WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing yield optimization

  1. Assessing gear modifications needed to optimize yields in a heavily exploited, multi-species, seagrass and coral reef fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Christina C; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    Effective management is necessary if small-scale fisheries, such as those found in mixed habitats including seagrass and coral reefs, are to continue providing food for many of the poorest communities of the world. Gear-based management, although under represented and under studied, has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and be crafted to the socio-economic setting. Management effectiveness in seagrass and coral reef fisheries has generally been evaluated at the scale of the fish community. However, community level indicators can mask species-specific declines that provide significant portions of the fisheries yields and income. Using a unique dataset, containing ten years of species level length frequency catch data from a multi-gear, multi-species seagrass and coral reef fishery in Kenya, we evaluate species specific fishery statuses, compare gear use to gear regulations and estimate the potential needs for further gear restrictions. Despite the high diversity of the fishery, fifteen species represented over 90% of the catch, and only three species represented 60% of the catch. The three most abundant species in the catch, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède), Siganus sutor (Valenciennes) and Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard) all showed evidence of growth overfishing. Lethrinus lentjan, with an exploitation rate of 0.82, also shows evidence of recruitment overfishing. Current legal but weakly enforced gear restrictions are capable of protecting a significant portion of the catch up to maturity but optimization of yield will require that the current mesh size be increased from 6.3 to 8.8 and 9.2 cm to increase yields of L. lentjan and S. sutor, respectively. Given the difficulties of enforcing mesh size, we recommend that the economic benefits of these larger mesh sizes be communicated and enforced through co-management. This abstract is also available in Kiswahili (Abstract S1).

  2. Assessing gear modifications needed to optimize yields in a heavily exploited, multi-species, seagrass and coral reef fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C Hicks

    Full Text Available Effective management is necessary if small-scale fisheries, such as those found in mixed habitats including seagrass and coral reefs, are to continue providing food for many of the poorest communities of the world. Gear-based management, although under represented and under studied, has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and be crafted to the socio-economic setting. Management effectiveness in seagrass and coral reef fisheries has generally been evaluated at the scale of the fish community. However, community level indicators can mask species-specific declines that provide significant portions of the fisheries yields and income. Using a unique dataset, containing ten years of species level length frequency catch data from a multi-gear, multi-species seagrass and coral reef fishery in Kenya, we evaluate species specific fishery statuses, compare gear use to gear regulations and estimate the potential needs for further gear restrictions. Despite the high diversity of the fishery, fifteen species represented over 90% of the catch, and only three species represented 60% of the catch. The three most abundant species in the catch, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède, Siganus sutor (Valenciennes and Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard all showed evidence of growth overfishing. Lethrinus lentjan, with an exploitation rate of 0.82, also shows evidence of recruitment overfishing. Current legal but weakly enforced gear restrictions are capable of protecting a significant portion of the catch up to maturity but optimization of yield will require that the current mesh size be increased from 6.3 to 8.8 and 9.2 cm to increase yields of L. lentjan and S. sutor, respectively. Given the difficulties of enforcing mesh size, we recommend that the economic benefits of these larger mesh sizes be communicated and enforced through co-management. This abstract is also available in Kiswahili (Abstract S1.

  3. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  5. Computer optimization of cutting yield from multiple ripped boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Stern; K.A. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    RIPYLD is a computer program that optimizes the cutting yield from multiple-ripped boards. Decisions are based on automatically collected defect information, cutting bill requirements, and sawing variables. The yield of clear cuttings from a board is calculated for every possible permutation of specified rip widths and both the maximum and minimum percent yield...

  6. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  7. Advances in Non-Destructive Early Assessment of Fruit Ripeness towards Defining Optimal Time of Harvest and Yield Prediction—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in-field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible. A variety of non-destructive techniques have been applied to estimate the ripeness or maturity but not all of them are applicable for in situ (field or glasshouse assessment. This review focuses on the non-destructive methods which are promising for, or have already been applied to, the pre-harvest in-field measurements including colorimetry, visible imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Machine learning and regression models used in assessing ripeness are also discussed.

  8. A Casting Yield Optimization Case Study: Forging Ram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    This work summarizes the findings of multi-objective optimization of a gravity sand-cast steel part for which an increase of the casting yield via riser optimization was considered. This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. The benefits...... of this approach, recently adopted in foundry industry world wide and based on fully automated computer optimization, were demonstrated. First, analyses of filling and solidification of the original casting design were conducted in the standard simulation environment to determine potential flaws and inadequacies...

  9. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  10. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  11. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol

  12. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  13. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios...

  14. Respirometric assessment of storage yield for different substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure has been defined for the respirometric assessment of bacterial storage yield as defined in the Activated Sludge Model No.3. The procedure was used to determine the storage yield, YSTO, associated with acetate, glucose and domestic sewage, together with mixtures of acetate/glucose ...

  15. Access time optimization of SRAM memory with statistical yield constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Janssen, H.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A product may fail when design parameters are subject to large deviations. To guarantee yield one likes to determine bounds on the parameter range such that the fail probability P_fail is small. For Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) characteristics like Static Noise Margin and Read Current,

  16. Zinc and application to optimize seed yield of mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Cheema, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, during 2005 and 2006. The mustard (Brassica juncea) variety BARD-1 was treated with various levels of Zn and Fe, (0-0, 0-1.5, 0-3, 2.5-0, 2.5-1.5, 2.5-3, 5-0, 5-1.5 kgha/sup -1/ and 5-3 kgha/sup -1/, respectively. A basal dose of 90N and 60P kgha/sup -1/ was applied, in the form of Urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) with Zn and Fe. The increase in Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ increased yield of BARD-I. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha/sup -1/ Zn and 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha-1 and 1.5 kg Fe ha/sup -1/ in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % seed yield of mustard variety BARD-l increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fc kg ha-1 as a result of increased pods plant/sup -l/, number of seeds pod-1 and 1000-seed weight. (author)

  17. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  18. Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jenny A; Kunin, William E; Thomas, Chris D; Benton, Tim G; Gabriel, Doreen

    2010-11-01

    Organic farming aims to be wildlife-friendly, but it may not benefit wildlife overall if much greater areas are needed to produce a given quantity of food. We measured the density and species richness of butterflies on organic farms, conventional farms and grassland nature reserves in 16 landscapes. Organic farms supported a higher density of butterflies than conventional farms, but a lower density than reserves. Using our data, we predict the optimal land-use strategy to maintain yield whilst maximizing butterfly abundance under different scenarios. Farming conventionally and sparing land as nature reserves is better for butterflies when the organic yield per hectare falls below 87% of conventional yield. However, if the spared land is simply extra field margins, organic farming is optimal whenever organic yields are over 35% of conventional yields. The optimal balance of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming to maintain production and biodiversity will differ between landscapes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graphical assessment of yield stability and adaptation in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp). DK Ojo, MS Oduola, OA Oduwaye. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 20 2006: pp. 17-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. A Remote Sensing-Derived Corn Yield Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ranjay Man

    Agricultural studies and food security have become critical research topics due to continuous growth in human population and simultaneous shrinkage in agricultural land. In spite of modern technological advancements to improve agricultural productivity, more studies on crop yield assessments and food productivities are still necessary to fulfill the constantly increasing food demands. Besides human activities, natural disasters such as flood and drought, along with rapid climate changes, also inflect an adverse effect on food productivities. Understanding the impact of these disasters on crop yield and making early impact estimations could help planning for any national or international food crisis. Similarly, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Risk Management Agency (RMA) insurance management utilizes appropriately estimated crop yield and damage assessment information to sustain farmers' practice through timely and proper compensations. Through County Agricultural Production Survey (CAPS), the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) uses traditional methods of field interviews and farmer-reported survey data to perform annual crop condition monitoring and production estimations at the regional and state levels. As these manual approaches of yield estimations are highly inefficient and produce very limited samples to represent the entire area, NASS requires supplemental spatial data that provides continuous and timely information on crop production and annual yield. Compared to traditional methods, remote sensing data and products offer wider spatial extent, more accurate location information, higher temporal resolution and data distribution, and lower data cost--thus providing a complementary option for estimation of crop yield information. Remote sensing derived vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide measurable statistics of potential crop growth based on the spectral reflectance and could

  1. Parameter Optimization for Enhancement of Ethanol Yield by Atmospheric Pressure DBD-Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiaoyu; Yuan Yulian; Tang Qian; Dou Shaohua; Di Lanbo; Zhang Xiuling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was exposed to dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) to improve its ethanol production capacity during fermentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the discharge-associated parameters of DBD for the purpose of maximizing the ethanol yield achieved by DBD-treated S. cerevisiae. According to single factor experiments, a mathematical model was established using Box-Behnken central composite experiment design, with plasma exposure time, power supply voltage, and exposed-sample volume as impact factors and ethanol yield as the response. This was followed by response surface analysis. Optimal experimental parameters for plasma discharge-induced enhancement in ethanol yield were plasma exposure time of 1 min, power voltage of 26 V, and an exposed sample volume of 9 mL. Under these conditions, the resulting yield of ethanol was 0.48 g/g, representing an increase of 33% over control. (plasma technology)

  2. Optimization of the size and yield of graphene oxide sheets in the exfoliation step

    OpenAIRE

    Botas, Cristina; Pérez, A.M. (Ana); Álvarez, Patricia; Santamaría, Ricardo; Granda, Marcos; Blanco, Clara; Menéndez, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the yield and size of the graphene oxide sheets (GO) obtained by sonication of graphite oxide (GrO) can be optimized not only by selecting the appropriate exfoliation conditions but also as a function of the crystalline structure of the parent graphite. A larger crystal size in the parent graphite favors GrO exfoliation and yields larger sheets in shorter sonication times, independently of the oxygen content of the GrO. A maximum yield of GO is obtained in al...

  3. Optimization of components in high-yield synthesis of block copolymer-mediated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Debes; Aswal, Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The optimization to achieve stable and high-yield gold nanoparticles in block copolymer-mediated synthesis has been examined. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized using block copolymer P85 in gold salt HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O solution. This method usually has a very limited yield which does not simply increase with the increase in the gold salt concentration. We show that the yield can be enhanced by increasing the block copolymer concentration but is limited to the factor by which the concentration is increased. On the other hand, the presence of an additional reductant (trisodium citrate) in 1:1 molar ratio with gold salt enhances the yield by manyfold. In this case (with additional reductant), the stable and high-yield nanoparticles having size about 14 nm can be synthesized at very low block copolymer concentrations. These nanoparticles thus can be efficiently used for their application such as for adsorption of proteins.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION PARAMETERS FOR OPTIMAL BIODIESEL YIELD FROM CRUDE JATROPHA OIL USING A NEWLY SYNTHESIZED SEASHELL CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. R. REDDY

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysts are promising catalysts for optimal biodiesel yield from transesterification of vegetable oils. In this work calcium oxide (CaO heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized from Polymedosa erosa seashell. Calcination was carried out at 900ºC for 2h and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Catalytic efficiency of CaO was testified in transesterification of crude Jatropha oil (CJO. A response surface methodology (RSM based on five-level-two-factor central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize two critical transesterification parameters catalyst concentration to pretreated CJO (0.01-0.03 w/w % and the reaction time (90 min - 150 min. A JB yield of 96.48% was estimated at 0.023 w/w% catalyst and 125.76 min reaction using response optimizer. The legitimacy of the predicted model was verified through the experiments. The validation experiments conformed a yield of JB 96.4%±0.01% as optimal at 0.023 w/w% catalyst to pretreated oil ratio and 126 min reaction time.

  5. Optimization of MR fluid Yield stress using Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, S. K.; Sharma, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Magneto rheological fluids belong to a class of smart materials whose rheological characteristics such as yield stress, viscosity etc. changes in the presence of applied magnetic field. In this paper, optimization of MR fluid constituents is obtained with on-state yield stress as response parameter. For this, 18 samples of MR fluids are prepared using L-18 Orthogonal Array. These samples are experimentally tested on a developed & fabricated electromagnet setup. It has been found that the yield stress of MR fluid mainly depends on the volume fraction of the iron particles and type of carrier fluid used in it. The optimal combination of the input parameters for the fluid are found to be as Mineral oil with a volume percentage of 67%, iron powder of 300 mesh size with a volume percentage of 32%, oleic acid with a volume percentage of 0.5% and tetra-methyl-ammonium-hydroxide with a volume percentage of 0.7%. This optimal combination of input parameters has given the on-state yield stress as 48.197 kPa numerically. An experimental confirmation test on the optimized MR fluid sample has been then carried out and the response parameter thus obtained has found matching quite well (less than 1% error) with the numerically obtained values.

  6. Reliability analysis for cementless hip prosthesis using a new optimized formulation of yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharmanda, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy

  7. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  8. A mathematical framework for yield (vs. rate) optimization in constraint-based modeling and applications in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    The optimization of metabolic rates (as linear objective functions) represents the methodical core of flux-balance analysis techniques which have become a standard tool for the study of genome-scale metabolic models. Besides (growth and synthesis) rates, metabolic yields are key parameters for the characterization of biochemical transformation processes, especially in the context of biotechnological applications. However, yields are ratios of rates, and hence the optimization of yields (as nonlinear objective functions) under arbitrary linear constraints is not possible with current flux-balance analysis techniques. Despite the fundamental importance of yields in constraint-based modeling, a comprehensive mathematical framework for yield optimization is still missing. We present a mathematical theory that allows one to systematically compute and analyze yield-optimal solutions of metabolic models under arbitrary linear constraints. In particular, we formulate yield optimization as a linear-fractional program. For practical computations, we transform the linear-fractional yield optimization problem to a (higher-dimensional) linear problem. Its solutions determine the solutions of the original problem and can be used to predict yield-optimal flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models. For the theoretical analysis, we consider the linear-fractional problem directly. Most importantly, we show that the yield-optimal solution set (like the rate-optimal solution set) is determined by (yield-optimal) elementary flux vectors of the underlying metabolic model. However, yield- and rate-optimal solutions may differ from each other, and hence optimal (biomass or product) yields are not necessarily obtained at solutions with optimal (growth or synthesis) rates. Moreover, we discuss phase planes/production envelopes and yield spaces, in particular, we prove that yield spaces are convex and provide algorithms for their computation. We illustrate our findings by a small

  9. Principles of root water uptake, soil salinity and crop yield for optimizing irrigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles of water and salt transport, root water uptake, crop salt tolerance, water quality, and irrigation methods which should be considered in optimizing irrigation management for sustained, viable agriculture with protection of the quality of land and water resources. In particular, the advantages of high-frequency irrigation at small leaching fractions with closed systems are discussed, for which uptake-weighted mean salinity is expected to correlate best with crop yields. Optimization of irrigation management depends on the scale considered. Non-technical problems which are often much harder to solve than technical problems, may well be most favourable for new projects in developing countries. (author)

  10. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  11. Factors affecting the optimal performance of a high-yield pulping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada); Paris, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Valada, J L [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Strategies for operating a chemical-mechanical pulp mill were investigated from data based on process models from some one hundred pilot scale pulping runs. Optimal values for 55 process and pulp quality variables have been calculated by applying a genetic algorithm search to a fuzzy model of the overall system. Best pulp quality was achieved and maintained when the chemical pretreatment was conducted at moderately low temperatures using a high SO{sub 2} concentration, which produced high sulphonation and high yield at the same time. By characterizing the quality of the pulp at the fibre level, optimization results were said to be more easily transferable to other high yield pulping systems. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Optimization of in-target yields for RIB production: Part 1: direct targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabod, S.; Thiolliere, N.; David, J.Ch.; Dore, D.; Ene, D.; Rapp, B.; Ridikas, D.; Chabod, S.; Blideanu, V.

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of the EURISOL-DS project and within Task-11, we have performed in-target yield calculations for different configurations of thick direct targets. The target materials tested are Al 2 O 3 , SiC, Pb(molten), Ta and UC 3 . The target was irradiated with protons of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 GeV. The production rates have been computed using the MCNPX transport/generation code, coupled with the CINDER-90 evolution program. The yield distributions as a function of charge number Z and mass number A have been evaluated. Their production rates have been optimized for 11 selected elements (Li, Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ni, Ga, Kr, Hg, Sn and Fr) and 23 of their isotopes of interest. Finally, the isotopic distributions for each of these 11 elements have been optimized in terms of the target material, its geometry, and incident proton energy

  13. Optimal yield value of a collector in a vacuum thermoemission energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyga, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical expression is formulated for determining the optimal height of a potential barrier which limits electron yield from a collector across the near-collector region of the inter-electrode interval of a vacuum thermoemission energy converter. The analysis is based on the concept that thermoemission properties of the emitter are independent of changes in load resistance in which case the resistance of the conducting wires was considered to be given.

  14. Assessment of genotype x environment interaction on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... yield and yield components of durum wheat genotypes ... The results of combined analysis of variance showed a strong influence of the ... Stability is defined as the early prediction of environmental im- ... Many resear-.

  15. [Construction of high-yield strain by optimizing lycopene cyclase for β-carotene production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingfu; Han, Li; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Shizhong; Liu, Weifeng; Tao, Yong

    2017-11-25

    To optimize key enzymes, such as to explore the gene resources and to modify the expression level, can maximize metabolic pathways of target products. β-carotene is a terpenoid compound with important application value. Lycopene cyclase (CrtY) is the key enzyme in β-carotene biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent cyclization reaction and β-carotene synthesis from lycopene precursor. We optimized lycopene cyclase (CrtY) to improve the synthesis of β-carotene and determined the effect of CrtY expression on metabolic pathways. Frist, we developed a β-carotene synthesis module by coexpressing the lycopene β-cyclase gene crtY with crtEBI module in Escherichia coli. Then we simultaneously optimized the ribosome-binding site (RBS) intensity and the species of crtY using oligo-linker mediated DNA assembly method (OLMA). Five strains with high β-carotene production capacity were screened out from the OLMA library. The β-carotene yields of these strains were up to 15.79-18.90 mg/g DCW (Dry cell weight), 65% higher than that of the original strain at shake flask level. The optimal strain CP12 was further identified and evaluated for β-carotene production at 5 L fermentation level. After process optimization, the final β-carotene yield could reach to 1.9 g/L. The results of RBS strength and metabolic intermediate analysis indicated that an appropriate expression level of CrtY could be beneficial for the function of the β-carotene synthesis module. The results of this study provide important insight into the optimization of β-carotene synthesis pathway in metabolic engineering.

  16. Automatic yield-line analysis of slabs using discontinuity layout optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew; He, Linwei; Smith, Colin C; Le, Canh V

    2014-08-08

    The yield-line method of analysis is a long established and extremely effective means of estimating the maximum load sustainable by a slab or plate. However, although numerous attempts to automate the process of directly identifying the critical pattern of yield-lines have been made over the past few decades, to date none has proved capable of reliably analysing slabs of arbitrary geometry. Here, it is demonstrated that the discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) procedure can successfully be applied to such problems. The procedure involves discretization of the problem using nodes inter-connected by potential yield-line discontinuities, with the critical layout of these then identified using linear programming. The procedure is applied to various benchmark problems, demonstrating that highly accurate solutions can be obtained, and showing that DLO provides a truly systematic means of directly and reliably automatically identifying yield-line patterns. Finally, since the critical yield-line patterns for many problems are found to be quite complex in form, a means of automatically simplifying these is presented.

  17. Design guidelines for H-Darrieus wind turbines: Optimization of the annual energy yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal for a new design criterion for H-Darrieus turbines based on the energy-yield maximization. • 21,600 design cases analyzed to identify the best solutions for each installation site (i.e. average wind speed). • Critical analysis of the best design choices in terms of turbine shape, dimensions, airfoils and constraints. • Notable energy increase provided by the new design approach. • Each site requires a specific turbine concept to optimize the energy yield. - Abstract: H-Darrieus wind turbines are gaining popularity in the wind energy market, particularly as they are thought to represent a suitable solution even in unconventional installation areas. To promote the diffusion of this technology, industrial manufacturers are continuously proposing new and appealing exterior solutions, coupled with tempting rated-power offers. The actual operating conditions of a rotor over a year can be, however, very different from the nominal one and strictly dependent on the features of the installation site. Based on these considerations, a turbine optimization oriented to maximize the annual energy yield, instead of the maximum power, is thought to represent a more interesting solution. With this goal in mind, 21,600 test cases of H-Darrieus rotors were compared on the basis of their energy-yield capabilities for different annual wind distributions in terms of average speed. The wind distributions were combined with the predicted performance maps of the rotors obtained with a specifically developed numerical code based on a Blade Element Momentum (BEM) approach. The influence on turbine performance of the cut-in speed was accounted for, as well as the limitations due to structural loads (i.e. maximum rotational speed and maximum wind velocity). The analysis, carried out in terms of dimensionless parameters, highlighted the aerodynamic configurations able to ensure the largest annual energy yield for each wind distribution and set of aerodynamic

  18. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  19. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  20. Assessing Sediment Yield and the Effect of Best Management Practices on Sediment Yield Reduction for Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, O. T.; Dulai, H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Upland soil erosion and sedimentation are the main threats for riparian and coastal reef ecosystems in Pacific islands. Here, due to small size of the watersheds and steep slope, the residence time of rainfall runoff and its suspended load is short. Fagaalu bay, located on the island of Tutuila (American Samoa) has been identified as a priority watershed, due to degraded coral reef condition and reduction of stream water quality from heavy anthropogenic activity yielding high nutrients and sediment loads to the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to estimate the sediment yield to the Fagaalu stream and assess the impact of Best Management Practices (BMP) on sediment yield reduction. For this, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied, calibrated, and validated for both daily streamflow and sediment load simulation. The model also estimated the sediment yield contributions from existing land use types of Fagaalu and identified soil erosion prone areas for introducing BMP scenarios in the watershed. Then, three BMP scenarios, such as stone bund, retention pond, and filter strip were treated on bare (quarry area), agricultural, and shrub land use types. It was found that the bare land with quarry activity yielded the highest annual average sediment yield of 133 ton per hectare (t ha-1) followed by agriculture (26.1 t ha-1) while the lowest sediment yield of 0.2 t ha-1 was estimated for the forested part of the watershed. Additionally, the bare land area (2 ha) contributed approximately 65% (207 ha) of the watershed's sediment yield, which is 4.0 t ha-1. The latter signifies the high impact as well as contribution of anthropogenic activity on sediment yield. The use of different BMP scenarios generally reduced the sediment yield to the coastal reef of Fagaalu watershed. However, treating the quarry activity area with stone bund showed the highest sediment yield reduction as compared to the other two BMP scenarios. This study provides an estimate

  1. Cottonseed oil and yield assessment via economic heterosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 ©2010 Academic Journals. Full Length ... Key words: Hybrid vigor, inbreeding depression, cottonseed traits, cottonseed oil, Gossypium hirsutum. ... in yield and superior performance than well-adapted.

  2. A Comparison between Standard and Functional Clustering Methodologies: Application to Agricultural Fields for Yield Pattern Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of spatial patterns within agricultural fields, presenting similar yield potential areas, stable through time, is very important for optimizing agricultural practices. This study proposes the evaluation of different clustering methodologies applied to multispectral satellite time series for retrieving temporally stable (constant patterns in agricultural fields, related to within-field yield spatial distribution. The ability of different clustering procedures for the recognition and mapping of constant patterns in fields of cereal crops was assessed. Crop vigor patterns, considered to be related to soils characteristics, and possibly indicative of yield potential, were derived by applying the different clustering algorithms to time series of Landsat images acquired on 94 agricultural fields near Rome (Italy. Two different approaches were applied and validated using Landsat 7 and 8 archived imagery. The first approach automatically extracts and calculates for each field of interest (FOI the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, then exploits the standard K-means clustering algorithm to derive constant patterns at the field level. The second approach applies novel clustering procedures directly to spectral reflectance time series, in particular: (1 standard K-means; (2 functional K-means; (3 multivariate functional principal components clustering analysis; (4 hierarchical clustering. The different approaches were validated through cluster accuracy estimates on a reference set of FOIs for which yield maps were available for some years. Results show that multivariate functional principal components clustering, with an a priori determination of the optimal number of classes for each FOI, provides a better accuracy than those of standard clustering algorithms. The proposed novel functional clustering methodologies are effective and efficient for constant pattern retrieval and can be used for a sustainable management of

  3. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  4. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  5. Optimization of thermo-alkaline disintegration of sewage sludge for enhanced biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Muhammad Sani; Abdul Manan, Zainuddin; Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah Wan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of thermo-alkaline disintegration of sewage sludge for enhanced biogas yield was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design of experiment. The individual linear and quadratic effects as well as the interactive effects of temperature, NaOH concentration and time on the degree of disintegration were investigated. The optimum degree of disintegration achieved was 61.45% at 88.50 °C, 2.29 M NaOH (24.23%w/w total solids) and 21 min retention time. Linear and quadratic effects of temperature are most significant in affecting the degree of disintegration. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 99.5% confirms that the model used in predicting the degree of disintegration process has a very good fitness with the experimental variables. The disintegrated sludge increased the biogas yield by 36%v/v compared to non-disintegrated sludge. The RSM with Box-Behnken design is an effective tool in predicting the optimum degree of disintegration of sewage sludge for increased biogas yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  7. Modelling and water yield assessment of Lake Sibhayi | Smithers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A yield analysis of simulated results with historical developments in the catchment for the 65-year period of observed climate record was undertaken using both a fixed minimum allowable lake level or a maximum drop from a reference lake level as criteria for system failure. Results from simulating lake levels using the ...

  8. Assessment of genotype x environment interaction on yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Days to heading, plant height, number of spikes per square meter, number of kernels per spike, spike weight, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield of the genotypes were evaluated in each location. The regression coefficient (bi) of Finlay and Wilkinson (1963) and mean square of deviation from regression (S2d) of Eberhart ...

  9. Capital yields assessment trough cross section production function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Pánková, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 79-87 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : yield of capital * cross-section production function * maximisation of profit Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  10. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Gou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by 60Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12 was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  11. The investigation for attaining the optimal yield of oil shale by integrating high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    This work presents a systemanalytical investigation and shows how far a high temperature reactor can be integrated for achieving the optimal yield of kerogen from oil shale. About 1/3 of the produced components must be burnt out in order to have the required high temperature process heat. The works of IGT show that the hydrogen gasification of oil shale enables not only to reach oil shale of higher quality but also allows to achieve a higher extraction quantity. For this reason a hydro-gasification process has been calculated in this work in which not only hydrogen is used as the gasification medium but also two high temperature reactors are integrated as the source of high temperature heat. (orig.) [de

  12. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, L.; Stern, J.; Ramos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  13. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  14. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  15. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  16. Primary and Secondary Yield Losses Caused by Pests and Diseases: Assessment and Modeling in Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rolando; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Tixier, Philippe; Lechevallier, Esther; Allinne, Clémentine

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of crop yield losses is needed for the improvement of production systems that contribute to the incomes of rural families and food security worldwide. However, efforts to quantify yield losses and identify their causes are still limited, especially for perennial crops. Our objectives were to quantify primary yield losses (incurred in the current year of production) and secondary yield losses (resulting from negative impacts of the previous year) of coffee due to pests and diseases, and to identify the most important predictors of coffee yields and yield losses. We established an experimental coffee parcel with full-sun exposure that consisted of six treatments, which were defined as different sequences of pesticide applications. The trial lasted three years (2013-2015) and yield components, dead productive branches, and foliar pests and diseases were assessed as predictors of yield. First, we calculated yield losses by comparing actual yields of specific treatments with the estimated attainable yield obtained in plots which always had chemical protection. Second, we used structural equation modeling to identify the most important predictors. Results showed that pests and diseases led to high primary yield losses (26%) and even higher secondary yield losses (38%). We identified the fruiting nodes and the dead productive branches as the most important and useful predictors of yields and yield losses. These predictors could be added in existing mechanistic models of coffee, or can be used to develop new linear mixed models to estimate yield losses. Estimated yield losses can then be related to production factors to identify corrective actions that farmers can implement to reduce losses. The experimental and modeling approaches of this study could also be applied in other perennial crops to assess yield losses.

  17. Failure assessment of pressure vessels under yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.P.; Darlaston, B.J.L.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the work carried out to establish the behavior of structures containing defects and outlines a failure assessment route which can be used to assess the integrity of a structure containing a defect. The basis for this failure assessment route is the two-criteria approach of Dowling and Townley, which can be applied to structures containing defects irrespective of whether they are in the linear elastic fracture mechanics regime, the fully plastic regime, or in an intermediate regime. The extension of this concept to include crack growth by stable tearing is dealt with in the paper

  18. Assessment of Sustainable Yield and Optimum Fishing Effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    length based models are suitable for tropical fish stock assessment work as they do not .... A value of Z/F = 0.5 have been used as the starting value based on the ..... Similarly, estimates of annual recruitment rate of O.niloticus obtained in the ...

  19. Optimization of 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator light yield using GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda-Zada, Y.; Pritchard, K.; Ziegler, J. B.; Cooksey, C.; Siebein, K.; Jackson, M.; Hurlbut, C.; Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Ibberson, R. M.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Maliszewskyj, N. C.; Orion, I.; Osovizky, A.

    2018-06-01

    A new cold neutron detector has been developed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) for the CANDoR (Chromatic Analysis Neutron Diffractometer or Reflectometer) project. Geometric and performance constraints dictate that this detector be exceptionally thin (∼ 2 mm). For this reason, the design of the detector consists of a 6LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillator with embedded wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. We used the GEANT4 package to simulate neutron capture and light transport in the detector to optimize the composition and arrangement of materials to satisfy the competing requirements of high neutron capture probability and light production and transport. In the process, we have developed a method for predicting light collection and total neutron detection efficiency for different detector configurations. The simulation was performed by adjusting crucial parameters such as the scintillator stoichiometry, light yield, component grain size, WLS fiber geometry, and reflectors at the outside edges of the scintillator volume. Three different detector configurations were fabricated and their test results were correlated with the simulations. Through this correlation we have managed to find a common photon threshold for the different detector configurations which was then used to simulate and predict the efficiencies for many other detector configurations. New detectors that have been fabricated based on simulation results yielding the desired sensitivity of 90% for 3.27 meV (5 Å) cold neutrons. The simulation has proven to be a useful tool by dramatically reducing the development period and the required number of detector prototypes. It can be used to test new designs with different thicknesses and different target neutron energies.

  20. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  1. Sources of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and Methods to Optimize Yields for Clinical Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panch, Sandhya R; Szymanski, James; Savani, Bipin N; Stroncek, David F

    2017-08-01

    Bone marrow (BM) aspirates, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood (UCB) have developed as graft sources for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell transplantation and other cellular therapeutics. Individualized techniques are necessary to enhance graft HSPC yields and cell quality from each graft source. BM aspirates yield adequate CD34 + cells but can result in relative delays in engraftment. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed BM HSPCs may facilitate faster engraftment while minimizing graft-versus-host disease in certain patient subsets. The levels of circulating HSPCs are enhanced using mobilizing agents, such as G-CSF and/or plerixafor, which act via the stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 axis. Alternate niche pathway mediators, including very late antigen-4/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, parathyroid hormone, and coagulation cascade intermediates, may offer promising alternatives for graft enhancement. UCB grafts have been expanded ex vivo with cytokines, notch-ligand, or mesenchymal stromal cells, and most studies demonstrated greater quantities of CD34 + cells ex vivo and improved short-term engraftment. No significant changes were observed in long-term repopulating potential or in patient survival. Early phase clinical trials using nicotinamide and StemReginin1 may offer improved short- and long-term repopulating ability. Breakthroughs in genome editing and stem cell reprogramming technologies may hasten the generation of pooled, third-party HSPC grafts. This review elucidates past, present, and potential future approaches to HSPC graft optimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Optimal survey strategies and predicted planet yields for the Korean microlensing telescope network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Skowron, Jan; Penny, Matthew T.; Gould, Andrew P.; Han, Cheongho; Nataf, David

    2014-01-01

    The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) will consist of three 1.6 m telescopes each with a 4 deg 2 field of view (FoV) and will be dedicated to monitoring the Galactic Bulge to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. KMTNet's combination of aperture size, FoV, cadence, and longitudinal coverage will provide a unique opportunity to probe exoplanet demographics in an unbiased way. Here we present simulations that optimize the observing strategy for and predict the planetary yields of KMTNet. We find preferences for four target fields located in the central Bulge and an exposure time of t exp = 120 s, leading to the detection of ∼2200 microlensing events per year. We estimate the planet detection rates for planets with mass and separation across the ranges 0.1 ≤ M p /M ⊕ ≤ 1000 and 0.4 ≤ a/AU ≤ 16, respectively. Normalizing these rates to the cool-planet mass function of Cassan et al., we predict KMTNet will be approximately uniformly sensitive to planets with mass 5 ≤ M p /M ⊕ ≤ 1000 and will detect ∼20 planets per year per dex in mass across that range. For lower-mass planets with mass 0.1 ≤ M p /M ⊕ < 5, we predict KMTNet will detect ∼10 planets per year. We also compute the yields KMTNet will obtain for free-floating planets (FFPs) and predict KMTNet will detect ∼1 Earth-mass FFP per year, assuming an underlying population of one such planet per star in the Galaxy. Lastly, we investigate the dependence of these detection rates on the number of observatories, the photometric precision limit, and optimistic assumptions regarding seeing, throughput, and flux measurement uncertainties.

  3. Computationally optimized deimmunization libraries yield highly mutated enzymes with low immunogenicity and enhanced activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Verma, Deeptak; Parker, Andrew S; Kirsch, Jack R; Brooks, Seth A; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2017-06-27

    Therapeutic proteins of wide-ranging function hold great promise for treating disease, but immune surveillance of these macromolecules can drive an antidrug immune response that compromises efficacy and even undermines safety. To eliminate widespread T-cell epitopes in any biotherapeutic and thereby mitigate this key source of detrimental immune recognition, we developed a Pareto optimal deimmunization library design algorithm that optimizes protein libraries to account for the simultaneous effects of combinations of mutations on both molecular function and epitope content. Active variants identified by high-throughput screening are thus inherently likely to be deimmunized. Functional screening of an optimized 10-site library (1,536 variants) of P99 β-lactamase (P99βL), a component of ADEPT cancer therapies, revealed that the population possessed high overall fitness, and comprehensive analysis of peptide-MHC II immunoreactivity showed the population possessed lower average immunogenic potential than the wild-type enzyme. Although similar functional screening of an optimized 30-site library (2.15 × 10 9 variants) revealed reduced population-wide fitness, numerous individual variants were found to have activity and stability better than the wild type despite bearing 13 or more deimmunizing mutations per enzyme. The immunogenic potential of one highly active and stable 14-mutation variant was assessed further using ex vivo cellular immunoassays, and the variant was found to silence T-cell activation in seven of the eight blood donors who responded strongly to wild-type P99βL. In summary, our multiobjective library-design process readily identified large and mutually compatible sets of epitope-deleting mutations and produced highly active but aggressively deimmunized constructs in only one round of library screening.

  4. INDIRECT AND EXPEDITE ASSESSMENT OF Ilex paraguariensis COMMERCIAL YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial biomass production is one of the main indicators for selecting erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis progenies and clones. Traditional techniques to obtain such information depend on the harvesting of trees and there are some limitations involved, such as high cost and reduced convenience. Thus, in our research we evaluated the efficiency of indirect methods through commercial biomass estimation and score of productivity according to the different provenances, gender and morphotypes. In a provenances and progenies trial installed in 1997, two methodologies of visual analysis were evaluated in August 2015 (two years after the last harvest. For that reason, five expert evaluators determined, for each plant, an estimate of the commercial biomass (kg, and a grade, based on a score of productivity (0-10. In order to assess the productivity using traditional techniques, all plants were pruned and their commercial biomass (leaves and fine branches smaller than 7 mm diameter were harvested and weighed (kg.plant-1. The evaluations were performed in a randomized-block experiment with five repetitions, seven different provenances and 126 progenies, totaling 5,292 evaluated plants. The methods utilized were effective to estimate the commercial biomass. The evaluators showed accuracy, expressing efficiently the largest productivity obtained when comparing the means of provenances, plants gender and morphotypes. The highest correlations were observed in the general analysis of the means, and the estimation of commercial biomass was considered the best methodology for estimating the commercial biomass assessed in adult erva-mate plants.

  5. Assessment of competition and yield advantage in addition series of barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available In an addition series experiment the competition between three barley varieties (Agneta, Arra and Porno and the yield performance of mixtures were evaluated. Also two levels of nitrogen fertilization (50 and 100 kgN/ha were applied. Two approaches (the replacement series and the linear regression equation were used to analyse the competitive relationship based on grain yields in two-component mixtures. In three component mixtures the replacement series approach was applied. Both methods showed a similar dominance order of the varieties with Arra always being dominant and Agneta subordinate. The relationship between varieties was independent of the number of varieties in the mixture. Increase in available nitrogen strengthened the competitiveness of Arra especially in the dense, two-variety mixtures. Some mixtures over yielded but the differences were not statistically significant. The yield advantage based on relative yield total or on the ratio of actual and expected yield was greatest when the density and nitrogen fertilization were low and especially when one component in the mixture was a rather low yielding variety (Agneta. The land equivalent ratios (LER (the reference pure culture yield was the maximum yield of each variety were close to one, suggesting that under optimal growing conditions the yield advantage of barley varietal mixtures is marginal.

  6. Optimizing the nitrogen application rate for maize and wheat based on yield and environment on the Northern China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Luo, Jiafa; Lindsey, Stuart; Zhang, Jizong; Zhai, Limei; Wu, Shuxia; Zhang, Jingsuo; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2018-03-15

    Optimizing the nitrogen (N) application rate can increase crop yield while reducing the environmental risks. However, the optimal N rates vary substantially when different targets such as maximum yield or maximum economic benefit are considered. Taking the wheat-maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain as a case study, we quantified the variation of N application rates when targeting constraints on yield, economic performance, N uptake and N utilization, by conducting field experiments between 2011 and 2013. Results showed that the optimal N application rate was highest when targeting N uptake (240kgha -1 for maize, and 326kgha -1 for wheat), followed by crop yield (208kgha -1 for maize, and 277kgha -1 for wheat) and economic income (191kgha -1 for maize, and 253kgha -1 for wheat). If environmental costs were considered, the optimal N application rates were further reduced by 20-30% compared to those when targeting maximum economic income. However, the optimal N rate, with environmental cost included, may result in soil nutrient mining under maize, and an extra input of 43kgNha -1 was needed to make the soil N balanced and maintain soil fertility in the long term. To obtain a win-win situation for both yield and environment, the optimal N rate should be controlled at 179kgha -1 for maize, which could achieve above 99.5% of maximum yield and have a favorable N balance, and at 202kgha -1 for wheat to achieve 97.4% of maximum yield, which was about 20kgNha -1 higher than that when N surplus was nil. Although these optimal N rates vary on spatial and temporal scales, they are still effective for the North China Plain where 32% of China's total maize and 45% of China's total wheat are produced. More experiments are still needed to determine the optimal N application rates in other regions. Use of these different optimal N rates would contribute to improving the sustainability of agricultural development in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N.; Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves

  8. Value assessment for reservoir recovery optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, R.; De Castro, G.N. [EAESP/FGV, Av. Nove de Julho, 2029-10 andar, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mezzomo, C.; Schiozer, D.J. [Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Avenida Nove de Julho, 2029, 10th floor, 01313-902, SP Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    This paper analyzes the managerial flexibility embedded in oil and gas exploration and production. The analysis includes the economic impact of using different production techniques on the valuation of oil reserves. Two methodologies are used to evaluate the simulation of engineering techniques: (1) the real option approach; and (2) the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Given the external variables (e.g., oil price, interest rate), this paper evaluates the best engineering technique for oil recovery by using a valuation approach. We conclude that by appropriately combining different production techniques, the value of oil reserves can increase under the real option approach and can be higher than the value assessed under the DCF method. Since oil recovery includes many managerial choices, we argue that the real option approach is more appropriate than the DCF method. The paper concludes that concession time and dividend yield are the most sensitive parameters for the valuation of oil reserves.

  9. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  10. A new economic assessment index for the impact of climate change on grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Guolin

    2007-03-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community. This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional “yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)” or “yield impact of weather factor” to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore, the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China, and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  11. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  12. Glenohumeral position during CT arthrography with arthroscopic correlation: optimization of diagnostic yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Hospital do Coracao (HCor) and Teleimagem, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic yield of two acquisitions of single-contrast CT arthrography (CTA) of the shoulder in internal, neutral, or external glenohumeral rotation with arthroscopic correlation. The CT study was obtained using two acquisitions (first the humerus positioned in maximum tolerated external rotation with the arm along the body and the second with the humerus in internal rotation with the palm placed flat on the table). Two independent readers blinded to the arthroscopic results evaluated the CTA images for labral tears, glenoid bone loss/fractures, and cartilage loss. For each CTA acquisition, sensitivity and specificity for detection of the aforementioned pathology were assessed. Inter-reader agreement was quantified by weighted k statistics. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting anteroinferior or posterior labral tears was highest with neutral rotation (sensitivity 91-100%, specificity 61-100%). For glenoid fracture, sensitivity (67%) was highest with external rotation and specificity (100%) was highest with internal rotation. For cartilage loss, sensitivity (64%) and specificity (89%) was highest with external rotation and neutral rotation, respectively. Neutral rotation showed high sensitivity and specificity for glenoid fractures and cartilage loss. Inter-reader agreement ranged from fair to very good. Neutral glenohumeral position in shoulder CT arthrography was adequately sensitive and specific for the detection of intra-articular pathology, avoiding the use of more than one acquisition. (orig.)

