García

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Realidad aumentada o Augmented reality es una nueva tecnología que al combinarla con espacios físicos permite ampliar el espectro de la información relacionada con dichos espacios; esto se hace a través de la superposición de imágenes, información o material audiovisual específico aplicado a cualquier área de conocimiento. Los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje basados en realidad aumentada prometen innovación debido a que transforman los escenarios de aprendizaje real mediante el uso de nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo, complementando de esta manera la percepción e interacción con el mundo real; logrando el acceso a nuevos contenidos prescindiendo de recursos físicos. En cuanto al uso de la realidad aumentada aplicada al área de enfermería, existe un sinnúmero de herramientas para complementar una clase magistral y enriquecer el proceso de aprendizaje. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los desarrollos realizados utilizando realidad aumentada proviene de contextos diferentes al nuestro, por lo que resulta importante fomentar el uso de este tipo de herramientas para que suscite el interés de los desarrolladores locales de tecnologías aplicadas al ámbito educativo y más específicamente el de salud. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue fundamentar teóricamente acerca de los ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje utilizando aplicaciones basadas en realidad aumentada.

  15. Ambient noise tomography of Lo'ihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClement, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Teel, A.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lo'ihi seamount, the youngest volcano in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, lies approximately 30 km south of Hawai'i Island with its summit still approximately 1 km below sea level. Lo'ihi offers a unique opportunity to study the early formation of a hotspot volcano and can provide insight into the deep internal structure of the other volcanoes that make up the Hawaiian Islands. This study uses Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) to create a 3D tomographic image of Lo'ihi's S-wave velocity structure from ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data. ANT has been used in many subaerial studies but has seen very few applications to OBS data. This study uses continuous data recorded in 2010 to 2011 from 12 short-period OBS instruments deployed on and around Lo'ihi. With the farthest distance between stations being just over 30 km, the stations provide a fairly dense coverage mainly for the northern half of the volcano. Following the approach of Masterlark et al. [2010], we computed vertical-vertical and vertical-radial cross-correlations using 97 days of continuous data from the 12 stations to produce the ambient noise Green's functions. From these, dispersion curves were produced over a frequency range from .04 Hz to 0.65 Hz . After a quality control analysis, checkerboard tests were used to determine a suitable cell size for the 2D group velocity inversions. The final step is the inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves to create a 3D Vs model. The 3D Vs image produced through this method does not provide clear evidence of a shallow magma chamber; however, when compared to a previous P-wave velocity (Vp) model [Caplan-Auerbach, 2001], a high Vp/Vs ratio is evident especially at depths from 1 km to 5 km, indicating the presence of highly fractured rock.

  16. DESIGUALDADE AMBIENTAL, ECONOMIA E POLÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Acselrad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Otexto discute as razões pelas quais a adoção efetiva de mudançasnas práticas e padrões técnico-espaciais do capitalismo destinadasa ajustar o ritmo da acumulação intensiva e as fronteiras daacumulação extensiva aos requisitos da reprodução utilitária deecossistemas não ocorreu até aqui – para além do que a própriadinâmica mercantil o tenha admitido. Sustenta que, por vigorar defato uma divisão socio-espacial da degradação ambiental, os danosambientais da acumulação são, de forma sistemática, destinadosaos grupos sociais e étnicos dominados – seja pela expropriaçãodas bases territoriais de formas sócio-produtivas não hegemônicas,seja pela deterioração das bases reprodutivas de grupos sociais quenão se integram ao circuito do capital a não ser como consumidoresforçados dos produtos invendáveis da atividade capitalista – achamada poluição. A tecnologia social acionada para a imposiçãodesigual de riscos é, no plano intra-nacional ou internacional, nocapitalismo liberalizado, a chantagem locacional dos investimentos –ou seja, a ameaça de deslocalização dos empreendimentos com acolocação dos trabalhadores em situação de competição, não sóno que diz respeito ao nível de seus salários, mas também aosdireitos e condições normativas destinadas a assegurar proteçãosocial e ambiental.

  17. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  18. No relevant impact of ambient temperature on disability measurements in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmann, J-P; Young, K L; Vettorazzi, E; Pöttgen, J; Heesen, C

    2017-06-01

    Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) report a worsening of symptoms due to high ambient temperatures, but objective data about this association are rare and contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on standard clinical tests. We extracted the Symbol Digit Modality Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW), Timed Tandem Walk, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and quality-of-life items on cognition, fatigue and depression from our clinical database and matched them to historical temperatures. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the association between temperature and outcomes. A total of 1254 patients with MS (mean age, 42.7 years; 69.9% females; 52.1% relapsing-remitting MS, mean EDSS, 3.8) had 5751 assessments between 1996 and 2012. We observed a worsening in the T25FW with higher ambient temperatures in moderately disabled patients (EDSS ≥ 4) but not in less disabled patients. However, an increase of 10°C prolonged the T25FW by just 0.4 s. Other outcomes were not associated with ambient temperatures. Higher ambient temperature might compromise walking capabilities in patients with MS with a manifest walking impairment. However, effects are small and not detectable in mildly disabled patients. Hand function, cognition, mood and fatigue do not appear to be correlated with ambient temperature. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Data integration for performance analysis of petroleum wells; Integracao de dados para analise de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo, Naisa Carrillo; Mendes, Jose Ricardo; Morooka, Celso [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Miura, Kazuo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this work a new parameter called the System Performance Index is proposed, which allows a more profound study of the performance of petroleum wells. An outstanding characteristic of this parameter is that it uses a large amount of field data measured periodically. This index allows the assessing of the performance and technologies used in the wells. This study presents a comparison of the performance of vertical, directional and horizontal wells. The sand control technologies used in the wells are also evaluated. Finally, the proposed parameter enables a practical analysis that can be implemented as a strategic tool for oil field performance and optimization studies. Data used in this work were kindly supplied by PETROBRAS. (author)

  20. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  1. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and renal function in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Seo, Yong-Seok; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has a negative effect on many diseases, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Recent studies have reported a relationship between air pollution and renal function, but the results were limited to exposure to particulate matter (PM). This study was to identify associations between various air pollutants and renal function among Korean adults. Nationwide survey data for a total of 24,407 adults were analyzed. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for each individual to assess their renal function and used this to categorize those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate exposure to ambient air pollution, we used the annual mean concentrations of four ambient air pollutants: PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). We identified significant inverse relationships between the air pollutants PM 10 and NO 2 and eGFR in all statistical adjustment models (all p  ambient air pollutants were significantly related to an increased risk of CKD in the unadjusted model ( p   0.05). Exposures to PM 10 and NO 2 were significantly associated with decreases in eGFR levels, but not CKD, in Korean adults.

  2. Avaliação da percepção da importância da gestão ambiental em postos de combustíveis localizados na cidade de Irati, Paraná / An assessment of the perception of the environmental management importance in vehicle service facilities in the city of Irati, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Elaine Moisa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os postos de combustíveis realizam atividades potencialmentegeradoras de impactos ambientais. A implantação de um Sistema deGestão Ambiental propicia um aumento da efi ciência na realizaçãodos procedimentos necessários para a minimização desses impactos. A presente pesquisa objetivou avaliar a percepção da importância da gestãoambiental em postos de combustíveis. Foram realizadas entrevistas com responsáveis por cinco postos de combustíveis na cidade de Irati, PR e concluiu-se que houve muitas divergências em relação a esta percepção, o que se refl ete na situação ambiental das empresas.

  3. Derecho ambiental municipal: las intendencias frente a la problemática del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trabajo presentado en las III Jornadas de Derecho Municipal celebradas del 9 al 11 de setiembre de 1998.en el Palacio Munieipal, con el auspicio de la IMM y la Éditorial Nueva Juridica.Contenido: Panorama de las competencias municipales a través de la ley 2.820 de 1903. Ley Orgánica Municipal 9515 de 1935 y capítulos de la Constitución de 1966 (arts.7,72 y 332. La Reforma Constitucional de 8 de diciembre de 1996 aprobada por la Asamblea General el 14 de enero de 1997, constitucionaliza el Derecho Ambiental y el Congreso Nacional de Intendentes. Naturaleza Jurídica, del Plenario Municipal Nacional. Antecedentes, vía de hecho, distintas materias, unidad y organicidad. El advenimiento del Derecho Ambiental en la legislación contemporánea y su incorporación en el ámbito municipal. El siglo XXI, el Derecho Ambiental, el rol de los Municipios y su trascendencia para el ciudadano

  4. Risk analysis applied to the development of petroleum fields; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de campos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Paula A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to several types of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phase, the importance of risk associated to the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables, strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. This complexity may, in several cases, cause difficulties to establish reliable techniques to assess risk correctly or it demands great computational effort. Therefore, methodologies to quantify the impact of uncertainties are still not well established because simplifications are necessary and the impact of such simplifications is not well known. The propose work bring the main aspects related to the validation of the simplifications necessary to the quantification of the impact of uncertainties in the risk analysis process. The adopted techniques are divided in three groups: adoption of the automated process and use of parallel computing; simplifications techniques in the treatment of attributes; and integration techniques of geological uncertainties with the different types of uncertainties (economical, technological and related with the production strategy). The integration of the geological uncertainties with the others uncertainties is made through the concept of representative models. The results show that the criteria adopted are good indicators of the viability of the methodology, improving the performance and reliability of the risk analysis process. (author)

  5. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  6. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  7. Exploring distributed user interfaces in ambient intelligent environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadlani Mahtani, P.M.; Peregrin Emparanza, J.; Markopoulos, P.; Gallud, J.A.; Tesoriero, R.; Penichet, V.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs) in the field of Ambient Intelligence (AmI). We first introduce the emerging area of AmI, followed by describing three case studies where user interfaces or ambient displays are distributed and blending in the user’s environments.

