WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing welfare reform

  1. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  2. Transfers, Taxes, and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Robert; Scolex, John Karl

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need inability of past administrations to pass any welfare reform and gives an overview of an antipoverty policy. Shows that the poverty problem goes beyond tax reform and includes education, crime and violence.

  3. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  4. The Labor Supply Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estima...

  5. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  6. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting.

  7. Welfare Reform in the Nordic Countries in the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This article uses a new method for policy analysis, fuzzy-set theory, which is a framework that allows for a precise operationalization of theoretical concepts. fuzzy-set theory is used to asses the conformity of the Nordic countries to a pre-conceptualized ideal-typical nordic welfare model....... This permits us to assess recent welfare reform and judge whether changes are of qualitative or quantitative nature, i.e. whether reform amounts to differences in kind or degree....

  8. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  9. Welfare reform: challenges for grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) on a growing constituency that may require welfare assistance: grandparents raising grandchildren. A brief review of the demographics of grandparent caregivers is followed by an exploration of welfare reform legislation, including work requirements and the Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI). The importance of state-level policies in assisting grandparent-headed households, particularly health care, school enrollment, and housing policies, are also discussed. The paper concludes by offering implications for welfare policies in terms of their impact on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.

  10. Governmental Quality and Welfare Reform. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Lawrence M.

    In the last decade, caseloads in Aid to Families with Dependent Children and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families have shifted dramatically up, then down. Existing studies do not explain the changes well or reveal policies behind the fluctuations or the important role of government quality in shaping welfare reform. This study uses…

  11. Community health changes under welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative case study examined changes in community health under New Jersey welfare reform policy implementation (1994-2001). The boundaries of these case descriptions were directed by Milii's ecological framework for policy studies. The separate cases consist of descriptions of changes in social climate and health indicators within Camden, Essex, and Hudson counties in New Jersey. Data analysis revealed a greater public health challenge in these counties than the state as a whole. A large increase in the numbers of low income and uninsured in the population may begin in 2004, 2 years following the 5-year lifetime limit of the receipt of welfare benefits. A growing uninsured population would place additional burdens on the abilities of safety net providers to meet health care needs of vulnerable populations. If left unchanged, these wider effects of the New Jersey welfare reform policy would have negative implications for improving quality of care.

  12. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Employment and Welfare Reform in the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Wissoker, Douglas

    Data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) in 13 states for 1997 and 1999 was used to study how welfare reform policies, mandated by the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, affected employment of single mothers with children. The states were Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida,…

  14. Reforming the Welfare System in the People's Republic of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mai Lu; Mingliang Feng

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in welfare system reforms in the People's Republic of China and looks at the experiences of Japan and Republic of Korea in establishing their modern welfare systems...

  15. The partisan politics of institutional welfare state reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggesen Klitgaard, M.; Schumacher, G.; Soentken, M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose theoretically that the government partisan effect on institutional welfare state reforms is significantly stronger than on policy reforms. Policy reforms impose losses or gains on electoral sub-constituencies and therefore are driven by an electoral logic. Institutional reforms

  16. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-12-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training.

  17. Comparative welfare state politics: Development, opportunities, and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kersbergen, C.J.; Vis, B.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state reform occurs in all advanced capitalist democracies, but it does not occur in identical ways, to the same degree or with similar consequences. In Comparative Welfare State Politics, Kees van Kersbergen and Barbara Vis explain the political opportunities and constraints of welfare

  18. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-06-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women's education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes.

  19. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...... democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...

  20. Welfare reform- Major challenge for the social management in Romania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Irina Dumitrescu

    2013-01-01

    .... Given the necessity of restructuration of the system of social benefits and services, the reform project outlines the responsibilities of the social actors in providing welfare and proposes a block...

  1. WELFARE REFORM: Progress in Meeting Work-Focused TANF Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193) (PRWORA) significantly changed federal welfare policy for low-income families with children, building upon and expanding state-level reforms...

  2. The impact of welfare reform on marriage and divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne P. Bitler; Jonah B. Gelbach; Hilary W. Hoynes; ZAVODNY, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was to end the dependency of needy parents on government benefits, in part by promoting marriage. The pre-reform welfare system was widely believed to discourage marriage because it primarily provided benefits to single mothers. However, welfare reform may have actually decreased the incentives to be married by giving women greater financial independence via the program's new emphasis on work. This p...

  3. Welfare Reform and the Role of Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Diane Lim; Weil, Alan

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the often-neglected relationship between welfare reform and tax policy. It sets forth the objectives that underlie welfare reform, then compares expenditure-based and tax-based policy strategies that states and the federal government are taking. The examination suggests that, although they promote the similar broad goals of self-sufficiency and family formation, tax credits such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) function differently from expenditure-side programs in s...

  4. Race and welfare reform: the Wisconsin Works W-2 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African- American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African-American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in terms of employment. African-American welfare recipients were more likely to be required to take pre-employment tests and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuses (AODA) than were Caucasians.

  5. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

  6. Voters’ commitment problem and reforms in welfare programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  7. Voters' commitment problem and reforms in welfare programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  8. Welfare reform and health insurance of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994-2001. Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogeneous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9-10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their enrollment in safety net programs.