  13. Mutation and screening of high-alcoholic-yield yeast by HEPE and optimization of the fermentation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingjing; Lu Jiangtao; Zhang Qin; Wang Yan; Fu Yujie; Wang Shilong; Fu Haiying

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae YE0 was mutated using high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam. After ethanol stress and determination of the alcohol yield by gas chromatograph, the mutant YF1 with high alcoholic yield was obtained. The results showed that under the optimized fermentation conditions (34 degree C as the fermentation temperature, 72 h as the fermentation time and 30% as the glucose concentration), the alcoholic yield of YF1 was 15.57% which was 58.23% higher than that of the original strain YE0 (9.84%) under the same conditions. The growth rate and lethal temperature of the mutant YF1 were obviously enhanced to the original strain YE0. The mutant YF1 has a great potential application in industrial production of alcohol. And it can also be used as the original strain for further mutagenesis to get the strain of higher alcoholic yield. (authors)

  14. Assessments of Future Maize Yield Potential Changes in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environment due to the differences of political and socio-economical system between Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and political failure. The neighboring developed country SK has better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate. Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore, evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we utilized multiple process-based crop models, having ability of regional scale assessment, to evaluate maize Yp and assess the model uncertainties -EPIC, GEPIC, DSSAT, and APSIM model that has capability of regional scale expansion (apsimRegions). First we evaluated each crop model for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 using reanalysis data (RDAPS; Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System produced by Korea Meteorological Agency) and observed yield data. Each model performances were compared over the different regions in the Korean Peninsula having different local climate characteristics. To quantify of the major influence of at each climate variables, we also conducted sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology in historical period from 1981 to 2000. Lastly, the multi-crop model ensemble analysis was performed for future period from 2031 to 2050. The required weather variables projected for mid-century were employed from COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) East Asia. The high-resolution climate data were obtained from multiple regional climate models (RCM) driven by multiple climate scenarios projected from multiple global climate models (GCMs) in conjunction with multiple greenhouse gas

  15. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper production 2. optimization of the yield pattern and energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield in time. These fluctuations have a detrimental effect on the operational planning of labor at nursery level as well as on the efficiency of the supply chain. At the same time, the dependence of temperate zone greenhouse

  16. Assessment of climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Devesh

    2018-09-01

    Crop growth models like AquaCrop are useful in understanding the impact of climate change on crop production considering the various projections from global circulation models and regional climate models. The present study aims to assess the climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin i.e., wheat, barley and maize. Banas basin is part of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan state in India. AquaCrop model is used to calculate the yield of all the three crops for a historical period of 30years (1981-2010) and then compared with observed yield data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values are calculated to assess the model accuracy in prediction of yield. Further, the calibrated model is used to predict the possible impacts of climate change and CO 2 concentration on crop yield using CORDEX-SA climate projections of three driving climate models (CNRM-CM5, CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-LR) for two different scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period 2021-2050. RMSE values of simulated yield with respect to observed yield of wheat, barley and maize are 11.99, 16.15 and 19.13, respectively. It is predicted that crop yield of all three crops will increase under the climate change conditions for future period (2021-2050). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of extreme heat and drought on crop yields in China: an assessment by using the DLEM-AG2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    China is not only one of the major agricultural production countries with the largest population in the world, but it is also the most susceptible to climate change and extreme events. Much concern has been raised about how extreme climate has affected crop yield, which is crucial for China's food supply security. However, the quantitative assessment of extreme heat and drought impacts on crop yield in China has rarely been investigated. By using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM-AG2), a highly integrated process-based ecosystem model with crop-specific simulation, here we quantified spatial and temporal patterns of extreme climatic heat and drought stress and their impacts on the yields of major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, and soybean) across China during 1981-2015, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms. Simulated results showed that extreme heat and drought stress significantly reduced national cereal production and increased the yield gaps between potential yield and rain-fed yield. The drought stress was the primary factor to reduce crop yields in the semi-arid and arid regions, and extreme heat stress slightly aggravated the yield loss. The yield gap between potential yield and rain-fed yield was larger at locations with lower precipitation. Our results suggest that a large exploitable yield gap in response to extreme climatic heat-drought stress offers an opportunity to increase productivity in China by optimizing agronomic practices, such as irrigation, fertilizer use, sowing density, and sowing date.

  18. Nitrogen Fertilization for Optimizing the Quality and Yield of Shade Grown Cuban Cigar Tobacco: Required Nitrogen Amounts, Application Schedules, Adequate Leaf Nitrogen Levels, and Early Season Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers have a decisive influence on the yield and quality of tobacco. Yield, percentage of plant N, wrapper leaf quality, and nicotine content are all important quality characteristics in tobacco growing. This work is an attempt to provide a tool for optimizing mineral N nutrition for Cuban cigar tobacco, using a strategy that links N supply with leaf N concentration and wrapper yield. Similar approaches developed worldwide have mainly involved Virginia and Burley tobacco types but not Cuban cigar tobacco. The objective of the current work is to identify the effects of fertilizer N levels and timing of application on each of the mentioned quality factors for shade grown Cuban cigar tobacco. Another purpose is to explore the usefulness of a quick method of assessing the N status of plants based on measuring leaf transmission at two different wavelengths (650 and 940 nm. The experiments were done in the main tobacco growing area of Cuba (Vueltabajo. In each experiment, nine separate treatments were used covering different levels and times of fertilizer N application. The same experiment was carried out in three different years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 but as the results were similar only one set of data is described (2006-2007. The patterns of response to N fertilizer of all four quality measurements, including yield and wrapper leaf quality, were similar in the different replications of the experiments. The optimal fertilizer level was 140-190 kg N/ha (40% applied on days 8-10 after transplanting and 60% on days 18-20 after transplanting. The optimal N concentration of leaves taken at the central foliar level of the middle stalk position was 4.3-4.7% at harvest time. Leaf transmission measurements by means of the SPAD-502 Chlorophyll Meter in the early stages of growth were correlated with leaf chlorophyll and N concentration and provide an excellent guide for predicting Cuban cigar tobacco wrapper leaf yield.

  19. Optimization of krypton yields for rp-process studies at ISOLDE (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Kankainen, Anu Kristiina; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Jokinen, A; Leitner, M S; Oinonen, M; Peräjärvi, K; Ravn, H L

    2004-01-01

    The production of neutron-deficient krypton isotopes having astrophysical importance has been studied at the ISOLDE PBS facility at CERN. To investigate several effects on the yield a Monte Carlo code has been extensively applied.

  20. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  1. Optimal cofactor swapping can increase the theoretical yield for chemical production in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cofactor balance is a critical function in microorganisms, but often the native cofactor balance does not match the needs of an engineered metabolic flux state. Here, an optimization procedure is utilized to identify optimal cofactor-specificity "swaps" for oxidoreductase enzymes...... specificity of central metabolic enzymes (especially GAPD and ALCD2x) is shown to increase NADPH production and increase theoretical yields for native products in E. coli and yeast-including l-aspartate, l-lysine, l-isoleucine, l-proline, l-serine, and putrescine-and non-native products in E. coli-including 1...

  2. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  3. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2000-01-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous U.S., and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the U.S. where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically-based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data is used to calibrate model parameters and determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern U.S. and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western U.S. Crop yields typically increase except for winter wheat in the southern U.S. and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher variability in future climatic forcing and, consequently

  4. HIGH YIELD GENETICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT IN GERMANY: SOCIO ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ITS POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Wree, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High Yield Genetically Modified Wheat (HOSUT) HOSUT lines are an innovation in wheat breeding based on biotechnology with an incremental yield potential of ca. 28% compared to conventional wheat varieties. We apply the real option concept of Maximum Incremental Social Tolerable Irreversible Costs (MISTICs) to do an ex-ante assessment of the socioeconomic potential of HOSUT lines for Germany. We analyze the cost and benefits to farmer and society within two scenarios. Our results of our scenar...

  5. Synthesis of N-[methyl-11C]hydromorphone by using multivariate strategies for optimization of radiochemical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimland, Annika; Bergson, Goeran; Obenius, Ulf; Sjoeberg, Stefan; Langstroem, Bengt

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of N-[methyl- 11 C]hydromorphone has been performed by using [ 11 C]methyl iodide and desmethyl hydromorphone in a mixture of dimethylsulphoxide and dimethylformamide as solvent. Optimization of the radiochemical yield by varying the reaction conditions was performed by using multivariate strategies. The labelled hydromorphone was obtained in 72% radiochemical yield in the alkylation reaction with [ 11 C]-methyl iodide, counted from the end of the [ 11 C]methyl iodide synthesis. N-[Methyl- 11 C]hydromorphone was obtained as a ready injectable pharmaceutical solution with a total synthesis time of 40 min and in a 10% total radiochemical yield, with a radiochemical purity > 99.5%, according to HPLC analysis. (author)

  6. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingguang; Yin, Peipei; Fan, Hang; Xue, Qiang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiang; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2017-02-04

    This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration ( X ₁), material-to-liquid ratio ( X ₂), ultrasonic temperature ( X ₃) and power ( X ₄) for an optimal total phenol yield ( Y ₁) and DPPH• antioxidant activity ( Y ₂). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water ( v : v ) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What's more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta- O -galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research.

  7. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism: Challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Pogge, Gabrielle; Howell, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Of the hundreds of studies published on unrealistic optimism (i.e., expecting a better personal future than is reasonably likely), most have focused on demonstrating the phenomenon, examining boundary conditions, or documenting causes. Few studies have examined the consequences of unrealistic optimism. In this article, we provide an overview of the measurement of unrealistic optimism, review possible consequences, and identify numerous challenges confronting investigators attempting to understand the consequences. Assessing the consequences of unrealistic optimism is tricky, and ultimately probably impossible when researchers assess unrealistic optimism at the group level (which reveals if a group of people is displaying unrealistic optimism on average) rather than the individual level (which reveals whether a specific individual displays unrealistic optimism). We offer recommendations to researchers who wish to examine the consequences of unrealistic optimism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing cropland cover for stable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa using simulated yield and Modern Portfolio Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Olin, S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.

    2014-12-01

    Food security can be defined as stable access to food of good nutritional quality. In Sub Saharan Africa access to food is strongly linked to local food production and the capacity to generate enough calories to sustain the local population. Therefore it is important in these regions to generate not only sufficiently high yields but also to reduce interannual variability in food production. Traditionally, climate impact simulation studies have focused on factors that underlie maximum productivity ignoring the variability in yield. By using Modern Portfolio Theory, a method stemming from economics, we here calculate optimum current and future crop selection that maintain current yield while minimizing variance, vs. maintaining variance while maximizing yield. Based on simulated yield using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model, the results show that current cropland distribution for many crops is close to these optimum distributions. Even so, the optimizations displayed substantial potential to either increase food production and/or to decrease its variance regionally. Our approach can also be seen as a method to create future scenarios for the sown areas of crops in regions where local food production is important for food security.

  9. Customization of copolymers to optimize selectivity and yield in polymer-driven antibody purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capito, Florian; Skudas, Romas; Stanislawski, Bernd; Kolmar, Harald

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes customization of copolymers to be used for polymer-driven protein purification in bioprocessing. To understand how copolymer customization can be used for fine-tuning, precipitation behavior was analyzed for five target antibodies (mAbs) and BSA as model impurity protein, at ionic strength similar to undiluted cell culture fluid. In contrast to the use of standardized homopolymers, customized copolymers, composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and 4-(acryloylamino)benzoic acid (ABZ), exhibited antibody precipitation yields exceeding 90%. Additionally, copolymer average molecular weight (Mw ) was varied and its influence on precipitation yield and contaminant coprecipitation was investigated. Results revealed copolymer composition as the major driving force for precipitation selectivity, which was also dependent on protein hydrophobicity. By adjusting ABZ content and Mw of the precipitant for each of the mAbs, conditions were found that allowed for high precipitation yield and selectivity. These findings may open up new avenues for using polymers in antibody purification processes. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Sample Size Requirements for Assessing Statistical Moments of Simulated Crop Yield Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, N.; Finger, R.; Klein, T.; Calanca, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic crop growth models are becoming increasingly important in agricultural research and are extensively used in climate change impact assessments. In such studies, statistics of crop yields are usually evaluated without the explicit consideration of sample size requirements. The purpose of

  11. Assessment of irrigated maize yield response to climate change scenarios in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Chenyao; Fraga, Helder; Ieperen, van W.; Andrade Santos, João

    2017-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for the Portuguese agricultural sector. Future climate change, with warmer and dryer conditions in this Mediterranean environment, will challenge this high-water demanding crop. The present study aims at assessing the response of maize yield, growth cycle, seasonal water

  12. The collection of a minimum dataset and the application of DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) for optimizing wheat yield in irrigated cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; Baethgen, W.E.; Moutonnet, P.

    2000-01-01

    A minimum dataset for testing of the CERES-Wheat model within DSSAT was collected during the course of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on 'The use of nuclear techniques for optimizing fertilizer application under irrigated wheat to increase the efficient use of nitrogen fertilizers and consequently reduce environmental pollution'. A database entitled which contained the following information was subsequently created: soil characteristics, average yield, fertilizer N recovered by crop and residual effect, grain protein content, regional average yield, relative grain yield at various fertilizer N rates, assessment of nitrate pollution, economics of irrigated wheat, water use by source, water use efficiency, atypical precipitation events, type and uniformity of irrigation, and chlorophyll meter readings. This article presents some of these overall results from the database, as well as simulated results from the CERES-Wheat model. Good agreement between observed and simulated results was obtained for most growth parameters in most of the simulations. The ability to validate the model means that it can be used to refine specific management strategies with respect to fertilizer applications, yield and other parameters. (author)

  13. Active and silent chromophore isoforms for phytochrome Pr photoisomerization: An alternative evolutionary strategy to optimize photoreaction quantum yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoisomerization of a protein bound chromophore is the basis of light sensing of many photoreceptors. We tracked Z-to-E photoisomerization of Cph1 phytochrome chromophore PCB in the Pr form in real-time. Two different phycocyanobilin (PCB ground state geometries with different ring D orientations have been identified. The pre-twisted and hydrogen bonded PCBa geometry exhibits a time constant of 30 ps and a quantum yield of photoproduct formation of 29%, about six times slower and ten times higher than that for the non-hydrogen bonded PCBb geometry. This new mechanism of pre-twisting the chromophore by protein-cofactor interaction optimizes yields of slow photoreactions and provides a scaffold for photoreceptor engineering.

  14. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  15. Communication: Analytical optimal pulse shapes obtained with the aid of genetic algorithms: Controlling the photoisomerization yield of retinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, R. D., E-mail: rdguerrerom@unal.edu.co [Department of Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia); Arango, C. A., E-mail: caarango@icesi.edu.co [Department of Chemical Sciences, Universidad Icesi, Cali (Colombia); Reyes, A., E-mail: areyesv@unal.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-21

    We recently proposed a Quantum Optimal Control (QOC) method constrained to build pulses from analytical pulse shapes [R. D. Guerrero et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143(12), 124108 (2015)]. This approach was applied to control the dissociation channel yields of the diatomic molecule KH, considering three potential energy curves and one degree of freedom. In this work, we utilized this methodology to study the strong field control of the cis-trans photoisomerization of 11-cis retinal. This more complex system was modeled with a Hamiltonian comprising two potential energy surfaces and two degrees of freedom. The resulting optimal pulse, made of 6 linearly chirped pulses, was capable of controlling the population of the trans isomer on the ground electronic surface for nearly 200 fs. The simplicity of the pulse generated with our QOC approach offers two clear advantages: a direct analysis of the sequence of events occurring during the driven dynamics, and its reproducibility in the laboratory with current laser technologies.

  16. Design Buildings Optimally: A Lifecycle Assessment Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hosny, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    This paper structures a generic framework to support optimum design for multi-buildings in desert environment. The framework is targeting an environmental friendly design with minimum lifecycle cost, using Genetic Algorithms (Gas). GAs function through a set of success measures which evaluates the design, formulates a proper objective, and reflects possible tangible/intangible constraints. The framework optimizes the design and categorizes it under a certain environmental category at minimum Life Cycle Cost (LCC). It consists of three main modules: (1) a custom Building InformationModel (BIM) for desert buildings with a compatibility checker as a central interactive database; (2) a system evaluator module to evaluate the proposed success measures for the design; and (3) a GAs optimization module to ensure optimum design. The framework functions through three levels: the building components, integrated building, and multi-building levels. At the component level the design team should be able to select components in a designed sequence to ensure compatibility among various components, while at the building level; the team can relatively locate and orient each individual building. Finally, at the multi-building (compound) level the whole design can be evaluated using success measures of natural light, site capacity, shading impact on natural lighting, thermal change, visual access and energy saving. The framework through genetic algorithms optimizes the design by determining proper types of building components and relative buildings locations and orientations which ensure categorizing the design under a specific category or meet certain preferences at minimum lifecycle cost.

  17. Yield optimization in a cycled trickle-bed reactor: ethanol catalytic oxidation as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayude, A.; Haure, P. [INTEMA, CONICET, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Cassanello, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, PINMATE, Departamento de Industrias, FCEyN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FI-UNLP-CINDECA, La Plata (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of slow ON-OFF liquid flow modulation on the yield of consecutive reactions is investigated for oxidation of aqueous ethanol solutions using a 0.5 % Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} commercial catalyst in a laboratory trickle-bed reactor. Experiments with modulated liquid flow rate (MLFR) were performed under the same hydrodynamic conditions (degree of wetting, liquid holdup) as experiments with constant liquid flow rate (CLFR). Thus, the impact of the duration of wet and dry cycles as well as the period can be independently investigated. Depending on cycling conditions, acetaldehyde or acetic acid production is favored with MLFR compared to CLFR. Results suggest both the opportunity and challenge of finding a way to tune the cycling parameters for producing the most appropriate product. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Elevation of the Yields of Very Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids via Minimal Codon Optimization of Two Key Biosynthetic Enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xia

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17 and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19 are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Transgenic production of EPA and DHA in oilseed crops by transferring genes originating from lower eukaryotes, such as microalgae and fungi, has been attempted in recent years. However, the low yield of EPA and DHA produced in these transgenic crops is a major hurdle for the commercialization of these transgenics. Many factors can negatively affect transgene expression, leading to a low level of converted fatty acid products. Among these the codon bias between the transgene donor and the host crop is one of the major contributing factors. Therefore, we carried out codon optimization of a fatty acid delta-6 desaturase gene PinD6 from the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and a delta-9 elongase gene, IgASE1 from the microalga Isochrysis galbana for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis respectively. These are the two key genes encoding enzymes for driving the first catalytic steps in the Δ6 desaturation/Δ6 elongation and the Δ9 elongation/Δ8 desaturation pathways for EPA/DHA biosynthesis. Hence expression levels of these two genes are important in determining the final yield of EPA/DHA. Via PCR-based mutagenesis we optimized the least preferred codons within the first 16 codons at their N-termini, as well as the most biased CGC codons (coding for arginine within the entire sequences of both genes. An expression study showed that transgenic Arabidopsis plants harbouring the codon-optimized IgASE1 contained 64% more elongated fatty acid products than plants expressing the native IgASE1 sequence, whilst Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the codon optimized PinD6 yielded 20 times more desaturated products than yeast expressing wild-type (WT PinD6. Thus the codon optimization strategy we developed here offers a simple, effective and low-cost alternative to whole gene synthesis for high

  19. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  20. Optimization of {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) Scintillator Light Yield Using Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehuda-Zada, Y. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ben-Gurion University (Israel); Pritchard, K.; Ziegler, J.B.; Cooksey, C.; Siebein, K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Jackson, M.; Hurlbut, C. [Eljen Technology, Sweetwater Texas (United States); Kadmon, Y.; Cohen, Y.; Maliszewskyj, N.C. [Nuclear Research Center Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ibberson, R.M.; Majkrzak, C.F. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Orion, Y. [Ben-Gurion University (Israel); Osovizky, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Rotem Industries Ltd, Rotem Industrial Park (Israel); University of Maryland (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Neutrons provide an effective tool to probe materials structure. Neutron diffraction is a method to determine the atomic and magnetic structure of a material based on neutron scattering. By this method a collimated incident beam of thermal neutrons heat the examined sample and based on the obtained diffraction pattern information on the structure of the material is provided. Research for developing a novel cold neutron detector for Chromatic Analysis Neutron Diffractometer Or Reflectometer (CANDOR) is underway at the NIST center for neutron research. The system unique design is aimed to provide over ten times fold faster analysis of materials than conventional system. In order to achieve the fast analysis a large number of neutron detectors is required. A key design constraint for this detector is the thickness of the neutron sensitive element. This is met using {sup 6}LiF:ZnS(Ag) scintillation material with embedded wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers conducting scintillation light to silicon photomultiplier photo-sensors. The detector sensitivity is determined by both the neutron capture probability ({sup 6}Li density) and the detectable light output produced by the ZnS(Ag) ionization, the latter of which is hindered by the fluorescence absorption of the scintillation light by the ZnS. Tradeoffs between the neutron capture probability, stimulated light production and light attenuation for determining the optimal stoichiometry of the {sup 6}LiF and ZnS(Ag) as well as the volume ratio of scintillator and fiber. Simulations performed using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo package were made in order to optimize the detector design. GEANT4 enables the investigation of the neutron interaction with the detector, the ionization process and the light transfer process following the nuclear process. The series of conversions required for this detector were modelled: - A cold neutron enters the sensor and is captured by {sup 6}Li in the scintillator mixture ({sup 6}Li (n,α) {sup 3}H

  1. Sequential optimization and reliability assessment method for metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Atul; Schramm, Uwe; Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Chen Wei; Cao Jian; Xia, Cedric Z.

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty is inevitable in any design process. The uncertainty could be due to the variations in geometry of the part, material properties or due to the lack of knowledge about the phenomena being modeled itself. Deterministic design optimization does not take uncertainty into account and worst case scenario assumptions lead to vastly over conservative design. Probabilistic design, such as reliability-based design and robust design, offers tools for making robust and reliable decisions under the presence of uncertainty in the design process. Probabilistic design optimization often involves double-loop procedure for optimization and iterative probabilistic assessment. This results in high computational demand. The high computational demand can be reduced by replacing computationally intensive simulation models with less costly surrogate models and by employing Sequential Optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) method. The SORA method uses a single-loop strategy with a series of cycles of deterministic optimization and reliability assessment. The deterministic optimization and reliability assessment is decoupled in each cycle. This leads to quick improvement of design from one cycle to other and increase in computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA) method when applied to designing a sheet metal flanging process. Surrogate models are used as less costly approximations to the computationally expensive Finite Element simulations

  2. Combinatorial pretreatment and fermentation optimization enabled a record yield on lignin bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Shangxian; Lin, Furong; Jin, Mingjie; Yuan, Joshua S

    2018-01-01

    Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids. In this study, combinatorial pretreatment with an optimized fermentation strategy was evaluated to improve lignin valorization into lipids using R. opacus PD630. As opposed to single pretreatment, combinatorial pretreatment produced a 12.8-75.6% higher lipid concentration in fermentation using lignin as the carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that combinatorial pretreatment released more aromatic monomers, which could be more readily utilized by lignin-degrading strains. Three detoxification strategies were used to remove potential inhibitors produced from pretreatment. After heating detoxification of the lignin stream, the lipid concentration further increased by 2.9-9.7%. Different fermentation strategies were evaluated in scale-up lipid fermentation using a 2.0-l fermenter. With laccase treatment of the lignin stream produced from combinatorial pretreatment, the highest cell dry weight and lipid concentration were 10.1 and 1.83 g/l, respectively, in fed-batch fermentation, with a total soluble substrate concentration of 40 g/l. The improvement of the lipid fermentation performance may have resulted from lignin depolymerization by the combinatorial pretreatment and laccase treatment, reduced inhibition effects by fed-batch fermentation, adequate oxygen supply, and an accurate pH control in the fermenter. Overall, these results demonstrate that combinatorial

  3. Optimizing selective cutting strategies for maximum carbon stocks and yield of Moso bamboo forest using BIOME-BGC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Zhou, Guomo; Li, Pingheng; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2017-04-15

    The selective cutting method currently used in Moso bamboo forests has resulted in a reduction of stand productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. Given the time and labor expense involved in addressing this problem manually, simulation using an ecosystem model is the most suitable approach. The BIOME-BGC model was improved to suit managed Moso bamboo forests, which was adapted to include age structure, specific ecological processes and management measures of Moso bamboo forest. A field selective cutting experiment was done in nine plots with three cutting intensities (high-intensity, moderate-intensity and low-intensity) during 2010-2013, and biomass of these plots was measured for model validation. Then four selective cutting scenarios were simulated by the improved BIOME-BGC model to optimize the selective cutting timings, intervals, retained ages and intensities. The improved model matched the observed aboveground carbon density and yield of different plots, with a range of relative error from 9.83% to 15.74%. The results of different selective cutting scenarios suggested that the optimal selective cutting measure should be cutting 30% culms of age 6, 80% culms of age 7, and all culms thereafter (above age 8) in winter every other year. The vegetation carbon density and harvested carbon density of this selective cutting method can increase by 74.63% and 21.5%, respectively, compared with the current selective cutting measure. The optimized selective cutting measure developed in this study can significantly promote carbon density, yield, and carbon sink capacity in Moso bamboo forests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. InfoDROUGHT: Technical reliability assessment using crop yield data at the Spanish-national level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sergio; Garcia-León, David; Hunink, Johannes E.

    2017-04-01

    Drought monitoring (DM) is a key component of risk-centered drought preparedness plans and drought policies. InfoDROUGHT (www.infosequia.es) is a a site- and user-tailored and fully-integrated DM system which combines functionalities for: a) the operational satellite-based weekly-1km tracking of severity and spatial extent of drought impacts, b) the interactive and faster query and delivery of drought information through a web-mapping service. InfoDROUGHT has a flexible and modular structure. The calibration (threshold definitions) and validation of the system is performed by combining expert knowledge and auxiliary impact assessments and datasets. Different technical solutions (basic or advanced versions) or deployment options (open-standard or restricted-authenticated) can be purchased by end-users and customers according to their needs. In this analysis, the technical reliability of InfoDROUGHT and its performance for detecting drought impacts on agriculture has been evaluated in the 2003-2014 period by exploring and quantifying the relationships among the drought severity indices reported by InfoDROUGHT and the annual yield anomalies observed for different rainfed crops (maize, wheat, barley) at Spain. We hypothesize a positive relationship between the crop anomalies and the drought severity level detected by InfoDROUGHT. Annual yield anomalies were computed at the province administrative level as the difference between the annual yield reported by the Spanish Annual Survey of Crop Acreages and Yields (ESYRCE database) and the mean annual yield estimated during the study period. Yield anomalies were finally compared against drought greenness-based and thermal-based drought indices (VCI and TCI, respectively) to check the coherence of the outputs and the hypothesis stated. InfoDROUGHT has been partly funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness through a Torres-Quevedo grant, and by the H2020-EU project "Bridging the Gap for Innovations in

  5. OPTIMASI RENDEMEN EKSTRAKSI LESITIN DARI MINYAK KEDELAI VARIETAS ANJASMORO DENGAN WATER DEGUMMING [Yield Optimization of Lecithin Extraction of Anjasmoro Variety Soybean Oil by Water Degumming

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Erliana Ginting3); Deny Kurniawati1)

    2013-01-01

    Lecithin is one of natural emulsifiers widely used in food industries. The main source of lecithin is soybean and it is obtained during water degumming in soybean oil purification. This research was aimed to optimize the yield of lecithin during water degumming of Anjasmoro variety soybean oil by response surface methodology. The factors optimized were added water (%), temperature (ºC), and extraction time (minute). The relationship between lecithin yield and the parameters was quadratic. The...

  6. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity in tomato for fruit morphology, composition and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaif, K.; Amjad, M.; Saeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits. (author)

  8. Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (≤26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

  9. Optimization of ethanol production from garcinia cambogia residues and the effects of its medicinal component on production yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Zhang, F.

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cambogia, a Chinese herbal medicine, was popular due to its effect for weight loss. The main medical component inside was determined to be hydroxycitric acid (HCA). To realize the resource technology of garcinia cambogia residue, Optimum ethanol production from residues was investigated, and the effects of remaining HCA on the ethanol yield were investigated. A Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the significance of several influencing factors, and cellulase, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were observed to exert important effects. The optimum ethanol fermentation conditions were determined through an orthogonal design to include a cellulase concentration of 100 U/g, a yeast extract concentration of 15 g/L, and a KH2PO4 concentration of 1.0 g/L. The ethanol concentration obtained under optimal conditions was 4.0 g/L. The remained HCA in the residues showed minimal influences on ethanol fermentation and could even increase ethanol yield at low concentrations. (author)

  10. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Demands and Crop Yields in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, M. K.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Young, C. A.; Huntington, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Long term planning for the management of California's water resources requires assessment of the effects of future climate changes on both water supply and demand. Considerable progress has been made on the evaluation of the effects of future climate changes on water supplies but less information is available with regard to water demands. Uncertainty in future climate projections increases the difficulty of assessing climate impacts and evaluating long range adaptation strategies. Compounding the uncertainty in the future climate projections is the fact that most readily available downscaled climate projections lack sufficient meteorological information to compute evapotranspiration (ET) by the widely accepted ASCE Penman-Monteith (PM) method. This study addresses potential changes in future Central Valley water demands and crop yields by examining the effects of climate change on soil evaporation, plant transpiration, growth and yield for major types of crops grown in the Central Valley of California. Five representative climate scenarios based on 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP 3 GCM climate simulations were developed using the hybrid delta ensemble method to span a wide range future climate uncertainty. Analysis of historical California Irrigation Management Information System meteorological data was combined with several meteorological estimation methods to compute future solar radiation, wind speed and dew point temperatures corresponding to the GCM projected temperatures and precipitation. Future atmospheric CO2 concentrations corresponding to the 5 representative climate projections were developed based on weighting IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The Land, Atmosphere, and Water Simulator (LAWS) model was used to compute ET and yield changes in the early, middle and late 21st century for 24 representative agricultural crops grown in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins. Study results indicate that changes in ET and yield vary

  11. Assessing catchment-scale erosion and yields of suspended solids from improved temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, G S; Krueger, T; Brazier, R E; Butler, P; Freer, J; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Quinton, J N

    2010-03-01

    This paper quantifies the yields of suspended solids (SS) from a headwater catchment managed as improved temperate grassland, providing the first direct, catchment-scale evidence of the rates of erosion from this land-use in the UK and assessing the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems. High-resolution monitoring of catchment hydrology and the concentrations of SS and volatile organic matter (VOM) were carried out in the first-order channel of the Den Brook headwater catchment in Devon (UK) during the 2006-2007 hydrological season. The widely used 'rating curve' (discharge-concentration) approach was employed to estimate yields of SS, but as demonstrated by previous researchers, this study showed that discharge is a poor predictor of SS concentrations and therefore any yields estimated from this technique are likely to be highly uncertain. Nevertheless, for the purpose of providing estimates of yields that are comparable to previous studies on other land uses/sources, this technique was adopted albeit in an uncertainty-based framework. The findings suggest that contrary to the common perception, grasslands can be erosive landscapes with SS yields from this catchment estimated to be between 0.54 and 1.21 t ha(-1) y(-1). In terms of on-site erosion problems, this rate of erosion does not significantly exceed the commonly used 'tolerable' threshold in the UK ( approximately 1 t ha(-1) y(-1)). In terms of off-site erosion problems, it is argued here that the conventional expression of SS yield as a bulk annual figure has little relevance to the water quality and ecological status of surface waters and therefore an alternative technique (the concentration-frequency curve) is developed within this paper for the specific purpose of assessing the ecological threat posed by the delivery of SS into surface waters. This technique illustrates that concentrations of SS recorded at the catchment outlet frequently exceed the water quality guidelines, such as those of the EU

  12. Assessing spatiotemporal variation of drought and its impact on maize yield in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Enliang; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Wang, Yongfang; Wang, Cailin; Wang, Rui; Li, Danjun

    2017-10-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought has become an important factor that affects the maize yield in China. To analyse the impact of drought on maize yield loss in Northeast China in current and future climate scenarios, the Composite Meteorological Drought Index (CI) is introduced to reconstruct the following drought indicators: drought accumulative days (DAD), drought accumulative intensity (DAI), and consecutive drought days (CDD). These three drought indicators are used to describe the three-dimensional characteristics of drought in this study. Sen's slope method and three-dimensional copula functions are adopted to analyse the variety of drought features, and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is used to analyse the variations in maize yield. A temporal assessment of the standardized yield residuals series (SYRS) of maize from 1961 to 2014 is conducted. A panel regression model is applied to demonstrate the drought impact on maize yield at various growth stages under the RCP4.5 scenario. The results show that the drought risk level for midwest Jilin Province, western Liaoning, and eastern Heilongjiang increase with global warming in the current scenario. The shorter three-dimensional joint return periods, 44-80 yr, were mainly located in western Jilin Province, Liaodong Peninsula, and northwestern Liaoning. Eastern Heilongjiang has a slightly longer joint return period of 80-100 yr. The SYRS shows a strong statistical correlation with drought indicator variations; drought-prone regions exhibit strong positive correlations. In comparison, excess precipitation regions show strong negative correlations with drought indicators in most growth stages. Drought indicators have a relatively strong association with SYRS at the milky-mature maize growth stage, and the occurrence of drought during this period primarily determines the maize yield changes in the future. Maize yield changes are -2.04%, -2.65% and -1.57% for Liaoning, Jilin, and

  13. Seneca Valley Virus 3Cpro Substrate Optimization Yields Efficient Substrates for Use in Peptide-Prodrug Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde A Miles

    Full Text Available The oncolytic picornavirus Seneca Valley Virus (SVV-001 demonstrates anti-tumor activity in models of small cell lung cancer (SCLC, but may ultimately need to be combined with cytotoxic therapies to improve responses observed in patients. Combining SVV-001 virotherapy with a peptide prodrug activated by the viral protease 3Cpro is a novel strategy that may increase the therapeutic potential of SVV-001. Using recombinant SVV-001 3Cpro, we measured cleavage kinetics of predicted SVV-001 3Cpro substrates. An efficient substrate, L/VP4 (kcat/KM = 1932 ± 183 M(-1s(-1, was further optimized by a P2' N→P substitution yielding L/VP4.1 (kcat/KM = 17446 ± 2203 M(-1s(-1. We also determined essential substrate amino acids by sequential N-terminal deletion and substitution of amino acids found in other picornavirus genera. A peptide corresponding to the L/VP4.1 substrate was selectively cleaved by SVV-001 3Cpro in vitro and was stable in human plasma. These data define an optimized peptide substrate for SVV-001 3Cpro, with direct implications for anti-cancer therapeutic development.

  14. Preload assessment and optimization in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Preload assessment and optimization is the basic hemodynamic intervention in critically ill. Beside clinical assessment, non-invasive or invasive assessment by measurement of various pressure or volume hemodynamic variables, are helpful for estimation of preload and fluid responsiveness. The use of dynamic variables is useful in particular subgroup of critically ill patients. In patients with inadequate preload, fluid responsiveness and inadequate flow, treatment with crystalloids or colloids is mandatory. When rapid hemodynamic response is necessary colloids are preferred.

  15. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION. INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sarancha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the life cycle assessment method and introduces opportunities for method performance in healthcare system settings. LSA draws attention to careful use of resources, environmental, human and social responsibility. Modelling of environmental and technological inputs allows optimizing performance of the system. Various factors and parameters that may influence effectiveness of different sectors in healthcare system are detected. Performance optimization of detected parameters could lead to better system functioning, higher patient safety, economic sustainability and reduce resources consumption.

  16. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    loci of the maxima of Y(E,ΔE) curves are present in most cases. As a relevant conclusion, use of target thickness larger than the 'effective' value, is unsuitable from technological point of view, due to larger power density deposited by the beam in target material itself, instead of target cooling system. Finally, this set of Thick-Target Yields and maxima permits calculating the optimum irradiation conditions to produce radionuclides with higher as possible yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity. In order to join the advantages of the accurate knowledge of thin-target excitation functions and cross-sections of radionuclide of interest and its radioisotopic impurities, very selective radiochemical separations were optimized to separate the radionuclide itself from the irradiated target without any addition of isotopic carrier. A large number of very high specific activity radionuclides for environmental, toxicological and biomedical research applications have been produced in No Carrier Added form, by medium energy proton, deuteron and alpha accelerating cyclotrons. Some practical examples of radionuclides produced recently are presented. (author)

  17. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-scale Assessment Yields Evidence of Minimal Use of Reasoning Skills in Traditionally Taught Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessment data from Texas Tech University yielded evidence that most students taught traditionally in large lecture classes with online homework and predominantly multiple choice question exams, when asked to answer free-response (FR) questions, did not support their answers with logical arguments grounded in physics concepts. In addition to a lack of conceptual understanding, incorrect and partially correct answers lacked evidence of the ability to apply even lower level reasoning skills in order to solve a problem. Correct answers, however, did show evidence of at least lower level thinking skills as coded using a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy. With the introduction of evidence-based instruction into the labs and recitations of the large courses and in a small, completely laboratory-based, hands-on course, the percentage of correct answers with correct explanations increased. The FR format, unlike other assessment formats, allowed assessment of both conceptual understanding and the application of thinking skills, clearly pointing out weaknesses not revealed by other assessment instruments, and providing data on skills beyond conceptual understanding for course and program assessment. Supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Challenge grant #1RC1GM090897-01.

  19. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  20. Linking Land Cover Data and Crop Yields for Mapping and Assessment of Pollination Services in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Paracchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key ecosystem service as many crops but in particular, fruits and vegetables are partially dependent on pollinating insects to produce food for human consumption. Here we assessed how pollination services are delivered at the European scale. We used this assessment to estimate the relative contribution of wild pollinators to crop production. We developed an index of relative pollination potential, which is defined as the relative potential or relative capacity of ecosystems to support crop pollination. The model for relative pollination potential is based on the assumption that different habitats, but in particular forest edges, grasslands rich in flowers and riparian areas, offer suitable sites for wild pollinator insects. Using data of the foraging range of wild bees with short flight distances, we linked relative pollination potential to regional statistics of crop production. At aggregated EU level, the absence of insect pollination would result in a reduction of between 25% and 32% of the total production of crops which are partially dependent on insect pollination, depending on the data source used for the assessment. This production deficit decreases to 2.5% if only the relative pollination potential of a single guild of pollinators is considered. A strength of our approach is the spatially-explicit link between land cover based relative pollination potential and crop yield which enables a general assessment of the benefits that are derived from pollination services in Europe while providing insight where pollination gaps in the landscape occur.

  1. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energies – Yield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    energy to optimize energy input for peach production. • Determining significant factors on yield. • Using new policies to optimize input and reducing the negative effects of energy inputs.

  2. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Delerce

    Full Text Available Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of

  3. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  4. Yield loss assessment due to Alternaria blight and its management in linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R B; Singh, H K; Parmar, Arpita

    2014-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to assess the yield losses due to Alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria lini and A. linicola in recently released cultivars and their management with the integration of Trichoderma viride, fungicides and plant extract. Disease severity on leaves varied from 41.07% (Parvati) to 65.01% (Chambal) while bud damage per cent ranged between 23.56% (Shekhar) to 46.12% (T-397), respectively in different cultivars. Maximum yield loss of 58.44% was recorded in cultivar Neelum followed by Parvati (55.56%), Meera (55.56%) and Chambal (51.72%), respectively while minimum loss was recorded in Kiran (19.99%) and Jeevan (22.22%). Minimum mean disease severity (19.47%) with maximum disease control (69.74%) was recorded with the treatment: seed treatment (ST) with vitavax power (2 g kg(-1) seed) + 2 foliar sprays (FS) of Saaf (a mixture of carbendazim+mancozeb) 0.2% followed by ST with Trichoderma viride (4g kg(-1) seed) + 2 FS of Saaf (0.2%). Minimum bud damage (13.75%) with maximum control (60.94%) was recorded with treatment of ST with vitavax power+2 FS of propiconazole (0.2%). Maximum mean seed yield (1440 kg ha(-1)) with maximum net return (Rs. 15352/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1:11.04) was obtained with treatment ST with vitavax power + 2 FS of Neem leaf extract followed by treatment ST with vitavax power+2 FS of Saaf (1378 kg ha(-1)).

  5. Optimal configuration assessment of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Ahmed M.A.; John, Priscilla N.; Shawal, Mohd [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes the use of a PV-wind-diesel generator hybrid system in order to determine the optimal configuration of renewable energy in Malaysia and to compare the production cost of solar and wind power with its annual yield relevant to different regions in Malaysia namely, Johor, Sarawak, Penang and Selangor. The configuration of optimal hybrid system is selected based on the best components and sizing with appropriate operating strategy to provide a cheap, efficient, reliable and cost-effective system. The various renewable energy sources and their applicability in terms of cost and performance are analyzed. Moreover, the annual yield and cost of energy production of solar and wind energy are evaluated. The Simulations were carried out using the HOMER program based on data obtained from the Malaysian Meteorological Centre. Results show that, for Malaysia, a PV-diesel generator hybrid system is the most suitable solution in terms of economic performance and pollution. However, the cost of production of solar and wind energy proved to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly than the energy produced from diesel generators. (author)

  6. Optimizing Prediction Using Bayesian Model Averaging: Examples Using Large-Scale Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Lee, Chansoon

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a review of Bayesian model averaging as a means of optimizing the predictive performance of common statistical models applied to large-scale educational assessments. The Bayesian framework recognizes that in addition to parameter uncertainty, there is uncertainty in the choice of models themselves. A Bayesian approach to addressing the problem of model uncertainty is the method of Bayesian model averaging. Bayesian model averaging searches the space of possible models for a set of submodels that satisfy certain scientific principles and then averages the coefficients across these submodels weighted by each model's posterior model probability (PMP). Using the weighted coefficients for prediction has been shown to yield optimal predictive performance according to certain scoring rules. We demonstrate the utility of Bayesian model averaging for prediction in education research with three examples: Bayesian regression analysis, Bayesian logistic regression, and a recently developed approach for Bayesian structural equation modeling. In each case, the model-averaged estimates are shown to yield better prediction of the outcome of interest than any submodel based on predictive coverage and the log-score rule. Implications for the design of large-scale assessments when the goal is optimal prediction in a policy context are discussed.