  8. Designing interactive ambient multimedia applications : requirements and implementation challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Nack, F.-M.; Hardman, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence opens new possibilities for interactive multimedia, leading towards applications where the selection, generation and playback of multimedia content can be directed and influenced by multiple users in an ambient sensor network. In this paper, we derive the basic requirements for

  9. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  10. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... tons per year of lead is necessary to provide sufficient information about airborne lead levels near... Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead and...

  11. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  12. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gagarina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent condition

  13. Ambient temperature, humidity and hand, foot, and mouth disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Bai, Lijun; Zhang, Yanwu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Xie, Mingyu; Zhao, Desheng; Su, Hong

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been highlighted in East and Southeast Asia, which showed multiple different results. Therefore, our goal is to conduct a meta-analysis to further clarify this relationship and to quantify the size of these effects as well as the susceptible populations. PubMed, Web of science, and Cochrane library were searched up to November 22, 2017 for articles analyzing the relationships between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD. We assessed sources of heterogeneity by study design (temperature measure and exposed time resolution), population vulnerability (national income level and regional climate) and evaluated pooled effect estimates for the subgroups identified in the heterogeneity analysis. We identified 11 studies with 19 estimates of the relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD. It was found that per 1°C increase in the temperature and per 1% increase in the relative humidity were both significantly associated with increased incidence of HFMD (temperature: IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; relative humidity: IRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). Subgroup analysis showed that people living in subtropical and middle income areas had a higher risk of incidence of HFMD. Ambient temperature and humidity may increase the incidence of HFMD in Asia-Pacific regions. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between ambient temperature, humidity and incidence of HFMD in various settings with distinct climate, socioeconomic, and demographic features. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Environmental exposure of commuters in Mexico City to volatile organic compounds as assessed by blood concentrations, 1998 Exposición ambiental a compuestos orgánicos volátiles evaluados en concentraciones sanguíneas en usuarios de transporte en la Ciudad de México, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lemire

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent of exposure for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs among nonoccupationally exposed commuters in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene and methyl tert-butyl ether were determined on samples collected from participants after the morning commute. RESULTS: Median blood concentrations of benzene (0.11 mg/l, ethylbenzene (0.081 mg/l, m-/p-xylene (0.32 mg/l and toluene (0.56 mg/l in the Mexico City participants were all approximately two times higher than in a nonsmoking subset of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population of the United States. On the other hand, median VOC blood levels were similar to medians observed in other studies involving commuters in specific U.S. cities, despite the fact that only half the Mexico City study participants commuted by personal vehicles compared with all U.S. commuters. CONCLUSIONS: These results reflect the extent of the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The surrounding topography exacerbates the problems caused by heavy vehicular traffic, poor emission-control devices on older vehicles, and poor maintenance practices. Elevated levels of gasoline components in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed commuters emphasize the need for regulatory initiatives and mass-transit options to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and thus reduce the risk for nonoccupational exposure for the residents of Mexico City.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la exposición a compuestos orgánicos volátiles en usuarios de transporte no expuestos ocupacionalmente en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se determinaron las concentraciones sanguíneas de benceno, tolueno, etilbenceno, m/p-xileno, o-xileno y metil-terbutil éter en muestras obtenidas de participantes después del traslado matutino. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones promedio de benceno en sangre (0.11mg/l, etilbenceno (0.081mg/l, m-/p-xileno (0.32mg/l y

  15. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  16. 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Novais, Paulo; Nihan, Céline; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  17. 8th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Julián, Vicente; Villarrubia, Gabriel; Marreiros, Goreti; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, in which computers are used as proactive tools to assist people with their day-to-day activities, making their lives more comfortable. Another main goal of AmI originates from the human/computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means of user-friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly, as can be witnessed by the emerging natural-language-based and gesture-based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing, and their embeddedness in our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and take place without people actually noticing it. The only things people should notice in connection with AmI are more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a n...

  18. Banco del Sur y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Crespilho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente colaboración pone en la mesa del debate los objetivos de un banco de desarrollo, en la tradición económica-desarrollista, donde la satisfacción del desarrollo de los recursos naturales intentan mejorar no las condiciones de la población sino lograr las ventajas comparativas y el valor agregado que da la inserción al mercado mundial, frente a lo que debería ser un banco de desarrollo que invierta esa ecuación. La explotación de los recursos de una parte importante de la Amazonia está ligada a fomentar toda una serie de obras de infraestructura que harían un gran daño no sólo ecológico a la región sino a generaciones futuras. El autor discute la difícil problemática entre un banco de desarrollo que busca el equilibrio con el medio ambiente y un banco de desarrollo ligado a los intereses tanto del Estado como de las oligarquías exportadoras.

  19. ESPACIOS RENATURALIZADOS COMO AMBIENTES DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rosas

    2015-12-01

    Los espacios renaturalizados, se consolidan como ambientes de aprendizaje para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía y la convivencia, a partir del desarrollo de metodologías participativas y haciendo uso de tecnologías apropiadas. Para ello se diseñaron e implementaron una serie de sesiones, con el fin de contribuir a la transformación del entorno y de permitir la conectividad ecológica presente en el ecosistema estratégico ubicado allí mismo, además de consolidar experiencias en el desarrollo de capacidades ciudadanas esenciales. Para la institución educativa se construyó, un jardín agroecológico y se sembraron árboles con fines productivos y ornamentales, permitiendo de esa manera la generación de identidad con respecto a los espacios renaturalizados, la estructura ecológica, además de reconocer las relaciones socio-ecológicas que alrededor de estos espacios se desarrollan. Entorno a la intervención, se construyeron conocimientos propios del currículo, además se identificaron las problemáticas ambientales propias de la zona, permitiendo de esa manera la armonización de la relación naturaleza-cultura y la adaptación ecosistémica al cambio climático, que requiere la ciudad de Bogotá.

  20. EVALUACION DEL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL EN OBRAS VIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez D.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es escrito, con el propósito de proporcionar elementos técnicos que contribuyan para orientar a los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinario, en valorar objetivamente los impactos ambientales provocados por la construcción de obras civiles y que suscitan el interés del dominio público y profesionales en la materia. Para ello hemos contado con la experiencia acumulada en instituciones gubernamentales y de índole privado y con nuestra experiencia profesional, en la construcción de obras civiles. El contenido del mismo, toma en cuenta varios criterios de especialistas en la materia y recursos disponibles; con ética y rigurosidad técnica. El objetivo de la evaluación de impactos ambientales, es predecir sobre la marcha y a futuro, estados alternativos de recursos y ambiente; convencidos que el cuido de la naturaleza puede convocar la voluntad de todas las partes y lograr trabajar armoniosamente, por la construcción de un futuro con desarrollo sostenible para nuestra nación y generaciones posteriores; satisfaciendo las necesidades del presente, sin poner en riesgo los recursos del futuro.

  1. 7th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Paz, Juan; Novais, Paulo; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Yoe, Hyun; Ramírez, Andres; Villarrubia, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence, where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inherent...