  9. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  10. The impact of welfare reform on marriage and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P; Gelbach, Jonah B; Hoynes, Hilary W; Zavodny, Madeline

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was to end needy parents' dependence on governmental benefits, in part by promoting marriage. The prereform welfare system was widely believed to discourage marriage because it provided benefits primarily to single mothers. However, welfare reform may have actually decreased the incentives to be married by giving women greater financial independence via the program's new emphasis on work. This article uses vital statistics data on marriages and divorces during 1989-2000 to examine the role of welfare reform (state waivers and implementation of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) and other state-level variables on flows into and out of marriage. The results indicate that welfare reform has led to fewer new divorces and fewer new marriages, although the latter result is sensitive to specification and the choice of data.

  11. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  12. Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

  13. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  14. Welfare reform and interstate migration of poor families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Gordon F; Graefe, Deborah Roempke; St Pierre, Tanja

    2005-08-01

    The thesis of this study is that as a result of increased inequalities in welfare rules, the 1996 welfare reform act not only enhanced incentives for poor families to move but also (and perhaps more important) created disincentives for them to stay in "race to the bottom" states. In testing this thesis, we evaluated the mediating and moderating roles of state economic development and family structure. We merged data from three main sources: the 1996-1999 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Urban Institute's Welfare Rules Database, and state economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Modeling both destination (pull) and departure (push) effects of welfare policy measures and selected covariates in a nested discrete-time event-history migration analysis, we found robust support for the thesis that stringency in state welfare-eligibility and behavior-related rules stimulated interstate out-migration of poor families in the United States. However poor families were not drawn to states with relatively more-lenient welfare rules, although stringency in state welfare dollar benefits inhibited in-migration and state unemployment patterns may have conditioned the migration effects of welfare-reform rules on the choice of destination. Single mothers were not more directly affected by welfare-eligibility and behavior-related rules than were poor married couples.

  15. Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

  16. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  17. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  18. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  19. Welfare Reform in Rural America: A Review of Current Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeis, Jill L.; Henry, Mark; Hirschl, Thomas A.; Lewis, Willis; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Peine, Emelie; Zimmerman, Julie N.

    This research review suggests that welfare reform policy should recognize the differences between rural and urban poor families. The rural poor are more likely to be employed, married, and non-Hispanic white. Rural-urban labor market differences are also likely to influence the effects of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  20. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  1. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, ewll-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisation process. Policy change on a large sca...

  2. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  3. The implications of managed care and welfare reform for the integration of health and welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J; Prince, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    In this era of managed care and welfare reform, the two systems of public health and public welfare are increasingly focused on a shared population and the services designed to promote self-sufficiency and good health among low-income individuals, families and communities. The two service systems are often constrained by categorical funding mechanisms that contribute to service fragmentation, discontinuity and redundancy. This paper focuses on the changing nature of health and welfare, the impact of categorical funding mechanisms, the barriers to service integration, the potentials for partnership, and concludes with implications for enhancing service integration and the quality of services. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  4. Do Incentives for Municipalities Reduce the Welfare Caseload? Evaluation of a Welfare Reform in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Lucy; Tempelman, Caren; Koning, P.W.C.; Kroon, Lennart; Berden, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, most municipalities in the Netherlands receive lump sum payments from the state for the payment of social assistance allowances. As municipalities had no authority to change the eligibility rules for social assistance, the effects of the welfare reform are solely due to the efforts of

  5. Asian Pacific Islander Community Based Organizations and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    This paper will examine these issues based on a review of the existing literature and the analysis of a survey of forty-eight Los Angeles based API CBOs. The paper is organized into five sections. Section I provides an overview of API CBOs, describing their growth over the last two decades, the scope of services they provide and recent shifts in organizational service and constituency focus. Section II addresses efforts by CBOs under welfare reform to provide effective welfare-to-work and o...

  6. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  7. Welfare reform- Major challenge for the social management in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Irina Dumitrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the main amendments brought by Law of the social work no. 292/2011 from the perspective of the social management and efficiency of social work system reform in Romania. Given the necessity of restructuration of the system of social benefits and services, the reform project outlines the responsibilities of the social actors in providing welfare and proposes a block of measures aimed to contribute at reducing social sector spending according to the austerity measures imposed by the economic crisis. The new management vision focused on reducing costs does not seem to provide suitable solutions for institutions functioning as it enables the harmonization of the economic efficiency with the social one. Received with scepticism by the public opinion and profoundly contested by the academic world, the reform project only partially succeeds in reaching proposed objectives of modernizing the social assistance system and supporting the people in need.

  8. Sharp Reduction in Black Child Poverty Due to Welfare Reform. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Melissa G.