  7. A new approach to ductile tearing assessment of pipelines under large-scale yielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostby, Erling [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, N-7465, Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: Erling.Obstby@sintef.no; Thaulow, Christian [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Nyhus, Bard [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, N-7465, Trondheim (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we focus on the issue of ductile tearing assessment for cases with global plasticity, relevant for example to strain-based design of pipelines. A proposal for a set of simplified strain-based driving force equations is used as a basis for calculation of ductile tearing. We compare the traditional approach using the tangency criterion to predict unstable tearing, with a new alternative approach for ductile tearing calculations. A criterion to determine the CTOD at maximum load carrying capacity in the crack ligament is proposed, and used as the failure criterion in the new approach. Compared to numerical reference simulations, the tangency criterion predicts conservative results with regard to the strain capacity. The new approach yields results in better agreement with the reference numerical simulations.

  8. An experimental assessment of proposed universal yield curves for secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.; Flinn, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of 'Universal Yield Curves' for the secondary emission process have been proposed. A series of precise measurements of the secondary emission properties of a range of related amorphous semiconducting materials, made under UHV on freshly vacuum-cleaved surfaces, and covering a wide range of primary energies, have recently made possible an accurate assessment of the validity of the various UYC's suggested. It is found that no truly universal curve exists; the atomic number of the target material plays an important part in determining the secondary emission properties. Agarwal's (Proc. Phys. Soc.; 71: 851 (1958)) semi-empirical expression, which takes account of the atomic number and weight, is found to give good agreement for all the materials studied. Further theoretical investigation is required. (author)

  9. Optimal powertrain dimensioning and potential assessment of hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgovski, Nikolce

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compared to conventional vehicles, complement the traditional combustion engine with one, or several electric motors and an energy buffer, typically a battery and/or an ultra capacitor. This gives the vehicle an additional degree of freedom that allows for a more efficient operation, by e.g. recuperating braking energy, or operating the engine at higher efficiency. In order to be cost effective, the HEV may need to include a downsized engine and a carefully selected energy buffer. The optimal size of the powertrain components depends on the powertrain configuration, ability to draw electric energy from the grid, charging infrastructure, drive patterns, varying fuel, electricity and energy buffer prices and on how well adapted is the buffer energy management to driving conditions. This thesis provides two main contributions for optimal dimensioning of HEV powertrains while optimally controlling the energy use of the buffer on prescribed routes. The first contribution is described by a methodology and a tool for potential assessment of HEV powertrains. The tool minimizes the need for interaction from the user by automizing the processes of powertrain simplification and optimization. The HEV powertrain models are simplified by removing unnecessary dynamics in order to speed up computation time and allow Dynamic Programming to be used to optimize the energy management. The tool makes it possible to work with non-transparent models, e.g. models which are compiled, or hidden for intellectual property reasons. The second contribution describes modeling steps to reformulate the powertrain dimensioning and control problem as a convex optimization problem. The method considers quadratic losses for the powertrain components and the resulting problem is a semi definite convex program. The optimization is time efficient with computation time that does not increase exponentially with the number of states. This makes it possible to include more

  10. Parameter assessment for virtual Stackelberg game in aerodynamic shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xie, Fangfang; Zheng, Yao; Zhang, Jifa

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, parametric studies of virtual Stackelberg game (VSG) are conducted to assess the impact of critical parameters on aerodynamic shape optimization, including design cycle, split of design variables and role assignment. Typical numerical cases, including the inverse design and drag reduction design of airfoil, have been carried out. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of VSG. Furthermore, the most significant parameters are identified, e.g. the increase of design cycle can improve the optimization results but it will also add computational burden. These studies will maximize the productivity of the effort in aerodynamic optimization for more complicated engineering problems, such as the multi-element airfoil and wing-body configurations.

  11. Assessment of rice yield loss due to exposure to ozone pollution in Southern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danh, Ngo Thanh; Huy, Lai Nguyen; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim, E-mail: kimoanh@ait.ac.th

    2016-10-01

    The study domain covered the Eastern region of Southern of Vietnam that includes Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and five other provinces. Rice production in the domain accounted for 13% of the national total with three crop cycles per year. We assessed ozone (O{sub 3}) induced rice production loss in the domain for 2010 using simulated hourly surface O{sub 3} concentrations (WRF/CAMx; 4 km resolution). Simulated O{sub 3} was higher in January–February (largely overlaps the first crop) and September–December (third crop), and lower in March–June (second crop). Spatially, O{sub 3} was higher in downwind locations of HCMC and were comparable with observed data. Relative yield loss (RYL) was assessed for each crop over the respective growing period (105 days) using three metrics: AOT40, M7 and flux-based O{sub 3} dose of POD{sub 10}. Higher RYL was estimated for the downwind of HCMC. Overall, the rice production loss due to O{sub 3} exposure in the study domain in 2010 was the highest for the first crop (up to 25,800 metric tons), the second highest for the third crop (up to 21,500 tons) and the least for the second crop (up to 6800 tons). The low RYL obtained for the second crop by POD{sub 10} may be due to the use of a high threshold value (Y = 10 nmol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). Linear regression between non-null radiation POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} had similar slopes for the first and third crop when POD{sub 0} was higher and very low slope for the second crop when POD{sub 0} was low. The results of this study can be used for the rice crop planning to avoid the period of potential high RYL due to O{sub 3} exposure. - Highlights: • Simulated O{sub 3} was used to assess rice yield loss in a domain of Southern Vietnam. • Exposure metrics of AOT40, M7, POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} were considered. • POD{sub 10} gave the highest rice production loss. • Higher production loss was found downwind of Ho Chi Minh City.

  12. Assessment of rice yield loss due to exposure to ozone pollution in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danh, Ngo Thanh; Huy, Lai Nguyen; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-01-01

    The study domain covered the Eastern region of Southern of Vietnam that includes Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and five other provinces. Rice production in the domain accounted for 13% of the national total with three crop cycles per year. We assessed ozone (O 3 ) induced rice production loss in the domain for 2010 using simulated hourly surface O 3 concentrations (WRF/CAMx; 4 km resolution). Simulated O 3 was higher in January–February (largely overlaps the first crop) and September–December (third crop), and lower in March–June (second crop). Spatially, O 3 was higher in downwind locations of HCMC and were comparable with observed data. Relative yield loss (RYL) was assessed for each crop over the respective growing period (105 days) using three metrics: AOT40, M7 and flux-based O 3 dose of POD 10 . Higher RYL was estimated for the downwind of HCMC. Overall, the rice production loss due to O 3 exposure in the study domain in 2010 was the highest for the first crop (up to 25,800 metric tons), the second highest for the third crop (up to 21,500 tons) and the least for the second crop (up to 6800 tons). The low RYL obtained for the second crop by POD 10 may be due to the use of a high threshold value (Y = 10 nmol m −2 s −1 ). Linear regression between non-null radiation POD 0 and POD 10 had similar slopes for the first and third crop when POD 0 was higher and very low slope for the second crop when POD 0 was low. The results of this study can be used for the rice crop planning to avoid the period of potential high RYL due to O 3 exposure. - Highlights: • Simulated O 3 was used to assess rice yield loss in a domain of Southern Vietnam. • Exposure metrics of AOT40, M7, POD 0 and POD 10 were considered. • POD 10 gave the highest rice production loss. • Higher production loss was found downwind of Ho Chi Minh City.

  13. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the ...

  14. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment, Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    assembly of electronic-communication components, different welding processes are performed at TYAD. It uses shielded arc, metal inert gas (MIG...tungsten inert gas ( TIG ), and silver braz- ing oxygen/acetylene cutting plasma arc methods to complete mission re- quirements. Major welding jobs are...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 6 -1 1 Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Tobyhanna Army Depot, PA Mike C.J. Lin, Alexander M. Zhivov

  15. Assessment of Optimal Flexibility in Ensemble of Frequency Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Soumya; Hansen, Jacob; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2018-04-19

    Potential of electrical loads in providing grid ancillary services is often limited due to the uncertainties associated with the load behavior. A knowledge of the expected uncertainties with a load control program would invariably yield to better informed control policies, opening up the possibility of extracting the maximal load control potential without affecting grid operations. In the context of frequency responsive load control, a probabilistic uncertainty analysis framework is presented to quantify the expected error between the target and actual load response, under uncertainties in the load dynamics. A closed-form expression of an optimal demand flexibility, minimizing the expected error in actual and committed flexibility, is provided. Analytical results are validated through Monte Carlo simulations of ensembles of electric water heaters.

  16. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  17. Assessing wheat yield, Biomass, and water productivity responses to growth stage based irrigation water allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing irrigated wheat yields is important to the overall profitability of limited-irrigation cropping systems in western Kansas. A simulation study was conducted to (1) validate APSIM's (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator) ability to simulate wheat growth and yield in Kansas, and (2) app...

  18. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  19. Turbine hydraulic assessment and optimization in rehabilitation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornard, L; Debeissat, F; Labrecque, Y; Sabourin, M; Tomas, L

    2014-01-01

    As turbines age after years of operation, a major rehabilitation is needed to give new life. The owner has two choices: resetting the turbine to the original state or an upgrade with new hydraulic components designed and optimized using state of the art technology. The second solution is by far a more interesting option which can maximize the efficiency gain, increase the turbine capacity and revenues, eliminate cavitation erosion and the needs for repair, reduce the turbine instabilities and smooth unit regulation, and adapt the design to new operation conditions. This paper shows some aspects of the turbine hydraulic assessment and possible solutions to improve existing water passages

  20. Low-Dose CT for Evaluation of Suspected Urolithiasis: Diagnostic Yield for Assessment of Alternative Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Bannas, Peter; Regier, Marc; Keller, Sarah; Kluth, Luis; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic yield of low-dose (LD) CT for alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected urolithiasis. In this retrospective study, we included 776 consecutive patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT for evaluation of suspected urolithiasis. All examinations were performed with an LD CT protocol; images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction. The leading LD CT diagnosis was recorded for each patient and compared with the final clinical diagnosis, which served as the reference standard. The mean (± SD) effective dose of CT was 1.9 ± 0.6 mSv. The frequency of urolithiasis was 82.5% (640/776). LD CT reached a sensitivity of 94.1% (602/640), a specificity of 100.0% (136/136), and an accuracy of 95.1% (738/776) for the detection of urolithiasis. In 93 of 136 patients (68.4%) without urolithiasis, alternative diagnoses were established as the final clinical diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses were most commonly located in the genitourinary (n = 53) and gastrointestinal (n = 18) tracts. LD CT correctly provided alternative diagnoses for 57 patients (61.3%) and was false-negative for five patients (5.4%). The most common clinical alternative diagnoses were urinary tract infections (n = 22). Seven diagnoses missed at LD CT were located outside the FOV. For 43 of all 776 patients (5.5%), neither LD CT nor clinical workup could establish a final diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LD CT for the detection of alternative diagnoses were 91.9% (57/62), 95.6% (43/45), and 93.5% (100/107), respectively. LD CT enables the diagnosis of most alternative diagnoses in the setting of suspected urolithiasis. The most frequent alternative diagnoses missed by LD CT are urinary tract infections or diagnoses located outside the FOV of the abdominopelvic CT scan.

  1. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millet yields in the Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, B; Roudier, P; Quirion, P; Alhassane, A; Traore, S; Muller, B; Dingkuhn, M; Ciais, P; Guimberteau, M; Baron, C

    2013-01-01

    40% for the +4 °C/ − 20% scenario). Photoperiod-sensitive cultivars counteract the effect of temperature increase on shortening cultivar duration and thus would likely avoid the need to shift to cultivars with a greater thermal time requirement. However, given the large difference in mean yields of the modern versus traditional varieties, the modern varieties would still yield more under optimal fertility conditions in a warmer world, even if they are more affected by climate change. (letter)

  2. 78 FR 65975 - Notice of Availability (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... (NOA) for Strategic Network Optimization (SNO) Environmental Assessment Finding of No Significant... Network Optimization (SNO) Environmental Assessment (EA) Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). SUMMARY... interpreted comprehensively to include the natural and physical environment and the relationship of people...

  3. Application of GIS to assess rainfall variability impacts on crop yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sahara Africa. Hence, this study aim at examines and map spatio-temporal impacts of rainfall variability on water availability for maize yield using Geographic Information System (GIS). Major regions where maize is highly produced in Nigeria were ...

  4. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  5. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  6. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  8. Effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration and yield of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides fruit: optimal time of fruit harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmou Yao

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration (Vc, yield and maturity of sea buckthorn fruit (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and to predict the optimal harvest time, berries were collected from eight genotypes at an interval of about one week from August 16 to December 2. Maturity was visually observed, berry weight measured and Vc determined. Berries matured at 1165-1316 degree-days (d.d.. Vc reached maximum at about 1229 d.d., while fruit size and yield reached maximum at 1380 d.d.. Mathematical models of polynomial equations were highly significant for predicting the effects of temperature sum on Vc, maturity and fruit yield. Optimal harvest time for maximizing Vc, yield or economic income could be determined according to differential equations. Great variations in Vc, fruit maturity and fruit size suggested good opportunities for selection and breeding. Low rank correlations in vitamin C concentration during fruit maturity, however, call for special attention in selection and breeding.

  9. Optimization of a high-yield, low-areal-density fusion product source at the National Ignition Facility with applications in nucleosynthesis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Casey, D. T.; Hohenberger, M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bacher, A.; Brune, C. R.; Bionta, R. M.; Craxton, R. S.; Ellison, C. L.; Farrell, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Garbett, W.; Garcia, E. M.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hohensee, M.; Holunga, D. M.; Hoppe, M.; Jackson, M.; Kabadi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kohut, T. R.; Lahmann, B.; Le, H. P.; Li, C. K.; Masse, L.; McKenty, P. W.; McNabb, D. P.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T. G.; Parker, C. E.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pino, J.; Remington, B.; Rice, N. G.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sanchez, J.; Sayre, D. B.; Schoff, M. E.; Shuldberg, C. M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Walters, Z. B.; Whitley, H. D.

    2018-05-01

    Polar-direct-drive exploding pushers are used as a high-yield, low-areal-density fusion product source at the National Ignition Facility with applications including diagnostic calibration, nuclear security, backlighting, electron-ion equilibration, and nucleosynthesis-relevant experiments. In this paper, two different paths to improving the performance of this platform are explored: (i) optimizing the laser drive, and (ii) optimizing the target. While the present study is specifically geared towards nucleosynthesis experiments, the results are generally applicable. Example data from T2/3He-gas-filled implosions with trace deuterium are used to show that yield and ion temperature (Tion) from 1.6 mm-outer-diameter thin-glass-shell capsule implosions are improved at a set laser energy by switching from a ramped to a square laser pulse shape, and that increased laser energy further improves yield and Tion, although by factors lower than predicted by 1 D simulations. Using data from D2/3He-gas-filled implosions, yield at a set Tion is experimentally verified to increase with capsule size. Uniform D3He-proton spectra from 3 mm-outer-diameter CH shell implosions demonstrate the utility of this platform for studying charged-particle-producing reactions relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis.

  10. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  11. Some aspects of fracture assessment diagrams, plastic zone size corrections and contour integrals in post-yield fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    The CEGB failure assessment route is briefly described and is shown to be consistent with a plastic zone size correction method. Modifications to the assessment route which have recently been suggested for describing the effects of thermal and residual stresses are examined. It is shown that the plastic zone size correction method may be used to include local thermal and residual stresses in the assessment route in a simple manner. The assessment route is compared with finite-element solutions for a thermal stress problem and with strip-yield model solutions for a residual stress problem. In using finite-element solutions there are different contour integral methods available for calculating a post-yield fracture parameter. The J-integral of Rice and the J*-integral of Blackburn are examined and compared and the appropriate parameter is identified. (author)

  12. Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density for Improving Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Lodging Resistance in Oilseed Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shahbaz; Anwar, Sumera; Kuai, Jie; Ullah, Sana; Fahad, Shah; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2017-01-01

    Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D) and nitrogen (N) rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014–2016) under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m−2; MD, 30 plants m−2; HD, 60 plants m−2) and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha−1). Experiment wa...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS TO GEOMORPHIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENT YIELD FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanchoul Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sediment yield and the factors controlling it provides useful information for estimating erosion intensities within river basins. The objective of this study was to build a model from which suspended sediment yield could be estimated from ungauged rivers using computed sediment yield and physical factors. Researchers working on suspended sediment transported by wadis in the Maghreb are usually facing the lack of available data for such river types. Further study of the prediction of sediment transport in these regions and its variability is clearly required. In this work, ANNs were built between sediment yield established from longterm measurement series at gauging stations in Algerian catchments and corresponding basic physiographic parameters such as rainfall, runoff, lithology index, coefficient of torrentiality, and basin area. The proposed Levenberg-Marquardt and Multilayer Perceptron algorithms to train the neural networks of the current research study was based on the feed-forward backpropagation method with combinations of number of neurons in each hidden layer, transfer function, error goal. Additionally, three statistical measurements, namely the root mean square error (RMSE, the coefficient of determination (R², and the efficiency factor (EF have been reported for examining the forecasting accuracy of the developed model. Single plot displays of network outputs with respect to targets for training have provided good performance results and good fitting . Thus, ANNs were a promising method for predicting suspended sediment yield in ungauged Algerian catchments.

  14. Sugarcane trash management assessed by the interaction of yield with soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sugarcane plays an important global role, particularly with a view to alternative energy sources. Thus, in a sugarcane field of the mill Vale do Paraná S/A Álcool e Açúcar, Rubineia, São Paulo State, managed under two green cane harvest systems (cane trash left on and cane trash removed from the soil, Pearson and spatial correlations between the sugarcane yield (variety RB855035 in the third cut and soil physical and chemical properties were studied to identify the property best correlated with stalk yield and the best harvest method. For this purpose, two geostatistical grids (121 sampling points on 1.30 ha were installed on a eutrophic Red Argisol (homogeneous slope of 0.065 m m-1, in 2011, to determine the properties: stalk yield and sugarcane plant population, and soil resistance to penetration, gravimetric moisture, bulk density, and carbon stock, in the layers 0-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The data were analyzed by descriptive, linear correlation and geostatistical analysis. In both treatments, the property stand density was best correlated with sugarcane yield (r = 0.725 in the trash mulching treatment - TM and r = 0.769 in the trash removal treatment - TR. However, in relation to the soil properties, bulk density (0-0.20 m was best correlated (r = 0.305 in TM, r = 0.211 in TR. Similarly, from the spatial point of view, stand density was the property that best explained the sugarcane yield. However, in the TM treatment the density (0.20-0.40 m was the only soil property spatially correlated with stalk yield. The carbon stock in the soil of the TM was 11.5 % higher than in the TR treatment. Results of the TM treatment were best, also with regard to soil management and conservation.

  15. The potential of satellite-observed crop phenology to enhance yield gap assessments in smallholder landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M A Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of the undernourished people on the planet obtain their entitlements to food via agricultural-based livelihood strategies, often on underperforming croplands and smallholdings. In this context, expanding cropland extent is not a viable strategy for smallholders to meet their food needs. Therefore, attention must shift to increasing productivity on existing plots and ensuring yield gaps do not widen. Thus, supporting smallholder farmers to sustainably increase the productivity of their lands is one part of a complex solution to realising universal food security. However, the information (e.g. location and causes of cropland underperformance required to support measures to close yield gaps in smallholder landscapes are often not available. This paper reviews the potential of crop phenology, observed from satellites carrying remote sensing sensors, to fill this information gap. It is suggested that on a theoretical level phenological approaches can reveal greater intra-cropland thematic detail, and increase the accuracy of crop extent maps and crop yield estimates. However, on a practical level the spatial mismatch between the resolution at which crop phenology can be estimated from satellite remote sensing data and the scale of yield variability in smallholder croplands inhibits its use in this context. Similarly, the spatial coverage of remote sensing-derived phenology offers potential for integration with ancillary spatial datasets to identify causes of yield gaps. To reflect the complexity of smallholder cropping systems requires ancillary datasets at fine spatial resolutions which, often, are not available. This further precludes the use of crop phenology in attempts to unpick the causes of yield gaps. Research agendas should focus on generating fine spatial resolution crop phenology, either via data fusion or through new sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2 in smallholder croplands. This has potential to transform the applied use of remote sensing

  16. YIELD ASSESSMENT OF BEETROOT AND POTATO, CULTIVATED ON ORDINARY CHERNOZEM CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gromakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato and table beet are traditional crops in vegetable growing in Russia. It is important to produce high, environmentally friendly crops. The effect of mineral fertilizers to reduce the accumulation of heavy metals (HM in beetroot and potatoes was studied in the experiment on ordinary chernozem. The soil was supplied with Cu, Zn and Pb, as a mineral fertilizer, Azofosca (N16%, P16%, K16% was also used in the experiment. Salts of heavy metals and fertilizer were introduced in accordance with the developed scheme of experiment: 1. Control; 2. Cu100Zn100Pb100; 3. N60P60K60 + Cu100Zn100Pb100. In the soil, the total stock of metals and their mobile forms were determined, and the content of metals and yield were defined in plants. The results of the study showed that for gross forms MRL exceeded in all metals studied, and in mobile forms of Cu and Pb. With the joint application of HM to the soil with fertilizer, the mobility of metals decreased. In the root crops, the excess of MRL for Cu, Zn and Pb was observed. With the joint application of HM with fertilizers, the content of Zn and Pb in the root crops decreased below the MRL. Beet was more likely to accumulate HM than potatoes. The yield of beetroot and potato beets varied greatly in terms of experiment options. Thus, the introduction of HM into the soil significantly reduced the yield of beets. The introduction of fertilizers together with HM contributed to an increase in yield, but for beet, the yield level here was also lower than in the control variant. When growing roots in technogenically transformed conditions, the potato is characterized by sufficiently higher yield stability and does not accumulate toxic amounts of HM on a fertilized ground.

  17. Multi-approach assessment of the spatial distribution of the specific yield: application to the Crau plain aquifer, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraphin, Pierre; Gonçalvès, Julio; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Champollion, Cédric

    2018-03-01

    Spatially distributed values of the specific yield, a fundamental parameter for transient groundwater mass balance calculations, were obtained by means of three independent methods for the Crau plain, France. In contrast to its traditional use to assess recharge based on a given specific yield, the water-table fluctuation (WTF) method, applied using major recharging events, gave a first set of reference values. Then, large infiltration processes recorded by monitored boreholes and caused by major precipitation events were interpreted in terms of specific yield by means of a one-dimensional vertical numerical model solving Richards' equations within the unsaturated zone. Finally, two gravity field campaigns, at low and high piezometric levels, were carried out to assess the groundwater mass variation and thus alternative specific yield values. The range obtained by the WTF method for this aquifer made of alluvial detrital material was 2.9- 26%, in line with the scarce data available so far. The average spatial value of specific yield by the WTF method (9.1%) is consistent with the aquifer scale value from the hydro-gravimetric approach. In this investigation, an estimate of the hitherto unknown spatial distribution of the specific yield over the Crau plain was obtained using the most reliable method (the WTF method). A groundwater mass balance calculation over the domain using this distribution yielded similar results to an independent quantification based on a stable isotope-mixing model. This agreement reinforces the relevance of such estimates, which can be used to build a more accurate transient hydrogeological model.

  18. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  19. Integrating Fuzzy Logic, Optimization, and GIS for Ecological Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Juárez, Lourdes; Cruz-Bello, Gustavo

    2002-09-01

    Appraisal of ecological impacts has been problematic because of the behavior of ecological system and the responses of these systems to human intervention are far from fully understood. While it has been relatively easy to itemize the potential ecological impacts, it has been difficult to arrive at accurate predictions of how these impacts affect populations, communities, or ecosystems. Furthermore, the spatial heterogeneity of ecological systems has been overlooked because its examination is practically impossible through matrix techniques, the most commonly used impact assessment approach. Besides, the public has become increasingly aware of the importance of the EIA in decision-making and thus the interpretation of impact significance is complicated further by the different value judgments of stakeholders. Moreover, impact assessments are carried out with a minimum of data, high uncertainty, and poor conceptual understanding. Hence, the evaluation of ecological impacts entails the integration of subjective and often conflicting judgments from a variety of experts and stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to present an environmental impact assessment approach based on the integration fuzzy logic, geographical information systems and optimization techniques. This approach enables environmental analysts to deal with the intrinsic imprecision and ambiguity associated with the judgments of experts and stakeholders, the description of ecological systems, and the prediction of ecological impacts. The application of this approach is illustrated through an example, which shows how consensus about impact mitigation can be attained within a conflict resolution framework.

  20. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Peter; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres.

  1. Particle Swarm Optimization and Uncertainty Assessment in Inverse Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. G. Pallero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most inverse problems in the industry (and particularly in geophysical exploration are highly underdetermined because the number of model parameters too high to achieve accurate data predictions and because the sampling of the data space is scarce and incomplete; it is always affected by different kinds of noise. Additionally, the physics of the forward problem is a simplification of the reality. All these facts result in that the inverse problem solution is not unique; that is, there are different inverse solutions (called equivalent, compatible with the prior information that fits the observed data within similar error bounds. In the case of nonlinear inverse problems, these equivalent models are located in disconnected flat curvilinear valleys of the cost-function topography. The uncertainty analysis consists of obtaining a representation of this complex topography via different sampling methodologies. In this paper, we focus on the use of a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to sample the region of equivalence in nonlinear inverse problems. Although this methodology has a general purpose, we show its application for the uncertainty assessment of the solution of a geophysical problem concerning gravity inversion in sedimentary basins, showing that it is possible to efficiently perform this task in a sampling-while-optimizing mode. Particularly, we explain how to use and analyze the geophysical models sampled by exploratory PSO family members to infer different descriptors of nonlinear uncertainty.

  2. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Peter; Van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing problem that demands immediate mitigation and reduction plans. Here, a model based on satellite-tracked buoy observations and scaled to a large data set of observations on microplastic from surface trawls was used to simulate the transport of plastics floating on the ocean surface from 2015 to 2025, with the goal to assess the optimal marine microplastic removal locations for two scenarios: removing the most surface microplastic and reducing the impact on ecosystems, using plankton growth as a proxy. The simulations show that the optimal removal locations are primarily located off the coast of China and in the Indonesian Archipelago for both scenarios. Our estimates show that 31% of the modeled microplastic mass can be removed by 2025 using 29 plastic collectors operating at a 45% capture efficiency from these locations, compared to only 17% when the 29 plastic collectors are moored in the North Pacific garbage patch, between Hawaii and California. The overlap of ocean surface microplastics and phytoplankton growth can be reduced by 46% at our proposed locations, while sinks in the North Pacific can only reduce the overlap by 14%. These results are an indication that oceanic plastic removal might be more effective in removing a greater microplastic mass and in reducing potential harm to marine life when closer to shore than inside the plastic accumulation zones in the centers of the gyres. (letter)

  3. Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.; Diepen, van C.A.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Wolf, J.; Kabat, P.; Baruth, B.; Ludwig, F.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change impacts on potential and rainfed crop yields on the European continent were studied using output of three General Circulation Models and the Crop Growth Monitoring System in combination with a weather generator. Climate change impacts differ per crop type and per CO2 emission

  4. Optimization of Nitrogen Rate and Planting Density for Improving Yield, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Lodging Resistance in Oilseed Rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yield and lodging related traits are essential for improving rapeseed production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of plant density (D and nitrogen (N rates on morphological and physiological traits related to yield and lodging in rapeseed. We evaluated Huayouza 9 for two consecutive growing seasons (2014–2016 under three plant densities (LD, 10 plants m−2; MD, 30 plants m−2; HD, 60 plants m−2 and four N rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha−1. Experiment was laid out in split plot design using density as a main factor and N as sub-plot factor with three replications each. Seed yield was increased by increasing density and N rate, reaching a peak at HD with 180 kg N ha−1. The effect of N rate was consistently positive in increasing the plant height, pod area index, 1,000 seed weight, shoot and root dry weights, and root neck diameter, reaching a peak at 180 kg N ha−1. Plant height was decreased by increasing D, whereas the maximum radiation interception (~80% and net photosynthetic rate were recorded at MD at highest N. Lodging resistance and nitrogen use efficiency significantly increased with increasing D from 10 to 30 plants m−2, and N rate up to 120 kg ha−1, further increase of D and N decreased lodging resistance and NUE. Hence, our study implies that planting density 30 plants m−2 can improve yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and enhance lodging resistance by improving crop canopy.

  5. Methane hydrate synthesis from ice: Influence of pressurization and ethanol on optimizing formation rates and hydrate yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chun.; Huang, Wuu-Liang; Stern, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline methane gas hydrate (MGH) was synthesized using an ice-seeding method to investigate the influence of pressurization and ethanol on the hydrate formation rate and gas yield of the resulting samples. When the reactor is pressurized with CH4 gas without external heating, methane hydrate can be formed from ice grains with yields up to 25% under otherwise static conditions. The rapid temperature rise caused by pressurization partially melts the granular ice, which reacts with methane to form hydrate rinds around the ice grains. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of methane hydrate formation buffers the sample temperature near the melting point of ice for enough time to allow for continuous hydrate growth at high rates. Surprisingly, faster rates and higher yields of methane hydrate were found in runs with lower initial temperatures, slower rates of pressurization, higher porosity of the granular ice samples, or mixtures with sediments. The addition of ethanol also dramatically enhanced the formation of polycrystalline MGH. This study demonstrates that polycrystalline MGH with varied physical properties suitable for different laboratory tests can be manufactured by controlling synthesis procedures or parameters. Subsequent dissociation experiments using a gas collection apparatus and flowmeter confirmed high methane saturation (CH 4·2O, with n = 5.82 ± 0.03) in the MGH. Dissociation rates of the various samples synthesized at diverse conditions may be fitted to different rate laws, including zero and first order.

  6. Plant-based assessment of inherent soil productivity and contributions to China's cereal crop yield increase since 1980.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: China's food production has increased 6-fold during the past half-century, thanks to increased yields resulting from the management intensification, accomplished through greater inputs of fertilizer, water, new crop strains, and other Green Revolution's technologies. Yet, changes in underlying quality of soils and their effects on yield increase remain to be determined. Here, we provide a first attempt to quantify historical changes in inherent soil productivity and their contributions to the increase in yield. METHODS: The assessment was conducted based on data-set derived from 7410 on-farm trials, 8 long-term experiments and an inventory of soil organic matter concentrations of arable land. RESULTS: Results show that even without organic and inorganic fertilizer addition crop yield from on-farm trials conducted in the 2000s was significantly higher compared with those in the 1980s - the increase ranged from 0.73 to 1.76 Mg/ha for China's major irrigated cereal-based cropping systems. The increase in on-farm yield in control plot since 1980s was due primarily to the enhancement of soil-related factors, and reflected inherent soil productivity improvement. The latter led to higher and stable yield with adoption of improved management practices, and contributed 43% to the increase in yield for wheat and 22% for maize in the north China, and, 31%, 35% and 22% for early and late rice in south China and for single rice crop in the Yangtze River Basin since 1980. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, without an improvement in inherent soil productivity, the 'Agricultural Miracle in China' would not have happened. A comprehensive strategy of inherent soil productivity improvement in China, accomplished through combining engineering-based measures with biological-approaches, may be an important lesson for the developing world. We propose that advancing food security in 21st century for both China and other parts of world will depend on continuously improving

  7. Assessing the Benefits of Yield Management in the Hospitality Industry in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Boahen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghana's hotel industry has a great deal of potential for future development. However, revenue loss due to lost opportunity arising from unused rooms or no shows is a challenge facing the industry. Maximizing revenue is important in the industry because of high costs of operation. Yield Management (YM offers one of the potential revenue maximization strategies in the hotel business operations. This study aims at evaluating the effect of yield management practices on business operations in the hotel industry in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. The study adopted a combination of qualitative and quantitative approach. The study relied on primary data which was collected through field survey using semi-structured interview and questionnaires instruments. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse qualitative data whilst the qualitative data was analysed through deduction and inferences. The study revealed that that the implementation of yield management has positive impact in hotel business operations in the Kumasi Metropolis in terms of profitability competitive advantage operational efficiency productivity and cost saving. it is recommended that the hotel industry, particularly in the Kumasi Metropolis,  should invest in  information technology education as well as staff training to improve their skill capacity since effective practices YM depends on effective information system.

  8. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  9. Agro-Economic Optimization of Fertilizer Level and Rhizobium Strains for Enhanced Grain Yield in Mungbean (Vigna Radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.; Elahi, M. E.; Islam, Z.; Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of PGPR for improvement in grain yield of mungbean, different levels of fertilizer (00:00, 20:50 and 20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ kg ha/sup -1/) were tested on four strains (CB 1015 Australia, Vm-L1, Vm-M1 and Vm-M2) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. A Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement was used to conduct the experiment by keeping three fertilizer levels in the main plot and Rhizobium strains in sub-plot. The data were recorded for different parameters like number of branches plant/sup -1/, number of clusters plant/sup -1/, number of pods plant/sup -1/., number of grain pod/sup -1/, pod length (cm) and grain yield kg ha/sup -1/. The response of fertilizer levels and inoculation with Rhizobium strains were found significant in most of the parameters under study. The strain Vm-M1 produced the highest number of branches plant/sup -1/(5.42), number of clusters plant/sup -1/(22.92), number of pods plant/sup -1/(77.64), pod length (8.37 cm) when applied in combination of N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ at the rate of 20:70 and 20:50 kg ha/sup -1/. Although the grain yield (1421 kg ha/sup -1/) recorded in treatment (20:70 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + Inoculation with strain Vm M1) was highest but economically the treatment (20:50 kg N:P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ + inoculation with strain Vm M1) with net return of Rs. 13618 ha/sup -1/ and BCR of 2.52 was on top. (author)

  10. Investigation of optimal conditions for production of highly crystalline nanocellulose with increased yield via novel Cr(III)-catalyzed hydrolysis: Response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-12-15

    For the first time, a highly efficient Cr(NO 3 ) 3 catalysis system was proposed for optimization the yield and crystallinity of nanocellulose end product. A five-level three-factor central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was employed to elucidate parameters interactions between three design factors, namely reaction temperature (x 1 ), reaction time (x 2 ) and concentration of Cr(NO 3 ) 3 (x 3 ) over a broad range of process conditions and determine the effect on crystallinity index and product yield. The developed models predicted the maximum nanocellulose yield of 87% at optimum process conditions of 70.6°C, 1.48h, and 0.48M Cr(NO 3 ) 3 . At these conditions, the obtained nanocellulose presented high crystallinity index (75.3%), spider-web-like interconnected network morphology with the average width of 31.2±14.3nm. In addition, the yielded nanocellulose rendered a higher thermal stability than that of original cellulosic source and expected to be widely used as reinforcement agent in bio-nanocomposites materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactivity test and GRW biogas yield test. Methods for optimizing biogas plants for anaerobic digestion of biowaste; Rostocker Aktivitaets- und GRW-Biogasertragstest. Einsatz zur Optimierung von Abfallvergaerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Nils [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Soffstromwirtschaft; Schiffner, Maik [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Forschungsvorhaben ' ' Bilanzierung von Stoff- und Energiestroemen' ' ; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Soffstromwirtschaft; Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltingenieurwesen; Fritz, Thomas

    2010-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion to obtain biogas is one option for energetic use of biodegradable waste. Data as e. g. the expected biogas yield, the biogas composition or inhibition effects are essentially to estimate the potentials and risks of the use of biowaste in commercial bio gas plants. To deliver such data, several test methods were developed. The GRW biogas yield test was first applied at the university of applied science in Goettingen and enhanced in cooperation with the University of Rostock. The test is particularly suitable for inhomogeneous samples as e. g. biowaste. The Bioactivity Test is still under development. First results have shown that the test can be applied for the detection of potentially inhibition effects. Combination of both Tests can deliver data for optimizing biogas plants for anaerobic digestion of biowaste (orig.)

  12. Application of optimization methods for nuclear energy system performance assessment by the MESSAGE software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Kuptsov, I.S.; Utyanskaya, T.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper defines the multi-objective optimization and uncertainty treatment modules for the IAEA energy planning software MESSAGE intended for multi-objective optimization and sustainability assessments of innovative nuclear energy systems with account of uncertainty [ru

  13. Optimization of a readout board for mass assembly and light yield measurements with a cosmic ray test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Phi [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We have built a readout board prototype, equipped with SiPMs, scintillators and readout electronics for an highly granular calorimeter. The design was optimized for mass assembly due to about 8 million channels in the final detector. The prototype showed good performance in several test beams and in a cosmic ray test stand, which was built to characterize the MIP response of these kinds of boards. We show an overview of the cosmic ray test stand and measurement results for the readout board and plans for an improved 2nd generation prototype.

  14. Assessment of Above- and Below-ground Competition between Sesame (Sesamume indicum L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus and Its Effects on Sesame Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Yanegh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out in a factorial layout on completely randomaized block design with three replications, to evaluate the above- and below- ground competition between sesame (Sesamum indicum and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and their impacts on sesame yield and yield component. The experimental treatments were all combination of crop-weed competition (shoot competition, root competition and root-shoot competition and sesame plant densitys (1, 2 and 4 plant per pot. Plants were sown in plastic pots (24 cm diameter and 28 cm height in year 2010, at feild of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. For study the shoot competition of sesame-pigweed, the roots were separated by plastic when the pots were filled with soil before sowing the seeds. Three weeks after emerging, shoots of plants were separated vertical barrier (30 x 70 cm for studing root competition. Results showed that competition treatments had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components except 1000 seed weight. Among competition produced higher yield and yield components compared to othere treatments. However, sesame and pigweed biological weight in root-shoot competition was 2.6 and 13.7 respectively, that was higher than other competition treatments and was significant. Capsule number in main and sub branches, capsule number in plant, seed number in capsule and seed number in plant in complete competition treatment was 15, 2.58, 17.5, 43.7 and 693.89 respectively, that was higher than other treatments and differences among them was significant. Sesame density also had a significant effect on seed weight per plant and yield components. When low density were used (one plant, yield and yield components was more, therefore in one plant per pot density biological weight of sesame was 3.82 gr, and in higher densities the mentioned traits decreased significantly.

  15. A probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts on yield and nitrogen leaching from winter wheat in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Børgesen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will impact agricultural production both directly and indirectly, but uncertainties related to likely impacts constrain current political decision making on adaptation. This analysis focuses on a methodology for applying probabilistic climate change projections to assess modelled wheat yields and nitrate leaching from arable land in Denmark. The probabilistic projections describe a range of possible changes in temperature and precipitation. Two methodologies to apply climate projections in impact models were tested. Method A was a straightforward correction of temperature and precipitation, where the same correction was applied to the baseline weather data for all days in the year, and method B used seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature to correct the baseline weather data. Based on climate change projections for the time span 2000 to 2100 and two soil types, the mean impact and the uncertainty of the climate change projections were analysed. Combining probability density functions of climate change projections with crop model simulations, the uncertainty and trends in nitrogen (N leaching and grain yields with climate change were quantified. The uncertainty of climate change projections was the dominating source of uncertainty in the projections of yield and N leaching, whereas the methodology to seasonally apply climate change projections had a minor effect. For most conditions, the probability of large yield reductions and large N leaching losses tracked trends in mean yields and mean N leaching. The impacts of the uncertainty in climate change were higher for loamy sandy soil than for sandy soils due to generally higher yield levels for loamy sandy soils. There were large differences between soil types in response to climate change, illustrating the importance of including soil information for regional studies of climate change impacts on cropping systems.

  16. Assessment of combining ability for yield and quality components in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohini, N.; Lakshmanan, V.; Saraladevi, D.; Amalraj, J.J.; Govindaraju, P.

    2017-07-01

    Six parental genotypes and their thirty F1 hybrids in a full diallel cross system with reciprocals, were used in the present study to estimate combining ability for five quantitative and five qualitative traits in hot pepper. The mean sum of squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were significant for all the characters which suggest that these parents could have performed differently in different combinations indicating interallelic interactions. All the traits studied exhibited greater SCA variance than GCA, suggesting that these traits are controlled by non-additive gene action. Analysis of the GCA effects of parents for various traits revealed that LCA625, K1 and PKM1 were the best general combiners for almost all the traits. Estimates of SCA effects showed that the hybrids LCA625 × K1, K1 × Arka LohitandPusa Jwala × PKM1were found to be the best combiners for yield and its attributes. The hybrid K1 × Arka Lohitwas the best reciprocal combiner for quality parameters based on its better mean performance and combining ability. These results suggest that commercial production of hot pepper hybrids and isolation of pure lines from these hybrids is a possible way to enhance the yield and fruit quality.

  17. Assessment of Geant4 Prompt-Gamma Emission Yields in the Context of Proton Therapy Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marco; Dauvergne, Denis; Freud, Nicolas; Krimmer, Jochen; Létang, Jean M.; Testa, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2 ± 0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm2. PMID:26858937

  18. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  19. Classifying post-stroke fatigue: Optimal cut-off on the Fatigue Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Toby B; Mead, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Post-stroke fatigue is common and has debilitating effects on independence and quality of life. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is a valid screening tool for fatigue after stroke, but there is no established cut-off. We sought to identify the optimal cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. In retrospective analysis of two independent datasets (the '2015' and '2007' studies), we evaluated the predictive validity of FAS score against a case definition of fatigue (the criterion standard). Area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cut-off were established in the larger 2015 dataset (n=126), and then independently validated in the 2007 dataset (n=52). In the 2015 dataset, AUC was 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86), with the optimal ≥24 cut-off giving a sensitivity of 0.82 and specificity of 0.66. The 2007 dataset had an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.94), and applying the ≥24 cut-off gave a sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.67. Post-hoc analysis of the 2015 dataset revealed that using only the 3 most predictive FAS items together ('FAS-3') also yielded good validity: AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89), with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75 at the optimal ≥8 cut-off. We propose ≥24 as a cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. While further validation work is needed, this is a positive step towards a coherent approach to reporting fatigue prevalence using the FAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  1. Accident frequency and unrealistic optimism: Children's assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Maclean, Morag; Stevens, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10-11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. In the case of pedestrian accidents, children recognised their seriousness, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. These findings highlight the challenging task facing safety educators who, when teaching conventional safety knowledge and routines, also need to alert children to the danger of over-confidence without disabling them though fear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yield Loss Assessment and Determination of Control Thresholds for Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to develop control thresholds for anthracnose on red pepper. To investigate relationship between anthracnose incidence and diseased fruits, experimental plots with six treatments were established. There existed close correlation between rate of diseased fruits and yields in field (Y = -16.83X + 327.57, R² = 0.83, in rain shelter (Y = -4.92X + 361.02, R² = 0.84, and in rain shelter with rain (Y = -5.91X + 359.71, R² = 0.76. Control thresholds for anthracnose of pepper were 0.9% diseased fruits per plant in field and from 1.7 to 2.3% diseased fruits rate per plant in rain shelter.