  2. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous 85 Kr air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where 85 Kr was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State-of-the-art 85 Dr sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of 85 Kr

  3. Ambient krypton-85 air sampling at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevathan, M.S.; Price, K.R.

    1984-10-01

    In the fall of 1982, the Environmental Evaluations Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated a network of continuous krypton-85 air samplers located on and around the Hanford Site. This effort was in response to the resumption of operations at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located onsite where krypton-85 was to be released during fuel dissolution. Preoperational data were collected using noble gas samplers designed by the Environmental Protection Agency-Las Vegas (EPA-LV). The samplers functioned erratically resulting in excessive maintenance costs and prompted a search for a new sampling system. State of the art krypton-85 sampling methods were reviewed and found to be too costly, too complex and inappropriate for field application, so a simple bag collection system was designed and field tested. The system is composed of a reinforced, heavy plastic bag, connected to a variable flow pump and housed in a weatherproof enclosure. At the end of the four week sampling period the air in the bag is transferred by a compressor into a pressure tank for easy transport to the laboratory for analysis. After several months of operation, the air sampling system has proven its reliability and sensitivity to ambient levels of krypton-85. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  4. 4th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallenborg, Kasper; Rodríguez, Juan; Tapia, Dante; Novais, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  5. 3rd International symposium on ambient intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, Dante I; Novais, Paulo; ISAmI 2012; Ambient Intelligence : Software and Applications

    2012-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a recent paradigm emerging from Artificial Intelligence (AI), where computers are used as proactive tools assisting people with their day-to-day activities, making everyone’s life more comfortable. Another main concern of AmI originates from the human computer interaction domain and focuses on offering ways to interact with systems in a more natural way by means user friendly interfaces. This field is evolving quickly as can be witnessed by the emerging natural language and gesture based types of interaction. The inclusion of computational power and communication technologies in everyday objects is growing and their embedding into our environments should be as invisible as possible. In order for AmI to be successful, human interaction with computing power and embedded systems in the surroundings should be smooth and happen without people actually noticing it. The only awareness people should have arises from AmI: more safety, comfort and wellbeing, emerging in a natural and inh...

  6. POLÍTICA PÚBLICA AMBIENTAL Y AMBIENTE EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Quiceno Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La política pública ambiental en el Valle del Cauca, a partir de 1991, va en contravía de la conservación ambiental al enfatizar en el crecimiento económico, la generación de plusvalía y la ampliación de la tasa de ganancia. Para la realización de esta investigación se adoptó como herramienta metodológica la revisión bibliográfica. Se halló que la política pública ambiental en el Valle se ha orientado a subsidiar monetaria, ecológica, ambiental y socialmente al sector cañicultor. Se concluye que dicha política ha contribuido al desequilibrio ecológico y al deterioro ambiental.

  7. Collection methodology evaluation and solvents analysis/mixtures solvents in the air in work ambient: methanol in MEG mixture (methanol 33%, ethanol 60% and gasoline 7%); Avaliacao de metodologia de coleta e analise de solventes/misturas de solventes no ar em ambiente de trabalho: metanol em mistura MEG (metanol 33%, etanol 60% e gasolina 7%)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Luiza Maria Nunes

    1995-07-01

    This thesis presents a proposal for evaluation of collection and solvent/solvent mixtures analysis methodology for the air in the work environment by studying the following issues of present solvents: historical aspects; methanol - properties and toxicity; collection methodology evaluation, and gases and vapors analysis in the air; experimental data. The denominated mixture MEG - methanol, ethanol and gasoline is analyzed in terms of its chemical characteristics. The author concludes the work detaching that the methodology presented can only be used for short duration measurements in concentrations peaks studies.

  8. Radon-222 related influence on ambient gamma dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melintescu, A; Chambers, S D; Crawford, J; Williams, A G; Zorila, B; Galeriu, D

    2018-04-03

    Ambient gamma dose, radon, and rainfall have been monitored in southern Bucharest, Romania, from 2010 to 2016. The seasonal cycle of background ambient gamma dose peaked between July and October (100-105 nSv h -1 ), with minimum values in February (75-80 nSv h -1 ), the time of maximum snow cover. Based on 10 m a.g.l. radon concentrations, the ambient gamma dose increased by around 1 nSv h -1 for every 5 Bq m -3 increase in radon. Radon variability attributable to diurnal changes in atmospheric mixing contributed less than 15 nSv h -1 to the overall variability in ambient gamma dose, a factor of 4 more than synoptic timescale changes in air mass fetch. By contrast, precipitation-related enhancements of the ambient gamma dose were 15-80 nSv h -1 . To facilitate routine analysis, and account in part for occasional equipment failure, an automated method for identifying precipitation spikes in the ambient gamma dose was developed. Lastly, a simple model for predicting rainfall-related enhancement of the ambient gamma dose is tested against rainfall observations from events of contrasting duration and intensity. Results are also compared with those from previously published models of simple and complex formulation. Generally, the model performed very well. When simulations underestimated observations the absolute difference was typically less than the natural variability in ambient gamma dose arising from atmospheric mixing influences. Consequently, combined use of the automated event detection method and the simple model of this study could enable the ambient gamma dose "attention limit" (which indicates a potential radiological emergency) to be reduced from 200 to 400% above background to 25-50%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aplicação da técnica de avaliação do terreno e análise da fragilidade ambiental da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Almada - LANDFORM MAPPING AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRAGILITY ASSESSMENT IN ALMADA RIVER HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Santos Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva a aplicação da técnica de avaliação do terreno e análise da fragilidade ambiental da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Almada (BHRA, localizada na Região Sul do Estado da Bahia. Para tanto, o método adotado inicialmente se utiliza da aplicação da técnica de avaliação do terreno, tendo em vista a compartimentação da bacia em sistemas e unidades de relevo. Em seguida, dados de declividade, solos e uso e ocupação do solo são avaliados no sentido do conhecimento de suas fragilidades ambientais. Por fim, para cada um dos sistemas e unidades de relevos mapeados foi delineado o seu quadro de fragilidade ambiental, contextualizando, dessa forma, as potencialidades e limitações de diferentes unidades territoriais da BHRA. Os resultados encontrados apresentam um cenário em que a classe de fragilidade ambiental baixa representa 15,34% da bacia e possui maior representatividade nos sistemas de terreno Planície Litorânea e Rio Paraíso. A classe de média fragilidade é a de maior expressão na BHRA (69,14% e em todos os sistemas de terreno da BHRA, representando mais de 60% de cobertura dos mesmos. Já as classes de alta a muito alta fragilidade, quando somadas, englobam aproximadamente 15,52% de toda a área da BHRA, e distribuem-se, com maior representatividade, em áreas do sistema Almadina-Coaraci, em virtude do atual processo de ocupação por pastagens.

  10. Ambient air pollution, smog episodes and mortality in Jinan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yao; Cui, Liang-Liang; Liu, Shou-Qin; Yin, Xi-Xiang; Li, Huai-Chen

    2017-09-11

    We aimed to assess the acute effects of ambient air pollution and weather conditions on mortality in the context of Chinese smog episodes. A total of 209,321 deaths were recorded in Jinan, a large city in eastern China, during 2011-15. The mean concentrations of daily particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were 169 μg/m 3 , 100 μg/m 3 , 77 μg/m 3 , and 54 μg/m 3 , respectively. Increases of 10 μg/m 3 in PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 and NO 2 were associated with 1.11% (95% CI 0.96-1.26%), 0.71% (95% CI 0.60-0.82%), 1.69% (95% CI 1.56-1.83%), and 3.12% (95% CI 2.72-3.53%) increases in daily non-accidental mortality rates, respectively. Moreover, the risk estimates for these 4 pollutants were higher in association with respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. The effects of all the evaluated pollutants on mortality were greater in winter than in summer. Smog episodes were associated with a 5.87% (95% CI 0.16-11.58%) increase in the rate of overall mortality. This study highlights the effect of exposure to air pollution on the rate of mortality in China.

  11. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  12. Thermal modelling of PV module performance under high ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Akuffo, F.O. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    When predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) generators, the actual performance is typically lower than test results conducted under standard test conditions because the radiant energy absorbed in the module under normal operation raises the temperature of the cell and other multilayer components. The increase in temperature translates to a lower conversion efficiency of the solar cells. In order to address these discrepancies, a thermal model of a characteristic PV module was developed to assess and predict its performance under real field-conditions. The PV module consisted of monocrystalline silicon cells in EVA between a glass cover and a tedlar backing sheet. The EES program was used to compute the equilibrium temperature profile in the PV module. It was shown that heat is dissipated towards the bottom and the top of the module, and that its temperature can be much higher than the ambient temperature. Modelling results indicate that 70-75 per cent of the absorbed solar radiation is dissipated from the solar cells as heat, while 4.7 per cent of the solar energy is absorbed in the glass cover and the EVA. It was also shown that the operating temperature of the PV module decreases with increased wind speed. 2 refs.