    This report asserts that welfare reform has been very successful in reducing child poverty. For a quarter-century prior to reform, black child poverty and poverty among single mothers remained virtually constant. Six years after reform, poverty among both groups dropped rapidly, reaching the lowest levels in U.S. history. Welfare rolls have…

  9. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  10. Welfare reform and older immigrants' health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju

    2008-11-01

    I examined changes in older immigrants' health insurance coverage after welfare reform in the United States to determine whether the reform measures achieved their goal of saving money by reducing Medicaid participation without increasing the number of uninsured people. Data were obtained from older adults who participated in the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement from 1994 to 1996 and 2001 to 2005. I used logistic regression to estimate changes in the sample's Medicaid and health insurance coverage after welfare reform, paying special attention to noncitizens and recent immigrants. Older immigrants' health insurance status was associated with their citizenship status and length of stay in the United States. Medicaid participation significantly decreased among noncitizens and recent immigrants but increased among naturalized citizens. Private health insurance and employer-sponsored insurance coverage significantly increased among recent immigrants but decreased among established immigrants and naturalized citizens. The probability of being uninsured did not significantly change among any group of immigrants. Given increases in postreform Medicaid participation among some immigrant groups, my findings suggest that the long-term cost-saving effectiveness of the current restrictive Medicaid eligibility policy is doubtful.

  11. Poverty, women, and reproduction. Welfare reform and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    As they attempt to redesign the welfare system in the US, policy-makers could learn much by referring to the social justice teachings of the Catholic Church. As early as 1891, the pope was calling for the social protection of the poor. This view was expanded by papal edicts in 1971 and 1981 as well as by US bishops in 1986 and by the new catechism in 1994. In 1992, there were more than 39 million people living in poverty in the US. While the poor are overwhelmingly White, Blacks, who make up 12% of the population, account for 34% of the poor (children account for 70%). The poverty rate increases from 7.2% when both parents are present to 18% in father-only families and 44.7% in mother-only families. The four main definitions of poverty are poverty as deprivation, poverty as inequality, poverty as culture, and poverty as exploitation. The true nature of poverty encompasses all of these aspects. The goals of welfare, then should be to provide assistance and opportunity. While Americans are divided over which proposed changes should be enacted, no one argues against assisting children (which by extension provides aid to the mothers who raise them). The welfare reform movement, however, is fueled by racist and sexist attitudes. All of the potential changes are directed at women and ignore the hundreds of thousands of men benefiting from the system. Even when women have jobs, their income remains below the poverty level. Policy-makers also seek to control the private sphere of women's reproduction through welfare reform. A just welfare system would attempt to help people who need it; integrate the poor into solving the problem of poverty; provide real job training and jobs; offer support during the transition from welfare to self-sufficiency; provide sex education, reproductive services and counseling, and child care; and offer hope to poor children. This requires respect for the poor, access to information, a lack of coercion, the inclusion of poor men, repudiating an

  12. Welfare Reform And ‘wicked Issues’ - From Coupling To De-coupling? (Working Paper 5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Christensen (Tom); P. Laegreid (Per)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper seeks to identify trans-boundary innovative coordination practices and related modes of specialization and steering instruments in welfare administration reforms. We describe how the 2005 reform of the welfare administration in Norway started as a coupling process

  13. The importance of socio-economic and political losses and gains in welfare state reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, B.

    2009-01-01

    When do governments pursue unpopular reform, such as cutting benefits? And when do they engage in not-unpopular reform, such as activation? Current approaches in welfare state research cannot systematically explain the cross-government variation in the two types of reform. Based on insights from

  14. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates...

  15. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a...

  16. Changing patterns of addiction and public aid receipt: tracking the unintended consequences of welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A; Wiley, James; Dohan, Daniel; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie M; Henderson, Stuart; Zivot, Matthew

    2006-10-01

    Sharp declines in welfare rolls since the passage of welfare reform legislation have led many to label it a social policy success. Using data from prereform and postreform samples of welfare applicants and recipients, as well as ethnographic data on welfare reform implementation, we examine three hypotheses based on concerns raised during the welfare reform debate about the possible effects of new policies on substance abusers and addicts: First, they would be "scared off," or discouraged from applying to aid by welfare's new requirements surrounding work and treatment. Second, they might be "weeded out," or face discrimination in the application process because of concerns about the difficulty of moving them successfully from welfare to work. Third, they might be "bumped down," or shifted to local aid programs rather than moving from welfare to self-sufficiency. Our empirical analysis finds no evidence of scaring off or weeding out, and some evidence of bumping down. Using ethnographic data, we offer some possible explanations for these findings by placing them in the context of policy change and implementation in the years following welfare reform.

  17. Migration and Rural Welfare: The Impact of Potential Policy Reforms in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wouterse, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses an agricultural household model in an imperfect market environment and data from Burkina Faso to explore the impact of potential immigration policy reforms in Europe on the welfare of rural households...

  18. Implications of welfare reform on the elderly: a case study of provider, advocate, and consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Carroll L; Goldberg, Sheryl; Wellin, Chris; Linkins, Karen W; Shostak, Sara; Beard, Renée L

    2006-01-01

    Whereas many studies of welfare reform have focused on effects on children and families, little research has examined the implications of welfare reform for the elderly. This case study incorporates interviews with service providers for the aging, members of advocacy organizations, and two focus groups of older consumers conducted in the multi-ethnic urban community of San Francisco. Study findings suggest that welfare reform has had both direct and indirect effects on the elderly and their services in the study community. Direct effects derive primarily from changes in the welfare reform legislation that had the effect of undermining both immigrants' eligibility for and claiming of public assistance benefits. Indirect effects on older persons include increased child-care demands upon grandparents. The case study data bear on a significant policy change within the broader trend of devolution at a historical point when anti-immigrant sentiment in the United States was running high.