  3. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  4. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  5. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  6. Linking Land Cover Data and Crop Yields for Mapping and Assessment of Pollination Services in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia Zulian; Joachim Maes; Maria Luisa Paracchini

    2013-01-01

    Pollination is a key ecosystem service as many crops but in particular, fruits and vegetables are partially dependent on pollinating insects to produce food for human consumption. Here we assessed how pollination services are delivered at the European scale. We used this assessment to estimate the relative contribution of wild pollinators to crop production. We developed an index of relative pollination potential, which is defined as the relative potential or relative capacity of ecosystems t...

  7. Damage assessment of mission essential buildings based on simulation studies of low yield explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas G. L.

    2006-04-01

    There has been a lack of investigations related to low yield explosives instigated by terrorist on small but high occupancy buildings. Also, mitigating the threat of terrorist attacks against high occupancy buildings with network equipment essential to the mission of an organization is a challenging task. At the same time, it is difficult to predict how, why, and when terrorists may attack theses assets. Many factors must be considered in creating a safe building environment. Although it is possible that the dominant threat mode may change in the future, bombings have historically been a favorite tactic of terrorists. Ingredients for homemade bombs are easily obtained on the open market, as are the techniques for making bombs. Bombings are easy and quick to execute. This paper discusses the problems with and provides insights of experience gained in analyzing small scale explosions on older military base buildings. In this study, we examine the placement of various bombs on buildings using the shock wave simulation code CTH and examine the damage effects on the interior of the building, particularly the damage that is incurred on a computer center. These simulation experiments provide data on the effectiveness of a building's security and an understanding of the phenomenology of shocks as they propagate through rooms and corridors. It's purpose is to motivate researchers to take the seriousness of small yield explosives on moderately sized buildings. Visualizations from this analysis are used to understand the complex flow of the air blasts around corridors and hallways. Finally, we make suggestions for improving the mitigation of such terrorist attacks. The intent of this study is not to provide breakthrough technology, but to provide a tool and a means for analyzing the material hardness of a building and to eventually provide the incentive for more security. The information mentioned in this paper is public domain information and easily available via the

  8. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomassash: Residual effects on plant yield, nutrition, cadmium accumulation and mycorrhizal status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2017-01-01

    in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash......Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P...

  9. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An overview of available crop growth and yield models for studies and assessments in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Santini, Monia

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community offers numerous crop models with different levels of sophistication. In such a wide range of crop models, users should have the possibility to choose the most suitable, in terms of detail, scale and representativeness, to their objectives. However, even when an appropriate choice is made, model limitations should be clarified such that modelling studies are put in the proper perspective and robust applications are achieved. This work is an overview of available models to simulate crop growth and yield. A summary matrix with more than 70 crop models is provided, storing the main model characteristics that can help users to choose the proper tool according to their purposes. Overall, we found that two main aspects of models, despite their importance, are not always clear from the published references, i.e. the versatility of the models, in terms of reliable transferability to different conditions, and the degree of complexity. Hence, the developers of models should be encouraged to pay more attention to clarifying the model limitations and limits of applicability, and users should make an effort in proper model selection, to save time often devoted to iteration of tuning steps to force an inappropriate model to be adapted to their own purpose. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC 50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO 2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO 2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  12. Assessing yield and fertilizer response in heterogeneous smallholder fields with UAVs and satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Antonius G.T.; Traore, Pierre C.S.; Blaes, Xavier; By, de Rolf A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural intensification and efficient use and targeting of fertilizer inputs on smallholder farms is key to sustainably improve food security. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how high-resolution satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images can be used to assess the spatial

  13. Home Circadian Phase Assessments with Measures of Compliance Yield Accurate Dim Light Melatonin Onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Wyatt, James K; Park, Margaret; Fogg, Louis F

    2015-06-01

    There is a need for the accurate assessment of circadian phase outside of the clinic/laboratory, particularly with the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). We tested a novel kit designed to assist in saliva sampling at home for later determination of the DLMO. The home kit includes objective measures of compliance to the requirements for dim light and half-hourly saliva sampling. Participants were randomized to one of two 10-day protocols. Each protocol consisted of two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments in counterbalanced order, separated by a 5-day break. Laboratory or participants' homes. Thirty-five healthy adults, age 21-62 y. N/A. Most participants received at least one 30-sec epoch of light > 50 lux during the home phase assessments (average light intensity 4.5 lux), but on average for light > 50 lux or sampling errors. There was no significant difference between the home and laboratory DLMOs (P > 0.05); on average the home DLMOs occurred 9.6 min before the laboratory DLMOs. The home DLMOs were highly correlated with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.91, P dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) demonstrates that including objective measures of light exposure and sample timing during home saliva sampling can lead to accurate home DLMOs. Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Using an Active-Optical Sensor to Develop an Optimal NDVI Dynamic Model for High-Yield Rice Production (Yangtze, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Ferguson, Richard B; Zheng, Hengbiao; Cao, Qiang; Tian, Yongchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-24

    The successful development of an optimal canopy vegetation index dynamic model for obtaining higher yield can offer a technical approach for real-time and nondestructive diagnosis of rice (Oryza sativa L) growth and nitrogen (N) nutrition status. In this study, multiple rice cultivars and N treatments of experimental plots were carried out to obtain: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), above-ground dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY) data. The quantitative relationships between NDVI and these growth indices (e.g., LAI, DM and GY) were analyzed, showing positive correlations. Using the normalized modeling method, an appropriate NDVI simulation model of rice was established based on the normalized NDVI (RNDVI) and relative accumulative growing degree days (RAGDD). The NDVI dynamic model for high-yield production in rice can be expressed by a double logistic model: RNDVI = ( 1 + e - 15.2829 × ( R A G D D i - 0.1944 ) ) - 1 - ( 1 + e - 11.6517 × ( R A G D D i - 1.0267 ) ) - 1 (R2 = 0.8577**), which can be used to accurately predict canopy NDVI dynamic changes during the entire growth period. Considering variation among rice cultivars, we constructed two relative NDVI (RNDVI) dynamic models for Japonica and Indica rice types, with R2 reaching 0.8764** and 0.8874**, respectively. Furthermore, independent experimental data were used to validate the RNDVI dynamic models. The results showed that during the entire growth period, the accuracy (k), precision (R2), and standard deviation of RNDVI dynamic models for the Japonica and Indica cultivars were 0.9991, 1.0170; 0.9084**, 0.8030**; and 0.0232, 0.0170, respectively. These results indicated that RNDVI dynamic models could accurately reflect crop growth and predict dynamic changes in high-yield crop populations, providing a rapid approach for monitoring rice growth status.

  15. Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  17. Assessing the Effect of Organic Compounds, Biofertilizers and Chemical Fertilizers on Morphological Properties,yield and Yield Components of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Saeidnejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, using the source of organic fertilizers and biofertilizers in sustainable crop production is growing. In order to evaluate the effect of organic compounds, biofertilizers and chemical fertilizer on morphological properties, yield and yield components of forage Sorghum (sorghum bicolor a field experiment was conducted in the Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2008.The treatments were seed inoculation with the combination of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, Compost (15 t/ha, Vermicompost (10 t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum and compost (10t/ha, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense and Vermicompost (7t/ha, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense combination, seed inoculation with Pseudomonas flurescence and compost (15t/ha, chemical fertilizer (80 kg/h urea fertilizer and 50 kg/h super phosphate fertilizer and control. Harvesting was performed in 2 cuts in flowering stage. Plant height, number of tiller per plant and SPAD reading was significantly affected by the treatments. Stem diameter was not affected by any treatments. There was a significant difference among all treatments in terms of fresh and dry forage yield. There were no significant differences among all treatments in terms of stem and leaf dry matter. In general, result of this experiment indicated that organic amendments and biofertilizers could be acceptable alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  18. Design and construction of an injector for an electron/positron Linac optimized for positron yield and minimal particle loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, Clemens

    2014-11-01

    The Linac II is the first part of the accelerator chain supplying PETRA III. Since the start of PETRA III operation, highest reliability is demanded and several updates are required. Part of these is the new injection system. Beam loss at high energies and the associated activation have to be avoided. At energies above 80 MeV particle loss of 20% occurred. Additionally, an alternative to the old gun, operating in an oil bath and for which cathode preparation is not available, is required. The new system will be commissioned while the old bombarder gun injector is kept for redundancy. In order to obtain the space for joining the beam lines of both electron sources, one accelerator section must be removed. Electron pulses of 6 A beam current and 2 to 30 ns length are provided by the new injection system. The gun uses a thermionic cathode, 100 kV voltage for acceleration and is built as a triode. Longitudinal focusing is performed by a prebuncher and a hybrid buncher structure, both operating at 3 GHz. The buncher is a traveling wave structure to which a short cell has been added, operated in π mode with a standing wave. That way, better electron capture is achieved. A magnetic chicane serves for energy filtering. The design of the injection system, as well as the old injector, have been optimized in simulations and transmission in the linac has been compared. Possible reasons for beam loss are beam loading and misaligned components. For the bombarder gun particle tracking, a loss of 1% at high energies was observed due to beam loading. The additional beam optics and steering options in the beam line allow for compensation of the misalignment of preceding and succeeding components. The complete new injection system has been operated in a test stand and has undergone extensive tests. After successive enhancement of technically critical components, reliable operation was possible. Investigations of the electron capture and bunching procedure have been carried out by

  19. Diagnostic yield of the comprehensive assessment of developmental delay/mental retardation in an institute of child neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, A; Bianchini, E; Carey, J C

    1999-01-01

    , while confirming the diagnostic utility of cytogenetic/molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies, suggest the usefulness of accurate electroencephalogram recordings, and stress the importance of a thorough physical examination. Referral to a university child neurology and psychiatry service, where a comprehensive assessment with a selected battery of investigations is possible, yields etiologic findings in a high percentage of DD/MR patients, with important implications for management, prognosis and recurrence risk estimate.

  20. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  1. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection

  2. Assessment of sediment yield using RS and GIS at two sub-basins of Dez Watershed, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Noori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is a serious threat to soil and water resources in semi-arid regions. Modified Pacific South-west Inter Agency Committee (MPSIAC and Erosion Potential Method (EPM, as two well-known models, have shown their performance in many case studies. The goal of present study is to assess the efficiency of these methods for estimating the sediments yield and erosion intensity within short-term and long-term timeframes over two sub-basins of Dez watershed, west of Iran. The results showed that the study area can be categorized into slight, moderate, high and very high erosion zones. Almost half of the study area is highly susceptible to erosion due to the geological formations and land cover. Moreover, the long-term (i.e. 30 years sediment yield of 387 and 615 (kton y−1 estimated by MPSIAC and EPM models demonstrated the superiority of EPM. Compared to the measured value of 612 (kton y−1, the performance of EPM was astonishing. By splitting the dataset into six periods of five years, the sediment yield was predicted in short-term periods by both aforementioned methods. Such segmentation provides the opportunity to evaluate the impact of extreme flooding events on the models performances. The results showed that both models failed in estimation of sediment load during flood conditions. Nevertheless, the correlation coefficients for estimating the sediment yield were found to be R=0.93 and R=0.85 for EPM and MPSIAC models respectively, for short-term simulations.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal pollution with applications of sewage sludge and city compost for maximizing crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Raghu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Land application of municipal sewage sludge and city compost as organic manures make it imperative to assess heavy-metal pollution in soils and crops. Greenhouse experiments, conducted on maize in a vertisol and an ultisol amended with various doses of dry sewage sludge and city compost from Mumbai, indicated significant increases in dry matter-yields only in the vertisol. Significantly higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni and Cd were obtained in plants grown in the amended ultisol, but not in the amended vertisol. As Cd is the most toxic, experiments were conducted with four contrasting soils amended with varying doses of Cd-enriched sewage sludge and city compost. Results showed significant reductions in dry-matter yields of maize shoots at the higher rates of sludge or compost in the ultisol and an alfisol, but with no significant effects in the vertisol or an entisol. The levels of Cd and Zn were significantly elevated in plants in all four soil types. There were negative residual effects from the sludge and compost amendments: dry-matter yields of a succeeding maize crop were decreased in the ultisol and alfisol. Experiments with soils amended with sludge enriched with either Cd or Zn at 80 mg kg -1 indicated significant reductions in dry matter in all soils with Cd, but not with Zn. The results demonstrate that sewage sludges and city composts may be effectively used for maximizing crop yields, especially in vertisols and entisols. However, caution has to be exercised when using sludges containing even relatively low levels of Cd, or high levels of Zn, depending upon soil type. (author)

  4. Infant attachment and toddlers' sleep assessed by maternal reports and actigraphy: different measurement methods yield different relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Carrier, Julie

    2013-06-01

    To investigate relations between children's attachment and sleep, using objective and subjective sleep measures. Secondarily, to identify the most accurate actigraphy algorithm for toddlers. 55 mother-child dyads took part in the Strange Situation Procedure (18 months) to assess attachment. At 2 years, children wore an Actiwatch for a 72-hr period, and their mothers completed a sleep diary. The high sensitivity (80) and smoothed actigraphy algorithms provided the most plausible sleep data. Maternal diaries yielded longer estimated sleep duration and shorter wake duration at night and showed poor agreement with actigraphy. More resistant attachment behavior was not associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep, but was associated with longer nocturnal wake duration as estimated by mothers, and with a reduced actigraphy-diary discrepancy. Mothers of children with resistant attachment are more aware of their child's nocturnal awakenings. Researchers and clinicians should select the best sleep measurement method for their specific needs.

  5. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  6. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  7. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G Franco

    Full Text Available Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  8. Assessment of In-Season Cotton Nitrogen Status and Lint Yield Prediction from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ballester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work assessed the usefulness of a set of spectral indices obtained from an unmanned aerial system (UAS for tracking spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen (N status as well as for predicting lint yield in a commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. farm. Organic, inorganic and a combination of both types of fertilizers were used to provide a range of eight N rates from 0 to 340 kg N ha−1. Multi-spectral images (reflectance in the blue, green, red, red edge and near infrared bands were acquired on seven days throughout the season, from 62 to 169 days after sowing (DAS, and data were used to compute structure- and chlorophyll-sensitive vegetation indices (VIs. Above-ground plant biomass was sampled at first flower, first cracked boll and maturity and total plant N concentration (N% and N uptake determined. Lint yield was determined at harvest and the relationships with the VIs explored. Results showed that differences in plant N% and N uptake between treatments increased as the season progressed. Early in the season, when fertilizer applications can still have an effect on lint yield, the simplified canopy chlorophyll content index (SCCCI was the index that best explained the variation in N uptake and plant N% between treatments. Around first cracked boll and maturity, the linear regression obtained for the relationships between the VIs and both plant N% and N uptake was statistically significant, with the highest r2 values obtained at maturity. The normalized difference red edge (NDRE index, and SCCCI were generally the indices that best distinguished the treatments according to the N uptake and total plant N%. Treatments with the highest N rates (from 307 to 340 kg N ha−1 had lower normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI than treatments with 0 and 130 kg N ha−1 at the first measurement day (62 DAS, suggesting that factors other than fertilization N rate affected plant growth at this early stage of the crop. This fact

  9. Statistical optimization for enhanced yields of probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its phage resistant mutants followed by kinetic modelling of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kavita R; Joshi, Chetan; Vakil, Babu V

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host. A leading pharmaceutical company producing Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic was facing the problem of recurring phage attacks. Two mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII that were isolated as phage resistant mutants after UV irradiation and MMS treatment of phage sensitive B. coagulans parental culture were characterized at functional and molecular level and were noted to have undergone interesting genetic changes. The non-specific genetic alterations induced by mutagenesis can also lead to alterations in cell performance. Hence, in the current study the parental strain and the two mutants were selected for shake flask optimization. Plackett-Burman design was used to select the significant culture variables affecting biomass production. Evolutionary operation method was applied for further optimization. The study showed wide variations in the nutritional requirements of phage resistant mutants, post exposure to mutagens. An increment of 150, 134 and 152 % was observed in the biomass productions of B. coagulans (parental type) and mutants B.co PIII and B.co MIII respectively, compared to the yield from one-factor-at-a-time technique. Using Logistic and modified Leudeking-Piret equations, biomass accumulation and substrate utilization efficiency of the bioprocess were determined. The experimental data was in agreement with the results predicted by statistical analysis and modelling. The developed model may be useful for controlling the growth and substrate consumption kinetics in large scale fermentation using B. coagulans .

  10. Comparisons of criteria in the assessment model parameter optimizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhe; Zhang Yongxing

    1993-01-01

    Three criteria (chi square, relative chi square and correlation coefficient) used in model parameter optimization (MPO) process that aims at significant reduction of prediction uncertainties were discussed and compared to each other with the aid of a well-controlled tracer experiment

  11. Assessing predation risk: optimal behaviour and rules of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2003-12-01

    We look at a simple model in which an animal makes behavioural decisions over time in an environment in which all parameters are known to the animal except predation risk. In the model there is a trade-off between gaining information about predation risk and anti-predator behaviour. All predator attacks lead to death for the prey, so that the prey learns about predation risk by virtue of the fact that it is still alive. We show that it is not usually optimal to behave as if the current unbiased estimate of the predation risk is its true value. We consider two different ways to model reproduction; in the first scenario the animal reproduces throughout its life until it dies, and in the second scenario expected reproductive success depends on the level of energy reserves the animal has gained by some point in time. For both of these scenarios we find results on the form of the optimal strategy and give numerical examples which compare optimal behaviour with behaviour under simple rules of thumb. The numerical examples suggest that the value of the optimal strategy over the rules of thumb is greatest when there is little current information about predation risk, learning is not too costly in terms of predation, and it is energetically advantageous to learn about predation. We find that for the model and parameters investigated, a very simple rule of thumb such as 'use the best constant control' performs well.

  12. High diagnostic yield and accuracy of history, physical examination, and ECG in patients with transient loss of consciousness in FAST: The fainting assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Nynke; Boer, Kimberly R.; Colman, Nancy; Bakker, Annemieke; Stam, Jan; van Grieken, Johannes J. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Linzer, Mark; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Wieling, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    Yield and Accuracy of Diagnosing TLOC. Background: Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a common clinical problem. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the yield and accuracy of the initial evaluation, consisting of standardized history, physical examination, and ECG performed by

  13. The yield gap of major food crops in family agriculture in the tropics: Assessment and analysis through field surveys and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affholder, F.; Poeydebat, C.; Corbeels, M.; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps of major food crops are wide under rainfed family agriculture in the tropics. Their magnitude and causes vary substantially across agro-ecological, demographic and market situations. Methods to assess yield gaps should cope with spatio-temporal variability of bio-physical conditions,

  14. Implantable loop recorders for assessment of syncope: increased diagnostic yield and less adverse outcomes with the latest generation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, A; Bocconcelli, P; De Santo, T; Ghidini Ottonelli, A; Giuli, S; Massa, R; Svetlich, C; Tarsi, G; Corbucci, G; Tronconi, F; Vitale, E

    2013-08-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic yield of implantable loop recorders (ILR) of two successive generations for the assessment of syncope. Data on patients who had undergone ILR implantation for unexplained syncope in four Italian public hospitals were retrospectively acquired from the Medtronic Clinical Service database. After implantation, routine follow-up examinations were performed every 90 days, while urgent examinations were carried out in the event of syncope recurrence. The following findings were regarded as diagnostic: ECG documentation of a syncope recurrence; documentation of any of the arrhythmias listed by the current guidelines as diagnostic findings even if asymptomatic. Between November 2002 and March 2010, 107 patients received an ILR (40 Medtronic Reveal® Plus; 67 Medtronic Reveal® DX/XT) and underwent at least one follow-up examination. Diagnoses were made in 7 (17.5%) and 24 (35.8%) (P=0.043) patients, with a median time of 228 and 65 days, respectively. Three (42.9%) and 21 (87.5%) (P=0.029) diagnoses were based on automatically detected events, while adverse outcomes occurred in 6 and in 1 (P=0.01) patients, respectively. Our results show that the new-generation device offer a higher diagnostic yield, mainly as a result of its improved automatic detection function, and is associated with fewer adverse outcomes.

  15. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  16. Drought-related vulnerability and risk assessment of groundwater in Belgium: estimation of the groundwater recharge and crop yield vulnerability with the B-CGMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Verbeiren, Boud; Vanderhaegen, Sven; Canters, Frank; Vermeiren, Karolien; Engelen, Guy; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke; Tychon, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Due to common belief that regions under temperate climate are not affected by (meteorological and groundwater) drought, these events and their impacts remain poorly studied: in the GroWaDRISK, we propose to take stock of this question. We aim at providing a better understanding of the influencing factors (land use and land cover changes, water demand and climate) and the drought-related impacts on the environment, water supply and agriculture. The study area is located in the North-East of Belgium, corresponding approximatively to the Dijle and Demer catchments. To establish an overview of the groundwater situation, we assess the system input: the recharge. To achieve this goal, two models, B-CGMS and WetSpass are used to evaluate the recharge, respectively, over agricultural land and over the remaining areas, as a function of climate and for various land uses and land covers. B-CGMS, which is an adapted version for Belgium of the European Crop Growth Monitoring System, is used for assessing water recharge at a daily timestep and under different agricultural lands: arable land (winter wheat, maize...), orchards, horticulture and floriculture and for grassland. B-CGMS is designed to foresee crop yield and obviously it studies the impact of drought on crop yield and raises issues for the potential need of irrigation. For both yields and water requirements, the model proposes a potential mode, driven by temperature and solar radiation, and a water-limited mode for which water availability can limit crop growth. By this way, we can identify where and when water consumption and yield are not optimal, in addition to the Crop Water Stress Index. This index is calculated for a given crop, as the number of days affected by water stress during the growth sensitive period. Both recharge and crop yield are assessed for the current situation (1980 - 2012), taking into account the changing land use/land cover, in terms of areas and localization of the agricultural land and where

  17. Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y T; Wubs, A M; Mathieu, A; Heuvelink, E; Zhu, J Y; Hu, B G; Cournède, P H; de Reffye, P

    2011-04-01

    Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional-structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source-sink relationships. A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle. Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source-sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source-sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source

  18. An Optimal Scheduling Dispatch of a Microgrid under Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the scheduling dispatch of a microgrid (MG, while considering renewable energy, battery storage systems, and time-of-use price. For the risk evaluation of an MG, the Value-at-Risk (VAR is calculated by using the Historical Simulation Method (HSM. By considering the various confidence levels of the VAR, a scheduling dispatch model of the MG is formulated to achieve a reasonable trade-off between the risk and cost. An Improved Bee Swarm Optimization (IBSO is proposed to solve the scheduling dispatch model of the MG. In the IBSO procedure, the Sin-wave Weight Factor (SWF and Forward-Backward Control Factor (FBCF are embedded in the bee swarm of the BSO to improve the movement behaviors of each bee, specifically, its search efficiency and accuracy. The effectiveness of the IBSO is demonstrated via a real MG case and the results are compared with other methods. In either a grid-connected scenario or a stand-alone scenario, an optimal scheduling dispatch of MGs is carried out, herein, at various confidence levels of risk. The simulation results provide more information for handling uncertain environments when analyzing the VAR of MGs.

  19. Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. Research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Serradell, V.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background, objective, scope, detailed working plan and follow-up and final product of the project ''Global optimization of maintenance and surveillance testing based on reliability and probabilistic safety assessment'' are described

  20. Use of a channelized Hotelling observer to assess CT image quality and optimize dose reduction for iteratively reconstructed images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher P; Ferrero, Andrea; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McMillan, Kyle L; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2017-07-01

    The use of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms in CT generally decreases image noise and enables dose reduction. However, the amount of dose reduction possible using IR without sacrificing diagnostic performance is difficult to assess with conventional image quality metrics. Through this investigation, achievable dose reduction using a commercially available IR algorithm without loss of low contrast spatial resolution was determined with a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) model and used to optimize a clinical abdomen/pelvis exam protocol. A phantom containing 21 low contrast disks-three different contrast levels and seven different diameters-was imaged at different dose levels. Images were created with filtered backprojection (FBP) and IR. The CHO was tasked with detecting the low contrast disks. CHO performance indicated dose could be reduced by 22% to 25% without compromising low contrast detectability (as compared to full-dose FBP images) whereas 50% or more dose reduction significantly reduced detection performance. Importantly, default settings for the scanner and protocol investigated reduced dose by upward of 75%. Subsequently, CHO-based protocol changes to the default protocol yielded images of higher quality and doses more consistent with values from a larger, dose-optimized scanner fleet. CHO assessment provided objective data to successfully optimize a clinical CT acquisition protocol.

  1. Optimization and Assessment of Wavelet Packet Decompositions with Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schell Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In image compression, the wavelet transformation is a state-of-the-art component. Recently, wavelet packet decomposition has received quite an interest. A popular approach for wavelet packet decomposition is the near-best-basis algorithm using nonadditive cost functions. In contrast to additive cost functions, the wavelet packet decomposition of the near-best-basis algorithm is only suboptimal. We apply methods from the field of evolutionary computation (EC to test the quality of the near-best-basis results. We observe a phenomenon: the results of the near-best-basis algorithm are inferior in terms of cost-function optimization but are superior in terms of rate/distortion performance compared to EC methods.

  2. Greenhouse gases emission assessment in residential sector through buildings simulations and operation optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojiljković, Mirko M.; Ignjatović, Marko G.; Vučković, Goran D.

    2015-01-01

    Buildings use a significant amount of primary energy and largely contribute to greenhouse gases emission. Cost optimality and cost effectiveness, including cost-optimal operation, are important for the adoption of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. The long-term assessment of buildings-related greenhouse gases emission might take into account cost-optimal operation of their energy systems. This is often not the case in the literature. Long-term operation optimization problems are often of large scale and computationally intensive and time consuming. This paper formulates a bottom-up methodology relying on an efficient, but precise operation optimization approach, applicable to long-term problems and use with buildings simulations. We suggest moving-horizon short-term optimization to determine near-optimal operation modes and show that this approach, applied to flexible energy systems without seasonal storage, have satisfactory efficiency and accuracy compared with solving problem for an entire year. We also confirm it as a valuable pre-solve technique. Approach applicability and the importance of energy systems optimization are illustrated with a case study considering buildings envelope improvements and cogeneration and heat storage implementation in an urban residential settlement. EnergyPlus is used for buildings simulations while mixed integer linear programming optimization problems are constructed and solved using the custom-built software and the branch-and-cut solver Gurobi Optimizer. - Highlights: • Bottom-up approach for greenhouse gases emission assessment is presented. • Short-term moving-horizon optimization is used to define operation regimes. • Operation optimization and buildings simulations are connected with modeling tool. • Illustrated optimization method performed efficiently and gave accurate results.

  3. Optimal Designs for Performance Assessments: The Subject Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jay

    Much speculation abounds concerning how expensive performance assessments are or are going to be. Recent projections indicate that, in order to achieve an acceptably high generalizability coefficient, many additional tasks may need to be added, which will enlarge costs. Such projections are, to some degree, correct, and to some degree simplistic.…

  4. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  5. Assessment of the optimal temporal window for intravenous CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindera, Sebastian T.; Nelson, Rendon C.; Paulson, Erik K.; DeLong, David M.; Merkle, Elmar M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The optimal temporal window of intravenous (IV) computed tomography (CT) cholangiography was prospectively determined. Fifteen volunteers (eight women, seven men; mean age, 38 years) underwent dynamic CT cholangiography. Two unenhanced images were acquired at the porta hepatis. Starting 5 min after initiation of IV contrast infusion (20 ml iodipamide meglumine 52%), 15 pairs of images at 5-min intervals were obtained. Attenuation of the extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) and the liver parenchyma was measured. Two readers graded visualization of the higher-order biliary branches. The first biliary opacification in the EBD occurred between 15 and 25 min (mean, 22.3 min {+-} 3.2) after initiation of the contrast agent. Biliary attenuation plateaued between the 35- and the 75-min time points. Maximum hepatic parenchymal enhancement was 18.5 HU {+-} 2.7. Twelve subjects demonstrated poor or non-visualization of higher-order biliary branches; three showed good or excellent visualization. Body weight and both biliary attenuation and visualization of the higher-order biliary branches correlated significantly (P<0.05). For peak enhancement of the biliary tree, CT cholangiography should be performed no earlier than 35 min after initiation of IV infusion. For a fixed contrast dose, superior visualization of the biliary system is achieved in subjects with lower body weight. (orig.)

  6. Design optimization of embedded ultrasonic transducers for concrete structures assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Cédric; Deraemaeker, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    In the last decades, the field of structural health monitoring and damage detection has been intensively explored. Active vibration techniques allow to excite structures at high frequency vibrations which are sensitive to small damage. Piezoelectric PZT transducers are perfect candidates for such testing due to their small size, low cost and large bandwidth. Current ultrasonic systems are based on external piezoelectric transducers which need to be placed on two faces of the concrete specimen. The limited accessibility of in-service structures makes such an arrangement often impractical. An alternative is to embed permanently low-cost transducers inside the structure. Such types of transducers have been applied successfully for the in-situ estimation of the P-wave velocity in fresh concrete, and for crack monitoring. Up to now, the design of such transducers was essentially based on trial and error, or in a few cases, on the limitation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between the PZT and concrete. In the present study, we explore the working principles of embedded piezoelectric transducers which are found to be significantly different from external transducers. One of the major challenges concerning embedded transducers is to produce very low cost transducers. We show that a practical way to achieve this imperative is to consider the radial mode of actuation of bulk PZT elements. This is done by developing a simple finite element model of a piezoelectric transducer embedded in an infinite medium. The model is coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm which is used to design specific ultrasonic embedded transducers both for hard and fresh concrete monitoring. The results show the efficiency of the approach and a few designs are proposed which are optimal for hard concrete, fresh concrete, or both, in a given frequency band of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chapter 1: Assessing pollinator habitat services to optimize conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanna, Richard; Ando , Amy W.; Swinton, Scott; Hellerstein, Daniel; Kagan, Jimmy; Mushet, David M.; Otto, Clint R.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Pollination services have received increased attention over the past several years, and protecting foraging area is beginning to be reflected in conservation policy. This case study considers the prospects for doing so in a more analytically rigorous manner, by quantifying the pollination services for sites being considered for ecological restoration. The specific policy context is the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which offers financial and technical assistance to landowners seeking to convert sensitive cropland back to some semblance of the prairie (or, to a lesser extent, forest or wetland) ecosystem that preceded it. Depending on the mix of grasses and wildflowers that are established, CRP enrollments can provide pollinator habitat. Further, depending on their location, they will generate related services, such as biological control of crop pests, recreation, and aesthetics. While offers to enroll in CRP compete based on cost and some anticipated benefits, the eligibility and ranking criteria do not reflect these services to a meaningful degree. Therefore, we develop a conceptual value diagram to identify the sequence of steps and associated models and data necessary to quantify the full range of services, and find that critical data gaps, some of which are artifacts of policy, preclude the application of benefit-relevant indicators (BRIs) or monetization. However, we also find that there is considerable research activity underway to fill these gaps. In addition, a modeling framework has been developed that can estimate field-level effects on services as a function of landscape context. The approach is inherently scalable and not limited in geographic scope, which is essential for a program with a national footprint. The parameters in this framework are sufficiently straightforward that expert judgment could be applied as a stopgap approach until empirically derived estimates are available. While monetization of benefit-relevant indicators of yield

  8. Optimization of Control Self Assessment Application to Minimize Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Endrianto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discussed a method that can be done by a company to minimize fraud action by applying Control Self Assessment (CSA. The study was conducted by studying literature on the topics discussed that were presented descriptively in a systematic manner through the review one by one from the initial problem to solve the problem. It can be concluded that CSA is one form of auditing practices that emphasizes anticipatory action (preventive of the act of detection (detective that the concept of modern internal audit which is carried more precise in application. It is one alternative that is most efficient and effective in reducing fraud.

  9. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  10. Using violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for crop yield assessment of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K.; Tetteh, Jonathan P.

    2004-07-01

    The use of violet laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) emission spectra to monitor the growth of five varieties of cowpea in the University of Cape Coast Botanical Garden is presented. Radiation from a continuous-wave violet laser diode emitting at 396 nm through a fibre is closely incident on in vivo leaves of cowpea to excite chlorophyll fluorescence, which is detected by an integrated spectrometer with CCD readout. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectra with peaks at 683 and 731 nm were used for growth monitoring of the cowpea plants over three weeks and analysed using Gaussian spectral functions with curve fitted parameters to determine the peak positions, area under the spectral curve and the intensity ratio F683/F731. The variation in the intensity ratio of the chlorophyll bands showed sensitive changes indicating the photosynthetic activity of the cowpea varieties. A discussion of the fluorescence result as compared to conventional assessment is presented with regard to discrimination between the cowpea varieties in terms of crop yield performance.

  11. A Pilot Study Assessing ECG versus ECHO Ventriculoventricular Optimization in Pediatric Resynchronization Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punn, Rajesh; Hanisch, Debra; Motonaga, Kara S; Rosenthal, David N; Ceresnak, Scott R; Dubin, Anne M

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy indications and management are well described in adults. Echocardiography (ECHO) has been used to optimize mechanical synchrony in these patients; however, there are issues with reproducibility and time intensity. Pediatric patients add challenges, with diverse substrates and limited capacity for cooperation. Electrocardiographic (ECG) methods to assess electrical synchrony are expeditious but have not been extensively studied in children. We sought to compare ECHO and ECG CRT optimization in children. Prospective, pediatric, single-center cross-over trial comparing ECHO and ECG optimization with CRT. Patients were assigned to undergo either ECHO or ECG optimization, followed for 6 months, and crossed-over to the other assignment for another 6 months. ECHO pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and 12-lead ECG were obtained for 5 VV delays. ECG optimization was defined as the shortest QRSD and ECHO optimization as the lowest dyssynchrony index. ECHOs/ECGs were interpreted by readers blinded to optimization technique. After each 6 month period, these data were collected: ejection fraction, velocimetry-derived cardiac index, quality of life, ECHO-derived stroke distance, M-mode dyssynchrony, study cost, and time. Outcomes for each optimization method were compared. From June 2012 to December 2013, 19 patients enrolled. Mean age was 9.1 ± 4.3 years; 14 (74%) had structural heart disease. The mean time for optimization was shorter using ECG than ECHO (9 ± 1 min vs. 68 ± 13 min, P cost for charges was $4,400 ± 700 less for ECG. No other outcome differed between groups. ECHO optimization of synchrony was not superior to ECG optimization in this pilot study. ECG optimization required less time and cost than ECHO optimization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  13. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  14. Applying computer adaptive testing to optimize online assessment of suicidal behavior: a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beurs, D.P.; de Vries, A.L.M.; de Groot, M.H.; de Keijser, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce

  15. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Vermote, Eric; Roger, Jean-Claude; Franch, Belen

    2017-01-01

    Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of an image every 3-5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10-30 m). This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  16. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Skakun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of 3–5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10–30 m. This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION METHODS FOR OPTIMIZING HAZY SATELLITE IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umara Firman Rizidansyah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine suitability of three types of haze correction methods toward distinctness of surface objects in land cover. Considering the formation of haze therefore the main research are divided into both region namely rural assumed as vegetation and urban assumed as non vegetation area. Region of interest for rural selected Balaraja and urban selected Penjaringan. Haze imagery reduction utilized techniques such as Dark Object Substration, Virtual Cloud Point and Histogram Match. By applying an equation of Haze Optimized Transformation HOT = DNbluesin(∂-DNredcos(∂, the main result of this research includes: in the case of AVNIR-Rural, VCP has good results on Band 1 while the HM has good results on band 2, 3 and 4, therefore in the case of Avnir-Rural can be applied to HM. in the case of AVNIR-Urban, DOS has good result on band 1, 2 and 3 meanwhile HM has good results on band 4, therefore in the case of AVNIR-Urban can be applied to DOS. In the case of Landsat-Rural, DOS has good result on band 1, 2 and 6 meanwhile VCP has good results on band 4 and 5 and the smallest average value of HOT is 106.547 by VCP, therefore in the case of Lansat-Rural can be applied to DOS and VCP. In the case of Landsat-Urban, DOS has good result on band 1, 2 and 6 meanwhile VCP has good results on band 3, 4 and 5, therefore in the case of Landsat-Urban can be applied to VCP.   Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji kesesuaian tiga jenis metode koreksi haze terhadap kejelasan obyek permukaan di wilayah tutupan vegetasi dan non vegetasi, berkenaan menghilangkan haze di wilayah citra satelit optis yang memiliki karakteristik tertentu dan diduga proses pembentukan partikel hazenya berbeda. Sehingga daerah penelitian dibagi menjadi wilayah rural yang diasumsikan sebagai daerah vegetasi dan urban sebagai non vegetasi. Pedesaan terpilih kecamatan Balaraja dan Perkotaan terpilih kecamatan Penjaringan. Tiap lokasi menggunakan Avnir-2 dan Landsat

  18. Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations: West Point Military Academy, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    chillers to work unnecessarily more than needed. Other buildings had setpoints at different areas above 55 °F. Many buildings are air-conditioned and... optimal . The cost of 12.5 cents/KWh makes it unlikely, especially where steam adsorption chillers exist. 11.8.2 Solution Use the existing steam...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 8 -1 4 Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations West Point Military Academy, NY David M

  19. Impact assessment of recent climate change on rice yields in the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Dong, Guanpeng; Wu, Wenxiang

    2013-08-30

    Investigating the degree to which climate change may have impacted on rice yields can provide an insight into how to adapt to climate change in the future. Meteorological and rice yield data over the period 1960-2009 from the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China (HRANC) were used to explore the possible impacts of climate change on rice yields at sub-regional scale. Results showed that a warming trend was obvious in the HRANC and discernible climate fluctuations and yield variations on inter-annual scale were detected to have occurred in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was observed between growing season temperature and rice yields, with an increase rate by approximately 3.60% for each 1°C rise in the minimum temperature during growing season. Such findings are consistent with the current mainstream view that warming climate may exert positive impacts on crop yields in the middle and higher latitude regions. Our study indicated that the growing season minimum temperature was a major driver of all the climatic factors to the recent increase trends in rice yield in HRANC over the last five decades. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  1. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  2. Increasing crop yield and resilience with trehalose 6-phosphate: targeting a feast-famine mechanism in cereals for better source-sink optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Oszvald, Maria; Jesus, Claudia; Rajulu, Charukesi; Griffiths, Cara A

    2017-07-20

    Food security is a pressing global issue. New approaches are required to break through a yield ceiling that has developed in recent years for the major crops. As important as increasing yield potential is the protection of yield from abiotic stresses in an increasingly variable and unpredictable climate. Current strategies to improve yield include conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), mutagenesis, creation of hybrids, genetic modification (GM), emerging genome-editing technologies, and chemical approaches. A regulatory mechanism amenable to three of these approaches has great promise for large yield improvements. Trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) synthesized in the low-flux trehalose biosynthetic pathway signals the availability of sucrose in plant cells as part of a whole-plant sucrose homeostatic mechanism. Modifying T6P content by GM, marker-assisted selection, and novel chemistry has improved yield in three major cereals under a range of water availabilities from severe drought through to flooding. Yield improvements have been achieved by altering carbon allocation and how carbon is used. Targeting T6P both temporally and spatially offers great promise for large yield improvements in productive (up to 20%) and marginal environments (up to 120%). This opinion paper highlights this important breakthrough in fundamental science for crop improvement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  4. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, M.; Ali, M.A.; Subhani, G.M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  5. Methodological optimization of tinnitus assessment using prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, R J; Galazyuk, A V

    2012-11-16

    Recently prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) became a popular technique for tinnitus assessment in laboratory animals. This method confers a significant advantage over the previously used time-consuming behavioral approaches utilizing basic mechanisms of conditioning. Although this technique has been successfully used to assess tinnitus in different laboratory animals, many of the finer details of this methodology have not been described enough to be replicated, but are critical for tinnitus assessment. Here we provide detail description of key procedures and methodological issues that provide guidance for newcomers with the process of learning to correctly apply gap detection techniques for tinnitus assessment in laboratory animals. The major categories of these issues include: refinement of hardware for best performance, optimization of stimulus parameters, behavioral considerations, and identification of optimal strategies for data analysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  7. Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: assessing risk, monitoring response, and optimizing outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Naranie; Hiwase, Devendra Keshaorao; Ross, David Morrall

    2017-12-01

    Over the past two decades, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the foundation of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment. The choice between imatinib and newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) needs to be balanced against the known toxicity and efficacy data for each drug, the therapeutic goal being to maximize molecular response assessed by BCR-ABL RQ-PCR assay. There is accumulating evidence that the early achievement of molecular targets is a strong predictor of superior long-term outcomes. Early response assessment provides the opportunity to intervene early with the aim of ensuring an optimal response. Failure to achieve milestones or loss of response can have diverse causes. We describe how clinical and laboratory monitoring can be used to ensure that each patient is achieving an optimal response and, in patients who do not reach optimal response milestones, how the monitoring results can be used to detect resistance and understand its origins.