  13. Damping Identification of Bridges Under Nonstationary Ambient Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoong Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on identifying the damping ratio of bridges using nonstationary ambient vibration data. The damping ratios of bridges in service have generally been identified using operational modal analysis (OMA based on a stationary white noise assumption for input signals. However, most bridges are generally subjected to nonstationary excitations while in service, and this violation of the basic assumption can lead to uncertainties in damping identification. To deal with nonstationarity, an amplitude-modulating function was calculated from measured responses to eliminate global trends caused by nonstationary input. A natural excitation technique (NExT-eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA was applied to estimate the damping ratio for a stationarized process. To improve the accuracy of OMA-based damping estimates, a comparative analysis was performed between an extracted stationary process and nonstationary data to assess the effect of eliminating nonstationarity. The mean value and standard deviation of the damping ratio for the first vertical mode decreased after signal stationarization. Keywords: Damping, Operational modal analysis, Traffic-induced vibration, Nonstationary, Signal stationarization, Amplitude-modulating, Bridge, Cable-stayed, Suspension

  14. Mapas de ruido: mecanismo de control del ruido ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez García, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Los primeros mecanismos de control del ruido ambiental fueron los mapas acústicos. La Directiva Europea 2002149/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo de Evatuacián y Gestión del Ruido Ambiental, exige, a los estados miembros,  se midan los niveles de ruido, en su entorno local, con  el fin de contar con indicadores de ruido comunes. elaborar mapas de ruido y planes de acción destinados a reducir los efectos nocivos de ruido ambiental.  Las directrices para la elaboración de l...

  15. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  16. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the risk of respiratory tract disease...

  17. A lab-based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectrometer with exchangeable analysis chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, John T., E-mail: jnewberg@udel.edu; Arble, Chris; Goodwin, Chris; Khalifa, Yehia; Broderick, Alicia [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Åhlund, John [Scienta AB, Box 15120, 750 15 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) is a powerful spectroscopy tool that is inherently surface sensitive, elemental, and chemical specific, with the ability to probe sample surfaces under Torr level pressures. Herein, we describe the design of a new lab-based APXPS system with the ability to swap small volume analysis chambers. Ag 3d(5/2) analyses of a silver foil were carried out at room temperature to determine the optimal sample-to-aperture distance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis spot size, relative peak intensities, and peak full width at half maximum of three different electrostatic lens modes: acceleration, transmission, and angular. Ag 3d(5/2) peak areas, differential pumping pressures, and pump performance were assessed under varying N{sub 2}(g) analysis chamber pressures up to 20 Torr. The commissioning of this instrument allows for the investigation of molecular level interfacial processes under ambient vapor conditions in energy and environmental research.

  18. El atal como ambiente de aprendizaje inclusivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada González Falcón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas la creciente llegada de población inmigrantes en España ha generado la determinación de nuevas políticas educativas de escolarización para el alumnado de origen extranjero. En la comunidad andaluza, se destaca la creación del “Aula Temporal de Aceleración Lingüística” para la promoción de la enseñanza de la lengua vehicular y la integración socioeducativa del alumnado de origen extranjero. El trabajo que aquí se presenta forma parte de proyecto nacional I+D+I (Ref. CSO2013-43266-R sobre las trayectorias de estos dispositivos. Este artículo se formula bajo un doble objetivo: por un lado, analizar las variables didácticas que se desarrollan en las ATAL de dos centros públicos de educación secundaria de la provincia onubense; y por otro, valorar las semejanzas y disonancias entre dichas aulas a través de un estudio etnográfico, explicitando de igual modo los condicionantes en cuanto a tres ejes de análisis: física-funcional, temporal y relacional. Los resultados se dirigen hacia el reconocimiento del aula como espacio de apoyo emocional y de atención personal desde la configuración de ambientes de aprendizaje. Este hecho evidencia la reflexión hacia modelos educativos que conformen un marco de actuación intercultural como generadores de la inclusión para el alumnado extranjero en los centros educativos.

  19. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  20. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Theresia Weber-Glass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman’s (Ekman et al., 1983 basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles / bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the skin conductance response and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles / bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  1. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  2. Reflexo do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia de Fátima Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propôs verificar se há reflexos do consumismo infantil no ambiente escolar. Se á fatores que influenciam nas interações afetivas e subjetivas dos alunos das séries iniciais do Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Professora Ana Cristina de sena município de Sinop – MT. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma essas relações acontecem diante do consumismo. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos aos autores, Zygmunt Bauman, Anne Barrére, Antonio Chizotti e Maria Minayo. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e entrevistas com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas a professores e pais e observação em sala dos alunos. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir com a escola na sensibilização de futuros consumidores, e como trabalhar com conceitos de valores do ‘ser’ e não do ‘ter’. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a realidade na qual foi pesquisado, o reflexo do consumismo e contundentes e que o consumismo não é o único fator a influenciar nas relações e formação subjetiva dos alunos.Palavras-chave: educação; ensino fundamental; anos iniciais; consumismo; sociointeracionismo.

  3. Etanercept (Enbrel® alternative storage at ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Edel Shannon,1 Joanne Daffy,2 Heather Jones,3 Andrea Paulson,4 Steven M Vicik5 1Global Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Regulatory, 2Contract Operations Quality Assurance, Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals, Clondalkin, Dublin, Ireland; 3Medical Affairs, Pfizer, Collegeville, PA, USA; 4Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 5Global Supply Product Portfolio Management, Pfizer Biotech, Andover, MA, USA Background: Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors such as etanercept (Enbrel®, have improved outcomes for patients with rheumatic and other inflammatory diseases, with sustained remission being the optimal goal for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Flexible and convenient treatment options, compatible with modern lifestyle, are important in helping patients maintain treatment and manage their disease. Etanercept drug product (DP is available in lyophilized powder (Lyo for solution injection, prefilled syringe, and prefilled pen presentations and is typically stored under refrigerated conditions. We aimed to generate a comprehensive analytical data package from stability testing of key quality attributes, consistent with regulatory requirements, to determine whether the product profile of etanercept is maintained at ambient temperature. Methods: Test methods assessing key attributes of purity, quality, potency, and safety were performed over time, following storage of etanercept DP presentations under a range of conditions. Results: Results and statistical analysis from stability testing (based on size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Coomassie across all etanercept presentations (10 and 25 mg/vial Lyo DP; 25 and 50 mg prefilled syringe DP; 50 mg prefilled pen DP showed key stability-indicating parameters were within acceptable limits through the alternative storage

  4. Retoriek, retoriese analise en prediking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In characterising rhetoric, its persuasive intent should be highlighted because the persuasive element is true of all three rhetorical genera. Graeco-Roman pupils were well-trained in the rhetorical arts and it can be accepted that Paul also had a working knowledge of rhetoric. Rhetorical analysis of the New Testament attempts to study the texts of the New Testament in the light of rhetorical features, as developed by the classical theorists and refined by a modern scholar like Perelman. Since the 1970's rhetorical analysis of the New Testament has flourished, although approaches have varied considerably and not all efforts were convincing. Nevertheless, it has become clear that the rhetorical approach can enrich our understanding of the New Testament, and especially of its letters, considerably. Examples from Romans and Galatians are presented to underscore this point. Since preaching, like rhetoric, aims at convincing and persuading an audience, rhetoric can provide us with important stimuli for the praxis of preaching, as can be demonstrated from the five prescribed phases of preparing a public speech, as well as from the three modes of persuasion: logos, ethos and pathos.

  5. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  6. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  7. Avaliação da qualidade ambiental urbana da bacia do ribeirão do Lipa através de indicadores, Cuiabá/MT / Assessment of urban environmental quality in the basin of the Ribeirão Lipa through indicators, Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kayser Alkmim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e adensamento populacional nas cidades têm aumentado a importância da qualidade dos espaços urbanos, e diante desse tema este artigo busca realizar a avaliação da qualidade ambiental da área urbana da sub-bacia do Ribeirão do Lipa, localizada na cidade de Cuiabá/MT, usando como referência os modelos de avaliação do ambiente urbano baseados em indicadores ambientais e de infraestrutura sanitária e viária, aos quais foram atribuídos pesos de acordo com a sua relevância para o estado de qualidade meio urbano. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na parte urbana da sub-bacia do Ribeirão do Lipa, que é uma das mais preservadas dentre aquelas inseridas no perímetro urbano de Cuiabá e passa nos últimos anos por severo processo de urbanização.

  8. Educación ambiental en la crisis y crisis de la educación ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Huertos, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Producción Científica Es preciso repensar la Educación Ambiental una vez asumido que los ciudadanos despues de tres décadas de mensajes y actividades educativas, si bien han cambiado su percepción de los problemas ambientales, apenas ha variado su actitud y su compromiso personal en favor del medio ambiente. La educación ambiental ha de perder el carácter anecdótico y pasar de actividades aisladas, repetitivas y desconectadas del resto de los aprendizajes a una intervención basada en la si...