  19. Methodology and estimation of the welfare impact of energy reforms on households in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klytchnikova, Irina

    This dissertation develops a new approach that enables policy-makers to analyze welfare gains from improvements in the quality of infrastructure services in developing countries where data are limited and supply is subject to interruptions. An application of the proposed model in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan demonstrates how this approach can be used in welfare assessment of energy sector reforms. The planned reforms in Azerbaijan include a set of measures that will result in a significant improvement in supply reliability, accompanied by a significant increase in the prices of energy services so that they reach the cost recovery level. Currently, households in rural areas receive electricity and gas for only a few hours a day because of a severe deterioration of the energy infrastructure following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The reforms that have recently been initiated will have far-reaching poverty and distributional consequences for the country as they result in an improvement in supply reliability and an increase in energy prices. The new model of intermittent supply developed in this dissertation is based on the household production function approach and draws on previous research in the energy reliability literature. Since modern energy sources (network gas and electricity) in Azerbaijan are cleaner and cheaper than the traditional fuels (fuel wood, etc.), households choose modern fuels whenever they are available. During outages, they rely on traditional fuels. Theoretical welfare measures are derived from a system of fuel demands that takes into account the intermittent availability of energy sources. The model is estimated with the data from the Azerbaijan Household Energy Survey, implemented by the World Bank in December 2003/January 2004. This survey includes an innovative contingent behavior module in which the respondents were asked about their energy consumption patterns in specified reform scenarios. Estimation results strongly

  20. Constructing deservingness: federal welfare reform, supplemental security income, and elderly immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, G J

    2001-01-01

    On August 22, 1996, President Clinton signed the welfare reform law that ended eligibility for all immigrants to federal means tested entitlements. Poor elderly immigrants on Supplemental Security Income were specifically targeted. This article documents how the print media responded to these policy changes. The following are the major research questions: (1) How were older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income portrayed in the print media before and after federal welfare reform? (2) Who was involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income before and after federal welfare reform? (3) What types of statements were made by those involved in the print media coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income, before and after federal welfare reform? The approach used was an in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles from major U.S. newspapers. The findings demonstrate that older immigrants were constructed as "undeserving" in news articles prior to the passage of the federal welfare reform bill. However, after the passage of the federal welfare reform bill the coverage of older immigrants on Supplemental Security Income started to change, and older immigrants were portrayed as "deserving." In advancing aging policy for poor, vulnerable elderly, such as elderly immigrants, advocates, health and social service providers can play an influential role in bringing their voices to the print media.

  1. Welfare state reform and in-work poverty in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Snel (Erik); J. de Boom (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the development of in-work poverty in the Netherlands from 1996 until 2005 and examines whether in-work poverty is related to recent social security and welfare state reforms (a new ideology of an ‘activating welfare state’ and numerous policy measures to reduce the

  2. Helping Families Work Well with Welfare Reform: From Theory to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycoff, Susan; Cameron, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This rejoinder is a follow-up to the recent "Family Journal" article "Have Families Fared Well from Welfare Reform? Educating Clinicians about Policy, Paradox, and Change." In this rejoinder, the authors offer practical suggestions for family clinicians and related social service professionals working with families leaving welfare. (Contains 31…

  3. Welfare Reform, Work-Family Tradeoffs, and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Andrew S.; Scott, Ellen K.; Edin, Kathryn; Hunter, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Welfare reform and related policy changes have altered the context in which welfare-reliant women make choices about employment and family care. Using data from longitudinal qualitative interviews, we examined women's experiences of work-family tradeoffs and how they think their employment affected their children. Women identified multiple…

  4. Low-Income Single Fathers in an African American Community and the Requirements of Welfare Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Examines the impact of state welfare reform policies on the parental involvement of low-income single African American fathers participating in a community-based parenting program (N=40). Results show that welfare policies gave precedence to child support /providing and dismissed fathers' in-kind caregiving. (Author/MKA)

  5. Instrumental Variable Estimates of the Labor Market Spillover Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Bartik

    2002-01-01

    By increasing the labor supply of welfare recipients, welfare reform may reduce wages and increase unemployment among other less-educated groups. These "spillover effects" are difficult to estimate because welfare caseloads decrease in response to improvements in the economy, which leads caseload reductions to be associated with improvements in labor market outcomes. This paper corrects for the endogeneity of caseloads by using instruments that reflect policy. The estimates suggest that welfa...