  8. Optimized assessment and usage of biological waste; Optimierte Erfassung und Verwertung von Bioabfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The booklet on the optimized assessment and usage of biological waste includes contributions on the following issues: implementation of the bio-waste assessment in the federal states; economy and ecology of bio-waste fermentation; practice forum biogas: new bio-waste fermentation plants in Germany; effects of legal reforms on the usage and processing of bio-waste; flexible electricity input and power-to-gas.

  9. Assessment of the Optimization of E-Learning Facilities to Lecturers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the optimization of e-learning facilities to lecturers and students in Federal Colleges of Education in North West Zone of Nigeria. A descriptive survey was used. The population comprised all the lecturers and students in five (5) Federal Colleges of Education in the zone – numbering about 3,650 ...

  10. Visions about Future: A New Scale Assessing Optimism, Pessimism, and Hope in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Soresi, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the development and psychometric properties of visions about future (VAF), an instrument assessing hope, optimism, and pessimism. Three different studies involving Italian adolescents were conducted. With the first study 22 items were developed and the factor structure was verified. The second study, involving a second sample…

  11. Recommended practices for wind farm data collection and reliability assessment for O&M optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Berthold; Welte, Thomas; Faulstich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . The complete results of IEA Wind Task 33 are described in the expert group report on recommended practices for "Wind farm data collection and reliability assessment for O&M optimization" which will be published by IEA Wind in 2017. This paper briefly presents the background of the work, the recommended process...

  12. Errors and uncertainties introduced by a regional climate model in climate impact assessments: example of crop yield simulations in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarohetra, Johanna; Pohl, Benjamin; Sultan, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of estimating the potential impacts of climate change has led to an increasing use of dynamical downscaling to produce fine spatial-scale climate projections for impact assessments. In this work, we analyze if and to what extent the bias in the simulated crop yield can be reduced by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis) rainfall and radiation data. Then, we evaluate the uncertainties resulting from both the choice of the physical parameterizations of the WRF model and its internal variability. Impact assessments were performed at two sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and by using two crop models to simulate Niger pearl millet and Benin maize yields. We find that the use of the WRF model to downscale ERA-Interim climate data generally reduces the bias in the simulated crop yield, yet this reduction in bias strongly depends on the choices in the model setup. Among the physical parameterizations considered, we show that the choice of the land surface model (LSM) is of primary importance. When there is no coupling with a LSM, or when the LSM is too simplistic, the simulated precipitation and then the simulated yield are null, or respectively very low; therefore, coupling with a LSM is necessary. The convective scheme is the second most influential scheme for yield simulation, followed by the shortwave radiation scheme. The uncertainties related to the internal variability of the WRF model are also significant and reach up to 30% of the simulated yields. These results suggest that regional models need to be used more carefully in order to improve the reliability of impact assessments. (letter)

  13. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  14. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone

  15. Comparison, artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization of the resinoid and potassium yields from white lady’s bedstraw (Galium mollugo L. by conventional, reflux and ultrasound-assisted aqueous-ethanolic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Petar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the yields of resinoid and potassium obtained from aerial parts of white lady’s bedstraw (Galium mollugo L. by maceration, reflux extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction using aqueous ethanol solutions as solvents. The main goal was to define the influence of the extraction technique and the ethanol concentration on the resinoid and potassium yields. The resinoid and potassium yields were determined by the solvent evaporation from the liquid extracts to constant weight and the AAS emission method, respectively. The dependence of resinoid and potassium yields on the ethanol concentration was described by linear and quadratic polynomial models, respectively. The best potassium extraction selectivity of 0.077 g K/g of dry extract was achieved by maceration at the ethanol concentrations of 10 g/100 g. The artificial neural network (ANN was successfully applied to estimate the resinoid and potassium yields based on the ethanol concentration in the extracting solvent and the time duration for all three extraction techniques employed. The response surface methodology was also used to present the dependence of ANN results on the operating factors. The extraction process was optimized using the ANN model coupled with genetic algorithm. The maximum predicted resinoid and potassium yields of 30.4 and 1.67 g/100 g of dry plant were obtained by the ultrasonic extraction (80 min using the 10 g/100 g aqueous ethanol solution.

  16. An economic assessment of the health effects and crop yield losses caused by air pollution in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Weijie; Huang, Xin; Song, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution is severe in China, and pollutants such as PM 2.5 and surface O 3 may cause major damage to human health and crops, respectively. Few studies have considered the health effects of PM 2.5 or the loss of crop yields due to surface O 3 using model-simulated air pollution data in China. We used gridded outputs from the WRF-Chem model, high resolution population data, and crop yield data to evaluate the effects on human health and crop yield in mainland China. Our results showed that outdoor PM 2.5 pollution was responsible for 1.70-1.99 million cases of all-cause mortality in 2006. The economic costs of these health effects were estimated to be 151.1-176.9 billion USD, of which 90% were attributed to mortality. The estimated crop yield losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean were approximately 9, 4.6, 0.44, and 0.34 million tons, respectively, resulting in economic losses of 3.4 billion USD. The total economic losses due to ambient air pollution were estimated to be 154.5-180.3 billion USD, accounting for approximately 5.7%-6.6% of the total GDP of China in 2006. Our results show that both population health and staple crop yields in China have been significantly affected by exposure to air pollution. Measures should be taken to reduce emissions, improve air quality, and mitigate the economic loss. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  18. Assessing the Value of Information for Identifying Optimal Floodplain Management Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Bates, M.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain management is a complex portfolio problem that can be analyzed from an integrated perspective incorporating traditionally structural and nonstructural options. One method to identify effective strategies for preparing, responding to, and recovering from floods is to optimize for a portfolio of temporary (emergency) and permanent floodplain management options. A risk-based optimization approach to this problem assigns probabilities to specific flood events and calculates the associated expected damages. This approach is currently limited by: (1) the assumption of perfect flood forecast information, i.e. implementing temporary management activities according to the actual flood event may differ from optimizing based on forecasted information and (2) the inability to assess system resilience across a range of possible future events (risk-centric approach). Resilience is defined here as the ability of a system to absorb and recover from a severe disturbance or extreme event. In our analysis, resilience is a system property that requires integration of physical, social, and information domains. This work employs a 3-stage linear program to identify the optimal mix of floodplain management options using conditional probabilities to represent perfect and imperfect flood stages (forecast vs. actual events). We assess the value of information in terms of minimizing damage costs for two theoretical cases - urban and rural systems. We use portfolio analysis to explore how the set of optimal management options differs depending on whether the goal is for the system to be risk-adverse to a specified event or resilient over a range of events.

  19. Flight control optimization from design to assessment application on the Cessna Citation X business aircraft =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughari, Yamina

    New methodologies have been developed to optimize the integration, testing and certification of flight control systems, an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This thesis investigates the stability of the Cessna Citation X aircraft without control, and then optimizes two different flight controllers from design to validation. The aircraft's model was obtained from the data provided by the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator (RAFS) of the Cessna Citation business aircraft. To increase the stability and control of aircraft systems, optimizations of two different flight control designs were performed: 1) the Linear Quadratic Regulation and the Proportional Integral controllers were optimized using the Differential Evolution algorithm and the level 1 handling qualities as the objective function. The results were validated for the linear and nonlinear aircraft models, and some of the clearance criteria were investigated; and 2) the Hinfinity control method was applied on the stability and control augmentation systems. To minimize the time required for flight control design and its validation, an optimization of the controllers design was performed using the Differential Evolution (DE), and the Genetic algorithms (GA). The DE algorithm proved to be more efficient than the GA. New tools for visualization of the linear validation process were also developed to reduce the time required for the flight controller assessment. Matlab software was used to validate the different optimization algorithms' results. Research platforms of the aircraft's linear and nonlinear models were developed, and compared with the results of flight tests performed on the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator. Some of the clearance criteria of the optimized H-infinity flight controller were evaluated, including its linear stability, eigenvalues, and handling qualities criteria. Nonlinear simulations of the maneuvers criteria were also investigated during this research to assess the Cessna

  20. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating vegetation dryness to optimize fire risk assessment with spot vegetation satellite data in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Somers, B.; Lhermitte, S.; van Aardt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Coppin, P.

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on vegetation dryness prior to the use of fire as a management tool often leads to a significant deterioration of the savanna ecosystem. This paper therefore evaluated the capacity of SPOT VEGETATION time-series to monitor the vegetation dryness (i.e., vegetation moisture content per vegetation amount) in order to optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystem of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The integrated Relative Vegetation Index approach (iRVI) to quantify the amount of herbaceous biomass at the end of the rain season and the Accumulated Relative Normalized Difference vegetation index decrement (ARND) related to vegetation moisture content were selected. The iRVI and ARND related to vegetation amount and moisture content, respectively, were combined in order to monitor vegetation dryness and optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystems. In situ fire activity data was used to evaluate the significance of the iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness for fire risk assessment. Results from the binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the assessment of fire risk was optimized by integration of both the vegetation quantity (iRVI) and vegetation moisture content (ARND) as statistically significant explanatory variables. Consequently, the integrated use of both iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness provides a more suitable tool for fire management and suppression compared to other traditional satellite-based fire risk assessment methods, only related to vegetation moisture content.

  2. Assessing the Performance of MODIS NDVI and EVI for Seasonal Crop Yield Forecasting at the Ecodistrict Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Kouadio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield forecasting plays a vital role in coping with the challenges of the impacts of climate change on agriculture. Improvements in the timeliness and accuracy of yield forecasting by incorporating near real-time remote sensing data and the use of sophisticated statistical methods can improve our capacity to respond effectively to these challenges. The objectives of this study were (i to investigate the use of derived vegetation indices for the yield forecasting of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS at the ecodistrict scale across Western Canada with the Integrated Canadian Crop Yield Forecaster (ICCYF; and (ii to compare the ICCYF-model based forecasts and their accuracy across two spatial scales-the ecodistrict and Census Agricultural Region (CAR, namely in CAR with previously reported ICCYF weak performance. Ecodistricts are areas with distinct climate, soil, landscape and ecological aspects, whereas CARs are census-based/statistically-delineated areas. Agroclimate variables combined respectively with MODIS-NDVI and MODIS-EVI indices were used as inputs for the in-season yield forecasting of spring wheat during the 2000–2010 period. Regression models were built based on a procedure of a leave-one-year-out. The results showed that both agroclimate + MODIS-NDVI and agroclimate + MODIS-EVI performed equally well predicting spring wheat yield at the ECD scale. The mean absolute error percentages (MAPE of the models selected from both the two data sets ranged from 2% to 33% over the study period. The model efficiency index (MEI varied between −1.1 and 0.99 and −1.8 and 0.99, respectively for the agroclimate + MODIS-NDVI and agroclimate + MODIS-EVI data sets. Moreover, significant improvement in forecasting skill (with decreasing MAPE of 40% and 5 times increasing MEI, on average was obtained at the finer, ecodistrict spatial scale, compared to the coarser CAR scale. Forecast

  3. Optimizing cost-efficiency in mean exposure assessment--cost functions reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Bolin, Kristian

    2011-05-21

    Reliable exposure data is a vital concern in medical epidemiology and intervention studies. The present study addresses the needs of the medical researcher to spend monetary resources devoted to exposure assessment with an optimal cost-efficiency, i.e. obtain the best possible statistical performance at a specified budget. A few previous studies have suggested mathematical optimization procedures based on very simple cost models; this study extends the methodology to cover even non-linear cost scenarios. Statistical performance, i.e. efficiency, was assessed in terms of the precision of an exposure mean value, as determined in a hierarchical, nested measurement model with three stages. Total costs were assessed using a corresponding three-stage cost model, allowing costs at each stage to vary non-linearly with the number of measurements according to a power function. Using these models, procedures for identifying the optimally cost-efficient allocation of measurements under a constrained budget were developed, and applied on 225 scenarios combining different sizes of unit costs, cost function exponents, and exposure variance components. Explicit mathematical rules for identifying optimal allocation could be developed when cost functions were linear, while non-linear cost functions implied that parts of or the entire optimization procedure had to be carried out using numerical methods.For many of the 225 scenarios, the optimal strategy consisted in measuring on only one occasion from each of as many subjects as allowed by the budget. Significant deviations from this principle occurred if costs for recruiting subjects were large compared to costs for setting up measurement occasions, and, at the same time, the between-subjects to within-subject variance ratio was small. In these cases, non-linearities had a profound influence on the optimal allocation and on the eventual size of the exposure data set. The analysis procedures developed in the present study can be used

  4. Feasibility studies to assess the use of 236Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor in bioassay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Various plutonium compounds are handled in nuclear facilities of BARC. Hence, there is a possibility of occupational workers getting exposed to Pu. In vitro bioassay monitoring in which Pu is separated by chemical procedures from excreta samples and estimated by alpha-spectrometry, is the method of choice for the evaluation of internal dose to the occupational workers handling Pu. However, this method requires a suitable Pu tracer for reducing the uncertainties due to chemical yield in the separation, electro-deposition and counting efficiency. 242 Pu is commonly used as a tracer but due to its non-availability, efforts were made earlier to indigenously synthesis 236 Pu by proton irradiation of 237 Np in BARC-TIFR pelletron facility. The present study, reports the feasibility of using 236 Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor (tracer) in bioassay samples. (author)

  5. Economic impact of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd assessed by stochastic simulation using different methods to model yield losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, Christel; Østergaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the economic consequences of a reduction in the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) at herd level under current Swedish farming conditions. A second objective was to ask whether the estimated cost of CM alters depending upon whether the model...... with 150 cows (9000 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow-year). Four herd types, defined by production level and reproductive performance, were modelled to investigate possible interactions between herd type and response to a reduction in the risk of CM. Technical and economic results, given the initial...... incidence of CM (25.6 per 100 cow-years), were studied together with the consequences of reducing the initial risk of CM by 50% and 90% throughout lactation and the consequences of reducing the initial risk by 50% and 90% before peak yield. A conventional way of modelling yield losses - i.e. one employing...

  6. Humans as Sensors: Assessing the Information Value of Qualitative Farmer's Crop Condition Surveys for Crop Yield Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.

    2017-12-01

    While large efforts are devoted to developing crop status monitoring and yield forecasting systems trough the use of Earth observation data (mostly remotely sensed satellite imagery) and observational and modeled weather data, here we focus on the information value of qualitative data on crop status from direct observations made by humans. This kind of data has a high value as it reflects the expert opinion of individuals directly involved in the development of the crop. However, they have issues that prevent their direct use in crop monitoring and yield forecasting systems, such as their non-spatially explicit nature, or most importantly their qualitative nature. Indeed, while the human brain is good at categorizing the status of physical systems in terms of qualitative scales (`very good', `good', `fair', etcetera), it has difficulties in quantifying it in physical units. This has prevented the incorporation of this kind of data into systems that make extensive use of numerical information. Here we show an example of using qualitative crop condition data to estimate yields of the most important crops in the US early in the season. We use USDA weekly crop condition reports, which are based on a sample of thousands of reporters including mostly farmers and people in direct contact with them. These reporters provide subjective evaluations of crop conditions, in a scale including five levels ranging from `very poor' to `excellent'. The USDA report indicates, for each state, the proportion of reporters fort each condition level. We show how is it possible to model the underlying non-observed quantitative variable that reflects the crop status on each state, and how this model is consistent across states and years. Furthermore, we show how this information can be used to monitor the status of the crops and to produce yield forecasts early in the season. Finally, we discuss approaches for blending this information source with other, more classical earth data sources

  7. Assessment of Potential Climate Change Effects on the Rice Yield and Water Footprint in the Nanliujiang Catchment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nanliujiang catchment is one of major rice production bases of South China. Irrigation districts play an important role in rice production which requires a large quantity of water. There are potential risks on future climate change in response to rice production, agricultural irrigation water use and pollution control locally. The SWAT model was used to quantify the yield and water footprint (WF of rice in this catchment. A combined method of automatic and manual sub-basin delineation was used for the model setup in this work to reflect the differences between irrigation districts in yield and water use of rice. We validated our simulations against observed leaf area index, biomass and yield of rice, evapotranspiration and runoff. The outputs of three GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, IPSL-CM5A-LR and HadGEM2-ES under three RCPs (RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5 were fed to the SWAT model. The results showed that: (a the SWAT model is an ideal tool to simulate rice development as well as hydrology; (b there would be increases in rice yield ranged from +1.4 to +10.6% under climate projections of GFDL-ESM2M and IPSL-CM5A-LR but slight decreases ranged from −3.5 to −0.8% under that of HadGEM2-ES; (c the yield and WFs of rice displayed clear differences in the catchment, with a characteristic that high in the south and low in the north, mainly due to the differences in climatic conditions, soil quality and fertilization amount; (d there would be a decrease by 45.5% in blue WF with an increase by 88.1% in green WF, which could provide favorable conditions to enlarge irrigated areas and take technical measures for improving green water use efficiency of irrigation districts; (e a clear rise in future grey WF would present enormous challenges for the protection of water resources and environmental pollution control in this catchment. So it should be to improved nutrient management strategies for the agricultural non-point source pollution control in irrigation districts

  8. Reduction of acidification from electricity. Generating industries in Taiwan by Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ying-Hsien; Lin, Sue-Jane; Lewis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a rather common tool for reducing environmental impacts while striving for cleaner processes. This method yields reliable information when input data is sufficient; however, in uncertain systems Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used as a means to compensate for insufficient data. The MC optimization model was constructed from environmental emissions, process parameters and operation constraints. The results of MC optimization allow for the prediction of environmental performance and the opportunity for environmental improvement. The case study presented here focuses on the acidification improvement regarding uncertain emissions and on the available operation of Taiwan's power plants. The boundary definitions of LCA were established for generation, fuel refining and mining. The model was constructed according to objective functional minimization of acidification potential, base loading, fuel cost and generation mix constraints. Scenario simulations are given the different variation of fuel cost ratios for Taiwan. The simulation results indicate that fuel cost was the most important parameter influencing the acidification potential for seven types of fired power. Owing to the low operational loading, coal-fired power is the best alternative for improving acidification. The optimal scenario for acidification improvement occurred at 15% of the fuel cost. The impact decreased from 1.39 to 1.24 kg SO 2 -eq./MWh. This reduction benefit was about 10.5% lower than the reference year. Regarding eco-efficiency at an optimum scenario level of 5%, the eco-efficiency value was - 12.4 $US/kg SO 2 -eq. Considering the environmental and economical impacts, results indicated that the ratio of coal-fired steam turbine should be reduced. (author)

  9. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  10. High-rise buildings under multi-hazard environment assessment and design for optimal performance

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses performance-based seismic and wind-resistant design for high-rise building structures, with a particular focus on establishing an integrated approach for performance-based wind engineering, which is currently less advanced than seismic engineering. This book also provides a state-of-the-art review of numerous methodologies, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), extreme value analysis, structural optimization, vibration control, pushover analysis, response spectrum analysis, modal parameter identification for the assessment of the wind-resistant and seismic performance of tall buildings in the design stage and actual tall buildings in use. Several new structural optimization methods, including the augmented optimality criteria method, have been developed and employed in the context of performance-based design. This book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and engineers in the field of civil and structural engineering.

  11. Visual Basic Growth-and-Yield Models With A Merchandising Optimizer For Planted Slash and Loblolly Pine in the West Gulf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Busby; S.J. Chang; P.R. Pasala; J.C.G. Goelz

    2004-01-01

    We developed two growth-and-yield models for thinned and unthinned plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.). The models, VB Merch-Slash and VB Merch-Lob, can be used to forecast product volumes and stand values for stands partitioned into 1-inch diameter-at...

  12. Optimization of Application of Nitrogen Fertilizers for Growth and Yield of Forage Sorghum under Low-Input and Conventional Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourazizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain sustainable agriculture and prevent excessive use of chemical fertilizers, supplying part of the plant needs by organic fertilizers is necessary. In this respect, effects of nitrogen (N source and rate on yield and yield components of forage sorghum was evaluated as a factorial experiment arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments consisted of three N sources (urea fertilizer, cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure and three N levels 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha N, equivalent to 174, 348 and 522 kg/ha urea and 26.2, 52.5 and 78.7 Mg/ha of cow manure and equal combination of urea fertilizer + cow manure at each nitrogen level, respectively. The results showed that increase of N utilization, with increase in leaf, stem and panicle weights and stem diameter, caused a linear increase of forage yield in urea fertilizer and cow manure treatments and a quadratic increase in the combined fertilizer. The highest leaf, stem and panicle weight (600, 3789 and 823 g/m2 and also fresh forage yield (44 Mg/ha were observed in 240 kg/ha N treatment in combined treatment. But, there was no significant difference in forage yield between this treatment and the 160 kg/ha N treatment. Overall, the results indicated that the potential of sorghum production can be increased by conjunctive use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, even in low levels of these fertilizers, or low-input agriculture.

  13. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Koch, Friedrich J; Müller, Daniel; Faramarzi, Monireh

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51–2.10 t ha −1 , or 44–52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14–3.30 t ha −1 , or 62–63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha −1 ) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets. (letter)

  14. Optimal greenhouse gas emissions in NGCC plants integrating life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Etienne; Maréchal, François; Samson, Réjean

    2012-01-01

    The optimal design of an energy-intensive process involves a compromise between costs and greenhouse gas emissions, complicated by the interaction between optimal process emissions and supply chain emissions. We propose a method that combines generic abatement cost estimates and the results of existing (LCA) life cycle assessment studies, so that supply chain emissions are properly handled during optimization. This method is illustrated for a (NGCC) natural gas combined cycle power plant model with the following design and procurement options: procurement of natural gas from low-emissions producers, fuel substitution with (SNG) synthetic natural gas from wood, and variable-rate CO 2 capture and sequestration from both the NGCC and SNG plants. Using multi-objective optimization, we show two Pareto-optimal sets with and without the proposed LCA method. The latter can then be shown to misestimate CO 2 abatement costs by a few percent, penalizing alternate fuels and energy-efficient process configurations and leading to sub-optimal design decisions with potential net losses of the order of $1/MWh. Thus, the proposed LCA method can enhance the economic analysis of emissions abatement technologies and emissions legislation in general. -- Highlights: ► Multi-objective optimization and LCA used for process design considering supply chain. ► Off-site emissions in LCA reveal potential future indirect taxes for energy consumers. ► Generic abatement cost curves provide a mitigation model for off-site emissions. ► Off-site mitigation precedes CO 2 capture or biogas substitution in NGCC plant. ► Profitability estimation of capture or substitution depends on off-site mitigation.

  15. Assessing the impacts of climate change and tillage practices on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Parajuli; P. Jayakody; G.F. Sassenrath; Y. Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated climate change impacts on stream flow, crop and sediment yields from three differ-ent tillage systems (conventional, reduced 1–close to conservation, and reduced 2–close to no-till), in theBig Sunflower River Watershed (BSRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) modelwas applied to the BSRW using observed stream flow and crop...

  16. Optimized in vitro procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of magnesium-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ole; Smeets, Ralf; Porchetta, Dario; Kopp, Alexander; Ptock, Christoph; Müller, Ute; Heiland, Max; Schwade, Max; Behr, Björn; Kröger, Nadja; Kluwe, Lan; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An optimal frequency range for assessing the pressure reactivity index in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Tim; Johnson, Ulf; McKelvey, Tomas; Enblad, Per

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal frequency range for computing the pressure reactivity index (PRx). PRx is a clinical method for assessing cerebral pressure autoregulation based on the correlation of spontaneous variations of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP). Our hypothesis was that optimizing the methodology for computing PRx in this way could produce a more stable, reliable and clinically useful index of autoregulation status. The patients studied were a series of 131 traumatic brain injury patients. Pressure reactivity indices were computed in various frequency bands during the first 4 days following injury using bandpass filtering of the input ABP and ICP signals. Patient outcome was assessed using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe). The optimization criterion was the strength of the correlation with GOSe of the mean index value over the first 4 days following injury. Stability of the indices was measured as the mean absolute deviation of the minute by minute index value from 30-min moving averages. The optimal index frequency range for prediction of outcome was identified as 0.018-0.067 Hz (oscillations with periods from 55 to 15 s). The index based on this frequency range correlated with GOSe with ρ=-0.46 compared to -0.41 for standard PRx, and reduced the 30-min variation by 23%.

  18. Health technology assessment to optimize health technology utilization: using implementation initiatives and monitoring processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Katrine B; Facey, Karen; Klemp, Marianne; Norderhaug, Inger Natvig; Mørland, Berit; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2010-07-01

    The way in which a health technology is used in any particular health system depends on the decisions and actions of a variety of stakeholders, the local culture, and context. In 2009, the HTAi Policy Forum considered how health technology assessment (HTA) could be improved to optimize the use of technologies (in terms of uptake, change in use, or disinvestment) in such complex systems. In scoping, it was agreed to focus on initiatives to implement evidence-based guidance and monitoring activities. A review identified systematic reviews of implementation initiatives and monitoring activities. A two-day deliberative workshop was held to discuss key papers, members' experiences, and collectively address key questions. This consensus paper was developed by email and finalized at a postworkshop meeting. Evidence suggests that the impact and use of HTA could be increased by ensuring timely delivery of relevant reports to clearly determined policy receptor (decision-making) points. To achieve this, the breadth of assessment, implementation initiatives such as incentives and targeted, intelligent dissemination of HTA result, needs to be considered. HTA stakeholders undertake a variety of monitoring activities, which could inform optimal use of a technology. However, the quality of these data varies and is often not submitted to an HTA. Monitoring data should be sufficiently robust so that they can be used in HTA to inform optimal use of technology. Evidence-based implementation initiatives should be developed for HTA, to better inform decision makers at all levels in a health system about the optimal use of technology.

  19. A deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Omrani, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran. The deterministic approach is composed of data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation techniques. Seventeen electricity distribution units have been considered for the purpose of this study. Previous studies have generally used input-output DEA models for benchmarking and evaluation of electricity distribution units. However, this study considers an integrated deterministic DEA-PCA approach since the DEA model should be verified and validated by a robust multivariate methodology such as PCA. Moreover, the DEA models are verified and validated by PCA, Spearman and Kendall's Tau correlation techniques, while previous studies do not have the verification and validation features. Also, both input- and output-oriented DEA models are used for sensitivity analysis of the input and output variables. Finally, this is the first study to present an integrated deterministic approach for assessment and optimization of power distributions in Iran

  20. Assessment of Salinity Effect on Germination, Growth and Yield of Solanum lycopersicum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. BUAH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at unraveling the morphological effect of salinity on germination, growth and yield of S. lycopersicum, through inducement of salinity (0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g NaCl. All the parameters considered: germination percentage, leaves number, stem girth, plant height and fruit quality, were significantly affected by NaCl treatments (salinity compared with the control (no salinity. 100% germination was recorded only in control and 4 g NaCl concentration, though the percentage of germination was faster in control than within the 4 g NaCl. ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ plants’ growth till maturity, shed leaves, chlorosis and leaf burns around edges occurred due to osmotic imbalance and water deficit caused by salinity, which invariably had effect on leaf area, although the reduction in leaf area varied among tested NaCl concentrations. Fruits yield and quality of ‘Tomato UC-83-B’ treated with NaCl was poor and relative to the degree of saline inducements, with 10 g NaCl treatment producing the least fruits. Chlorophyll contents were also significantly reduced by increasing saline concentrations. Ca and K were the predominant elements found in the digested fruit samples observed under Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS at different NaCl concentrations, while Mg, Na and P were significantly less. Salinity is a major abiotic factor that hampered the overall performance of tomato crop in salient ways and must therefore be curbed in order to meet its increasing global demand.

  1. Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations: Fort Bliss, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Log dampers, temperatures, actuator signals, and other parameters to identify problems. Adjust chiller and boiler setpoints and control curves...installation. The lowest setpoints were found in the Centennial Club, with 52 °F during unoccupied hours (morn- ing). The chillers ran pretty much fully loaded...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 8 -1 5 Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations Fort Bliss, TX David M. Underwood, Alexander M

  2. Preventive radioecological assessment of territory for optimization of monitoring and countermeasures after radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prister, B S; Vinogradskaya, V D; Lev, T D; Talerko, M M; Garger, E K; Onishi, Y; Tischenko, O G

    2018-04-01

    A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply of entrepreneurial microcredit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayi Gavriel Ayayi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology for the assessment of potential demand and optimal supply for microcredit. We show that the total demand is a combination of the demand that stems from the active poor plus the demand generated by a motivator agent among the entrepreneurial non-motivated poor. We use French data to provide an illustration of the assessment of potential demand for microcredit. We also show that the proportion of the potential demand satisfied by a microfinance institution depends on its objective i.e. either it is socially oriented or a profit maximizer.

  4. Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keranova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t and Spain (20253.43 t, while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t and Luxembourg (133,2 t. Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  5. Optimizing the space-time-yield and the specific energy consumption of molten salt electrolysis processes for the electrowinning of metals in subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, W.

    1988-04-01

    Disadvantages of molten salt electrolysis are its low space-time-yield (kg/m 3 h) combined with its high specific energy consumption (kWh/kg). These factors essentially determine how electrolysis is applied on an industrial scale. The electrolysis of tantalum was selected as an example representative for other electrolytic processes; this series of tests allow statements also on the winning of the other elements from subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, and on electrolytic aluminium extraction. Optimal operating conditions for direct current electrolysis were determined in the laboratory by varying the current density and the electrolysis temperature. In order to improve the space-time-yield from an existing electrolytic cell with a given electrolyte composition beyond the optimal range of direct current electrolysis, the process of periodic current reversal is applied. In this process, the polarity is reversed for a short time at constant periodic intervals. If the forward time period and the backward time period are chosen in a suitable way, both the current efficiency and the space-time-yield can be improved without increasing the energy consumption. 59 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  6. Assessment of the impact of ecological factors on yield and quality parameters in triticale using GGE Biplot and AMMI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendal, E.; Tekdal, S.; Sayar, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of late spring frost on grain yield (GY) and quality of spring triticale (Triticosecale) genotypes, based on genotype plus genotype * environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis. The study included a total of 25 genotypes, including 20 advanced lines, 3 triticale varieties, and 2 candidate lines. The genotypes were evaluated for GY and quality traits during the 2012/2013 (normal season) and 2013/2014 (late spring frost) seasons. We observed significant differences between seasons for GY and quality traits, as affected by changing environmental conditions over the two seasons. Late spring frost caused a statistically significant 50% reduction in GY, 7.1% reduction in test weight (TW), and 26.1% reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW); however, it positively affected protein content (PC), and it increased by 42.6%. We observed that early heading genotypes were differently affected by late spring frost, compared to late maturing genotypes, in terms of GY, TW, and TGW. The GGE biplot analysis highlighted three and four distinct groups of traits in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, respectively. Results from the GGE biplot analysis revealed that G12 and G16 were stable and ideal genotypes for all of the traits in the 2012/2013 season, and G10 and G23 were stable and ideal for the 2013/2014 season. In addition, G10 was the best genotype averaged over the two growing seasons. The genotypes G9, G13, and G17 were more stable and higher yielding, based on Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, compared to the remaining genotypes. (author)

  7. Structural strength assessment of the reconstructed road structure in terms of the loading time and yield criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2018-05-01

    This article reports the results of numerical simulations of the stress-strain states in the rebuilt road structure compared to the solutions contained in the Polish Catalogue, with the true characteristics of the layer materials taken into account. In the case analysed, a cold-recycled base layer with foamed bitumen as a recycling agent was used. The presented analysis is complementary to the mandatory in Poland procedure of mechanistic pavement design based on a linear elastic model. The temperature distribution in the road structure was analysed at the reference temperature of 40°C on the asphalt layer surface. The loading time was included in the computer simulations through the use of the classic generalized Maxwell model and thus the stiffness-time history of the layers had to be determined. For this purpose, the dynamic modulus E* tests of the loading time frequency from 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz were carried out, and the yield point was modelled using the Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion calculated on the basis of triaxial compression tests. The analytical solution to the problem was found with ABAQUS. The results demonstrate that the high temperature of asphalt layers and long loading time noticeably reduces the stiffness modulus in those layers. That reduction changes the principal stress levels, which significantly influences the shear stress both in the recycled base layer and in the subgrade soil. Should the yield point be exceeded rapidly in the recycled layer, the horizontal stresses in the asphalt layers will increase and adversely affect the durability of the reconstructed road pavement structure, especially in the zones of slow heavy vehicle traffic.

  8. Optimal Pain Assessment in Pediatric Rehabilitation: Implementation of a Nursing Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Shauna; Joachimides, Nick; Krog, Kim; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn Smith

    2015-12-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the Registered Nurses' Association promotes a Best Practice Spotlight Organization initiative to enhance evidence-based practice. Qualifying organizations are required to implement strategies, evaluate outcomes, and sustain practices aligned with nursing clinical practice guidelines. This study reports on the development and evaluation of a multifaceted implementation strategy to support adoption of a nursing clinical practice guideline on the assessment and management of acute pain in a pediatric rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. Multiple approaches were employed to influence behavior, attitudes, and awareness around optimal pain practice (e.g., instructional resources, electronic reminders, audits, and feedback). Four measures were introduced to assess pain in communicating and noncommunicating children as part of a campaign to treat pain as the fifth vital sign. A prospective repeated measures design examined survey and audit data to assess practice aligned with the guideline. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (KNAS) was adapted to ensure relevance to the local practice setting and was assessed before and after nurses' participation in three education modules. Audit data included client demographics and pain scores assessed annually over a 3-year window. A final sample of 69 nurses (78% response rate) provided pre-/post-survey data. A total of 108 pediatric surgical clients (younger than 19 years) contributed audit data across the three collection cycles. Significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to optimal pain care for children with disabilities were noted following adoption of the pain clinical practice guideline. Targeted guideline implementation strategies are central to supporting optimal pain practice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excitation function and yield for the 103Rh(d,2n)103Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of 103 Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to E d = 33 MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions 103 Rh(d,xn) 101,103 Pd, 103 Rh(d,x) 100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g Rh and 103 Rh(d,2p) 103 Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for 103 Pd has been calculated.

  10. Multi-objective optimization integrated with life cycle assessment for rainwater harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Huang, Youyi; Ye, Quanliang; Zhang, Wenlong; Meng, Fangang; Zhang, Shanxue

    2018-03-01

    The major limitation of optimization models applied previously for rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems is the systematic evaluation of environmental and human health impacts across all the lifecycle stages. This study integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) into a multi-objective optimization model to optimize the construction areas of green rooftops, porous pavements and green lands in Beijing of China, considering the trade-offs among 24 h-interval RWH volume (QR), stormwater runoff volume control ratio (R), economic cost (EC), and environmental impacts (EI). Eleven life cycle impact indicators were assessed with a functional unit of 10,000 m2 of RWH construction areas. The LCA results showed that green lands performed the smallest lifecycle impacts of all assessment indicators, in contrast, porous pavements showed the largest impact values except Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP) elements. Based on the standardization results, ADP fossil was chosen as the representative indicator for the calculation of EI objective in multi-objective optimization model due to its largest value in all RWH systems lifecycle. The optimization results for QR, R, EC and EI were 238.80 million m3, 78.5%, 66.68 billion RMB Yuan, and 1.05E + 16 MJ, respectively. After the construction of optimal RWH system, 14.7% of annual domestic water consumption and 78.5% of maximum daily rainfall would be supplied and controlled in Beijing, respectively, which would make a great contribution to reduce the stress of water scarcity and water logging problems. Green lands have been the first choice for RWH in Beijing according to the capacity of rainwater harvesting and less environmental and human impacts. Porous pavements played a good role in water logging alleviation (R for 67.5%), however, did not show a large construction result in this study due to the huge ADP fossil across the lifecycle. Sensitivity analysis revealed the daily maximum precipitation to be key factor for the robustness of the

  11. Assembly Line Productivity Assessment by Comparing Optimization-Simulation Algorithms of Trajectory Planning for Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of productivity will be carried out from the resolution of the problem of trajectory planning of industrial robots. The analysis entails economic considerations, thus overcoming some limitations of the existing literature. Two methodologies based on optimization-simulation procedures are compared to calculate the time needed to perform an industrial robot task. The simulation methodology relies on the use of robotics and automation software called GRASP. The optimization methodology developed in this work is based on the kinematics and the dynamics of industrial robots. It allows us to pose a multiobjective optimization problem to assess the trade-offs between the economic variables by means of the Pareto fronts. The comparison is carried out for different examples and from a multidisciplinary point of view, thus, to determine the impact of using each method. Results have shown the opportunity costs of non using the methodology with optimized time trajectories. Furthermore, it allows companies to stay competitive because of the quick adaptation to rapidly changing markets.

  12. Integrated IDA–ANN–DEA for assessment and optimization of energy consumption in industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olanrewaju, O.A.; Jimoh, A.A.; Kholopane, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward an integrated approach, based on logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) – an index decomposition analysis (IDA) method, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a data envelopment analysis (DEA) for the analysis of total energy efficiency and optimization in an industrial sector. The energy efficiency assessment and the optimization of the proposed model use LMDI to decompose energy consumption into activity, structural and intensity indicators, which serve as inputs to the ANN. The ANN model is verified and validated by performing a linear regression comparison between the specifically measured energy consumption and the corresponding predicted energy consumption. The proposed approach utilizes the measure-specific, super-efficient DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical measured energy consumption and its optimization reductions. The proposed method is validated by its application to determine the efficiency computation and an analysis of historical data as well as the prediction and optimization capability of the Canadian industrial sector. -- Highlights: ► An integrated IDA–ANN–DEA model for energy management is proposed. ► The model relies on aggregate energy and GDP data. ► The model explains how energy can be managed in the Canadian Industrial sector.

  13. Researches with the 'Fertexpert' model concerning the relationships between the efficiency indexes of the fertilizers usage in optimal economic rates and the agrochemical indexes of the soil and expected yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budoi, G.; Berca, M.; Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Soare, M.; Danuso, F.; Bireescu, L.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Fertexpert' model allows undertaking researches concerning the variation of efficiency indexes for fertilizers usage in the case of many crops depending on the content of available soil nutrients (the values of soil agrochemical indexes - IA) and on the expected yield, R s , when fertilization are applied in optimal economic rates, DOE. The physical efficiency indexes calculated and researched are the following: the total physical yield increase, SFR (kg/ha), the specific average yield increase, SSp (kg/kg N, P 2 O 5 or K 2 O), the specific consumption of active substance (a.s.) from fertilizer, CSp (kg a.s./1 kg average yield increase). The economic efficiency indexes computed are: the total profit, in monetary units/ha, the specific profit, in monetary units/l monetary unit spent with fertilization, PSp, and in monetary units/kg a.s., PSpsa. The model also allows the study of DOE variation depending on R s and IA. Starting from the made calculations, there can be drown up specific graphics that can then be used in practice and for research purposes to. Refs. 6 (author)

  14. Application of DSSAT-CROPGRO-Cotton Model to Assess Long Term (1924-2012) Cotton Yield under Different Irrigation Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P.; Gowda, P. H.; Northup, B. K.; Rocateli, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study a well calibrated and validated DSSAT-CROPGRO-Cotton model was used for assessing the irrigation management in the Texas High Plains (THP). Long term (1924-2012) historic lint yield were simulated under different irrigation management practices which were commonly used in the THP. The simulation treatments includes different amount of irrigation water high (H; 6.4 mm d-1), medium (M; 3.2 mm d-1) and low (L; 0 mm d-1) during emergence (S1), vegetative (S2) and maturity (S3) stage. The combination of these treatments resulted into 27 treatments. The amount and date of irrigation for each stage were obtained from the recent cotton irrigation experiment at Halfway, TX (Brodovsky, et al., 2015). Similarly, calibrated model was also used to observe the effect of plantation date on crop yield in the THP regions.

  15. Assessment of Medical Risks and Optimization of their Management using Integrated Medical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Mary A.; Madurai, Siram; Butler, Doug; Kerstman, Eric; Risin, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project is a software-based technique that will identify and quantify the medical needs and health risks of exploration crew members during space flight and evaluate the effectiveness of potential mitigation strategies. The IMM Project employs an evidence-based approach that will quantify probability and consequences of defined in-flight medical risks, mitigation strategies, and tactics to optimize crew member health. Using stochastic techniques, the IMM will ultimately inform decision makers at both programmatic and institutional levels and will enable objective assessment of crew health and optimization of mission success using data from relevant cohort populations and from the astronaut population. The objectives of the project include: 1) identification and documentation of conditions that may occur during exploration missions (Baseline Medical Conditions List [BMCL), 2) assessment of the likelihood of conditions in the BMCL occurring during exploration missions (incidence rate), 3) determination of the risk associated with these conditions and quantify in terms of end states (Loss of Crew, Loss of Mission, Evacuation), 4) optimization of in-flight hardware mass, volume, power, bandwidth and cost for a given level of risk or uncertainty, and .. validation of the methodologies used.

  16. Low-temperature wafer-level gold thermocompression bonding: modeling of flatness deviations and associated process optimization for high yield and tough bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Tsau, Christine H.; Spearing, S. Mark

    2005-01-01

    Wafer-level, thermocompression bonding is a promising technique for MEMS packaging. The quality of the bond is critically dependent on the interaction between flatness deviations, the gold film properties and the process parameters and tooling used to achieve the bonds. The effect of flatness deviations on the resulting bond is investigated in the current work. The strain energy release rate associated with the elastic deformation required to overcome wafer bow is calculated. A contact yield criterion is used to examine the pressure and temperature conditions required to flatten surface roughness asperities in order to achieve bonding over the full apparent area. The results are compared to experimental data of bond yield and toughness obtained from four-point bend delamination testing and microscopic observations of the fractured surfaces. Conclusions from the modeling and experiments indicate that wafer bow has negligible effect on determining the variability of bond quality and that the well-bonded area is increased with increasing bonding pressure. The enhanced understanding of the underlying deformation mechanisms allows for a better controlled trade-off between the bonding pressure and temperature.