  9. Ambient noise levels and characterization in Aegean region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Fatih; Zor, Ekrem; Açıkgöz, Cem; Tarancıoğlu, Adil

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the ambient noise level in the Aegean region and analyzed its diurnal variation and its relation to the earthquake detection capability of the Aegean Region Seismic Network (ARSN). We prepared probability density functions (PDFs) for 19 broadband stations in the Aegean region operated by the Earth and Marine Sciences Institute (EMSI) of the Marmara Research Center (MRC) of the Turkish Scientific Research Council (TÜBİTAK). The power spectral densities (PSDs) used to construct PDFs for each station were computed for the periods between 0.02 and 180 s. In addition, we generated noise map of the Aegean region for different periods using the PDFs to assess the origin of the noise. We analyzed earthquake activity in the region and found that there are more local events recorded at night than during the day for each station. This difference is strongly related to diurnal variation of background noise level for the period range mostly covering the frequency range for the local events. We observed daytime noise level 15 to 20 dB higher than that at the nighttime in high frequencies for almost all stations caused by its proximity to settled areas and roads. Additionally, we observed a splitting peak within the Double Frequency (DF) microseism band; it showed a clear noise increase around the short period DF band at all the stations, decreasing inland. This peak may be related to sea waves locally generated in the Aegean Sea. We also identified a prominent increase related to marble saw companies in some stations' noise PDFs.

  10. Effects of public health interventions on industrial emissions and ambient air in Cartagena, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Lluís; Rodríguez, Miguel; Giménez, Joaquín; Jiménez, Enrique; Saez, Marc; Guillén, José-Jesús; Medrano, José; Martínez-Victoria, María-Aurelia; Ballester, Ferran; Moreno-Grau, Stella; Navarro, Carmen

    2009-03-01

    Ten years of public health interventions on industrial emissions to clean air were monitored for the Mediterranean city of Cartagena. During the 1960s, a number of large chemical and non-ferrous metallurgical factories were established that significantly deteriorated the city's air quality. By the 1970s, the average annual air concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) ranged from 200 to 300 microg/m3 (standard conditions units). In 1979, the Spanish government implemented an industrial intervention plan to improve the performance of factories and industrial air pollution surveillance. Unplanned urban development led to residential housing being located adjacent to three major factories. Factory A produced lead, factory B processed zinc from ore concentrates, and factory C produced sulfuric acid and phosphates. This, in combination with the particular abrupt topography and frequent atmospheric thermal inversions, resulted in the worsening of air quality and heightening concern for public health. In 1990, the City Council authorized the immediate intervention at these factories to reduce or shut down production if ambient levels of SO2 or total suspended particles (TSP) exceeded a time-emission threshold in pre-established meteorological contexts. The aim of this research was to assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention plan implemented from 1992 to 2001 to abate industrial air pollution. The maximum daily 1-h ambient air level of SO2, NO2, and TSP pollutants was selected from one of the three urban automatic stations, designed to monitor ambient air quality around industrial emissions sources. The day on which an intervention took place to reduce and/or interrupt industrial production by factory and pollutant was defined as a control day, and the day after an intervention as a post-control day. To assess the short-term intervention effect on air quality, an ecological time series design was applied, using regression analysis in generalized

  11. Educação ambiental na escola: a perspectiva estudantil sobre o meio ambiente e a propaganda ambiental na internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reis de Pinho Tavares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa mostrar as idéias dos estudantes sobre um tema - a propaganda - refletindo como ela se insere na questão ambiental. Também abordamos como os alunos percebem questões como as relações, empresa, meio ambiente e sociedade. Foi realizado em uma oficina de Educação Ambiental, em uma escola particular de Lagoa Santa - MG, durante os meses de junho e julho de 2004. Analisaram-se sites de diversas empresas e ONG's (Organizações Não Governamentais. Em sua maioria os estudantes conseguiram posicionar-se criticamente em relação às entidades investigadas.

  12. Sampling and analyte enrichment strategies for ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Ma, Wen; Li, Hongmei; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-01-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry provides great convenience for fast screening, and has showed promising potential in analytical chemistry. However, its relatively low sensitivity seriously restricts its practical utility in trace compound analysis. In this review, we summarize the sampling and analyte enrichment strategies coupled with nine modes of representative ambient mass spectrometry (desorption electrospray ionization, paper vhspray ionization, wooden-tip spray ionization, probe electrospray ionization, coated blade spray ionization, direct analysis in real time, desorption corona beam ionization, dielectric barrier discharge ionization, and atmospheric-pressure solids analysis probe) that have dramatically increased the detection sensitivity. We believe that these advances will promote routine use of ambient mass spectrometry. Graphical abstract Scheme of sampling stretagies for ambient mass spectrometry.

  13. MEDIO AMBIENTE, TUTELAS DE URGENCIA Y PROCESO COLECTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Marin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A problemática ambiental vem assumindo grande importância na sociedade atual. A utilização demasiada dos recursos serve como base para grandes discussões. Ao mesmo tempo em que se reconhece ao cidadão o direito de usufruir do ambiente que o cerca, impõe deveres, no sentido de garantir-se a utilização racional dos recursos ambientais. Apesar da existência de uma vasta legislação ambiental, o tema exige maiores mecanismos de controle, visando a proteção e garantia dos recursos naturais. Assim, faz-se necessária uma nova interpretação dos princípios processuais que vigoram no ordenamento, no sentido de melhorar a tutela do bem ambiental.

  14. Superconductor shields test chamber from ambient magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.

    1965-01-01

    Shielding a test chamber for magnetic components enables it to maintain a constant, low magnetic field. The chamber is shielded from ambient magnetic fields by a lead foil cylinder maintained in a superconducting state by liquid helium.

  15. Human aspects in ambient intelligence contemporary challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosse, Tibor; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent developments in the field of human aspects in Ambient Intelligence. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of AmI with human-directed disciplines such as psychology, social science, neuroscience and biomedical sciences.

  16. Technology review: prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Samuel Olaiya; Ramis Ferrer, Borja; Martinez Lastra, Jose Luis

    2018-05-08

    The monitoring of ambient conditions in indoor spaces is very essential owing to the amount of time spent indoors. Specifically, the monitoring of air quality is significant because contaminated air affects the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. This research work presents a technology review of prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. It involves the research on sensors (for CO 2 , air quality and ambient conditions), IoT platforms, and novel and commercial prototyping platforms. The ultimate objective of this review is to enable the easy identification, selection and utilisation of the technologies best suited for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. Following the review, it is recommended to use metal oxide sensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors for IAQ monitoring (including NDIR sensors for CO 2 monitoring), Raspberry Pi for data processing, ZigBee and Wi-Fi for data communication, and ThingSpeak IoT platform for data storage, analysis and visualisation.

  17. Volumetric ambient occlusion for real-time rendering and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmay-Kalos, L; Umenhoffer, T; Toth, B; Szecsi, L; Sbert, M

    2010-01-01

    This new algorithm, based on GPUs, can compute ambient occlusion to inexpensively approximate global-illumination effects in real-time systems and games. The first step in deriving this algorithm is to examine how ambient occlusion relates to the physically founded rendering equation. The correspondence stems from a fuzzy membership function that defines what constitutes nearby occlusions. The next step is to develop a method to calculate ambient occlusion in real time without precomputation. The algorithm is based on a novel interpretation of ambient occlusion that measures the relative volume of the visible part of the surface's tangent sphere. The new formula's integrand has low variation and thus can be estimated accurately with a few samples.

  18. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  19. A proposal of ubiquitous fuzzy computing for ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2008-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: Ubiquitous Computing, Ubiquitous Communication and Intelligent User Interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information technology

  20. Ubiquitous fuzzy computing in open ambient intelligence environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acampora, G.; Loia, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is considered as the composition of three emergent technologies: ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous communication and intelligent user interfaces. The aim of integration of aforesaid technologies is to make wider the interaction between human beings and information

  1. Ambient intelligence & personalization : people's perspectives on information privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde - Perik, van de E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current developments towards Ambient Intelligence and related technological visions of the future are founded on continuous collection of information about individuals and their activities. This collection of information, its potentially persistent storage, dissemination and use raise privacy

  2. Arte-educação ambiental, um constructo transdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Rache, Rita Patta

    2017-01-01

    A partir da práxis educativa de arte-­educadoras que desenvolvem ações articuladas entre arte-­ educação e educação ambiental, particularmente aquelas que contribuíram para a elaboração da metodologia de educação ambiental da ONG Núcleo de Educação e Monitoramento Ambiental (NEMA), de Rio Grande/RS, e da Escola da Natureza, de Brasília/DF, constatamos a emergência da expressão Arte-­Educação Ambiental (AEA). Nosso objetivo foi investigar o fenômeno, seu conteúdo, referenciais teóricos, as met...