  6. Voters’ commitment problem and the timing of welfare-program reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  7. Welfare reform, employment, and drug and alcohol use among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    In 1996 welfare reform legislation transformed income assistance for needy families by imposing work requirements, time-limited benefits, and explicit provisions allowing states to sanction recipients who fail to meet program requirements. Though they represent a minority of the welfare population, women with substance use disorders (SUDs) experience multiple, and more severe, employment barriers than other Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients. This review of welfare reform, substance abuse, and employment documents the evidence to date regarding the employment patterns of women with SUDs before and after welfare reform, and proposes several topics for further research. Based on higher rates of unemployment, less work experience, and lower earnings when working, women with SUDs have worse employment records than other TANF recipients. Despite elevated employment barriers, women with SUDs left TANF after 1996 as fast as, or faster than, other women. Since the 1996 welfare reform, women with SUDs have increased their employment and earnings, but by less than similar women without SUDs. Future research should describe how specific state welfare policies relate to employment of low-income women with SUDs, how the well-being of these women and their children changes with employment, and how welfare and employment interact to affect access to health insurance among this population.

  8. A synthesis of welfare reform policy and its impact on substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D; Atkinson, John S

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of welfare reform and its impact on the substance-abusing recipient. The data for this paper were derived from sources including the US Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The number of individuals on public assistance has decreased in the years following implementation of welfare reform legislation. Factors relevant to transitioning welfare recipients into the workplace, such as transportation and childcare, have special ramifications for the drug-using population. Additionally, these individuals require treatment for their addictions in order to become employable. The issue of concern is that recipients may be deterred from seeking benefits by various provisions of welfare reform legislation and turn instead to other sources (including illicit activities) for sustenance. Welfare caseloads have been dropping over the past two years. However, the number of substance abusers continues to rise. It is not known in what ways welfare reform will affect substance abusers who are welfare recipients. Important policy issues arise from this nexus; it is argued that these issues will require careful investigation.

  9. The unintended impact of welfare reform on the medicaid enrollment of eligible immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Grogan, Colleen M; Rathouz, Paul J; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2004-10-01

    During welfare reform, Congress passed legislation barring legal immigrants who entered the United States after August 1996 from Medicaid for five years after immigration. This legislation intended to bar only new immigrants (post-1996 immigrants) from Medicaid. However it may have also deterred the enrollment of legal immigrants who immigrated before 1996 (pre-1996 immigrants) and who should have remained Medicaid eligible. To compare the Medicaid enrollment of U.S.-born citizens to pre-1996 immigrants, before and after welfare reform, and to determine if variation in state Medicaid policies toward post-1996 immigrants modified the effects of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Secondary database analysis of cross-sectional data from 1994-2001 of the U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Survey of March Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Low-income, U.S.-born adults (N=116,307) and low-income pre-1996 immigrants (N=24,367) before and after welfare reform. Self-reported Medicaid enrollment. Before welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were less likely to enroll in Medicaid than the U.S.-born (OR=0.55; 95 percent CI, 0.51-0.59). After welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were even less likely to enroll in Medicaid. The proportion of immigrants in Medicaid dropped 3 percentage points after 1996; for the U.S.-born it dropped 1.6 percentage points (p=0.012). Except for California, state variation in Medicaid policy toward post-1996 immigrants did modify the effect of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Federal laws limiting the Medicaid eligibility of specific subgroups of immigrants appear to have had unintended consequences on Medicaid enrollment in the larger, still eligible immigrant community. Inclusive state policies may overcome this effect.

  10. From the front lines of welfare reform: an analysis of social worker and welfare recipient attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2004-12-01

    Social workers and welfare recipients operate within the same institutional framework and share a working and/or lived knowledge of poverty, but they occupy different social and economic positions. To gain a better understanding of intergroup attitudes, the author compared how social workers and welfare recipients explain poverty and perceive the welfare system. The results highlight important similarities and differences between the two groups. Although the author did not find differences for individualistic attributions, welfare recipients regarded prejudice as playing a greater role in causing poverty than did social workers. Welfare recipients also expressed stronger support for increased welfare funding and progressive welfare policies than did social workers. The author discussed implications for strengthening interclass alliances, particularly the relationship between social service providers and welfare recipients.

  11. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  12. Welfare reform and health insurance coverage of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Kaushal, Neeraj

    2003-11-01

    We study whether welfare reform adversely affected the health insurance coverage of low-educated single mothers and their children. Specifically, we investigate whether changes in the welfare caseload during the 1990s were associated with changes in Medicaid participation, private insurance coverage, and the number of uninsured among single mothers and their children. Estimates suggest that between 1996 and 1999, the 42% decrease in the welfare caseload was associated with the following changes in insurance coverage among low-educated, single mothers: a 7-9% decrease in Medicaid coverage; an increase in employer-sponsored, private insurance coverage of 6%; and a 2-9% increase in the proportion uninsured. Among children of low-educated, single mothers, effects were somewhat smaller. Since welfare policy was responsible for only part (e.g. one-third) of the decline in the caseload, welfare reform per se had significantly smaller effects on the health insurance status of low-income families. However, we found limited evidence that changes in the caseload due to state and federal welfare policy had fewer adverse consequences on insurance status than changes in the caseload due to other factors. This implies even smaller effects of welfare reform.