  17. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative UAV and Field Phenotyping to Assess Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Hybrid and Conventional Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, Shawn C; Vicente, Rubén; Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Fernandez-Gallego, Jose A; Kerfal, Samir; Lopez, Antonio; Melichar, James P E; Serret Molins, María D; Araus, José L

    2017-01-01

    With the commercialization and increasing availability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) multiple rotor copters have expanded rapidly in plant phenotyping studies with their ability to provide clear, high resolution images. As such, the traditional bottleneck of plant phenotyping has shifted from data collection to data processing. Fortunately, the necessarily controlled and repetitive design of plant phenotyping allows for the development of semi-automatic computer processing tools that may sufficiently reduce the time spent in data extraction. Here we present a comparison of UAV and field based high throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP) using the free, open-source image analysis software FIJI (Fiji is just ImageJ) using RGB (conventional digital cameras), multispectral and thermal aerial imagery in combination with a matching suite of ground sensors in a study of two hybrids and one conventional barely variety with ten different nitrogen treatments, combining different fertilization levels and application schedules. A detailed correlation network for physiological traits and exploration of the data comparing between treatments and varieties provided insights into crop performance under different management scenarios. Multivariate regression models explained 77.8, 71.6, and 82.7% of the variance in yield from aerial, ground, and combined data sets, respectively.

  19. Post-consumer plastic packaging waste in England: Assessing the yield of multiple collection-recycling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Purnell, Phil; Iacovidou, Eleni; Velis, Costas A; Atseyinku, Maryann

    2018-05-01

    The European Commission (EC) recently introduced a 'Circular Economy Package', setting ambitious recycling targets and identifying waste plastics as a priority sector where major improvements are necessary. Here, the authors explain how different collection modalities affect the quantity and quality of recycling, using recent empirical data on household (HH) post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PCPP) collected for recycling in the devolved administration of England over the quarterly period July-September 2014. Three main collection schemes, as currently implemented in England, were taken into account: (i) kerbside collection (KS), (ii) household waste recycling centres (HWRCs) (also known as 'civic amenity sites'), and (iii) bring sites/banks (BSs). The results indicated that: (a) the contribution of KS collection scheme in recovering packaging plastics is higher than HWRCs and BBs, with respective percentages by weight (wt%) 90%, 9% and 1%; (b) alternate weekly collection (AWC) of plastic recyclables in wheeled bins, when collected commingled, demonstrated higher yield in KS collection; (c) only a small percentage (16%) of the total amount of post-consumer plastics collected in the examined period (141 kt) was finally sent to reprocessors (22 kt); (c) nearly a third of Local Authorities (LAs) reported insufficient or poor data; and (d) the most abundant fractions of plastics that finally reached the reprocessors were mixed plastic bottles and mixed plastics. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative UAV and Field Phenotyping to Assess Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Hybrid and Conventional Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn C. Kefauver

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the commercialization and increasing availability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs multiple rotor copters have expanded rapidly in plant phenotyping studies with their ability to provide clear, high resolution images. As such, the traditional bottleneck of plant phenotyping has shifted from data collection to data processing. Fortunately, the necessarily controlled and repetitive design of plant phenotyping allows for the development of semi-automatic computer processing tools that may sufficiently reduce the time spent in data extraction. Here we present a comparison of UAV and field based high throughput plant phenotyping (HTPP using the free, open-source image analysis software FIJI (Fiji is just ImageJ using RGB (conventional digital cameras, multispectral and thermal aerial imagery in combination with a matching suite of ground sensors in a study of two hybrids and one conventional barely variety with ten different nitrogen treatments, combining different fertilization levels and application schedules. A detailed correlation network for physiological traits and exploration of the data comparing between treatments and varieties provided insights into crop performance under different management scenarios. Multivariate regression models explained 77.8, 71.6, and 82.7% of the variance in yield from aerial, ground, and combined data sets, respectively.

  1. A probabilistic assessment of climate change impacts on yield and nitrogen leaching from winter wheat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will impact agricultural production both directly and indirectly, but uncertainties related to likely impacts constrain current political decision making on adaptation. This analysis focuses on a methodology for applying probabilistic climate change projections to assess modelled...... the importance of including soil information for regional studies of climate change impacts on cropping systems....

  2. Assessing Optimal Blood Pressure in Patients With Asymptomatic Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olav W; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Sabbah, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for treating hypertension in patients with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis is scarce. We used data from the SEAS trial (Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) to assess what blood pressure (BP) would be optimal. METHODS: A total of 1767 patients with asymptomatic aortic...... stenosis and no manifest atherosclerotic disease were analyzed. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, and aortic valve replacement. BP was analyzed in Cox models as the cumulative average of serially measured BP and a time-varying covariate.......039). CONCLUSIONS: Optimal BP seems to be systolic BP of 130 to 139 mm Hg and diastolic BP of 70 to 90 mm Hg in these patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis and no manifest atherosclerotic disease or diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT...

  3. The French biofuels mandates under cost uncertainty - an assessment based on robust optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, Daphne; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of primary energy and technology cost uncertainty on the achievement of renewable and especially biofuel policies - mandates and norms - in France by 2030. A robust optimization technique that allows to deal with uncertainty sets of high dimensionality is implemented in a TIMES-based long-term planning model of the French energy transport and electricity sectors. The energy system costs and potential benefits (GHG emissions abatements, diversification) of the French renewable mandates are assessed within this framework. The results of this systemic analysis highlight how setting norms and mandates allows to reduce the variability of CO 2 emissions reductions and supply mix diversification when the costs of technological progress and prices are uncertain. Beyond that, we discuss the usefulness of robust optimization in complement of other techniques to integrate uncertainty in large-scale energy models. (authors)

  4. Using the CLM Crop Model to assess the impacts of changes in Climate, Atmospheric CO2, Irrigation, Fertilizer and Geographic Distribution on Historical and Future Crop Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since the start of the green revolution global crop yields have increased linearly for most major cereal crops, so that present day global values are around twice those of the 1960s. The increase in crop yields have allowed for large increases in global agricultural production without correspondingly large increases in cropping area. Future projections under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) framework and other assessments result in increases of global crop production of greater than 100% by the year 2050. In order to meet this increased agricultural demand within the available arable land, future production gains need to be understood in terms of the yield changes due to changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and adaptive management such as irrigation and fertilizer application. In addition to the changes in crop yield, future agricultural demand will need to be met through increasing cropping areas into what are currently marginal lands at the cost of existing forests and other natural ecosystems. In this study we assess the utility of the crop model within the Community Land Model (CLM Crop) to provide both historical and future guidance on changes in crop yields under a range of global idealized crop modeling experiments. The idealized experiments follow the experimental design of the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) in which CLM Crop is a participating model. The idealized experiments consist of global crop simulations for Cotton, Maize, Rice, Soy, Sugarcane, and Wheat under various climate, atmospheric CO2 levels, irrigation prescription, and nitrogen fertilizer application. The time periods simulated for the experiments are for the Historical period (1901 - 2005), and for the two Representative Concentration Pathways of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2006 - 2100). Each crop is simulated on all land grid cells globally for each time period with atmospheric forcing that is a combination of: 1. transient climate and CO2; 2. transient climate

  5. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  6. Discussion of skill improvement in marine ecosystem dynamic models based on parameter optimization and skill assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Liu, Yongzhi; Li, Fen; Ding, Dewen

    2016-07-01

    Marine ecosystem dynamic models (MEDMs) are important tools for the simulation and prediction of marine ecosystems. This article summarizes the methods and strategies used for the improvement and assessment of MEDM skill, and it attempts to establish a technical framework to inspire further ideas concerning MEDM skill improvement. The skill of MEDMs can be improved by parameter optimization (PO), which is an important step in model calibration. An efficient approach to solve the problem of PO constrained by MEDMs is the global treatment of both sensitivity analysis and PO. Model validation is an essential step following PO, which validates the efficiency of model calibration by analyzing and estimating the goodness-of-fit of the optimized model. Additionally, by focusing on the degree of impact of various factors on model skill, model uncertainty analysis can supply model users with a quantitative assessment of model confidence. Research on MEDMs is ongoing; however, improvement in model skill still lacks global treatments and its assessment is not integrated. Thus, the predictive performance of MEDMs is not strong and model uncertainties lack quantitative descriptions, limiting their application. Therefore, a large number of case studies concerning model skill should be performed to promote the development of a scientific and normative technical framework for the improvement of MEDM skill.

  7. Determine the Optimal Levels of Bio-fertilizers and Foliar Application of Iron on Yield and Quality Indices of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra mir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In conventional agricultural systems to obtain the highest performance continuous use of chemical fertilizers is inevitable. The health of the plant, soil and living matter depends on the rotation of food elements in the ecosystem. This cycle is disrupted as a result of the loss of soil fertility, its food imbalance and inappropriate cultivation practices. Bio-fertilizers are composed of beneficial microorganisms, each for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate ions, potassium, iron. It should be noted that most studies in the field for sour Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa are based on the use of various chemical fertilizers, but the reaction of this plant to bio-fertilizers and iron solubilization has not been considered. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of bio fertilizers and iron on yield and quality traits of Roselle in hot and dry weather conditions. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of bio-fertilizers and foliar application iron on yield and quality indicators Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa experiment in Research field of Zabol University Agriculture Institute in 2015-2016 years was performed with split-plot based on completely randomized design and three replications. Treatments consisted of four levels of bio-fertilizers: control (without fertilizer, vermicompost, cow manure, seaweed and iron foliar applications include: lack of iron, foliar application at a rate of 3cc per thousand, 6cc per thousand was considered. As a source of bio-fertilizer treatments and foliar application iron levels were considered as sub plots. Before sowing Roselle seeds, vermicompost and manure were added to the soil and inoculation operation . Measurements were: economic yield, biological yield, harvest index, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids, anthocyanins, carbohydrates and protein. Statistical analysis of data was done with SAS software version 9.1 and mean comparison with

  8. Life Cycle Inventory & Assessment Report: Separation of Digested Fattening Pig Slurry for Optimal P Concentration, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    management chain” for a combination of techniques: Source-segregation of manure from fattening pigs, using the solid part from the source-segregation for biogas production, utilising the biogas for heat and electricity production, separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimize......The purpose of this Life Cycle Assessment report is to investigate the potential for separating the digested pig manure after the biogas plant in order to optimise the utilisation of the phosphorous content of the manure. By separating, the phosphorous rich solid fraction can be brought to fields...

  9. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  10. Assessment and optimization of thermal and fluidity properties of high strength concrete via genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Şimşek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Response Surface Methodology (RSM based Genetic Algorithm (GA using MATLAB® to assess and optimize the thermal and fluidity of high strength concrete (HSC. The overall heat transfer coefficient, slump-spread flow and T50 time was defined as thermal and fluidity properties of high strength concrete. In addition to above mentioned properties, a 28-day compressive strength of HSC was also determined. Water to binder ratio, fine aggregate to total aggregate ratio and the percentage of super-plasticizer content was determined as effective factors on thermal and fluidity properties of HSC. GA based multi-objective optimization method was carried out by obtaining quadratic models using RSM. Having excessive or low ratio of water to binder provides lower overall heat transfer coefficient. Moreover, T50 time of high strength concrete decreased with the increasing of water to binder ratio and the percentage of superplasticizer content. Results show that RSM based GA is effective in determining optimal mixture ratios of HSC.

  11. Optimization method to determine mass transfer variables in a PWR crud deposition risk assessment tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Chuong; Hussey, Dennis; Wells, Daniel M.; Epperson, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Optimization numerical method was implemented to determine several mass transfer coefficients in a crud-induced power shift risk assessment code. The approach was to utilize a multilevel strategy that targets different model parameters that first changes the major order variables, mass transfer inputs, then calibrates the minor order variables, crud source terms, according to available plant data. In this manner, the mass transfer inputs are effectively simplified as 'dependent' on the crud source terms. Two optimization studies were performed using DAKOTA, a design and analysis toolkit, with the difference between the runs, being the number of model runs using BOA, allowed for adjusting the crud source terms, therefore, reducing the uncertainty with calibration. The result of the first case showed that the current best estimated values for the mass transfer coefficients, which were derived from first principle analysis, can be considered an optimized set. When the run limit of BOA was increased for the second case, an improvement in the prediction was obtained with the results deviating slightly from the best estimated values. (author)

  12. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  13. Optimal Design and Acoustic Assessment of Low-Vibration Rotor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal procedure for the design of rotor blade that generates low vibratory hub loads in nonaxial flow conditions is presented and applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight, a condition where vibrations and noise become severe. Blade shape and structural properties are the design parameters to be identified within a binary genetic optimization algorithm under aeroelastic stability constraint. The process exploits an aeroelastic solver that is based on a nonlinear, beam-like model, suited for the analysis of arbitrary curved-elastic-axis blades, with the introduction of a surrogate wake inflow model for the analysis of sectional aerodynamic loads. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to identify low vibratory hub loads rotor blades as well as to assess the robustness of solution at off-design operating conditions. Further, the aeroacoustic assessment of the rotor configurations determined is carried out in order to examine the impact of low-vibration blade design on the emitted noise field.

  14. Life-cycle cost assessment of optimally designed reinforced concrete buildings under seismic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitropoulou, Chara Ch.; Lagaros, Nikos D.; Papadrakakis, Manolis

    2011-01-01

    Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is an assessment tool for studying the performance of systems in many fields of engineering. In earthquake engineering LCCA demands the calculation of the cost components that are related to the performance of the structure in multiple earthquake hazard levels. Incremental static and dynamic analyses are two procedures that can be used for estimating the seismic capacity of a structural system and can therefore be incorporated into the LCCA methodology. In this work the effect of the analysis procedure, the number of seismic records imposed, the performance criterion used and the structural type (regular or irregular) is investigated, on the life-cycle cost analysis of 3D reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, the influence of uncertainties on the seismic response of structural systems and their impact on LCCA is examined. The uncertainty on the material properties, the cross-section dimensions and the record-incident angle is taking into account with the incorporation of the Latin hypercube sampling method into the incremental dynamic analysis procedure. In addition, the LCCA methodology is used as an assessment tool for the designs obtained by means of prescriptive and performance-based optimum design methodologies. The first one is obtained from a single-objective optimization problem, where the initial construction cost was the objective to be minimized, while the second one as a two-objective optimization problem where the life-cycle cost was the additional objective also to be minimized.

  15. Assessing and Optimizing Argo profile mapping : An example in the Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparin, Florent; Roemmich, Dean; Gilson, John; Sprintall, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of subsurface temperature, salinity and velocity has been revolutionized over the last decade as a result of development and deployment of the Argo Program. Argo products have become one of the major observational tools in Oceanography, used in a wide range of basic research, operational models, and education applications. To assess the skill of Argo in estimating oceanic conditions at different scales of variability in the Equatorial Pacific, we optimize Argo profile mapping by focusing on the covariance function. Decorrelation scales are discussed as well as impacts of several different interpolation schemes. The optimization is based on three points 1) Functional representation of the Argo sampled covariance, 2) Realism/Accuracy of the mapping errors and 3) Comparison with independent data such as TAO moorings and sea surface height. The last points show that Argo can represent more than 90% of the total TAO variance and around 80% of the intraseasonal TAO variability (between 10 and 100 days) at the Equator. As an illustration of the improvement, we show how Argo profiles can reveal the vertical structure and vertical phase propagation corresponding to the steric height annual cycle. We also discuss how this unique equatorial wave phenomena is modified during El Nino/La Nina events. This work anticipates a field experiment beginning in early 2014 and can be used for assessing and adapting the equatorial observational network.

  16. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  17. Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Nan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS, have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. The model has been applied worldwide and proven to be a very effective tool in identifying the critical areas which had serious erosion, and in aiding in decision-making processes for adopting BMPs and/or conservation programs so that cost/benefit can be maximized and non-point source pollution control can be achieved in the most efficient way. The main goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of soil erosion, sediment and sediment delivery of a watershed so that effective conservation measures can be implemented. To achieve the overall objective of this study, all necessary data for the 4,184 km2 Daning River watershed in the Three-Gorge region of the Yangtze River of China were assembled. The model was calibrated using observed monthly runoff from 1998 to 1999 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.94 and R2 of 0.94 and validated using the observed monthly runoff from 2003 to 2005 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.93 and R2 of 0.93. Additionally, the model was validated using annual average sediment of 2000–2002 (relative error of −0.34 and 2003–2004 (relative error of 0.18 at Wuxi station. Post validation simulation showed that approximately 48% of the watershed was under the soil loss tolerance released by the Ministry of Water Resources of China (500 t·km−2·y−1. However, 8% of the watershed had soil erosion of exceeding 5,000 t·km−2

  18. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  19. Next-generation Algorithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Deon L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Richard Li-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richard, Jean-Philippe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project project Next-Generation Algo- rithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience. The goal of the project was to improve mathematical programming-based optimization technology for in- frastructure protection. In general, the owner of a network wishes to design a network a network that can perform well when certain transportation channels are inhibited (e.g. destroyed) by an adversary. These are typically bi-level problems where the owner designs a system, an adversary optimally attacks it, and then the owner can recover by optimally using the remaining network. This project funded three years of Deon Burchett's graduate research. Deon's graduate advisor, Professor Jean-Philippe Richard, and his Sandia advisors, Richard Chen and Cynthia Phillips, supported Deon on other funds or volunteer time. This report is, therefore. essentially a replication of the Ph.D. dissertation it funded [12] in a format required for project documentation. The thesis had some general polyhedral research. This is the study of the structure of the feasi- ble region of mathematical programs, such as integer programs. For example, an integer program optimizes a linear objective function subject to linear constraints, and (nonlinear) integrality con- straints on the variables. The feasible region without the integrality constraints is a convex polygon. Careful study of additional valid constraints can significantly improve computational performance. Here is the abstract from the dissertation: We perform a polyhedral study of a multi-commodity generalization of variable upper bound flow models. In particular, we establish some relations between facets of single- and multi- commodity models. We then introduce a new family of inequalities, which generalizes traditional flow cover inequalities to the multi-commodity context. We present encouraging numerical results. We also consider the directed

  20. Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.. We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator--the echolocating bat--whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense--clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona--that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation--the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack.

  1. Optimal Predator Risk Assessment by the Sonar-Jamming Arctiine Moth Bertholdia trigona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J.; Wagner, Ryan D.; Conner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival) outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.). We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator – the echolocating bat – whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense – clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona– that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation – the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack. PMID:23671686

  2. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  3. Sensitivity study of optimal CO2 emission paths using a simplified structural integrated assessment model (SIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Hasselmann, S.; Giering, R.; Ocana, V.; Storch, H. von

    1997-01-01

    A structurally highly simplified, globally integrated coupled climate-economic costs model SIAM (Structural Integrated Assessment Model) is used to compute optimal paths of global CO 2 emissions that minimize the net sum of climate damage and mitigation costs. It studies the sensitivity of the computed optimal emission paths. The climate module is represented by a linearized impulse-response model calibrated against a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation climate model and a three-dimensional global carbon-cycle model. The cost terms are presented by expressions designed with respect to input assumptions. These include the discount rates for mitigation and damage costs, the inertia of the socio-economic system, and the dependence of climate damages on the changes in temperature and the rate of change of temperature. Different assumptions regarding these parameters are believed to cause the marked divergences of existing cost-benefit analyses. The long memory of the climate system implies that very long time horizons of several hundred years need to be considered to optimize CO 2 emissions on time scales relevant for a policy of sustainable development. Cost-benefit analyses over shorter time scales of a century or two can lead to dangerous underestimates of the long term climate impact of increasing greenhouse-gas emissions. To avert a major long term global warming, CO 2 emissions need to be reduced ultimately to very low levels. This may be done slowly but should not be interpreted as providing a time cushion for inaction: the transition becomes more costly the longer the necessary mitigation policies are delayed. However, the long time horizon provides adequate flexibility for later adjustments. Short term energy conservation alone is insufficient and can be viewed only as a useful measure in support of the necessary long term transition to carbon-free energy technologies. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Optimal design of CHP-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to current centralised energy generation systems, microgrids are adopted to provide local energy with lower energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DER). Several micro combined heat and power technologies have been developed recently for applications at domestic scale. The optimal design of DERs within CHP-based microgrids plays an important role in promoting the penetration of microgrid systems. In this work, the optimal design of microgrids with CHP units is addressed by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation model which integrates the results of a life cycle assessment of the microgrids investigated. The results show that the installation of multiple CHP technologies has a lower cost with higher environmental saving compared with the case when only a single technology is installed in each site, meaning that the microgrid works in a more efficient way when multiple technologies are selected. In general, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are chosen as the basic CHP technology for most solutions, which offers lower environmental impacts at low cost. However, internal combustions engines (ICE) and Stirling engines (SE) are preferred if the heat demand is high. - Highlights: • Optimal design of microgrids is addressed by coupling environmental and economic aspects. • An MILP model is formulated based on the ε-constraint method. • The model selects a combination of CHP technologies with different technical characteristics for optimum scenarios. • The global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) are determined. • The output of LCA is used as an input for the optimisation model

  5. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA quality of frozen beef based on DNA yield, gel electrophoresis and PCR amplification and their correlations to beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Xingyu; Zhang, Lan; Ku, Ting; Quek, Siew Young

    2018-09-15

    Freezing is a practical method for meat preservation but the quality of frozen meat can deteriorate with storage time. This research investigated the effect of frozen storage time (up to 66 months) on changes in DNA yield, purity and integrity in beef, and further analyzed the correlation between beef quality (moisture content, protein content, TVB-N value and pH value) and DNA quality in an attempt to establish a reliable, high-throughput method for meat quality control. Results showed that frozen storage time influenced the yield and integrity of DNA significantly (p quality degraded dramatically with the increased storage time based on gel electrophoresis results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) were observed in all frozen beef samples. Using real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of DNA and meat quality revealed that correlations could be established successfully with mathematical models to evaluate frozen beef quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of statistical assessment method for the optimization of the inspection need for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Voskamp, R.; Schmibauer, J.; Ostermeyer, H.; Nagel, G.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of steam generator inspections in nuclear power plants is high. A new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of flaws due to stochastic causes like fretting has been developed for cases where limited inspection data is available. Additionally, a new quantitative assessment methodology for the accumulation of environment related flaws, caused e.g. by corrosion in steam generator tubes, has been developed. The method that combines deterministic information regarding flaw initiation and growth with stochastic elements connected to environmental aspects requires only knowledge of the experimental flaw accumulation history. The method, combining both types of flaw types, provides a complete description of the flaw accumulation and there are several possible uses of the method. The method can be used to evaluate the total life expectancy of the steam generator and simple statistically defined plugging criteria can be established based on flaw behaviour. This way the inspection interval and inspection coverage can be optimized with respect to allowable flaws and the method can recognize flaw type subsets requiring more frequent inspection intervals. The method can also be used to develop statistically realistic safety factors accounting for uncertainties in inspection flaw sizing and detection. The statistical assessment method has been showed to be robust and insensitive to different assessments of plugged tubes. Because the procedure is re-calibrated after each inspection, it reacts effectively to possible changes in the steam generator environment. Validation of the assessment method is provided for real steam generators, both in the case of stochastic damage as well as environment related flaws. (authors)

  7. Impact factors and the optimal parameter of acoustic structure quantification in the assessment of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Jian; Liao, Bing; Huang, Guang-Liang; Liang, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Wang, Fen; Li, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study are to assess the impact factors on acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) ultrasound and find the optimal parameter for the assessment of liver fibrosis. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent ASQ examinations to evaluate impact factors in ASQ image acquisition and analysis. An additional 113 patients with liver diseases underwent standardized ASQ examinations, and the results were compared with histologic staging of liver fibrosis. We found that the right liver displayed lower values of ASQ parameters than the left (p = 0.000-0.021). Receive gain experienced no significant impact except gain 70 (p = 0.193-1.000). With regard to different diameter of involved vessels in regions of interest, the group ≤2.0 mm differed significantly with the group 2.1-5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.033) and the group >5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.062). However, the region of interest size (p = 0.438-1.000) and depth (p = 0.072-0.764) had no statistical impact. Good intra- and inter-operator reproducibilities were found in both image acquisitions and offline image analyses. In the liver fibrosis study, the focal disturbance ratio had the highest correlation with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.67, p the assessment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. QbD for pediatric oral lyophilisates development: risk assessment followed by screening and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casian, Tibor; Iurian, Sonia; Bogdan, Catalina; Rus, Lucia; Moldovan, Mirela; Tomuta, Ioan

    2017-12-01

    This study proposed the development of oral lyophilisates with respect to pediatric medicine development guidelines, by applying risk management strategies and DoE as an integrated QbD approach. Product critical quality attributes were overviewed by generating Ishikawa diagrams for risk assessment purposes, considering process, formulation and methodology related parameters. Failure Mode Effect Analysis was applied to highlight critical formulation and process parameters with an increased probability of occurrence and with a high impact on the product performance. To investigate the effect of qualitative and quantitative formulation variables D-optimal designs were used for screening and optimization purposes. Process parameters related to suspension preparation and lyophilization were classified as significant factors, and were controlled by implementing risk mitigation strategies. Both quantitative and qualitative formulation variables introduced in the experimental design influenced the product's disintegration time, mechanical resistance and dissolution properties selected as CQAs. The optimum formulation selected through Design Space presented ultra-fast disintegration time (5 seconds), a good dissolution rate (above 90%) combined with a high mechanical resistance (above 600 g load). Combining FMEA and DoE allowed the science based development of a product with respect to the defined quality target profile by providing better insights on the relevant parameters throughout development process. The utility of risk management tools in pharmaceutical development was demonstrated.

  9. Use of remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial statistics to assess spatio-temporal population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean yield quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Antonio Jose De Araujo

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is an important source of oil and protein worldwide, and soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is among the most important yield-limiting factors in soybean production worldwide. Early detection of SCN is difficult because soybean plants infected by SCN often do not exhibit visible symptoms. It was hypothesized, however, that reflectance data obtained by remote sensing from soybean canopies may be used to detect plant stress caused by SCN infection. Moreover, reflectance measurements may be related to soybean growth and yield. Two field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2002 to study the relationships among reflectance data, quantity and quality of soybean yield, and SCN population densities. The best relationships between reflectance and the quantity of soybean grain yield occurred when reflectance data were obtained late August to early September. Similarly, reflectance was best related to seed oil and seed protein content and seed size when measured during late August/early September. Grain quality-reflectance relationships varied spatially and temporally. Reflectance measured early or late in the season had the best relationships with SCN population densities measured at planting. Soil properties likely affected reflectance measurements obtained at the beginning of the season and somehow may have been related to SCN population densities at planting. Reflectance data obtained at the end of the growing season likely was affected by early senescence of SCN-infected soybeans. Spatio-temporal aspects of SCN population densities in both experiments were assessed using spatial statistics and regression analyses. In the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons, spring-to-fall changes in SCN population densities were best related to SCN population densities at planting for both experiments. However, within-season changes in SCN population densities were best related to SCN population densities at harvest for both experiments in

  10. Effect of yield to tensile (Y/T) ratio on the structural integrity of offshore pipeline: advanced engineering assessment using limit state design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatesta, G; Mannucci, G; Demofonti, G [Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Cumino, G [TenarisDalmine (Italy); Izquierdo, A; Tivelli, M [Tenaris Group (Mexico); Quintanilla, H [TENARIS Group (Mexico). TAMSA

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays specifications require strict Yield to Tensile ratio limitation, nevertheless a fully accepted engineering assessment of its influence on pipeline integrity is still lacking. Probabilistic analysis based on structural reliability approach (Limit State Design) aimed at quantifying the Y/T ratio influence on failure probabilities of offshore pipelines was made. In particular, Tenaris seamless pipe data were used as input for the probabilistic failure analysis. The LSD approach has been applied to two actual deep water design cases that have been on purpose selected, and the most relevant failure modes have been considered. Main result of the work is that the quantitative effect of the Y/T ratio on failure probabilities of a deep water pipeline resulted not so big as expected; it has a minor effect, especially when failure modes are governed by Y only. (author)

  11. Objective assessment of plaster cast quality in pediatric distal forearm fractures: Is there an optimal index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Ferreira, Leonardo Termis; Dos Santos Filho, Fernando Claudino; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Gomes, Davi Coutinho Fonseca Fernandes; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Penteado; Gameiro, Vinicius Schott

    2017-02-01

    Several so-called casting indices are available for objective evaluation of plaster cast quality. The present study sought to investigate four of these indices (gap index, padding index, Canterbury index, and three-point index) as compared to a reference standard (cast index) for evaluation of plaster cast quality after closed reduction of pediatric displaced distal forearm fractures. Forty-three radiographs from patients with displaced distal forearm fractures requiring manipulation were reviewed. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive probability, false-negative probability, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for each of the tested indices. Comparison among indices revealed diagnostic agreement in only 4.7% of cases. The strongest correlation with the cast index was found for the gap index, with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.94. The gap index also displayed the best agreement with the cast index, with both indices yielding the same result in 79.1% of assessments. When seeking to assess plaster cast quality, the cast index and gap index should be calculated; if both indices agree, a decision on quality can be made. If the cast and gap indices disagree, the padding index can be calculated as a tiebreaker, and the decision based on the most frequent of the three results. Calculation of the three-point index and Canterbury index appears unnecessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the ecological interactions of Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean, MON 89788, for use in ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Eric W; Phillips, Samuel L; Kendrick, Daniel L; Carson, David; Clark, Pete L; Nickson, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ecological risk assessment, Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean (MON 89788) was compared to a conventional control soybean variety, A3244, for disease and arthropod damage, plant response to abiotic stress and cold, effects on succeeding plant growth (allelopathic effects), plant response to a bacterial symbiont, and effects on the ability of seed to survive and volunteer in a subsequent growing season. Statistically significant differences between MON 89788 and A3244 were considered in the context of the genetic variation known to occur in soybean and were assessed for their potential impact on plant pest (weed) potential and adverse environmental impact. The results of these studies revealed no effects of the genetic modification that would result in increased pest potential or adverse environmental impact of MON 89788 compared with A3244. This paper illustrates how such characterization studies conducted in a range of environments where the crop is grown are used in an ecological risk assessment of the genetically modified (GM) crop. Furthermore, risk assessors and decision makers use this information when deciding whether to approve a GM crop for cultivation in-or grain import into-their country.

  13. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  14. Assessment Studies regarding the Optimal Sizing of Wind Integrated Hybrid Power Plants for Off-Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin; Tarnowski, German Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The paper focusses on the optimal sizing of off-grid hybrid power plants including wind power generation. A modular and scalable system topology as well as an optimal sizing algorithm for the HPP has been presented in a previous publication. In this paper, the sizing process is evaluated by means...... of assessment studies. The aim is to address the impact of renewable resource data, the required power supply availability and reactive power load demand on the optimal sizing of wind integrated off-grid HPPs....

  15. Assessment of Displacement Flow at Ketandan Creeks to Optimizing Land Use in Jember New City Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entin Hidayah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Displacement flow will caused a change in the flow characteristics such as flow depth, discharge, river slope and width of the river surface. If not carefully examined, it will cause the riverbed erosion, sedimentation and risk of flooding. This paper aims to assess the hydrology and hydraulics of the river flow changes in Ketandan creek in optimizing the use of land housing for Jember New City (JNC. Hydrology modelling studies conducted for the return period rainfall include a 2 year as normal discharge, and 100 year as flood condition. Simulation of flood designs used to assess changes in the flow regime in the channel and the risk of flooding with HEC-RAS program. The results of the study showed that for the flood design 3,1 m3/sec and 12,8 m3/sec will give the effect of critical water surface. In order to keep the flow of the river bed of critically needed as the drop-structure and spillway construction.

  16. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  17. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  18. On Rigorous Drought Assessment Using Daily Time Scale: Non-Stationary Frequency Analyses, Revisited Concepts, and a New Method to Yield Non-Parametric Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the problems in drought assessments are that: analyses tend to focus on coarse temporal scales, many of the methods yield skewed indices, a few terminologies are ambiguously used, and analyses comprise an implicit assumption that the observations come from a stationary process. To solve these problems, this paper introduces non-stationary frequency analyses of quantiles. How to use non-parametric rescaling to obtain robust indices that are not (or minimally skewed is also introduced. To avoid ambiguity, some concepts on, e.g., incidence, extremity, etc., were revisited through shift from monthly to daily time scale. Demonstrations on the introduced methods were made using daily flow and precipitation insufficiency (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration from the Blue Nile basin in Africa. Results show that, when a significant trend exists in extreme events, stationarity-based quantiles can be far different from those when non-stationarity is considered. The introduced non-parametric indices were found to closely agree with the well-known standardized precipitation evapotranspiration indices in many aspects but skewness. Apart from revisiting some concepts, the advantages of the use of fine instead of coarse time scales in drought assessment were given. The links for obtaining freely downloadable tools on how to implement the introduced methods were provided.

  19. Stope Stability Assessment and Effect of Horizontal to Vertical Stress Ratio on the Yielding and Relaxation Zones Around Underground Open Stopes Using Empirical and Finite Element Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mohammadali; Apel, Derek; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the stability of open stopes can be a challenging task for underground mine engineers. For decades, the stability graph method has been used as the first step of open stope design around the world. However, there are some shortcomings with this method. For instance, the stability graph method does not account for the relaxation zones around the stopes. Another limitation of the stability graph is that this method cannot to be used to evaluate the stability of the stopes with high walls made of backfill materials. However, there are several analytical and numerical methods that can be used to overcome these limitations. In this study, both empirical and numerical methods have been used to assess the stability of an open stope located between mine levels N9225 and N9250 at Diavik diamond underground mine. It was shown that the numerical methods can be used as complementary methods along with other analytical and empirical methods to assess the stability of open stopes. A three dimensional elastoplastic finite element model was constructed using Abaqus software. In this paper a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of the stress ratio "k" on the extent of the yielding and relaxation zones around the hangingwall and footwall of the understudy stope.

  20. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  1. Optimization of low energy sonication treatment for granular activated carbon colonizing biomass assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, G; Bernasconi, M; Antonelli, M

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at optimizing a low energy sonication (LES) treatment for granular activated carbon (GAC)-colonizing biomass detachment and determination, evaluating detachment efficiency and the effects of ultrasound exposure on bacterial cell viability. GAC samples were collected from two filters fed with groundwater. Conventional heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and fluorescence microscopy with a double staining method were used to evaluate cell viability, comparing two LES procedures, without and with periodical bulk substitution. A 20 min LES treatment, with bulk substitution after cycles of 5 min as maximum treatment time, allowed to recover 87%/100% of attached biomass, protecting detached bacteria from ultrasound damaging effects. Observed viable cell inactivation rate was 6.5/7.9% cell/min, with membrane-compromised cell damage appearing to be even higher (11.5%/13.1% cell/min). Assessing bacterial detachment and damaging ultrasound effects, fluorescence microscopy turned out to be more sensitive compared to conventional HPC. The optimized method revealed a GAC-colonizing biomass of 9.9 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 1 and 8.8 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 2, 2 log lower than reported in literature. The difference between the two GAC-colonizing biomasses is higher in terms of viable cells (46.3% of total cells in plant 1 GAC-colonizing biomass compared to the 33.3% in plant 2). Studying influent water contamination through multivariate statistical analyses, apossible combined toxic and genotoxic effect of chromium VI and trichloroethylene was suggested as a reason for the lower viable cell fraction observed in plant 2 GAC-colonizing population.

  2. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  3. Radioiodine (I-131) treatment for uncomplicated hyperthyroidism: An assessment of optimal dose and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Jahan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioiodine (I-131) is increasingly being considered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism but there is no general agreement for the initial dose. To determine the cost-effectiveness and optimal dose of I-131 to cure disease, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy of 423 patients. Material and Methods: Any of the fixed doses of 6, 8, 10, 12 or 15 mCi of I-131 was administered to the patients relating to thyroid gland size. The individual was excluded from this study who had multinodular goitre and autonomous toxic nodule. Patients were classified as cured if the clinical and biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. The costs were assessed by analyzing the total cost of care including office visit, laboratory testing, radioiodine treatment, average conveyance and income loss of patient and attendant and thyroxine replacement for a period of 2 years from the day of I-131 administration. Results: The results showed a progressive increase of cure rate from the doses of 6, 8 and 10 mCi by 67%, 76.5% and 85.7% respectively but the cure rate for the doses of 12 and 15 mCi was 87.9% and 88.8% respectively. Cure was directly related to the dose between 6 and 10 mCi but at higher doses the cure rate was increased marginally at the expense of increased total body radiation. There was little variation in total costs, but was higher for low dose-therapy and the cost proportion between the 6 mCi regimen and 10 mCi regimen was 1.04:1. Conclusion: We could conclude that an initial 10 mCi of I-131 may be the optimal dose for curing hyperthyroidism and will also limit the total costs

  4. RSM based optimization of chemical and enzymatic transesterification of palm oil: biodiesel production and assessment of exhaust emission levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Mukhtar, Hamid; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-01-01

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.

  5. Assessing the optimality of ASHRAE climate zones using high resolution meteorological data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fils, P. D.; Kumar, J.; Collier, N.; Hoffman, F. M.; Xu, M.; Forbes, W.

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumed by built infrastructure constitutes a significant fraction of the nation's energy budget. According to 2015 US Energy Information Agency report, 41% of the energy used in the US was going to residential and commercial buildings. Additional research has shown that 32% of commercial building energy goes into heating and cooling the building. The American National Standards Institute and the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 90.1 provides climate zones for current state-of-practice since heating and cooling demands are strongly influenced by spatio-temporal weather variations. For this reason, we have been assessing the optimality of the climate zones using high resolution daily climate data from NASA's DAYMET database. We analyzed time series of meteorological data sets for all ASHRAE climate zones between 1980-2016 inclusively. We computed the mean, standard deviation, and other statistics for a set of meteorological variables (solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature)within each zone. By plotting all the zonal statistics, we analyzed patterns and trends in those data over the past 36 years. We compared the means of each zone to its standard deviation to determine the range of spatial variability that exist within each zone. If the band around the mean is too large, it indicates that regions in the zone experience a wide range of weather conditions and perhaps a common set of building design guidelines would lead to a non-optimal energy consumption scenario. In this study we have observed a strong variation in the different climate zones. Some have shown consistent patterns in the past 36 years, indicating that the zone was well constructed, while others have greatly deviated from their mean indicating that the zone needs to be reconstructed. We also looked at redesigning the climate zones based on high resolution climate data. We are using building simulations models like EnergyPlus to develop

  6. Optimization of an In silico Cardiac Cell Model for Proarrhythmia Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dutta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced Torsade-de-Pointes (TdP has been responsible for the withdrawal of many drugs from the market and is therefore of major concern to global regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. The Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA was proposed to improve prediction of TdP risk, using in silico models and in vitro multi-channel pharmacology data as integral parts of this initiative. Previously, we reported that combining dynamic interactions between drugs and the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr with multi-channel pharmacology is important for TdP risk classification, and we modified the original O'Hara Rudy ventricular cell mathematical model to include a Markov model of IKr to represent dynamic drug-IKr interactions (IKr-dynamic ORd model. We also developed a novel metric that could separate drugs with different TdP liabilities at high concentrations based on total electronic charge carried by the major inward ionic currents during the action potential. In this study, we further optimized the IKr-dynamic ORd model by refining model parameters using published human cardiomyocyte experimental data under control and drug block conditions. Using this optimized model and manual patch clamp data, we developed an updated version of the metric that quantifies the net electronic charge carried by major inward and outward ionic currents during the steady state action potential, which could classify the level of drug-induced TdP risk across a wide range of concentrations and pacing rates. We also established a framework to quantitatively evaluate a system's robustness against the induction of early afterdepolarizations (EADs, and demonstrated that the new metric is correlated with the cell's robustness to the pro-EAD perturbation of IKr conductance reduction. In summary, in this work we present an optimized model that is more consistent with experimental data, an improved metric that can classify drugs at

  7. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  8. DFIG-based offshore wind power plant connected to a single VSC-HVDC operated at variable frequency: Energy yield assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The existence of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission systems for remote offshore wind power plants allows devising novel wind plant concepts, which do not need to be synchronized with the main AC grid. This paper proposes an OWPP (offshore wind power plant) design based on variable speed wind turbines driven by DFIGs (doubly fed induction generators) with reduced power electronic converters connected to a single VSC-HVDC converter which operates at variable frequency and voltage within the collection grid. It is aimed to evaluate the influence of the power converter size and wind speed variability within the WPP on energy yield efficiency, as well as to develop a coordinated control between the VSC-HVDC converter and the individual back-to-back reduced power converters of each DFIG-based wind turbine in order to provide control capability for the wind power plant at a reduced cost. To maximise wind power generation by the OWPP, an optimum electrical frequency search algorithm for the VSC-HVDC converter is proposed. Both central wind power plant control level and local wind turbine control level are presented and the performance of the system is validated by means of simulations using MATLAB/Simulink ® . - Highlights: • Influence of converter size and wind speed variability on energy capture efficiency. • Coordinated control between a VSC-HVDC and DFIG WTs with reduced power converters. • Static and dynamic analysis of the performance of the implemented control scheme. • Optimal variable frequency operation to maximize WPP generation at a reduced cost

  9. On-orbit servicing system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under mixed aleatory and epistemic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; van Tooren, Michel

    2013-06-01

    To assess the on-orbit servicing (OOS) paradigm and optimize its utilities by taking advantage of its inherent flexibility and responsiveness, the OOS system assessment and optimization methods based on lifecycle simulation under uncertainties are studied. The uncertainty sources considered in this paper include both the aleatory (random launch/OOS operation failure and on-orbit component failure) and the epistemic (the unknown trend of the end-used market price) types. Firstly, the lifecycle simulation under uncertainties is discussed. The chronological flowchart is presented. The cost and benefit models are established, and the uncertainties thereof are modeled. The dynamic programming method to make optimal decision in face of the uncertain events is introduced. Secondly, the method to analyze the propagation effects of the uncertainties on the OOS utilities is studied. With combined probability and evidence theory, a Monte Carlo lifecycle Simulation based Unified Uncertainty Analysis (MCS-UUA) approach is proposed, based on which the OOS utility assessment tool under mixed uncertainties is developed. Thirdly, to further optimize the OOS system under mixed uncertainties, the reliability-based optimization (RBO) method is studied. To alleviate the computational burden of the traditional RBO method which involves nested optimum search and uncertainty analysis, the framework of Sequential Optimization and Mixed Uncertainty Analysis (SOMUA) is employed to integrate MCS-UUA, and the RBO algorithm SOMUA-MCS is developed. Fourthly, a case study on the OOS system for a hypothetical GEO commercial communication satellite is investigated with the proposed assessment tool. Furthermore, the OOS system is optimized with SOMUA-MCS. Lastly, some conclusions are given and future research prospects are highlighted.