  3. Responsabilidad ambiental: factor creador de valor agregado en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Senior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad ambiental como oportunidad para crear valor en las organizaciones, en el entendido de que la misma permite cimentar las bases del desarrollo sustentable. Se considera igualmente la responsabilidad ambiental como elemento capaz de disminuir costos por riesgos y aumentar el "market share" a través de la innovación. Para lograr este objetivo se empleó la contrastación de teorías las cuales explican cómo la responsabilidad ambiental puede generar valor agregado en las organizaciones a partir de consideraciones tales como, ética ambiental, legitimidad y desarrollo sustentable. Se concluye que las empresas a través de sus esfuerzos socioambientales pueden obtener beneficios a la vez que mejoran su capital reputacional.

  4. Effects of elevated ambient temperature on embryo implantation in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... ambient temperature leads to a delayed implantation and reduced number of implantation sites in. Sprague ... rates decrease after exposure to stress. One of the ..... implantation initiation time, support the previous findings.

  5. Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bowden, Daniel C.; Tsai, Victor C.; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations

  6. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicityAbstractMutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  7. A systemic domain model for ambient pervasive persuasive games

    OpenAIRE

    Eglin, Roger; Eyles, Mark; Dansey, Neil

    2008-01-01

    By the development of the system domain model it is hoped that a greater conceptual and theoretical clarity may be brought to understanding the complex and multifaceted nature of pervasive and ambient computer games. This paper presents a conceptual model, the system domain model, to illustrate domain areas that exist in a console, pervasive or ambient game. It is implicit that the regions that the systemic domain model describes are contextually dependent. By developing this model it is poss...

  8. Risk related behaviour under different ambient scent conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Gagarina; Indre Pikturniene

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla) and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2×2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambi...

  9. Biorregionalismo, ética e justiça ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Luiz Negrão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, retomo a argumentação de Gary Snyder, um libertário biorregionalista, e do socialista John Clark, verificando os limites e possibilidades de suas propostas na formulação de uma ética ambiental, à luz dos critérios estabelecidos por Kenneth Goodpaster (vida e por Tom Regan (valor inerente, para fundamentar uma ética genuinamente ambiental.

  10. Enhancing Safety of Artificially Ventilated Patients Using Ambient Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Christian; Gerka, Alexander; Lüpkes, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Hein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for enhancing the safety of artificially ventilated patients using ambient process analysis. We propose to use an analysis system consisting of low-cost ambient sensors such as power sensor, RGB-D sensor, passage detector, and matrix infrared temperature sensor to reduce risks for artificially ventilated patients in both home and clinical environments. We describe the system concept and our implementation and show how the system can contribute to patient safety.

  11. Impacto ambiental de una mina de mercurio abandonada

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cuartas, María

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este Trabajo Fin de Máster es la evaluación del impacto ambiental de una explotación minera de mercurio en estado de abandono y de posible contaminación del medio ambiente. Una vez que se comprueba el elevado impacto debido al estado de abandono y a la alta contaminación, se ha elaborado una sencilla propuesta de restauración, barajado y comprando tres posibles alternativas.

  12. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  13. The risk of melanoma associated with ambient summer ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Bushnik, Tracey; Fioletov, Vitali; Peters, Cheryl E; King, Will D; Tjepkema, Michael

    2017-05-17

    Depletion of the ozone layer has meant that ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has increased in recent decades. At the same time, the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, has risen. The relatively few large-scale studies that linked ambient UVR to melanoma found a trend toward rising incidence closer to the equator, where UVR estimates are highest. Similar research has not been conducted in Canada, where ambient UVR is generally lower than in countries further south. Modelled UVR data for the months of June through August during the 1980-to-1990 period were spatially linked in Geographic Information Systems to 2.4 million white members of the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort and tracked for melanoma diagnosis over an 18-year period (1992 to 2009). Standard Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate melanoma risk associated with increases of ambient summer UVR, assigned by residence at baseline. Models were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic (SES) characteristics. Separate analyses by body site of melanoma were conducted. Effect modification of the association between ambient UVR and melanoma by sex, age, outdoor occupation and selected SES characteristics was evaluated. Differences of one standard deviation (446 J/m², or 7% of the mean) in average ambient summer UVR were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for melanoma of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.25) when adjusting for sex, age and SES characteristics. The HR for melanoma in relative UVR (per 1 standard deviation) was larger for men (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.30) than for women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.22). Ambient summer UVR is associated with a greater risk of melanoma among the white population, even in a country where most people live within a narrow latitudinal belt. A stronger association between melanoma and ambient UVR was evident among men and among people of lower SES.

  14. Secondary organic aerosols: Formation potential and ambient data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Organic aerosols comprise a significant fraction of the total atmospheric particle loading and are associated with radiative forcing and health impacts. Ambient organic aerosol concentrations contain both a primary and secondary component. Herein, fractional aerosol coefficients (FAC) are used...... in conjunction with measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to predict the formation potential of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the Lower Fraser Valley (LEV) of British Columbia. The predicted concentrations of SOA show reasonable accord with ambient aerosol measurements and indicate considerable...

  15. Big Data, Smart Homes and Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Vimarlund, V.; Wass, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss how current research in the area of smart homes and ambient assisted living will be influenced by the use of big data. Methods: A scoping review of literature published in scientific journals and conference proceedings was performed, focusing on smart homes, ambient assisted living and big data over the years 2011-2014. Results: The health and social care market has lagged behind other markets when it comes to the introduction of innovative IT solutions and the market f...

  16. Medio ambiente en Europa: retos para un desarrollo sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Santa María Beneyto, María Jesús

    2000-01-01

    Ofrece una completa visión sobre el grave deterioro ambiental que sufre nuestro planeta, reconociendo la necesidad política medioambiental eficaz que permita conseguir una mejor protección de los ecosistemas y una base para el desarrollo sostenible, mostrando una especial atención a la situación del medio ambiente en la Unión Europea.

  17. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality...

  18. On the Reference State for Exergy when Ambient Temperature Fluctuates

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Pons

    2009-01-01

    Exergy (availability) is the amount of mechanical work that could be produced by reversible processes. This notion is revisited in the case when ambient temperature fluctuates. Simple examples are first considered, and then a theoretical approach is developed. It results that the most reliable way for combining entropy and total energy into an exergy function is a linear combination where entropy is multiplied by a constant temperature. It results that ambient air has non-zero exergy, but tha...

  19. As discussões sobre a sustentabilidade na atividade turística: uma analise para o Brasil na ultima década

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Roncada de Freitas; Paulo Augusto Ramalho de SOUZA; Elizandra Mariza Zambra; Raquel da Silva Pereira; Maria do Carmo Romeiro

    2014-01-01

    Debido a la importancia del turismo, como una actividad económica en Brasil, y su efecto sobre el medio ambiente, al que se inserta, se deben entender los debates sobre el tema en los últimos diez años. Este estudio tiene como objetivo general analizar los principales debates relacionados con la sostenibilidad del turismo en Brasil en la última década. Así se estructuró el diseño metodológico exploratorio descriptivo en el que se analizaron los artículos científ...

  20. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  1. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  2. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espacio-temporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  3. Medio ambiente y educación ambiental: representaciones sociales de los profesores en formación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Calixto Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las líneas actuales de investigación educativa que aporta elementos valiosos para comprender los procesos de formación de los sujetos es la que corresponde a las representaciones sociales. En este artículo se describen los aspectos centrales de la investigación Representaciones del medio ambiente de los estudiantes de la licenciatura en educación primaria. Con las representaciones los estudiantes discriminan espaciotemporalmente los elementos del medio ambiente, estableciendo correspondencias con las prácticas sociales. Entre los resultados de la investigación referida se encuentra la existencia de una relación entre las representaciones del medio ambiente y las corrientes de la educación ambiental.