  13. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  14. Gender Implications of UK Welfare Reform and Government Equality Duties: Evidence from Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Bennett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK coalition government is bound by equality duties to have regard to the impact of its policies on various groups, including women. This article investigates how far this legislative commitment is influencing debates about current welfare reforms, especially plans for ‘universal credit’ (a new means-tested benefit. The authors draw on findings from recent studies of within-household distribution from a gender perspective, including their own qualitative research. A major aim of this research was to facilitate more nuanced analysis of the effects of welfare reforms in terms of gender roles and relationships within the household. This article therefore examines how far findings from qualitative studies, in conjunction with the key principles they develop for assessing the gender impact of welfare reforms, can be used to examine ‘universal credit’; and to what extent these influenced the UK government’s proposals and analysis in the light of its commitment to equality duties. Los derechos de igualdad obligan al gobierno de coalición del Reino Unido a tener en cuenta el impacto de sus políticas sobre varios grupos, incluidas las mujeres. En este artículo se investiga hasta qué punto este compromiso legislativo está influyendo en los debates sobre las reformas de bienestar actuales, especialmente los planes de “crédito universal” (un nuevo beneficio de ingreso. Los autores se basan en los resultados de estudios recientes sobre la distribución dentro de los hogares desde una perspectiva de género, incluida su propia investigación cualitativa. Un objetivo principal de esta investigación era el de facilitar un análisis más matizado de los efectos de las reformas de bienestar en términos de roles y relaciones de género dentro del hogar. Por tanto, este artículo examina hasta qué punto los resultados de estudios cualitativos, en relación con los principios fundamentales que se desarrollan para evaluar el impacto de g

  15. Welfare reform and child care options for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon L; Caspary, Gretchen L; Gauthier, Christiane A

    2002-01-01

    For the changes under welfare reform to positively affect children, the gains that mothers make from employment must lead to improvements in children's daily settings at home, in child care, at school, or in the community. This article focuses on the role child care can play in promoting the development of, and life opportunities for, low-income children. Key observations include: Total federal and state funding for child care for welfare and working poor families has increased dramatically since welfare reform, from $2.8 billion in 1995 to $8.0 billion in 2000. The majority of welfare mothers tend to rely on informal child care arrangements when first participating in welfare-to-work programs, but as they move off welfare and into more stable jobs, they are more likely to choose a center or a family child care home. Although children from poor households stand to benefit the most from high-quality care, they are less likely to be enrolled in high-quality programs than are children from affluent families, partly due to uneven access to high-quality options in their neighborhoods. Less than one-quarter of all eligible families use child care subsidies, and usage varies widely across states and local areas reflecting various barriers to access and scarcity of quality center-based care. The authors conclude that to achieve welfare reform's ultimate goal of breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty and dependence on government benefits, welfare-to-work programs should promote learning and development among children in welfare and working poor families by increasing access to high-quality child care in low-income neighborhoods.

  16. Adult Literacy and Welfare Reform: Marginalization, Voice, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheared, Vanessa; McCabe, Jennifer; Umeki, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship between the marginal status of the field of adult basic education and those disenfranchised because of their economic standing as a result of welfare in the United States. Deconstructs the phenomenon of marginalization and analyzes its impact on program delivery and recipients of services. (SLD)

  17. Introduction: welfare state reform, recognition and emotional labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Grootegoed, E.; Duyvendak, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment and its corollary, the encouragement of ‘active citizenship’, are widespread phenomena in Western countries today. While public and academic debates have focused on the practical consequences of changing rules and shrinking entitlements, there has been much less attention

  18. A Decade of Welfare Reform: What We've Learned About Welfare Usage and Economic Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of changes in welfare policy, starting with state waivers under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program and culminating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF...

  19. Immigrants' Access to Public Assistance: Missed Opportunities following Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Danielle A.; Hatfield, Bridget E.

    2008-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 reformed public assistance programs and reduced the safety net of supports for low-income families. Children living in low-income immigrant families face particular challenges in the current policy environment. In this article, the authors consider what these changes have meant for…

  20. Welfare Reform: The Special Case of Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Elisa A.; Knitzer, June

    2001-01-01

    A framework is provided for thinking about how welfare reform affects young children with disabilities and their families and strategies are presented for addressing their unique needs. The article documents the relationship between disability and poverty, reviews major changes in the law, and highlights challenges. (Contains references.)…

  1. Careful or lenient : welfare reform for lone mothers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijn, Trudie; Wel, Frits van

    2001-01-01

    The 1996 welfare reform that attempted to get lone parents out of social assistance represents a major shift in social policy in the Netherlands. Instead of having the financial right to care for their children, lone mothers are now obliged to earn their living by paid work as soon as their youngest

  2. Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

  3. Marriage, Family Structure and Economic Well-Being: The Second Round of Welfare Reform. Family Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindjord, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…

  4. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  5. Healthcare inequality issues among immigrant elders after neoliberal welfare reform: empirical findings from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2017-06-01