  10. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Picard, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO 2 -enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

  11. [Ecological suitability assessment and optimization of urban land expansion space in Guiyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cong-hao; Li, Yang-bing; Feng, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the case study of Guiyang City, the minimum cumulative resistance model integrating construction land source, ecological rigid constraints and ecological function type resistance factor, was built by use of cost-distance analysis of urban spatial expansion resistance value through ArcGIS 9.3 software in this paper. Then, the ecological resistance of city spatial expansion of Guiyang from 2010 was simulated dynamically and the ecological suitability classification of city spatial expansion was assessed. According to the conflict between the newly increased city construction land in 2014 and its ecological suitability, the unreasonable city land spatial allocation was discussed also. The results showed that the ecological suitability zonation and the city expansion in the study area were basically consistent during 2010-2014, but the conflict between the new city construction and its land ecological suitability was more serious. The ecological conflict area accounted for 58.2% of the new city construction sites, 35.4% of which happened in the ecological control area, 13.9% in the limited development area and 8.9% in the prohibition development area. The intensification of ecological land use conflict would impair the ecological service function and ecological safety, so this paper put forward the city spatial expansion optimal path to preserve the ecological land and improve the construction land space pattern of Guiyang City so as to ensure its ecological safety.

  12. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  13. Optimizing Team Dynamics: An Assessment of Physician Trainees and Advanced Practice Providers Collaborative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cortney B; Simone, Shari; Bagdure, Dayanand; Garber, Nan A; Bhutta, Adnan

    2016-09-01

    The presence of advanced practice providers has become increasingly common in many ICUs. The ideal staffing model for units that contain both advanced practice providers and physician trainees has not been described. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ICU staffing models that include physician trainees and advanced practice providers and their effects on patient outcomes, resident and fellow education, and training experience. A second aim was to assess strategies to promote collaboration between team members. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID MEDLINE, and Cochrane Review from 2002 to 2015. Experimental study designs conducted in an ICU setting. Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and independently abstracted data using the identified search terms. We found 21 articles describing ICU team structure and outcomes. Four articles were found describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident or fellow education. Two articles were found discussing strategies to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and critical care fellows or residents. Several articles were identified describing the utilization of advanced practice providers in the ICU and the impact of models of care on patient outcomes. Limited data exist describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident and fellow education and training experience. In addition, there are minimal data describing methods to enhance collaboration between providers. Future research should focus on determining the optimal ICU team structure to improve patient outcomes, education of trainees, and job satisfaction of team members and methods to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and physicians in training.

  14. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  15. Risk-Assessment Score and Patient Optimization as Cost Predictors for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Sherif; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with complications that significantly increase healthcare costs. This study explores the associations between hospital costs for VHR and surgical complication risk-assessment scores, need for cardiac or pulmonary evaluation, and smoking or obesity counseling. An IRB-approved retrospective study of patients having undergone open VHR over 3 years was performed. Ventral Hernia Risk Score (VHRS) for surgical site occurrence and surgical site infection, and the Ventral Hernia Working Group grade were calculated for each case. Also recorded were preoperative cardiology or pulmonary evaluations, smoking cessation and weight reduction counseling, and patient goal achievement. Hospital costs were obtained from the cost accounting system for the VHR hospitalization stratified by major clinical cost drivers. Univariate regression analyses were used to compare the predictive power of the risk scores. Multivariable analysis was performed to develop a cost prediction model. The mean cost of index VHR hospitalization was $20,700. Total and operating room costs correlated with increasing CDC wound class, VHRS surgical site infection score, VHRS surgical site occurrence score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and Ventral Hernia Working Group (all p variance in costs (p optimization significantly reduced direct and operating room costs (p < 0.05). Cardiac evaluation was associated with increased costs. Ventral hernia repair hospital costs are more accurately predicted by CDC wound class than VHR risk scores. A straightforward 6-factor model predicted most cost variation for VHR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  17. Optimally stopped variational quantum algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Shabani, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Quantum processors promise a paradigm shift in high-performance computing which needs to be assessed by accurate benchmarking measures. In this article, we introduce a benchmark for the variational quantum algorithm (VQA), recently proposed as a heuristic algorithm for small-scale quantum processors. In VQA, a classical optimization algorithm guides the processor's quantum dynamics to yield the best solution for a given problem. A complete assessment of the scalability and competitiveness of VQA should take into account both the quality and the time of dynamics optimization. The method of optimal stopping, employed here, provides such an assessment by explicitly including time as a cost factor. Here, we showcase this measure for benchmarking VQA as a solver for some quadratic unconstrained binary optimization. Moreover, we show that a better choice for the cost function of the classical routine can significantly improve the performance of the VQA algorithm and even improve its scaling properties.

  18. [Clinical application and optimization of HEAD-US quantitative ultrasound assessment scale for hemophilic arthropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Guo, X J; Ding, X L; Lyu, B M; Xiao, J; Sun, Q L; Li, D S; Zhang, W F; Zhou, J C; Li, C P; Yang, R C

    2018-02-14

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of HEAD-US scale in the clinical application of hemophilic arthropathy (HA) and propose an optimized ultrasound scoring system. Methods: From July 2015 to August 2017, 1 035 joints ultrasonographic examinations were performed in 91 patients. Melchiorre, HEAD-US (Hemophilic Early Arthropathy Detection with UltraSound) and HEAD-US-C (HEAD-US in China) scale scores were used respectively to analyze the results. The correlations between three ultrasound scales and Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (HJHS) were evaluated. The sensitivity differences of the above Ultrasonic scoring systems in evaluation of HA were compared. Results: All the 91 patients were male, with median age of 16 (4-55) years old, including 86 cases of hemophilia A and 5 cases hemophilia B. The median ( P 25 , P 75 ) of Melchiorre, HEAD-US and HEAD-US-C scores of 1 035 joints were 2(0,6), 1(0,5) and 2(0,6), respectively, and the correlation coefficients compared with HJHS was 0.747, 0.762 and 0.765 respectively, with statistical significance ( P cases of asymptomatic joints, the positive rates of Melchiorre, HEAD-US-C and HEAD-US scale score were 25.0% (95% CI 20.6%-29.6%), 17.0% (95% CI 12.6%-21.1%) and 11.9% (95% CI 8.4%-15.7%) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant ( P joints of 40 patients. The difference in variation amplitude of HEAD-US-C scores and HEAD-US scores before and after joint bleeding was statistically significant ( P <0.001). Conclusion: Compared with Melchiorre, there were similar good correlations between HEAD-US, HEAD-US-C and HJHS. HEAD-US ultrasound scoring system is quick, convenient and simple to use. The optimized HEAD-US-C scale score is more sensitive than HEAD-US, especially for patients with HA who have subclinical state, which make up for insufficiency of sensitivity in HEAD-US scoring system.

  19. The human error rate assessment and optimizing system HEROS - a new procedure for evaluating and optimizing the man-machine interface in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richei, A.; Hauptmanns, U.; Unger, H.

    2001-01-01

    A new procedure allowing the probabilistic evaluation and optimization of the man-machine system is presented. This procedure and the resulting expert system HEROS, which is an acronym for Human Error Rate Assessment and Optimizing System, is based on the fuzzy set theory. Most of the well-known procedures employed for the probabilistic evaluation of human factors involve the use of vague linguistic statements on performance shaping factors to select and to modify basic human error probabilities from the associated databases. This implies a large portion of subjectivity. Vague statements are expressed here in terms of fuzzy numbers or intervals which allow mathematical operations to be performed on them. A model of the man-machine system is the basis of the procedure. A fuzzy rule-based expert system was derived from ergonomic and psychological studies. Hence, it does not rely on a database, whose transferability to situations different from its origin is questionable. In this way, subjective elements are eliminated to a large extent. HEROS facilitates the importance analysis for the evaluation of human factors, which is necessary for optimizing the man-machine system. HEROS is applied to the analysis of a simple diagnosis of task of the operating personnel in a nuclear power plant

  20. Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  2. MouthLab: A Tricorder Concept Optimized for Rapid Medical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gene Y; Tang, Hai; Feller-Kopman, David; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The goal of rapid medical assessment (RMA) is to estimate the general health of a patient during an emergency room or a doctor's office visit, or even while the patient is at home. Currently the devices used during RMA are typically "all-in-one" vital signs monitors. They require time, effort and expertise to attach various sensors to the body. A device optimized for RMA should instead require little effort or expertise to operate and be able to rapidly obtain and consolidate as much information as possible. MouthLab is a battery powered hand-held device intended to acquire and evaluate many measurements such as non-invasive blood sugar, saliva and respiratory biochemistry. Our initial prototype acquires standard vital signs: pulse rate (PR), breathing rate (BR), temperature (T), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), blood pressure (BP), and a three-lead electrocardiogram. In our clinical study we tested the device performance against the measurements obtained with a standard patient monitor. 52 people participated in the study. The measurement errors were as follows: PR: -1.7 ± 3.5 BPM, BR: 0.4 ± 2.4 BPM, T: -0.4 ± 1.24 °F, SpO2: -0.6 ± 1.7%. BP systolic: -1.8 ± 12 mmHg, BP diastolic: 0.6 ± 8 mmHg. We have shown that RMA can be easily performed non-invasively by patients with no prior training.

  3. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest effect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coefficients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fit of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specific attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confirms

  4. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetti, Biagio F.; Agostinho, Feni; Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B.; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  5. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Biagio F. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Agostinho, Feni, E-mail: feni@unip.br [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Ulgiati, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ulgiati@uniparthenope.it [Università degli studi di Napoli, Parthenope (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  6. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-02

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior expectations that were not met. Designers made

  7. Concept development and needs identification for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO) : test readiness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO), which is one collection (or bundle) of high-priority transformative applications identified by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) Mob...

  8. Assessment of Masonry Buildings Subjected to Landslide-Induced Settlements: From Load Path Method to Evolutionary Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Fabrizio; Elia, Angelo

    2017-10-01

    One of the main difficulties, when dealing with landslide structural vulnerability, is the diagnosis of the causes of crack patterns. This is also due to the excessive complexity of models based on classical structural mechanics that makes them inappropriate especially when there is the necessity to perform a rapid vulnerability assessment at the territorial scale. This is why, a new approach, based on a ‘simple model’ (i.e. the Load Path Method, LPM), has been proposed by Palmisano and Elia for the interpretation of the behaviour of masonry buildings subjected to landslide-induced settlements. However, the LPM is very useful for rapidly finding the 'most plausible solution' instead of the exact solution. To find the solution, optimization algorithms are necessary. In this scenario, this article aims to show how the Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization method by Huang and Xie, can be very useful to optimize the strut-and-tie models obtained by using the Load Path Method.

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.

    1997-04-01

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant

  10. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. 62 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  11. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  12. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  13. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  14. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  15. FLOODPLAIN-CHANNEL COMPLEX OF SMALL RIVER: ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT STATE, OPTIMIZATION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes main methodological principles of geoecological assessment of riverbed-floodplain complex condition of one of the small rivers in Ukrainian Carpathians. According to our long-term field, cartographic, laboratory and remote sensing research, division of riverbed into homogeneous geoecological segments was made, as well as their standardization in accordance to the trends of unfavorable processes. Main reasons for deterioration of quality characteristics of channel-floodplain river complex were outlined; the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in deterioration of geoecological condition of the river and its floodplain complex was analyzed. Based on the assessment results it is possible to state that the condition of study segments of the Berezhnytsya river flood-plain and stream-way complex was marked as “excellent”, “good” and “satisfactory”. “Unsatisfactory” and “catastrophic” river and flood-plain condition has not been detected yet, although within Dashava urban settlement the river area condition is close to the “satisfactory” grade. The best situation is at the river head as human impact is minimized here and natural vegetation is preserved. Downstream we trace the tendency of condition worsening as anthropogenic load on the basin system and flood-plain and stream-way complex increases. Its negative impact is balanced by large forests, thus in segments limited by Banya Lysovytska village and Lotatnyky village the river and flood-plain condition is rated as “good”. So, downstream from the named village the value of such an important natural barrier as forest is reducing and anthropogenic load on the river significantly increases. The latter manifests in an intensive agricultural reclamation and housing development of flood-plains. Since degradation processes are rapidly developing over a considerable part of the Berezhnytsya river, negative changes are visible and only the study area

  16. Two-phase optimizing approach to design assessments of long distance heat transportation for CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Piotr; Duzinkiewicz, Kazimierz; Grochowski, Michał; Piotrowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for long distance heat transportation system effectivity evaluation. • Decision model formulation which reflects time and spatial structure of the problem. • Multi-criteria and complex approach to solving the decision-making problem. • Solver based on simulation-optimization approach with two-phase optimization method. • Sensitivity analysis of the optimization procedure elements. - Abstract: Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for power plants is a method of putting to use waste heat which would be otherwise released to the environment. This allows the increase in thermodynamic efficiency of the plant and can be a source of environmental friendly heat for District Heating (DH). In the paper CHP for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is analyzed with the focus on heat transportation. A method for effectivity and feasibility evaluation of the long distance, high power Heat Transportation System (HTS) between the NPP and the DH network is proposed. As a part of the method the multi-criteria decision-making problem, having the structure of the mathematical programming problem, for optimized selection of design and operating parameters of the HTS is formulated. The constraints for this problem include a static model of HTS, that allows considerations of system lifetime, time variability and spatial topology. Thereby variation of annual heat demand within the DH area, variability of ground temperature, insulation and pipe aging and/or terrain elevation profile can be taken into account in the decision-making process. The HTS construction costs, pumping power, and heat losses are considered as objective functions. In general, the analyzed optimization problem is multi-criteria, hybrid and nonlinear. The two-phase optimization based on optimization-simulation framework is proposed to solve the decision-making problem. The solver introduces a number of assumptions concerning the optimization process. Methods for problem decomposition

  17. Optimal sizing and operation of energy storage systems considering long term assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Guerra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for estimating the optimal sizing of Photovoltaic Generators and Energy Storage units when they are operated from the utility’s perspective. The goal is to explore the potential improvement on the overall operating conditions of the distribution system to which the Generators and Storage units will be connected. Optimization is conducted by means of a General Parallel Genetic Algorithm that seeks to maximize the technical benefits for the distribution system. The paper proposes an operation strategy for Energy Storage units based on the daily variation of load and generation; the operation strategy is optimized for an evaluation period of one year using hourly power curves. The construction of the yearly Storage operation curve results in a high-dimension optimization problem; as a result, different day-classification methods are applied in order to reduce the dimension of the optimization. Results show that the proposed approach is capable of producing significant improvements in system operating conditions and that the best performance is obtained when the day-classification is based on the similarity among daily power curves.

  18. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  19. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    for reducing their energy bills. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a “tragedy of the commons” mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in power quality degradation. In this work, we...... use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a distribution feeder simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of “selfish” optimization, so that the high-penetration use of DERs to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service...

  20. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG and in the field (FG. An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH and cellular antioxidant (CAA assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil.

  1. Towards optimal decision making in personalized medicine : Potential value assessment of biomarkers in heart failure exemplars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Treatment selection based on average effects observed in entire target population masks variation among patients (heterogeneity) and may result in less than optimal decision making. Personalized medicine is a new and complex concept, which aims to improve health by offering more tailored and

  2. Balancing Optimal Assessment with Part-Time Faculty Participation: A Discipline's Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley-Scott, Jennifer; Tompsett-Makin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Part-time faculty need to be brought into the student learning outcomes assessment loop not only to help accreditation, but because they, like full-time faculty, can benefit from assessment. When part-time faculty are not participating in assessment, a sizable percentage of courses are being less effectively taught than they could be. In an…

  3. Assessment of various failure theories for weight and cost optimized laminated composites using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, T. [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, UP (India); Gupta, R. [Infotech Enterprises Ltd., Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, minimum weight-cost design for laminated composites is presented. A genetic algorithm has been developed for the optimization process. Maximum-Stress, Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure criteria have been used along with buckling analysis parameter for the margin of safety calculations. The design variables include three materials; namely Carbon-Epoxy, Glass-Epoxy, Kevlar-Epoxy; number of plies; ply orientation angles, varying from -75 deg. to 90 deg. in the intervals of 15 deg. and ply thicknesses which depend on the material in use. The total cost is a sum of material cost and layup cost. Layup cost is a function of the ply angle. Validation studies for solution convergence and weight-cost inverse proportionality are carried out. One set of results for shear loading are also validated from literature for a particular case. A Pareto-Optimal solution set is demonstrated for biaxial loading conditions. It is then extended to applied moments. It is found that global optimum for a given loading condition is a function of the failure criteria for shear loading, with Maximum Stress criteria giving the lightest-cheapest and Tsai-Wu criteria giving the heaviest-costliest optimized laminates. Optimized weight results are plotted from the three criteria to do a comparative study. This work gives a global optimized laminated composite and also a set of other local optimum laminates for a given set of loading conditions. The current algorithm also provides with adequate data to supplement the use of different failure criteria for varying loadings. This work can find use in the industry and/or academia considering the increased use of laminated composites in modern wind blades. (Author)

  4. Assessing the influence of NOx concentrations and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol yields from α-pinene photo-oxidation through smog chamber experiments and modelling calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnweis, Lisa; Marcolli, Claudia; Dommen, Josef; Barmet, Peter; Frege, Carla; Platt, Stephen M.; Bruns, Emily A.; Krapf, Manuel; Slowik, Jay G.; Wolf, Robert; Prévôt, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad

    2017-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the photo-oxidation of α-pinene were investigated in smog chamber (SC) experiments at low (23-29 %) and high (60-69 %) relative humidity (RH), various NOx / VOC ratios (0.04-3.8) and with different aerosol seed chemical compositions (acidic to neutralized sulfate-containing or hydrophobic organic). A combination of a scanning mobility particle sizer and an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was used to determine SOA mass concentration and chemical composition. We used a Monte Carlo approach to parameterize smog chamber SOA yields as a function of the condensed phase absorptive mass, which includes the sum of OA and the corresponding bound liquid water content. High RH increased SOA yields by up to 6 times (1.5-6.4) compared to low RH. The yields at low NOx / VOC ratios were in general higher compared to yields at high NOx / VOC ratios. This NOx dependence follows the same trend as seen in previous studies for α-pinene SOA. A novel approach of data evaluation using volatility distributions derived from experimental data served as the basis for thermodynamic phase partitioning calculations of model mixtures in this study. These calculations predict liquid-liquid phase separation into organic-rich and electrolyte phases. At low NOx conditions, equilibrium partitioning between the gas and liquid phases can explain most of the increase in SOA yields observed at high RH, when in addition to the α-pinene photo-oxidation products described in the literature, fragmentation products are added to the model mixtures. This increase is driven by both the increase in the absorptive mass and the solution non-ideality described by the compounds' activity coefficients. In contrast, at high NOx, equilibrium partitioning alone could not explain the strong increase in the yields with RH. This suggests that other processes, e.g. reactive uptake of semi-volatile species into the liquid phase, may occur and be

  5. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya; De, Swades

    2013-01-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; De, Swades [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  7. Development of a novel method for surgical implant design optimization through noninvasive assessment of local bone properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiuma, D; Brianza, S; Tami, A E

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed to improve the design of locking implants by finding the optimal paths for the anchoring elements, based on a high resolution pQCT assessment of local bone mineral density (BMD) distribution and bone micro-architecture (BMA). The method consists of three steps: (1) partial fixation of the implant to the bone and creation of a reference system, (2) implant removal and pQCT scan of the bone, and (3) determination of BMD and BMA of all implant-anchoring locations along the actual and alternative directions. Using a PHILOS plate, the method uncertainty was tested on an artificial humerus bone model. A cadaveric humerus was used to quantify how the uncertainty of the method affects the assessment of bone parameters. BMD and BMA were determined along four possible alternative screw paths as possible criteria for implant optimization. The method is biased by a 0.87 ± 0.12 mm systematic uncertainty and by a 0.44 ± 0.09 mm random uncertainty in locating the virtual screw position. This study shows that this method can be used to find alternative directions for the anchoring elements, which may possess better bone properties. This modification will thus produce an optimized implant design. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Neural Networks in Risk Assessment and Optimization of Insurance Cover in Innovative Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukała Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific objective of the paper is to present the findings of a study into the use of artificial neural networks in quantifying activity related risks of an innovative enterprise and to optimize its insurance cover in order to minimize the probable financial losses whenever they materialize. The Kohonen network involving the activation of 51 input variables was applied in the study. The outcomes of the stimulation for the given set of variables made it possible to determine the probability of a threat occurring in the classes. The results of the analysis were used to prepare an optimal insurance cover for the activities of the innovative company. The research findings are suitable for use in risk theory as well as in issues relating to entrepreneurship and insurance. The analytical device employed can also be put to practical use as a support tool in corporate risk management.

  9. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  10. Bayesian assessment of the expected data impact on prediction confidence in optimal sampling design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leube, P. C.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2012-02-01

    Incorporating hydro(geo)logical data, such as head and tracer data, into stochastic models of (subsurface) flow and transport helps to reduce prediction uncertainty. Because of financial limitations for investigation campaigns, information needs toward modeling or prediction goals should be satisfied efficiently and rationally. Optimal design techniques find the best one among a set of investigation strategies. They optimize the expected impact of data on prediction confidence or related objectives prior to data collection. We introduce a new optimal design method, called PreDIA(gnosis) (Preposterior Data Impact Assessor). PreDIA derives the relevant probability distributions and measures of data utility within a fully Bayesian, generalized, flexible, and accurate framework. It extends the bootstrap filter (BF) and related frameworks to optimal design by marginalizing utility measures over the yet unknown data values. PreDIA is a strictly formal information-processing scheme free of linearizations. It works with arbitrary simulation tools, provides full flexibility concerning measurement types (linear, nonlinear, direct, indirect), allows for any desired task-driven formulations, and can account for various sources of uncertainty (e.g., heterogeneity, geostatistical assumptions, boundary conditions, measurement values, model structure uncertainty, a large class of model errors) via Bayesian geostatistics and model averaging. Existing methods fail to simultaneously provide these crucial advantages, which our method buys at relatively higher-computational costs. We demonstrate the applicability and advantages of PreDIA over conventional linearized methods in a synthetic example of subsurface transport. In the example, we show that informative data is often invisible for linearized methods that confuse zero correlation with statistical independence. Hence, PreDIA will often lead to substantially better sampling designs. Finally, we extend our example to specifically

  11. Characterization and validation of the thorax phantom Lungman for dose assessment in chest radiography optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Marshall, Nicholas William; Struelens, Lara; Bosmans, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    This work concerns the validation of the Kyoto-Kagaku thorax anthropomorphic phantom Lungman for use in chest radiography optimization. The equivalence in terms of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was established for the lung and mediastinum regions of the phantom. Patient chest examination data acquired under automatic exposure control were collated over a 2-year period for a standard x-ray room. Parameters surveyed included exposure index, air kerma area product, and exposure time, which were compared with Lungman values. Finally, a voxel model was developed by segmenting computed tomography images of the phantom and implemented in PENELOPE/penEasy Monte Carlo code to compare phantom tissue-equivalent materials with materials from ICRP Publication 89 in terms of organ dose. PMMA equivalence varied depending on tube voltage, from 9.5 to 10.0 cm and from 13.5 to 13.7 cm, for the lungs and mediastinum regions, respectively. For the survey, close agreement was found between the phantom and the patients' median values (deviations lay between 8% and 14%). Differences in lung doses, an important organ for optimization in chest radiography, were below 13% when comparing the use of phantom tissue-equivalent materials versus ICRP materials. The study confirms the value of the Lungman for chest optimization studies.

  12. Optimizing Support Vector Machine Parameters with Genetic Algorithm for Credit Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Jonson; Mawengkang, Herman; Zamzami, Elviawaty

    2017-12-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular classification method known to have strong generalization capabilities. SVM can solve the problem of classification and linear regression or nonlinear kernel which can be a learning algorithm for the ability of classification and regression. However, SVM also has a weakness that is difficult to determine the optimal parameter value. SVM calculates the best linear separator on the input feature space according to the training data. To classify data which are non-linearly separable, SVM uses kernel tricks to transform the data into a linearly separable data on a higher dimension feature space. The kernel trick using various kinds of kernel functions, such as : linear kernel, polynomial, radial base function (RBF) and sigmoid. Each function has parameters which affect the accuracy of SVM classification. To solve the problem genetic algorithms are proposed to be applied as the optimal parameter value search algorithm thus increasing the best classification accuracy on SVM. Data taken from UCI repository of machine learning database: Australian Credit Approval. The results show that the combination of SVM and genetic algorithms is effective in improving classification accuracy. Genetic algorithms has been shown to be effective in systematically finding optimal kernel parameters for SVM, instead of randomly selected kernel parameters. The best accuracy for data has been upgraded from kernel Linear: 85.12%, polynomial: 81.76%, RBF: 77.22% Sigmoid: 78.70%. However, for bigger data sizes, this method is not practical because it takes a lot of time.

  13. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  15. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R.; Laan, Eva K.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their

  16. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We also demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%. PMID:26056307

  17. Assessing the effects of soil liming with dolomitic limestone and sugar foam on soil acidity, leaf nutrient contents, grape yield and must quality in a Mediterranean vineyard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olego, M.A.; Visconti, F.; Quiroga, M.J.; Paz, J.M. De; Garzón-Jimeno, E.

    2016-11-01

    Aluminium toxicity has been recognized as one of the most common causes of reduced grape yields in vineyard acid soils. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two liming materials, i.e. dolomitic lime and sugar foam, on a vineyard cultivated in an acid soil. The effects were studied in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm), as well as on leaf nutrient contents, must quality properties and grape yield, in an agricultural soil dedicated to Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Mencía’ cultivation. Data management and analysis were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). As liming material, sugar foam was more efficient than dolomitic limestone because sugar foam promoted the highest decrease in soil acidity properties at the same calcium carbonate equivalent dose. However, potassium contents in vines organs, including leaves and berries, seemed to decrease as a consequence of liming, with a concomitant increase in must total acidity. Soil available phosphorus also decreased as a consequence of liming, especially with sugar foam, though no effects were observed in plants. For these reasons fertilization of this soil with K and P is recommended along with liming. Grape yields in limed soils increased, although non-significantly, by 30%. This research has therefore provided an important opportunity to advance in our understanding of the effects of liming on grape quality and production in acid soils. (Author)

  18. Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo

    2011-01-01

    the spring and summer, specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations decreased during discharge events because the low-ionic strength of stormwater had a diluting effect on stream-water quality. However, peaks in specific conductance and estimated Cl concentrations at Jordan Brook and Stony Brook corresponded to peaks in streamflow well after winter snow or ice events; these delayed peaks in Cl concentration likely resulted from deicing salts that remained in melting snow piles and (or) that were flushed from soils and shallow groundwater, then discharged downstream. Cl loads in streams generally were highest in the winter and early spring. The estimated load for the period of record at the four monitoring sites downstream from I-95 ranged from 0.33 ton per day (ton/d) at the Stony Brook watershed to 0.59 ton/d at the Jordan Brook watershed. The Cl yields ranged from 0.07 ton per day per square mile (ton/d/)mi2) at Oil Mill Brook, one of the least developed watersheds, to 0.21 (ton/d)/mi2) at Jordan Brook, the watershed with the highest percentage of urban development and impervious surfaces. The median estimates of Cl load from atmospheric deposition ranged from 11 to 19 tons, and contributed 4.3 to 7.1 percent of the Cl load in streamflow from the watershed areas. A comparison of the Cl load input and output estimates indicates that less Cl is leaving the watersheds than is entering through atmospheric deposition and application of deicers. The lag time between introduction of Cl to the watershed and transport to the stream, and uncertainty in the load estimates may be the reasons for this discrepancy. In addition, estimates of direct infiltration of Cl to groundwater from atmospheric deposition, deicer applications, and septic-tank drainfields to groundwater were outside the scope of the November 2008 to September 2009 assessment. However, increased concentrations of ions were observed between upstream and downstream sites and could result from deicer appli

  19. Gold nanoparticles production using reactor and cyclotron based methods in assessment of {sup 196,198}Au production yields by {sup 197}Au neutron absorption for therapeutic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah, E-mail: abkhorshidi@yahoo.com

    2016-11-01

    Medical nano-gold radioisotopes is produced regularly using high-flux nuclear reactors, and an accelerator-driven neutron activator can turn out higher yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 196,198}Au reactions. Here, nano-gold production via radiative/neutron capture was investigated using irradiated Tehran Research Reactor flux and also simulated proton beam of Karaj cyclotron in Iran. {sup 197}Au nano-solution, including 20 nm shaped spherical gold and water, was irradiated under Tehran reactor flux at 2.5E + 13 n/cm{sup 2}/s for {sup 196,198}Au activity and production yield estimations. Meanwhile, the yield was examined using 30 MeV proton beam of Karaj cyclotron via simulated new neutron activator containing beryllium target, bismuth moderator around the target, and also PbF{sub 2} reflector enclosed the moderator region. Transmutation in {sup 197}Au nano-solution samples were explored at 15 and 25 cm distances from the target. The neutron flux behavior inside the water and bismuth moderators was investigated for nano-gold particles transmutation. The transport of fast neutrons inside bismuth material as heavy nuclei with a lesser lethargy can be contributed in enhanced nano-gold transmutation with long duration time than the water moderator in reactor-based method. Cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes for brachytherapy applications can complete the nano-gold production technology as a safer approach as compared to the reactor-based method. - Graphical abstract: This figure describes gold nanoparticles production via cyclotron based method. The aim of investigating is to estimate activity and saturation yield of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au and {sup 197}Au(n,2n){sup 196}Au reactions using Karaj cyclotron available in Iran. The feasibility of a cyclotron-driven production of βeta-emitting radioisotopes was investigated for therapeutic applications via a new neutron activator design. - Highlights: • Nano-gold radioisotope production

  20. Leukocyte Motility Models Assessed through Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization-Based Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark N Read

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of two-photon microscopy now reveals unprecedented, detailed spatio-temporal data on cellular motility and interactions in vivo. Understanding cellular motility patterns is key to gaining insight into the development and possible manipulation of the immune response. Computational simulation has become an established technique for understanding immune processes and evaluating hypotheses in the context of experimental data, and there is clear scope to integrate microscopy-informed motility dynamics. However, determining which motility model best reflects in vivo motility is non-trivial: 3D motility is an intricate process requiring several metrics to characterize. This complicates model selection and parameterization, which must be performed against several metrics simultaneously. Here we evaluate Brownian motion, Lévy walk and several correlated random walks (CRWs against the motility dynamics of neutrophils and lymph node T cells under inflammatory conditions by simultaneously considering cellular translational and turn speeds, and meandering indices. Heterogeneous cells exhibiting a continuum of inherent translational speeds and directionalities comprise both datasets, a feature significantly improving capture of in vivo motility when simulated as a CRW. Furthermore, translational and turn speeds are inversely correlated, and the corresponding CRW simulation again improves capture of our in vivo data, albeit to a lesser extent. In contrast, Brownian motion poorly reflects our data. Lévy walk is competitive in capturing some aspects of neutrophil motility, but T cell directional persistence only, therein highlighting the importance of evaluating models against several motility metrics simultaneously. This we achieve through novel application of multi-objective optimization, wherein each model is independently implemented and then parameterized to identify optimal trade-offs in performance against each metric. The resultant Pareto

  1. TU-C-17A-01: A Data-Based Development for Pratical Pareto Optimality Assessment and Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D; Qi, S; DeMarco, J; Kupelian, P; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an efficient Pareto optimality assessment scheme to support plan comparison and practical determination of best-achievable practical treatment plan goals. Methods: Pareto efficiency reflects the tradeoffs among competing target coverage and normal tissue sparing in multi-criterion optimization (MCO) based treatment planning. Assessing and understanding Pareto optimality provides insightful guidance for future planning. However, current MCO-driven Pareto estimation makes relaxed assumptions about the Pareto structure and insufficiently account for practical limitations in beam complexity, leading to performance upper bounds that may be unachievable. This work proposed an alternative data-driven approach that implicitly incorporates the practical limitations, and identifies the Pareto frontier subset by eliminating dominated plans incrementally using the Edgeworth Pareto hull (EPH). The exactness of this elimination process also permits the development of a hierarchical procedure for speedup when the plan cohort size is large, by partitioning the cohort and performing elimination in each subset before a final aggregated elimination. The developed algorithm was first tested on 2D and 3D where accuracy can be reliably assessed. As a specific application, the algorithm was applied to compare systematic plan quality for lower head-and-neck, amongst 4 competing treatment modalities. Results: The algorithm agrees exactly with brute-force pairwise comparison and visual inspection in low dimensions. The hierarchical algorithm shows sqrt(k) folds speedup with k being the number of data points in the plan cohort, demonstrating good efficiency enhancement for heavy testing tasks. Application to plan performance comparison showed superiority of tomotherapy plans for the lower head-and-neck, and revealed a potential nonconvex Pareto frontier structure. Conclusion: An accurate and efficient scheme to identify Pareto frontier from a plan cohort has been

  2. [Optimization and assessment of a reverse hybridization system for the detection of HBV drug-resistant mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-chen; Huang, Ai-long; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Jie-li; Lai, Guo-qi; Zhang, Wen-lu

    2011-12-01

    To establish a detection method for HBV drug-resistant mutations related to lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir by optimization and assessment of reverse hybridization system. 26 degenerated probes covering 10 drug-resistant hotspots of 3 drugs were synthesized and immobilized on the same positively charged nylon membrane. PCR products labeled with digoxigenin were hybridized with corresponding probes. To improve the sensitivity and specificity, 4 reaction steps of reverse hybridization were optimized including the number of labeled digoxigenin, the energy intensity of UV cross-linking, hybridization and stringency wash conditions. To prove the feasibility, the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this system were assessed respectively. Sensitive and specific results are obtained by the optimization of the following 4 reaction steps: the primers labeled with 3 digoxigenin, energy intensity of UV cross-linking for 1500 x 0.1 mJ/cm², hybridization at 42 degrees C and stringency wash with 0.5 x SSC and 0.1% SDS solution at 44 degrees C for 30 min. In the assessment of system, the majority of probes have high specificity. The quantity of PCR product with a concentration of 10 ng/μl or above can be detected by this method. The concordant rate between reverse hybridization and direct sequencing is 93.9% in the clinical sample test. Though the specificity of several probes needs to be improved further, it is a simple, rapid and sensitive method which can detect HBV resistant mutations related to lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir simultaneously. Due to the short distance between 180 and 181, likewise 202 and 204, the sequence of the same probe covers two codon positions, and hybridization will be interfered by each other. To avoid such interference, the possible solution is that probes are designed by arranging and combining various forms of two near codons.

  3. TU-C-17A-01: A Data-Based Development for Pratical Pareto Optimality Assessment and Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, D; Qi, S; DeMarco, J; Kupelian, P; Low, D [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an efficient Pareto optimality assessment scheme to support plan comparison and practical determination of best-achievable practical treatment plan goals. Methods: Pareto efficiency reflects the tradeoffs among competing target coverage and normal tissue sparing in multi-criterion optimization (MCO) based treatment planning. Assessing and understanding Pareto optimality provides insightful guidance for future planning. However, current MCO-driven Pareto estimation makes relaxed assumptions about the Pareto structure and insufficiently account for practical limitations in beam complexity, leading to performance upper bounds that may be unachievable. This work proposed an alternative data-driven approach that implicitly incorporates the practical limitations, and identifies the Pareto frontier subset by eliminating dominated plans incrementally using the Edgeworth Pareto hull (EPH). The exactness of this elimination process also permits the development of a hierarchical procedure for speedup when the plan cohort size is large, by partitioning the cohort and performing elimination in each subset before a final aggregated elimination. The developed algorithm was first tested on 2D and 3D where accuracy can be reliably assessed. As a specific application, the algorithm was applied to compare systematic plan quality for lower head-and-neck, amongst 4 competing treatment modalities. Results: The algorithm agrees exactly with brute-force pairwise comparison and visual inspection in low dimensions. The hierarchical algorithm shows sqrt(k) folds speedup with k being the number of data points in the plan cohort, demonstrating good efficiency enhancement for heavy testing tasks. Application to plan performance comparison showed superiority of tomotherapy plans for the lower head-and-neck, and revealed a potential nonconvex Pareto frontier structure. Conclusion: An accurate and efficient scheme to identify Pareto frontier from a plan cohort has been

  4. Determination of Ergot Alkaloids: Purity and Stability Assessment of Standards and Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Cereal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krska, R.; Berthiller, F.; Schuhmacher, R.

    2008-01-01

    as those that are the most common and physiologically active. The purity of the standards was investigated by means of liquid chromatography with diode array detection, electrospray ionization, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS). All of the standards assessed showed purity levels...... (PSA) before LC/MS/MS. Based on the results obtained from these optimization studies, a mixture of acetonitrile with ammonium carbonate buffer was used as extraction solvent, as recoveries for all analyzed ergot alkaloids were significantly higher than those with the other solvents. Different sample...

  5. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  6. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)

  7. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  8. Assessment and Reaction of Triticum aestivum Genotypes to Fusarium graminearum and effects on Traits Related to Grain Yield and Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Matthew Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), causal organism of fusarium head blight (FHB), has become a major pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout North America. Since its discovery in the United States, the disease has spread south and east until at present it is an annual threat for growers of winter wheat in the Mid-Atlantic region. Yield losses for soft red winter (SRW) wheat averaged 908 kg ha-1 in the FHB outbreak of 1998 (Griffey et al., 1999). The economic loss from this single FHB...

  9. Development of stand-alone risk assessment software for optimized maintenance planning of power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Sung; Song, Gee Wook; Kim, Bum Shin; Chang, Sung Ho; Lee, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    Risk-Risk-based inspection (RBI) has been developed in order to identify risky equipment that can cause major accidents or damages in large-scale plants. This assessment evaluates the equipment's risk, categorizes their priorities based on risk level, and then determines the urgency of their maintenance or allocates maintenance resources. An earlier version of the risk-based assessment software is already installed within the equipment management system; however, the assessment is based on examination by an inspector, and the results can be influenced by his subjective judgment, rather than assessment being based on failure probability. Moreover, the system is housed within a server, which limits the inspector's work space and time, and such a system can be used only on site. In this paper, the development of independent risk-based assessment software is introduced; this software calculates the failure probability by an analytical method, and analyzes the field inspection results, as well as inspection effectiveness. It can also operate on site, since it can be installed on an independent platform, and has the ability to generate an I/O function for the field inspection results regarding the period for an optimum maintenance cycle. This program will provide useful information not only to the field users who are participating in maintenance, but also to the engineers who need to decide whether to extend the life cycle of the power machinery or replace only specific components

  10. The Importance of Assessing Nutritional Status to Ensure Optimal Recovery during the Chronic Phase of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C

    2018-01-01

    Despite evidence that many of the consequences of stroke that hinder recovery (i.e., obesity, muscle atrophy, and functional declines) have nutritionally modifiable behavior components, little attention has been focused on the significance of nutrition beyond the acute phase of stroke. This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the influence of nutrition on optimal recovery and rehabilitation in chronic (>6 months) stroke. The literature, which is mainly limited to cross-sectional studies, suggests that a suboptimal nutritional status, including an excess caloric intake, reduced protein intake, and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly the B-vitamins, vitamin D, and omega 3 fatty acids, may have deleterious effects on metabolic, physical, and psychological functioning in chronic stroke survivors. Careful evaluation of dietary intake, especially among those with eating disabilities and preexisting malnutrition, may aid in the identification of individuals at increased nutritional risk through which early intervention may benefit recovery and rehabilitation and prevent further complications after stroke.

  11. Applications of nuclear safety probabilistic risk assessment to nuclear security for optimized risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, S.K.; Harvey, S.B. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Critical infrastructure assets such as nuclear power generating stations are potential targets for malevolent acts. Probabilistic methodologies can be applied to evaluate the real-time security risk based upon intelligence and threat levels. By employing this approach, the application of security forces and other protective measures can be optimized. Existing probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methodologies and tools employed. in the nuclear industry can be adapted to security applications for this purpose. Existing PSA models can also be adapted and enhanced to consider total plant risk, due to nuclear safety risks as well as security risks. By creating a Probabilistic Security Model (PSM), safety and security practitioners can maximize the safety and security of the plant while minimizing the significant costs associated with security upgrades and security forces. (author)

  12. Comparative Assessment of Cutting Inserts and Optimization during Hard Turning: Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Raju, Ch.; Suresh, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    The present study aims to compare the conventional cutting inserts with wiper cutting inserts during the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel at different workpiece hardness. Type of insert, hardness, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut are taken as process parameters. Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experimental tests. Parametric analysis carried in order to know the influence of each process parameter on the three important Surface Roughness Characteristics (Ra, Rz, and Rt) and Material Removal Rate. Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) used to optimize the process parameters for individual response and multi-response outputs. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor.