  4. Los problemas de la Educación Ambiental: ¿es posible una Educación Ambiental integradora?

    OpenAIRE

    García, J. Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan diferentes problemas y carencias de la Educación Ambiental. Para el tratamiento de estos problemas se plantea una perspectiva integradora que supere los reduccionismos actualmente existentes

  5. Saúde e meio ambiente nas cidades: os desafios da saúde ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de alguns poucos anos, nosso planeta contará com mais habitantes em áreas urbanas do que em áreas rurais. A urbanização desenfreada, sem mecanismos regulatórios e de controle, típica dos países periféricos, trouxe consigo enormes repercussões na saúde da população. Problemas como a insuficiência dos serviços básicos de saneamento, coleta e destinação adequada do lixo e condições precárias de moradia, tradicionalmente relacionados com a pobreza e o subdesenvolvimento, somam-se agora à poluição química e física do ar, da água e da terra, problemas ambientais antes considerados "modernos". Novamente, é sobre as populações mais carentes que recai a maior parte dos efeitos negativos da urbanização, gerando uma situação de extrema desigualdade e iniqüidade ambiental e em saúde. Para reverter esse quadro é preciso que haja uma reincorporação das questões do meio ambiente nas políticas de saúde, e a integração dos objetivos da saúde ambiental numa ampla estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável. Uma abordagem mais integrada, com mecanismos intersetoriais que possibilitem um diálogo amplo entre as partes, trará enormes benefícios na conquista de melhores condições de vida nas cidades. A saúde ambiental hoje tem o desafio de promover uma melhor qualidade de vida e saúde nas cidades e a oportunidade de enfrentar o absurdo quadro de exclusão social, sob a perspectiva da eqüidade.In a matter of few years there will be more urban than rural dwellers worldwide. The rapid urbanisation lacking adequate control and regulatory mechanisms typical of developing countries, brought along huge effects to the health of the population Environmental problems traditionally related to poverty and underdevelopment such as insufficient provision of sanitation services, waste collection and disposal, and precarious housing conditions, are now added to environmental problems considered of "modern life" such as the

  6. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.; ,

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County

  7. Effects of ambient vibrations on heritage buildings: overview and wireless dynamic monitoring application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, G.; Quaranta, G.; Fumagalli, F.; Marano, G.C.; Rea, R.; Nazzaro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of the negative effects due to ambient vibrations caused by transportations infrastructures in Historical centres is attributable to the high vulnerability of heritage buildings as a consequence of deterioration phenomena and damages that reduced the structural capacity of such valuable constructions over the past centuries. As the mobility demand increases, several cities hosting heritage buildings are subjected to raising traffic loadings, so that constructions of new infrastructures is often required. Hence, assessing the effects of short-term vibrations due to construction activities or the consequences of the long-term vibrations caused by traffic is very important for the preservation of cultural heritage. An operative approach for evaluating the effects of ambient vibrations based on experimental measurements is a useful tool when a new infrastructure is being built, and can support strategic decisions for the elaboration of transportation plans at the urban level. Therefore, an overview is here presented of existing studies, guidelines and codes that provide pertinent information on this topic. Of special importance is the analysis of existing proposed thresholds, i.e. limit values that, if compiled with, damage due to ambient vibrations is not likely to occur. On the basis of such overview, the selection of threshold values for the Flavian Amphitheater is discussed, along with current efforts towards a wireless dynamic monitoring of its dynamic response.

  8. A high-flow humidograph for testing the water uptake by ambient aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brink, H.M.; Khlystov, A.; Kos, G.P.A. [ECN Fuels Conversion and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Tuch, T. [Institut of Medical Data Management, Biometrics and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Muenich (Germany); Roth, C.; Kreyling, W. [Institute for Inhalation Biology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg/Muenich (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    A scanning humidograph, with an air flow rate of 0.5 m{sup 3} s{sup -1} was built to investigate the uptake of water and its effect on sizing, collection and light-scattering of ambient aerosol. The performance of the system was assessed with laboratory particles of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride which are the major hygroscopic components of ambient aerosol. The increase in size at the deliquescence points, which ideally is a stepwise function of relative humidity, occurs over a range of 3% RH units. This is shown to be an optimum value in a system of such large dimensions. Because of the strong temperature increase of the vapor pressure of ammonium nitrate, its evaporative loss was investigated as a function of heating/drying temperature. The loss of pure test aerosol, with a mass distribution similar to that in the ambient atmosphere, was found to be acceptable for drying temperatures of up to 40C. The sizing of deliquesced aerosol by LAS-X monitors was tested and found to be a complex function of RH. In Berner low pressure impactors growth of hygroscopic aerosol was not observed, not even at an RH approaching saturation. 21 refs.

  9. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  10. Earthquake and ambient vibration monitoring of the steel-frame UCLA factor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.D.; Davis, P.M.; Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic property measurements of the moment-resisting steel-frame University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building are being made to assess how forces are distributed over the building. Fourier amplitude spectra have been calculated from several intervals of ambient vibrations, a 24-hour period of strong winds, and from the 28 March 2003 Encino, California (ML = 2.9), the 3 September 2002 Yorba Linda, California (ML = 4.7), and the 3 November 2002 Central Alaska (Mw = 7.9) earthquakes. Measurements made from the ambient vibration records show that the first-mode frequency of horizontal vibration is between 0.55 and 0.6 Hz. The second horizontal mode has a frequency between 1.6 and 1.9 Hz. In contrast, the first-mode frequencies measured from earthquake data are about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz lower than those corresponding to ambient vibration recordings indicating softening of the soil-structure system as amplitudes become larger. The frequencies revert to pre-earthquake levels within five minutes of the Yorba Linda earthquake. Shaking due to strong winds that occurred during the Encino earthquake dominates the frequency decrease, which correlates in time with the duration of the strong winds. The first shear wave recorded from the Encino and Yorba Linda earthquakes takes about 0.4 sec to travel up the 17-story building. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. Brote del virus ISA: crisis ambiental y capacidad de la institucionalidad ambiental para manejar el conflicto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bustos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La industria salmonera chilena vivió recientemente una crisis de magnitud a partir de la aparición del virus ISA. El artículo examina esta situación, concentrándose en el papel que desempeña la ciencia en las soluciones políticas propuestas, como caso para discutir la capacidad de los mecanismos de gobernanza ambiental neoliberal para solucionar crisis ambientales y económicas. La pregunta que guía el trabajo es: ¿cuál fue el rol de la ciencia en la política ambiental para la industria? El argumento promovido es que la crisis representa un momento de reestructuración de la relación sociedad-naturaleza, en el cual se redefinieron mecanismos de propiedad, control y acceso a recursos naturales, pero en el que, pese al discurso neoliberal de confianza en los expertos y la ciencia como elementos de toma de decisiones, la información científica tuvo escasa relevancia.The Chilean salmon industry recently experienced a crisis due to an outbreak of the ISA virus. The article examines the crisis focusing on the role of science in the policy solutions proposed, to discuss the real capacity of neoliberal environmental governance mechanisms to solve environmental and economic crisis. The question guiding this research is, which was the role of science in environmental policy createdfor the salmon industry? The argument is that the crisis represents a reestructuring of the relationship between society and nature through the redefinition of property rights, control and access to natural resources, but in which, in spite of a neoliberal discourse of trust in experts and science as elements of decision making, scientific information had little relevance.

  12. The photosynthesis - leaf nitrogen relationship at ambient and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Peterson; J. Timothy Ball; Yiqi Luo; Christopher B. Field; Peter B. Reich; Peter S. Curtis; Kevin L. Griffin; Carla S Gunderson; Richard J. Norby; David T. Tissue; Manfred Forstreuter; Ana Rey; Christoph S. Vogel; CMEAL collaboration

    1998-09-25

    Estimation of leaf photosynthetic rate (A) from leaf nitrogen content (N) is both conceptually and numerically important in models of plant, ecosystem and biosphere responses to global change. The relationship between A and N has been studied extensively at ambient CO{sub 2} but much less at elevated CO{sub 2}. This study was designed to (1) assess whether the A-N relationship was more similar for species within than between community and vegetation types, and (2) examine how growth at elevated CO{sub 2} affects the A-N relationship. Data were obtained for 39 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient CO{sub 2} and 10 C{sub 3} species grown at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. A regression model was applied to each species as well as to species pooled within different community and vegetation types. Cluster analysis of the regression coefficients indicated that species measured at ambient CO{sub 2} did not separate into distinct groups matching community or vegetation type. Instead, most community and vegetation types shared the same general parameter space for regression coefficients. Growth at elevated CO{sub 2} increased photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency for pines and deciduous trees. When species were pooled by vegetation type, the A-N relationship for deciduous trees expressed on a leaf-mass bask was not altered by elevated CO{sub 2}, while the intercept increased for pines. When regression coefficients were averaged to give mean responses for different vegetation types, elevated CO{sub 2} increased the intercept and the slope for deciduous trees but increased only the intercept for pines. There were no statistical differences between the pines and deciduous trees for the effect of CO{sub 2}. Generalizations about the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on the A-N relationship, and differences between pines and deciduous trees will be enhanced as more data become available.