    Even with the increasing importance being placed on research into immigrant elders' healthcare use as countries change their policies to reflect their increasing immigrant and aging populations, little research has examined changes in healthcare use disparities between immigrant and native elders in relation to these policy changes. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined healthcare disparities in relation to the welfare reform that the US implemented in 1996 and then compared significant indicators of immigrants' healthcare use during the pre- and post-reform periods. The difference-in-difference (DD) analyses and post hoc probing of the DD analyses were used in multivariate logistic regression of the National Health Information Survey data that were pooled for the pre- and post-reform periods. The results revealed that while inequalities in healthcare existed before the reform, they significantly increased after the reform. A further test showed that the changes in the inequalities were significant among relatively long-stay immigrants, but not significant among immigrants who entered the US before the reform and thus were exempted from the reform restrictions. During the pre-reform period, insurance, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity were related to healthcare use; however, the enabling factors (i.e., insurance, income, and education) and social structural factors (i.e., marital status, family structure, length of US residency, race/ethnicity, and geographical region) explained the post-reform immigrants' healthcare use, while controlling for healthcare needs factors. These findings suggest that welfare reform may be the driving force of inequalities in healthcare.

  6. Welfare Reform and Labor Force Exit by Young, Low-Skilled Single Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Lincoln H

    2016-04-01

    While the labor market woes of low-skilled male workers in the United States over the past several decades have been well documented, the academic literature identifying causal factors leading to declines in labor force participation (LFP) by young, low-skilled males remains scant. To address this gap, I use the timing and characteristics of welfare-reform policies implemented during the 1990s and fixed-effects, instrumental variable regression modeling to show that policies seeking to increase LFP rates for low-skilled single mothers inadvertently led to labor force exit by young, low-skilled single males. Using data from the Current Population Survey and a bundle of work inducements enacted by states throughout the 1990s as exogenous variation in a quasi-experimental design, I find that the roughly 10 percentage point increase in LFP for low-skilled single mothers facilitated by welfare reform resulted in a statistically significant 2.8 percentage point decline in LFP for young, low-skilled single males. After conducting a series of robustness checks, I conclude that this result is driven entirely by white males, who responded to welfare-reform policies with a 3.7 percentage point decline in labor supply. Young black males, as well as other groups of potentially affected workers, appear to be uninfluenced by the labor supply response of less-educated single mothers to welfare reform. Impacts on young, single white males are large and economically significant, suggesting that nearly 150,000 males departed the formal labor market in response to directed welfare-reform policies.

  7. Assessing Institutionalization of Educational Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aypay, Ahmet; Kalayci, Serpil Sezer

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to assess the institutionalization of a major reform in the faculties of education in Turkey in the 1990s. A survey was administered to faculty members in eight faculties of education in the academic year 2005-2006. Factor analysis, t-tests and ANOVAs, and OLS regressions were used. Findings indicate that the most problematic area…

  8. State welfare reform policies and maternal and child health services: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, D; Chavkin, W; Wise, P H; Hess, C A; VanLandeghem, K

    2001-09-01

    Welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996) resulted in dramatic policy changes, including health-related requirements and the administrative separation of cash assistance from Medicaid. We were interested in determining if changes in welfare and health policies had had an impact on state MCH services and programs. We conducted a survey in fall 1999 of state MCH Title V directors. Trained interviewers administered the telephone survey over a 3-month period. MCH directors from all 50 states, Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico participated (n = 52; response rate = 100%). Among the most noteworthy findings is that similar proportions of respondents reported that welfare policy changes had either helped (46%) or hindered (42%) the agency's work, with most of the positive impact attributed to increased funding. MCH data linkages with welfare and other social programs were low. Despite welfare reform's emphasis on work, limited services and exemptions were available for mothers with CSHCN. Almost no efforts have been undertaken to specifically address the needs of substance abusers in the context of new welfare policies. Few MCH agencies have developed programs to address the special needs of women receiving TANF who either have health problems themselves or have children with health problems. Recommendations including increased MCH and family planning funding and improved coordination between TANF and MCH to facilitate linkages and services are put forth in light of reauthorization of PRWORA.

  9. Work and the journey to recovery: exploring the implications of welfare reform for methadone maintenance clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark; Wincup, Emma

    2013-11-01

    An emphasis on welfare reform has been a shared concern of recent UK governments, with the project of transforming the provision of welfare gathering pace over the past six years. Replicating active labour market policies pursued across the globe, successive governments have used welfare-to-work programmes as mechanisms to address worklessness. Since 2008, problem drug users (PDUs) have been added to a list of groups for whom intervention is deemed necessary to encourage, enable, and sometimes coerce them into paid employment. This approach is underpinned by three beliefs relating to paid work: it sustains recovery, has a transformative potential and should be the primary duty of the responsible citizen. Using policy developments in the UK as a case study, the article explores the implications for methadone maintenance clients of connecting drug policy (premised on the belief that work is central to recovery) with welfare policy (which at present is preoccupied with reducing worklessness). A critical analysis of policy documents, including drug strategies, Green and White papers and welfare reform legislation, alongside a review of relevant academic literature. The 'work first' approach which underpins current labour market activation policies in the UK and elsewhere is insufficiently flexible to accommodate the diverse needs of PDUs in recovery, and is particularly particular problematic when combined with a 'social deficit' model which concentrates on individual rather than structural barriers to employability. The use of payment-by-results mechanisms to provide employment services, coupled with the use of sanctions for those who do not engage, is likely to be particularly problematic for methadone maintenance clients. Welfare reform in the UK is likely to undermine the recovery of methadone maintenance clients. Further research is urgently needed to explore its impact on this sub-group of PDUs, alongside comparative studies to determine best practice in