  13. Optimal Control as a method for Diesel engine efficiency assessment including pressure and NO_x constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, Carlos; Climent, Héctor; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal Control is applied for heat release shaping in internal combustion engines. • Optimal Control allows to assess the engine performance with a realistic reference. • The proposed method gives a target heat release law to define control strategies. - Abstract: The present paper studies the optimal heat release law in a Diesel engine to maximise the indicated efficiency subject to different constraints, namely: maximum cylinder pressure, maximum cylinder pressure derivative, and NO_x emission restrictions. With this objective, a simple but also representative model of the combustion process has been implemented. The model consists of a 0D energy balance model aimed to provide the pressure and temperature evolutions in the high pressure loop of the engine thermodynamic cycle from the gas conditions at the intake valve closing and the heat release law. The gas pressure and temperature evolutions allow to compute the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. The comparison between model and experimental results shows that despite the model simplicity, it is able to reproduce the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. After the model identification and validation, the optimal control problem is posed and solved by means of Dynamic Programming (DP). Also, if only pressure constraints are considered, the paper proposes a solution that reduces the computation cost of the DP strategy in two orders of magnitude for the case being analysed. The solution provides a target heat release law to define injection strategies but also a more realistic maximum efficiency boundary than the ideal thermodynamic cycles usually employed to estimate the maximum engine efficiency.

  14. Mass loss controlled thermal pretreatment system to assess the effects of pretreatment temperature on organic matter solubilization and methane yield from food waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Minale Yeshanew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal pretreatment (TP on the main characteristics of food waste (FW and its biochemical methane potential (BMP and distribution of volatile fatty acids (VFAs under mesophilic condition (35 ⁰C were investigated. The TP experiments were carried out at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C for 2 hour and 140 °C for 1 hour. The designed TP set-up was able to minimize the organic matter loss during the course of the pretreatments. Soluble organic fractions evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and soluble protein increased linearly with pretreatment temperature. In contrast, the carbohydrate solubilization was more enhanced (30 % higher solubilization by the TP at lower temperature (80 °C. A slight increment of soluble phenols was found, particularly for temperatures exceeding 100 °C. Thermally pretreated FW under all conditions exhibited an improved methane yield than the untreated FW, due to the increased organic matter solubilization. The highest cumulative methane yield of 442 (± 8.6 mL/gVSadded, corresponding to a 28.1 % enhancement compared to the untreated FW, was obtained with a TP at 80 °C. No significant variation in the VFAs trends were observed during the BMP tests under all investigated conditions.

  15. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  16. Optimal slaughter weight of pigs assessed by means of the asymmetric S-curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusec, G.; Kralik, G.; Djurkin, I.; Baulain, U.; Kallweit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on 68 barrows equally distributed into two different feeding groups (intensive and restricted). MR tomography was used to obtain data needed for the calculation of optimal slaughter weight. Growth analyses and predictions were performed using an asymmetric S-function. The differences between the predicted and real time needed to achieve 100 kg live weight calculated for the two feeding groups of pigs were not statistically significant. The prediction was fairly accurate in 88% of the cases for the intensive group and in 79% of the cases for the restrictively fed pigs. The point of muscle growth saturation (tC=51.31 cubic dm) calculated for pigs from the intensive group occurred at 164 days of age. Restrictively fed pigs reached this point after 167 days. It was calculated that at 164 days of age intensively fed pigs reached about 126 kg; the pigs from the restricted group reached about 112 kg at 167 days. These weights can be regarded as optimal slaughter weights for pigs from the present study in the sense of maximum utilisation of muscle growth. Since both groups of pigs reach the same muscle volume of 51 cubic dm at the estimated times, the difference in live weights can be attributed to the volume of fat. This makes the intensive system of feeding undesirable in economical pig production. It is concluded that the obtained parameters of the asymmetric S-function may be used for the growth analysis of other pigs, assuming that they are of the same genetic background and reared in the same conditions

  17. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  18. Assessing and optimizing infra-sound networks to monitor volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailpied, Dorianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding infra-sound signals is essential to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test ban Treaty, and also to demonstrate the potential of the global monitoring infra-sound network for civil and scientific applications. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a robust tool to estimate and optimize the performance of any infra-sound network to monitor explosive sources such as volcanic eruptions. Unlike previous studies, the developed method has the advantage to consider realistic atmospheric specifications along the propagation path, source frequency and noise levels at the stations. It allows to predict the attenuation and the minimum detectable source amplitude. By simulating the performances of any infra-sound networks, it is then possible to define the optimal configuration of the network to monitor a specific region, during a given period. When carefully adding a station to the existing network, performance can be improved by a factor of 2. However, it is not always possible to complete the network. A good knowledge of detection capabilities at large distances is thus essential. To provide a more realistic picture of the performance, we integrate the atmospheric longitudinal variability along the infra-sound propagation path in our simulations. This thesis also contributes in providing a confidence index taking into account the uncertainties related to propagation and atmospheric models. At high frequencies, the error can reach 40 dB. Volcanic eruptions are natural, powerful and valuable calibrating sources of infra-sound, worldwide detected. In this study, the well instrumented volcanoes Yasur, in Vanuatu, and Etna, in Italy, offer a unique opportunity to validate our attenuation model. In particular, accurate comparisons between near-field recordings and far-field detections of these volcanoes have helped to highlight the potential of our simulation tool to remotely monitor volcanoes. Such work could significantly help to prevent

  19. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of Stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 Euro kW h -1 . As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate.

  20. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  1. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  2. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  3. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  4. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  5. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  6. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...

  7. Optimizing the assessment of suicidal behavior: the application of curtailment techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, D.P. de; Fokkema, M.; O'Connor, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given their length, commonly used scales to assess suicide risk, such as the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) are of limited use as screening tools. In the current study we tested whether deterministic and stochastic curtailment can be applied to shorten the 19-item SSI, without

  8. Assessing alternative production options for eco-efficient food supply chains using multi-objective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banasik, Aleksander; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Claassen, G.D.H.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M.; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to tremendous losses of resources in modern food supply chains, higher priority should be given to reducing food waste and environmental impacts of food production. In practice, multiple production options are available, but must be quantitatively assessed with respect to economic and

  9. Evolution strategies for robust optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisselbrink, Johannes Willem

    2012-01-01

    Real-world (black-box) optimization problems often involve various types of uncertainties and noise emerging in different parts of the optimization problem. When this is not accounted for, optimization may fail or may yield solutions that are optimal in the classical strict notion of optimality, but

  10. An assessment of the optimal timing and size of investments in concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massetti, Emanuele; Ricci, Elena Claire

    2013-01-01

    We extend the WITCH model to consider the possibility to produce and trade electricity generated by large-scale concentrated solar power plants (CSP) in highly productive areas that are connected to demand centers through High Voltage Direct Current cables. We test the attractiveness of the CSP option by imposing a global cap on Greenhouse gases concentration equal to 535 ppm CO 2 -eq in 2100, with and without constraints to the expansion of nuclear power and IGCC coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS). We find that it becomes optimal to produce with CSP from 2040 and to trade CSP electricity across the Mediterranean from 2050. Therefore projects like DESERTEC seem to be premature. After 2050, CSP electricity shares become significant. CSP has a high stabilization cost option value: depending on the constraints, it ranges between 2.1% and 4.1% of discounted GDP in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), between 1.1. and 3.4 in China, between 0.2% and 1.2% in the USA, between 0.1 and 1.3% in Eastern Europe and between 0.1 and 0.4% in Western Europe. A moderate level of subsidy to invest more and earlier in CSP might increase welfare. However, large-scale deployment should occur after 2040. We also show that MENA countries have the incentive to form a cartel to sell electricity to Europe at a price higher than the marginal cost. This suggests that a hypothetical Mediterranean market for electricity should be carefully regulated. - Highlights: ► An extensive use of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) will be optimal after 2050. ► Trade of CSP electricity between MENA and Europe will start in 2050. ► CSP reduces greatly the option value of nuclear power and coal with CCS. ► Learning externalities motivate moderate subsidies for earlier CSP investments. ► MENA countries have the incentive to form a cartel to sell electricity to Europe

  11. Risk assessment of postpartum uterine disease and consequences of puerperal metritis for subsequent metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyves, László; Szenci, Ottó; Jurkovich, Viktor; Tegzes, Lászlóné; Tirián, Attila; Solymosi, Norbert; Gyulay, Gyula; Brydl, Endre

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some metabolic and other factors predicting the risk of postpartum uterine disease (PUD), and the effects of puerperal metritis (PM) on metabolic status, reproduction and milk yield were analysed. A total of 105 Holstein-Friesian cows were included, and sampled on day metabolic tests. From day 4 the development of PUD, and from days 28-35 the ovarian activity was monitored. When grade > or = 1 + ketonuria was present on day 4 postpartum, this indicated a higher probability of PUD [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; P 0.200 mmol/l on days diseases (OR: 3.44; P or = 1.0 occurred between days cows with retained placenta. The risk of uterine diseases was lower in multiparous than in primiparous cows (OR: 0.29; P Cows affected with PM (PM+ cows) showed lower milk production on day 4 (kg; P cows.

  12. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A.; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuealas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N:P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N:P mass ratios of respectively, 1:0.29, 1:0.15, and 1:0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg/ha), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N:P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N/ha), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N:P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1:0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources.

  13. How cognitive assessment through clinical neurophysiology may help optimize chronic alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, S; Petit, G; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C; Noel, X

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a serious worldwide public health problem. The last few decades have seen many pharmacological studies devoted to the improvement of alcoholism treatment. Although psychosocial treatments (e.g. individual or group therapy) have historically been the mainstay of alcoholism treatment, a successful approach for alcohol dependence consists in associating pharmacologic medications with therapy, as 40-70% of patients following only psychosocial therapy typically resume alcohol use within a year of post-detoxification treatment. Nowadays, two main pharmacological options, naltrexone and acomprosate, both approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, are available and seemingly improve on the results yielded by standard techniques employed in the management of alcoholism. However, insufficient data exist to confirm the superiority of one drug over the other, and research is ongoing to determine what type of alcohol-dependent individual benefits the most from using either medication. Available data on the application of both drugs clearly suggest different practical applications. Thus, a fundamental question remains as to how we can identify which alcoholic patients are likely to benefit from the use of naltrexone, acamprosate or both, and which are not. The aim of the present manuscript is to suggest the use of cognitive event-related potentials as an interesting way to identify subgroups of alcoholic patients displaying specific clinical symptoms and cognitive disturbances. We propose that this may help clinicians improve their treatment of alcoholic patients by focusing therapy on individual cognitive disturbances, and by adapting the pharmaceutical approach to the specific needs of the patient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery: assessment of optimal suture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppas, D P; Klioze, S D; Uzzo, R G; Schlossberg, S M

    1995-02-01

    Laser tissue welding in genitourinary reconstructive surgery has been shown in animal models to decrease operative time, improve healing, and decrease postoperative fistula formation when compared with conventional suture controls. Although the absence of suture material is the ultimate goal, this has not been shown to be practical with current technology for larger repairs. Therefore, suture-assisted laser tissue welding will likely be performed. This study sought to determine the optimal suture to be used during laser welding. The integrity of various organic and synthetic sutures exposed to laser irradiation were analyzed. Sutures studied included gut, clear Vicryl, clear polydioxanone suture (PDS), and violet PDS. Sutures were irradiated with a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP)-532 laser or an 808-nm diode laser with and without the addition of a light-absorbing chromophore (fluorescein or indocyanine green, respectively). A remote temperature-sensing device obtained real-time surface temperatures during lasing. The average temperature, time, and total energy at break point were recorded. Overall, gut suture achieved significantly higher temperatures and withstood higher average energy delivery at break point with both the KTP-532 and the 808-nm diode lasers compared with all other groups (P welding appears to be between 60 degrees and 80 degrees C. Gut suture offers the greatest margin of error for KTP and 808-nm diode laser welding with or without the use of a chromophore.

  15. The Importance of Assessing Nutritional Status to Ensure Optimal Recovery during the Chronic Phase of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Serra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite evidence that many of the consequences of stroke that hinder recovery (i.e., obesity, muscle atrophy, and functional declines have nutritionally modifiable behavior components, little attention has been focused on the significance of nutrition beyond the acute phase of stroke. Objective. This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the influence of nutrition on optimal recovery and rehabilitation in chronic (>6 months stroke. Results. The literature, which is mainly limited to cross-sectional studies, suggests that a suboptimal nutritional status, including an excess caloric intake, reduced protein intake, and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly the B-vitamins, vitamin D, and omega 3 fatty acids, may have deleterious effects on metabolic, physical, and psychological functioning in chronic stroke survivors. Conclusions. Careful evaluation of dietary intake, especially among those with eating disabilities and preexisting malnutrition, may aid in the identification of individuals at increased nutritional risk through which early intervention may benefit recovery and rehabilitation and prevent further complications after stroke.

  16. Application of the entropic coefficient for interval number optimization during interval assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynynyka A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In solving many statistical problems, the most precise choice of the distribution law of a random variable is required, the sample of which the authors observe. This choice requires the construction of an interval series. Therefore, the problem arises of assigning an optimal number of intervals, and this study proposes a number of formulas for solving it. Which of these formulas solves the problem more accurately? In [9], this question is investigated using the Pearson criterion. This article describes the procedure and on its basis gives formulas available in literature and proposed new formulas using the entropy coefficient. A comparison is made with the previously published results of applying Pearson's concord criterion for these purposes. Differences in the estimates of the accuracy of the formulas are found. The proposed new formulas for calculating the number of intervals showed the best results. Calculations have been made to compare the work of the same formulas for the distribution of sample data according to the normal law and the Rayleigh law.

  17. Optimization of liquid media and biosafety assessment for algae-lysing bacterium NP23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunli; Liu, Xiaobo; Shan, Linna

    2014-09-01

    To control algal bloom caused by nutrient pollution, a wild-type algae-lysing bacterium was isolated from the Baiguishan reservoir in Henan province of China and identified as Enterobacter sp. strain NP23. Algal culture medium was optimized by applying a Placket-Burman design to obtain a high cell concentration of NP23. Three minerals (i.e., 0.6% KNO3, 0.001% MnSO4·H2O, and 0.3% K2HPO4) were found to be independent factors critical for obtaining the highest cell concentration of 10(13) CFU/mL, which was 10(4) times that of the control. In the algae-lysing experiment, the strain exhibited a high lysis rate for the 4 algae test species, namely, Chlorella vulgari, Scenedesmus, Microcystis wesenbergii, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity tests showed that the bacterium NP23 had no toxic and mutagenic effects on fish, even in large doses such as 10(7) or 10(9) CFU/mL. Thus, Enterobacter sp. strain NP23 has strong potential application in the microbial algae-lysing project.

  18. A Diagnostic Assessment of Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization for Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Hadka, D.; Herman, J.; Kasprzyk, J.; Kollat, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study contributes a rigorous diagnostic assessment of state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and highlights key advances that the water resources field can exploit to better discover the critical tradeoffs constraining our systems. This study provides the most comprehensive diagnostic assessment of MOEAs for water resources to date, exploiting more than 100,000 MOEA runs and trillions of design evaluations. The diagnostic assessment measures the effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and controllability of ten benchmark MOEAs for a representative suite of water resources applications addressing rainfall-runoff calibration, long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM), and risk-based water supply portfolio planning. The suite of problems encompasses a range of challenging problem properties including (1) many-objective formulations with 4 or more objectives, (2) multi-modality (or false optima), (3) nonlinearity, (4) discreteness, (5) severe constraints, (6) stochastic objectives, and (7) non-separability (also called epistasis). The applications are representative of the dominant problem classes that have shaped the history of MOEAs in water resources and that will be dominant foci in the future. Recommendations are provided for which modern MOEAs should serve as tools and benchmarks in the future water resources literature.

  19. Assessment of Preschooler's Scientific Reasoning in Adult-Child Interactions: What Is the Optimal Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindertsma, Heidi B.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; Steenbeek, Henderien W.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2014-04-01

    In educational settings, continuous assessment of the child's level of understanding is necessary to effectively utilize the principles of scaffolding and to create contexts that can advance the scientific reasoning of the child. In this article, we argue that a child's performance is a dynamic notion that is created by all elements in an interaction, including the task. Therefore, we studied preschoolers' levels of scientific reasoning varying different properties of the assessment context. Young children were interviewed about four scientific tasks using one out of four different protocols (varying in the degree of flexibility and adaptiveness) by an adult. In the first study, different task contents resulted in different performance levels. The second study indicated that the most structured protocol elicited the highest maximum level of reasoning in children and the highest percentage of correct predictions. The third study showed differences between the protocols in the adult's verbal behavior. Adaptation in verbal behavior to different children by the adult did not result in higher scientific understanding by the children, whereas a higher degree of task structure did. Combined, the studies emphasize the importance of context, which has implications for assessment and teaching situations.

  20. Optimal allocation of energy storage in a co-optimized electricity market: Benefits assessment and deriving indicators for economic storage ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for optimally allocating storage technologies in a power system. This decision support tool helps in quantitatively answering the questions on “where to and how much to install” considering the profits from arbitrage opportunities in a co-optimized electricity market. The developed framework is illustrated on a modified IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 24 bus RTS (Reliability Test System), and the framework finds the optimal allocation solution and the revenues storage earns at each of these locations. Bulk energy storage, CAES (compressed air energy storage) is used as the representative storage technology, and the benefits of optimally allocated storage integration onto the grid are compared with transmission expansion solution. The paper also discusses about system-level indicators to identify candidate locations for economical storage ventures, which are derived based on the optimal storage allocation solution; and applies the market price based storage venture indicators on MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) electricity markets. - Highlights: • Storage optimal allocation framework based on high-fidelity storage dispatch model. • Storage with transmission addresses energy and ancillary issues under high renewables. • Bulk storage earns higher revenues from co-optimization (∼10× energy only market). • Grid offers distributed opportunities for investing in a strategic mix of storage. • Storage opportunities depend on cross-arbitrage, as seen from MISO (Mid-continental Independent System Operator) and PJM (Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection) markets

  1. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the optimized in vitro comet assay using HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoon-Hee; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Ko, Kyung Yuk; Kim, Joohwan; Yi, Jung-Sun; Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of DNA damage is critical during the development of new drugs because it is closely associated with genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The in vivo comet assay to assess DNA damage is globally harmonized as OECD TG 489. However, a comet test guideline that evaluates DNA damage without sacrificing animals does not yet exist. The goal of this study was to select an appropriate cell line for optimization of the in vitro comet assay to assess DNA damage. We then evaluated the predictivity of the in vitro comet assay using the selected cell line. In addition, the effect of adding S9 was evaluated using 12 test chemicals. For cell line selection, HepG2, Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU), and TK6 cell lines were evaluated. We employed a method for the in vitro comet assay based on that for the in vivo comet assay. The most appropriate cell line was determined by% tail DNA increase after performing in vitro comet assays with 6 test chemicals. The predictivity of the in vitro comet assay using the selected cell line was measured with 10 test chemicals (8 genotoxins and 2 non-genotoxic chemicals). The HepG2 cell line was found to be the most appropriate, and in vitro comet assays using HepG2 cells exhibited a high accuracy of 90% (9/10). This study suggests that HepG2 is an optimal cell line for the in vitro comet assay to assess DNA damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimized coral reconstructions of the Indian Ocean Dipole: An assessment of location and length considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nerilie J.; Dixon, Bronwyn C.; Rosevear, Madelaine G.; Plunkett, Benjamin; Gagan, Michael K.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Phipps, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD; or Indian Ocean Zonal Mode) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate oscillation that has profound impacts on rainfall distribution across the Indian Ocean region. Instrumental records provide a reliable representation of IOD behavior since 1958, while coral reconstructions currently extend the IOD history back to 1846. Large fluctuations in the number and intensity of positive IOD events over time are evident in these records, but it is unclear to what extent this represents multidecadal modulation of the IOD or an anthropogenically forced change in IOD behavior. In this study we explore the suitability of coral records from single-site locations in the equatorial Indian Ocean for capturing information about the occurrence and magnitude of positive IOD (pIOD) events. We find that the optimum location for coral reconstructions of the IOD occurs in the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean, along the coast of Java and Sumatra between ~3 and 7°S. Here the strong ocean cooling and atmospheric drying during pIOD events are unambiguously recorded in coral oxygen isotope records, which capture up to 50% of IOD variance. Unforced experiments with coupled climate models suggest that potential biases in coral estimates of pIOD frequency are skewed toward overestimating pIOD recurrence intervals and become larger with shorter reconstruction windows and longer pIOD recurrence times. Model output also supports the assumption of stationarity in sea surface temperature relationships in the optimum IOD location that is necessary for paleoclimate reconstructions. This study provides a targeted framework for the future generation of paleoclimate records, including optimized coral reconstructions of past IOD variability.

  3. A prospective randomized study assessing optimal method for teaching vascular anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Samuel; de Virgilio, Michael; Chisum, Patrick; Heslin, Andrew; Zein, Alyssar; McDermott, Meilu; Kaji, Amy; Yaghoubian, Arezou; de Virgilio, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory skills training is now required for general surgery residents. The optimal method of teaching vascular anastomosis (VA) is not well defined. Teaching VA skills one-on-one with a faculty instructor will result in a more rapid accumulation of skills than teaching in a large group setting. Residents were shown an instructional video on how to perform a VA using a standardized model (cadaver saphenous vein and porcine aorta). Each resident then performed a baseline VA. Sixteen first- and second-year surgical residents were then randomized to 2 VA teaching sessions that consisted of either 1) group teaching (GT, 8 residents in a room with 1 faculty instructor circulating) or 2) one-on-one teaching (1-on-1, faculty member focused on individual resident). After each of these sessions, residents performed a standardized VA. The anastomoses were video recorded. Performance was evaluated using a standardized scoring system by a separate expert who viewed the video recordings in a blinded fashion. Outcome measures included total errors, total time, global rating scale, and an anastomosis-specific end-product evaluation (leak and passage of coronary dilator). Overall, significant decreases in total errors (21 to 15, P=0.001) and time to complete anastomoses (42 to 38 min, P=0.02) and an increase in global rating scales (7 to 11, P=0.003) were noted in both groups from baseline after 2 VA teaching session. The 1-on-1 group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in terms of reduced anastomotic time (30 vs. 42 min, P=0.007) and in reduction of errors (13 vs. 19 errors, P=0.09) than the GT group. The high-fidelity VA model is a useful tool for junior general surgery residents. Both GT and 1-on-1 groups demonstrated significant improvement in total errors and time after only 2 sessions. Greater improvement was noted using the 1-on-1 model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Massachusetts Sustainable-Yield Estimator: A decision-support tool to assess water availability at ungaged stream locations in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Vogel, Richard M.; Steeves, Peter A.; Brandt, Sara L.; Weiskel, Peter K.; Garabedian, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Federal, State and local water-resource managers require a variety of data and modeling tools to better understand water resources. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a statewide, interactive decision-support tool to meet this need. The decision-support tool, referred to as the Massachusetts Sustainable-Yield Estimator (MA SYE) provides screening-level estimates of the sustainable yield of a basin, defined as the difference between the unregulated streamflow and some user-specified quantity of water that must remain in the stream to support such functions as recreational activities or aquatic habitat. The MA SYE tool was designed, in part, because the quantity of surface water available in a basin is a time-varying quantity subject to competing demands for water. To compute sustainable yield, the MA SYE tool estimates a daily time series of unregulated, daily mean streamflow for a 44-year period of record spanning October 1, 1960, through September 30, 2004. Selected streamflow quantiles from an unregulated, daily flow-duration curve are estimated by solving six regression equations that are a function of physical and climate basin characteristics at an ungaged site on a stream of interest. Streamflow is then interpolated between the estimated quantiles to obtain a continuous daily flow-duration curve. A time series of unregulated daily streamflow subsequently is created by transferring the timing of the daily streamflow at a reference streamgage to the ungaged site by equating exceedence probabilities of contemporaneous flow at the two locations. One of 66 reference streamgages is selected by kriging, a geostatistical method, which is used to map the spatial relation among correlations between the time series of the logarithm of daily streamflows at each reference streamgage and the ungaged site. Estimated unregulated, daily mean streamflows show good agreement with observed

  5. Optimal left ventricular lead position assessed with phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogers, Mark J.; Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V.; Bommel, Rutger J. van; Borleffs, C.J.W.; Schalij, Martin J.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Hiel, Bernies van der; Younis, Imad Al

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between the site of latest mechanical activation as assessed with gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS), left ventricular (LV) lead position and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The patient population consisted of consecutive patients with advanced heart failure in whom CRT was currently indicated. Before implantation, 2-D echocardiography and GMPS were performed. The echocardiography was performed to assess LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). The site of latest mechanical activation was assessed by phase analysis of GMPS studies and related to LV lead position on fluoroscopy. Echocardiography was repeated after 6 months of CRT. CRT response was defined as a decrease of ≥15% in LVESV. Enrolled in the study were 90 patients (72% men, 67±10 years) with advanced heart failure. In 52 patients (58%), the LV lead was positioned at the site of latest mechanical activation (concordant), and in 38 patients (42%) the LV lead was positioned outside the site of latest mechanical activation (discordant). CRT response was significantly more often documented in patients with a concordant LV lead position than in patients with a discordant LV lead position (79% vs. 26%, p<0.01). After 6 months, patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LVEF, LVESV and LVEDV (p<0.05), whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvement in these variables. Patients with a concordant LV lead position showed significant improvement in LV volumes and LV systolic function, whereas patients with a discordant LV lead position showed no significant improvements. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of uncertainties in soil erosion and sediment yield estimates at ungauged basins: an application to the Garra River basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swarnkar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High soil erosion and excessive sediment load are serious problems in several Himalayan river basins. To apply mitigation procedures, precise estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield with associated uncertainties are needed. Here, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR equations are used to estimate the spatial pattern of soil erosion (SE and sediment yield (SY in the Garra River basin, a small Himalayan tributary of the River Ganga. A methodology is proposed for quantifying and propagating uncertainties in SE, SDR and SY estimates. Expressions for uncertainty propagation are derived by first-order uncertainty analysis, making the method viable even for large river basins. The methodology is applied to investigate the relative importance of different RUSLE factors in estimating the magnitude and uncertainties in SE over two distinct morphoclimatic regimes of the Garra River basin, namely the upper mountainous region and the lower alluvial plains. Our results suggest that average SE in the basin is very high (23 ± 4.7 t ha−1 yr−1 with higher values in the upper mountainous region (92 ± 15.2 t ha−1 yr−1 compared to the lower alluvial plains (19.3 ± 4 t ha−1 yr−1. Furthermore, the topographic steepness (LS and crop practice (CP factors exhibit higher uncertainties than other RUSLE factors. The annual average SY is estimated at two locations in the basin – Nanak Sagar Dam (NSD for the period 1962–2008 and Husepur gauging station (HGS for 1987–2002. The SY at NSD and HGS are estimated to be 6.9 ± 1.2  ×  105 t yr−1 and 6.7 ± 1.4  ×  106 t yr−1, respectively, and the estimated 90 % interval contains the observed values of 6.4  ×  105 t yr−1 and 7.2  ×  106 t yr−1, respectively. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed methodology for quantifying uncertainty in SE and

  7. Assessment of uncertainties in soil erosion and sediment yield estimates at ungauged basins: an application to the Garra River basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnkar, Somil; Malini, Anshu; Tripathi, Shivam; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-04-01

    High soil erosion and excessive sediment load are serious problems in several Himalayan river basins. To apply mitigation procedures, precise estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield with associated uncertainties are needed. Here, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) equations are used to estimate the spatial pattern of soil erosion (SE) and sediment yield (SY) in the Garra River basin, a small Himalayan tributary of the River Ganga. A methodology is proposed for quantifying and propagating uncertainties in SE, SDR and SY estimates. Expressions for uncertainty propagation are derived by first-order uncertainty analysis, making the method viable even for large river basins. The methodology is applied to investigate the relative importance of different RUSLE factors in estimating the magnitude and uncertainties in SE over two distinct morphoclimatic regimes of the Garra River basin, namely the upper mountainous region and the lower alluvial plains. Our results suggest that average SE in the basin is very high (23 ± 4.7 t ha-1 yr-1) with higher values in the upper mountainous region (92 ± 15.2 t ha-1 yr-1) compared to the lower alluvial plains (19.3 ± 4 t ha-1 yr-1). Furthermore, the topographic steepness (LS) and crop practice (CP) factors exhibit higher uncertainties than other RUSLE factors. The annual average SY is estimated at two locations in the basin - Nanak Sagar Dam (NSD) for the period 1962-2008 and Husepur gauging station (HGS) for 1987-2002. The SY at NSD and HGS are estimated to be 6.9 ± 1.2 × 105 t yr-1 and 6.7 ± 1.4 × 106 t yr-1, respectively, and the estimated 90 % interval contains the observed values of 6.4 × 105 t yr-1 and 7.2 × 106 t yr-1, respectively. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed methodology for quantifying uncertainty in SE and SY estimates at ungauged basins.

  8. Optimal siting of solid waste-to-value-added facilities through a GIS-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Siting a solid waste conversion facility requires an assessment of solid waste availability as well as ensuring compliance with environmental, social, and economic factors. The main idea behind this study was to develop a methodology to locate suitable locations for waste conversion facilities considering waste availability as well as environmental and social constraints. A geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis was used to identify the most suitable areas and to screen out unsuitable lands. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used for a multi-criteria evaluation of relative preferences of different environmental and social factors. A case study was conducted for Alberta, a western province in Canada, by performing a province-wide waste availability assessment. The total available waste considered in this study was 4,077,514tonnes/year for 19 census divisions collected from 79 landfills. Finally, a location-allocation analysis was performed to determine suitable locations for 10 waste conversion facilities across the province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gait dynamics to optimize fall risk assessment in geriatric patients admitted to an outpatient diagnostic clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Lisette H J; de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P; Beijnen, Jos H; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Lamoth, Claudine C J

    2017-01-01

    Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers) underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1) patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors) (2) cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function), and (3) gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry). Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months) and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.

  10. Gait dynamics to optimize fall risk assessment in geriatric patients admitted to an outpatient diagnostic clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette H J Kikkert

    Full Text Available Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1 patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors (2 cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function, and (3 gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA, with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.

  11. Optimal management of elderly cancer patients: usefulness of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillet P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Caillet,1,2 Marie Laurent,1,2 Sylvie Bastuji-Garin,1,3,4 Evelyne Liuu,2 Stephane Culine,5 Jean-Leon Lagrange,6 Florence Canoui-Poitrine,1,2,3,* Elena Paillaud1,2,* 1Laboratoire d’Investigation Clinique (LIC, Faculté de Medecine, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC, Créteil, Paris, 2Unité de Coordination d’Onco-Gériatrie, Département de Médecine Interne et Gériatrie, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Assistance Publique – Hopitaux de Paris (AP-HP, Créteil, 3Service de Santé Publique, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Créteil, 4Unité de Recherche Clinique, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Créteil, 5Service d’Oncologie Médicale, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, Paris, 6Service de Radiotherapie, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Créteil, France*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Cancer is common in older patients, who raise specific treatment challenges due to aging-related, organ-specific physiologic changes and the presence in most cases of comorbidities capable of affecting treatment tolerance and outcomes. Identifying comorbid conditions and physiologic changes due to aging allows oncologists to better assess the risk/benefit ratio and to adjust the treatment accordingly. Conducting a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is one approach developed for this purpose. We reviewed the evidence on the usefulness of CGA for assessing health problems and predicting cancer treatment outcomes, functional decline, morbidity, and mortality in older patients with solid malignancies. Methods: We searched Medline for articles published in English between January 1, 2000 and April 14, 2014, and reporting prospective observational or interventional studies of CGA feasibility or effectiveness in patients aged ≥65 years with solid malignancies. We identified studies with at least 100 patients, a multivariate analysis, and assessments of at least five of the following CGA domains: nutrition, cognition, mood, functional status

  12. Tracking multi-walled carbon nanotubes inside oat (Avena sativa L.) plants and assessing their effect on growth, yield, and mammalian (human) cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Singh, Pargat; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    Our findings show that oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) having serpent-like morphology and smaller sizes (diameter of 35 nm and lengths of 200-300 nm) are compatible with oat plant tissues. Applied by seed-priming method as 90 µg/ml concentration, these serpentine MWCNT (having open-end caps) enter the oat plant and traverse the cells. Tracking of MWCNT inside sections and tissues during growth of oat plant has been done using special sample preparation. We present clear images of MWCNT inside the primed seeds and vascular bundles, the conducting tissues of root and shoot of oat. A dye fluorescein isothiocyanate non-covalently bonded to MWCNT also helped in detecting the path through circumferential perimeters of the oat channels, using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The presence of MWCNT inside oat enhanced the growth of xylem cells by about 1.85-fold in vasculature of shoots. Compared to controls, the chlorophyll content increased by 57%, while photosynthetic activity enhanced by 15% for the same sample in MWCNT-primed plants. Overall, the growth factors were also augmented leading to significant increase in yield components. No toxic effects of MWCNT were observed in the DNA of the primed plants, and in the human cell lines treated with grains harvested from the MWCNT-primed plants. Our study provides some new insights about the role of MWCNT in plants and their potential benefits in agriculture.

  13. What is the optimal duration of tilt testing for the assessment of patients with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: The aim of this study is to define the optimal duration of tilt testing for the assessment of patients with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a case-control study. Cases were identified retrospectively from a database of patients referred with orthostatic intolerance (OI). All met the diagnostic criteria for POTS. Controls were enrolled prospectively. All subjects underwent tilting to 70 degrees for 40 min if tolerated. Continuous monitoring was provided by a Finometer. Analysis of responses to tilting was performed on 28 cases and 28 controls. The mean age in the case group was 23.6 and in the control group was 26.2. The majority was female in both groups (cases = 4F:3M, controls = 2F:1M). All cases met the criteria for POTS within 7 min of orthostasis. No controls demonstrated a sustained tachycardia. The prevalence of vasovagal syncope (VVS) was 36% in cases vs. 7% in controls (P = 0.02) and 25% in the remaining patients (n = 233) on the OI database (P = 0.259). CONCLUSION: A 10 min tilt will diagnose POTS in the majority of patients. It will not, however, be sufficient to identify the overlap that exists between POTS and VVS. The optimal duration of tilt testing in patients suspected of POTS is 40 min.

  14. Stability assessment and operating parameter optimization on experimental results in very small plasma focus, using sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2018-04-01

    Regarding the importance of stability in small-scale plasma focus devices for producing the repeatable and strength pinching, a sensitivity analysis approach has been used for applicability in design parameters optimization of an actually very low energy device (84 nF, 48 nH, 8-9.5 kV, ∼2.7-3.7 J). To optimize the devices functional specification, four different coaxial electrode configurations have been studied, scanning an argon gas pressure range from 0.6 to 1.5 mbar via the charging voltage variation study from 8.3 to 9.3 kV. The strength and efficient pinching was observed for the tapered anode configuration, over an expanded operating pressure range of 0.6 to 1.5 mbar. The analysis results showed that the most sensitive of the pinch voltage was associated with 0.88 ± 0.8mbar argon gas pressure and 8.3-8.5 kV charging voltage, respectively, as the optimum operating parameters. From the viewpoint of stability assessment of the device, it was observed that the least variation in stable operation of the device was for a charging voltage range of 8.3 to 8.7 kV in an operating pressure range from 0.6 to 1.1 mbar.

  15. Optimized Model of Cerebral Ischemia In situ for the Long-Lasting Assessment of Hippocampal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Rybachuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among all the brain, the hippocampus is the most susceptible region to ischemic lesion, with the highest vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to ischemic damage. This damage may cause either prompt neuronal death (within hours or with a delayed appearance (over days, providing a window for applying potential therapies to reduce or prevent ischemic impairments. However, the time course when ischemic damage turns to neuronal death strictly depends on experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia and, up to now, studies were predominantly focused on a short time-window—from hours to up to a few days post-lesion. Using different schemes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, the conditions taking place upon cerebral ischemia, we optimized a model of mimicking ischemic conditions in organotypical hippocampal slices for the long-lasting assessment of CA1 neuronal death (at least 3 weeks. By combining morphology and electrophysiology, we show that prolonged (30-min duration OGD results in a massive neuronal death and overwhelmed astrogliosis within a week post-OGD whereas OGD of a shorter duration (10-min triggered programmed CA1 neuronal death with a significant delay—within 2 weeks—accompanied with drastically impaired CA1 neuron functions. Our results provide a rationale toward optimized modeling of cerebral ischemia for reliable examination of potential treatments for brain neuroprotection, neuro-regeneration, or testing neuroprotective compounds in situ.

  16. Optimizing assessment of sexual arousal in postmenopausal women using erotic film clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Alarcon, Lauren G; Dai, Jing; Collins, Karen; Perez, Mindy; Woodard, Terri; Diamond, Michael P

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to assess sexual arousal in a subgroup of women by identifying erotic film clips that would be most mentally appealing and physically arousing to postmenopausal women. By measuring levels of mental appeal and self-reported physical arousal using a bidirectional scale, we aimed to elucidate the clips that would best be utilized for sexual health research in the postmenopausal or over 50-year-old subpopulation. Our results showed that postmenopausal women did not rate clips with older versus younger actors differently (p>0.05). The mean mental and mean physical scores were significantly correlated for both premenopausal subject ratings (r=0.69, perotic film clips; this knowledge is relevant for design of future sexual function research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  18. A taxonomical review on impact assessment of optimally placed DGs and FACTS controllers in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeshwar Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario of all over the world like develops and undeveloped countries are fastly used Distributed Generations (DGs and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS controllers in power systems for reactive power supports so that the overall power system performances are improved such as minimization of real and reactive power losses, environmental pollutions and maximization of loadability of system, power system stability, the short circuit capacity of the line and also enhancement of voltage profile, available power transfer capacity of the system, reliability as well as security of the system and more flexible operations of the system. This survey paper presents a taxonomical review on impact assessment of DGs and FACTS controllers in power systems from different power system performance viewpoints and reveals the current status of research work in this field.

  19. Optimal assessment of parenting, or how I learned to stop worrying and love reporter disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Parke, Ross D; Coltrane, Scott; Weaver, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences and similarities across ratings of parenting by preadolescents, parents, and observers. Two hundred forty-one preadolescents rated their parents on warmth and harshness. Both mothers and fathers self-reported on these same dimensions, and observers rated each parents' warmth and harshness during a 10 min interaction task with the preadolescent. For the majority of outcomes assessed, the differences between preadolescent, parent, and observer ratings accounted for significant amounts of variance, beyond the levels accounted for by the average of their reports. A replication sample of 929 mother-child dyads provided a similar pattern of results. This methodology can help standardize the study of reporter differences, supports modeling of rater-specific variance as true score, and illustrates the benefits of collecting parenting data from multiple reporters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  1. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  2. Optimization of radiation therapy, III: a method of assessing complication probabilities from dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, J.T.; Wolbarst, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    To predict the likelihood of success of a therapeutic strategy, one must be able to assess the effects of the treatment upon both diseased and healthy tissues. This paper proposes a method for determining the probability that a healthy organ that receives a non-uniform distribution of X-irradiation, heat, chemotherapy, or other agent will escape complications. Starting with any given dose distribution, a dose-cumulative-volume histogram for the organ is generated. This is then reduced by an interpolation scheme (involving the volume-weighting of complication probabilities) to a slightly different histogram that corresponds to the same overall likelihood of complications, but which contains one less step. The procedure is repeated, one step at a time, until there remains a final, single-step histogram, for which the complication probability can be determined. The formalism makes use of a complication response function C(D, V) which, for the given treatment schedule, represents the probability of complications arising when the fraction V of the organ receives dose D and the rest of the organ gets none. Although the data required to generate this function are sparse at present, it should be possible to obtain the necessary information from in vivo and clinical studies. Volume effects are taken explicitly into account in two ways: the precise shape of the patient's histogram is employed in the calculation, and the complication response function is a function of the volume

  3. Holistic energy system modeling combining multi-objective optimization and life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Sebastian; Budzinski, Maik

    2017-12-01

    Making the global energy system more sustainable has emerged as a major societal concern and policy objective. This transition comes with various challenges and opportunities for a sustainable evolution affecting most of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We therefore propose broadening the current metrics for sustainability in the energy system modeling field by using industrial ecology techniques to account for a conclusive set of indicators. This is pursued by including a life cycle based sustainability assessment into an energy system model considering all relevant products and processes of the global supply chain. We identify three pronounced features: (i) the low-hanging fruit of impact mitigation requiring manageable economic effort; (ii) embodied emissions of renewables cause increasing spatial redistribution of impact from direct emissions, the place of burning fuel, to indirect emissions, the location of the energy infrastructure production; (iii) certain impact categories, in which more overall sustainable systems perform worse than the cost minimal system, require a closer look. In essence, this study makes the case for future energy system modeling to include the increasingly important global supply chain and broaden the metrics of sustainability further than cost and climate change relevant emissions.

  4. Towards the optimal fusion of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models for detailed urban flood assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, J. P.; de Sousa, L. M.

    2018-06-01

    Newly available, more detailed and accurate elevation data sets, such as Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated on the basis of imagery from terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) systems or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), can be used to improve flood-model input data and consequently increase the accuracy of the flood modelling results. This paper presents the first application of the MBlend merging method and assesses the impact of combining different DEMs on flood modelling results. It was demonstrated that different raster merging methods can have different and substantial impacts on these results. In addition to the influence associated with the method used to merge the original DEMs, the magnitude of the impact also depends on (i) the systematic horizontal and vertical differences of the DEMs, and (ii) the orientation between the DEM boundary and the terrain slope. The greater water depth and flow velocity differences between the flood modelling results obtained using the reference DEM and the merged DEMs ranged from -9.845 to 0.002 m, and from 0.003 to 0.024 m s-1 respectively; these differences can have a significant impact on flood hazard estimates. In most of the cases investigated in this study, the differences from the reference DEM results were smaller for the MBlend method than for the results of the two conventional methods. This study highlighted the importance of DEM merging when conducting flood modelling and provided hints on the best DEM merging methods to use.

  5. Assessment of grammar optimizes language tasks for the intracarotid amobarbital procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Kuhn, Taylor; You, S Christine; Walshaw, Patricia; Curtiss, Susan; Bookheimer, Susan