  13. Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Cappa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the sensitivity of organic aerosol (OA, and its components mass to changes in temperature were recently reported by Huffman et al.~(2009 using a tandem thermodenuder-aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS system in Mexico City and the Los Angeles area. Here, we use these measurements to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol volatility within the framework of absorptive partitioning theory using a kinetic model of aerosol evaporation in the TD. OA volatility distributions (or "basis-sets" are determined using several assumptions as to the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap. We present two definitions of "non-volatile OA," one being a global and one a local definition. Based on these definitions, our analysis indicates that a substantial fraction of the organic aerosol is comprised of non-volatile components that will not evaporate under any atmospheric conditions; on the order of 50–80% when the most realistic ΔHvap assumptions are considered. The sensitivity of the total OA mass to dilution and ambient changes in temperature has been assessed for the various ΔHvap assumptions. The temperature sensitivity is relatively independent of the particular ΔHvap assumptions whereas dilution sensitivity is found to be greatest for the low (ΔHvap = 50 kJ/mol and lowest for the high (ΔHvap = 150 kJ/mol assumptions. This difference arises from the high ΔHvap assumptions yielding volatility distributions with a greater fraction of non-volatile material than the low ΔHvap assumptions. If the observations are fit using a 1 or 2-component model the sensitivity of the OA to dilution is unrealistically high. An empirical method introduced by Faulhaber et al. (2009 has also been used to independently estimate a volatility distribution for the ambient OA and is found to give results consistent with the

  14. Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, C. D.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-01

    Measurements of the sensitivity of organic aerosol (OA, and its components) mass to changes in temperature were recently reported by Huffman et al.~(2009) using a tandem thermodenuder-aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS) system in Mexico City and the Los Angeles area. Here, we use these measurements to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol volatility within the framework of absorptive partitioning theory using a kinetic model of aerosol evaporation in the TD. OA volatility distributions (or "basis-sets") are determined using several assumptions as to the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap). We present two definitions of "non-volatile OA," one being a global and one a local definition. Based on these definitions, our analysis indicates that a substantial fraction of the organic aerosol is comprised of non-volatile components that will not evaporate under any atmospheric conditions; on the order of 50-80% when the most realistic ΔHvap assumptions are considered. The sensitivity of the total OA mass to dilution and ambient changes in temperature has been assessed for the various ΔHvap assumptions. The temperature sensitivity is relatively independent of the particular ΔHvap assumptions whereas dilution sensitivity is found to be greatest for the low (ΔHvap = 50 kJ/mol) and lowest for the high (ΔHvap = 150 kJ/mol) assumptions. This difference arises from the high ΔHvap assumptions yielding volatility distributions with a greater fraction of non-volatile material than the low ΔHvap assumptions. If the observations are fit using a 1 or 2-component model the sensitivity of the OA to dilution is unrealistically high. An empirical method introduced by Faulhaber et al. (2009) has also been used to independently estimate a volatility distribution for the ambient OA and is found to give results consistent with the high and variable ΔHvap assumptions. Our results also show that the amount of semivolatile gas-phase organics in equilibrium with the OA could range from ~20

  15. Ambient air pollution the risk of stillbirth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoping; Tan, Yafei; Mei, Hui; Wang, Fang; Li, Na; Zhao, Jinzhu; Zhang, Yiming; Qian, Zhengmin; Chang, Jen Jen; Syberg, Kevin M; Peng, Anna; Mei, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy is associated with stillbirth occurrence. However, the results on the associations between ambient air pollutants and stillbirths are inconsistent and little is known about the gestational timing of sensitive periods for the effects of ambient air pollutants exposure on stillbirth. This study aimed to examine whether exposure to high levels of ambient air pollutants in a Chinese population is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, and determine the gestational period when the fetus is most susceptible. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Wuhan, China, involving 95,354 births between June 10, 2011 and June 9, 2013. The exposure assessments were based on the daily mean concentrations of air pollutants obtained from the exposure monitor nearest to the pregnant women's residence. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between stillbirths and exposure to each of the air pollutants at different pregnancy periods with adjustment for confounding factors. Stillbirth increased with a 10 μg/m 3 increase in particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) in each stage of pregnancy, and a significant association between carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and stillbirth was found during the third trimester (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.01) and in the entire pregnancy (aOR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34). Furthermore, an increased risk of stillbirth in the third trimester was associated with a 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 10 (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.11), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) (aOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.21) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (aOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.16-1.35). However, no positive association was observed between ozone exposure and stillbirth. In the two-pollutant models, PM 2.5 and CO exposures were found to be consistently associated with stillbirth. Our study revealed that exposure to high levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2

  16. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  17. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that parents should invest less in dependent offspring with lower reproductive value, such as those with a high risk of predation. Moreover, high predation risk can favor reduced parental activity when such activity attracts nest predators. Yet, the ability of parents to assess ambient nest-predation risk and respond adaptively remains unclear, especially where nest-predator assemblages are diverse and potentially difficult to assess. We tested whether variation in parental investment by a multi-brooded songbird (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri) in an environment (sagebrush steppe) with diverse predators was predicted by ambient nest-predation risk or direct experience with nest predation. Variation among eight sites in ambient nest-predation risk, assayed by daily probabilities of nest predation, was largely uncorrelated across four years. In this system risk may therefore be unpredictable, and aspects of parental investment (clutch size, egg mass, incubation rhythms, nestling-feeding rates) were not related to ambient risk. Moreover, investment at first nests that were successful did not differ from that at nests that were depredated, suggesting parents could not assess and respond to territorylevel nest-predation risk. However, parents whose nests were depredated reduced clutch sizes and activity at nests attempted later in the season by increasing the length of incubation shifts (on-bouts) and recesses (off-bouts) and decreasing trips to feed nestlings. In this unpredictable environment parent birds may therefore lack sufficient cues of ambient risk on which to base their investment decisions and instead rely on direct experience with nest predation to inform at least some of their decisions. ?? 2010 The Cooper Ornithological Society.

  18. Assessing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    Assessment not only places value, it also identifies which elements to value. In this era of accountability, the constituents of educational assessment are not just students, faculty, and administrators, but also parents, legislators, journalists, and the public. For these broader audiences, simple numerical indicators of student performance take…

  19. Variation and Likeness in Ambient Artistic Portraiture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan; Rheinberger, Nick; Powley, Meagan; Rawnsley, Tricia; Brown, Linda; Brown, Malcolm; Butler, Karen; Clarke, Ann; Crichton, Stephen; Henderson, Maggie; McCosker, Helen; Musgrave, Ann; Wilcock, Joyce; Williams, Darren; Yeaman, Karin; Zaracostas, T S; Taylor, Adam C; Wallace, Gordon

    2018-06-01

    An artist-led exploration of portrait accuracy and likeness involved 12 Artists producing 12 portraits referencing a life-size 3D print of the same Sitter. The works were assessed during a public exhibition, and the resulting likeness assessments were compared to portrait accuracy as measured using geometric morphometrics (statistical shape analysis). Our results are that, independently of the assessors' prior familiarity with the Sitter's face, the likeness judgements tended to be higher for less morphologically accurate portraits. The two highest rated were the portrait that most exaggerated the Sitter's distinctive features, and a portrait that was a more accurate (but not the most accurate) depiction. In keeping with research showing photograph likeness assessments involve recognition, we found familiar assessors rated the two highest ranked portraits even higher than those with some or no familiarity. In contrast, those lacking prior familiarity with the Sitter's face showed greater favour for the portrait with the highest morphological accuracy, and therefore most likely engaged in face-matching with the exhibited 3D print. Furthermore, our research indicates that abstraction in portraiture may not enhance likeness, and we found that when our 12 highly diverse portraits were statistically averaged, this resulted in a portrait that is more morphologically accurate than any of the individual artworks comprising the average.

  20. Plume Splitting in a Two-layer Stratified Ambient Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongxing; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    A line-source plume descending into a two-layer stratified ambient fluid in a finite sized tank is studied experimentally. Although the total volume of ambient fluid is fixed, lower- and upper-layer fluids are respectively removed and added at a constant rate mimicking marine outfall through diffusers and natural and hybrid ventilated buildings. The influence of the plume on the ambient depends on the value of λ, defined as the ratio of the plume buoyancy to the buoyancy loss of the plume as it crosses the ambient interface. Similar to classical filling-box experiments, the plume can always reach the bottom of the tank if λ > 1 . By contrast, if λ < 1 , an intermediate layer eventually forms as a result of plume splitting. Eventually all of the plume fluid spreads within the intermediate layer. The starting time, tv, and the ending time, tt, of the transition process measured from experiments correlate with the value of λ. A three-layer ambient fluid is observed after transition, and the mean value of the measured densities of the intermediate layer fluid is well predicted using plume theory. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was provided by NSERC.