  10. How did welfare reform affect the health insurance coverage of women and children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Schroeder, Mathis; Simon, Kosali I

    2006-04-01

    To measure the change in U.S. women and children's health insurance coverage as a result of welfare reform (i.e. the creation of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families or TANF) in 1996. 1992-1999 longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) merged with data on the timing of state implementation of welfare reform after 1996. Two key advantages of the SIPP data are that they permit matching type of insurance coverage to the welfare policy environment in each state in each month, and permit controlling for individual-level fixed effects. We measure how much insurance coverage changed after welfare reform using a difference in differences method that eliminates the influence of time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity and of statewide trends in insurance coverage. Models also control for individual, state, and year fixed effects, individual-level characteristics such as education, age, and number of children, plus state-level variables such as real per capita income, real minimum wage, and Medicaid eligibility. We limit our analysis to the SIPP data specific to the month just completed prior to the interview; as a result, we have up to twelve observations for each individual in the SIPP. This paper uses pooled data from the 1992-1996 panels of the SIPP covering the period 1992-1999. Publicly available state identifiers permit the merger of state policies and macroeconomic variables with the SIPP. TANF implementation is associated with an 8.1 percent increase in the probability that a welfare-eligible woman was uninsured. Welfare reform had less of an impact on the health insurance coverage of children. For example, TANF implementation was associated with a 3.0 percent increase in the probability that a welfare-eligible child lacked health insurance. An unintended consequence of welfare reform was to adversely impact the health insurance coverage of economically vulnerable women and children, and that this impact was several

  11. To What Extent Did the Financial Crisis Intensify the Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vis, Barbara; Kersbergen, Kees van; Hylands, Tom

    2011-01-01

    If ever there was momentum to roll back the welfare state, it is the (aftermath) of the financial crisis of 2008–09. All theoretical perspectives within comparative welfare state research predict radical reform in this circumstance, but does it also happen? Our data indicate that – at least so far....... Continuing public support for the welfare state was a main precondition for this lack of immediate radical retrenchment. However, the contours of a third phase have become apparent now that budgetary constraints are forcing political actors to make tough choices and introduce austerity policies. As a result...... – it does not. Focusing on a selection of advanced welfare states (the UK, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden), we find that these countries face similar problems and that their initial response to these problems is also similar. The latter is surprising because, theoretically, we would...

  12. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  13. How should death be taken into account in welfare assessments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2016-01-01

    It appears to be a widespread view among animal welfare researchers that death is not a welfare issue. This paper demonstrates that this view is based on the mistaken assumption that welfare assessment is absolute, which moreover is coupled with the assumption that ‘welfare’ means ‘welfare at a t...

  14. Reforming the Welfare State: Camden 1965-73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Swenarton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The housing projects built by the London Borough of Camden in the years 1965-73 belong arguably to the most substantial investigations into the architecture of social housing undertaken in the past half-century. Under borough architect Sydney Cook, Camden aimed to establish a new kind of housing architecture based, not on the Corbusian tabula rasa, but on a radical reinterpretation of traditional English urbanism.The outcome was a series of projects, including Fleet Road, Alexandra Road, Highgate New Town, Branch Hill and Maiden Lane, designed by members of Cook’s team, including Neave Brown, Peter Tábori and Gordon Benson and Alan Forsyth, as well as projects designed by up-and-coming private architects like Colquhoun & Miller, Edward Cullinan and Farrell Grimshaw.While it began in what Hobsbawm called the ‘golden age’ of postwar capitalism, the Cook years (1965-73 saw the onset of the crisis of the 1970s and with it the rise of the New Right and the Hard Left, both of which viewed the Camden housing projects as a legitimate target for attack. Based on archival research and interviews, the paper explores the ways in which the Cook projects both mediated and articulated the emergence of these fissures within the British welfare state.

  15. Long-Term Implications of Welfare Reform for the Development of Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Cherlin, Andrew J.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Fomby, Paula; Ribar, David C.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2011-01-01

    We draw upon the 3-wave longitudinal dataset called Welfare Children and Families: A Three-City Study to examine the long-term implications for adolescents and young adults (N=783) of mothers’ welfare receipt and labor force participation from 1999 to 2005. In general, changes in mothers’ work and welfare patterns were not associated with deterioration or improvement in youth development (ages 16 to 20 years at wave 3). The few significant associations suggested that youth whose mothers increased employment (net of welfare participation) were more likely to show declines in serious behavior problems and delinquency compared to youth whose mothers were unemployed or employed part-time during the study period. Welfare roll exits (controlling for employment experiences) were unrelated to adolescent and young adult outcomes. Mothers’ employment transitions were linked to improvements in household income and mothers’ self esteem in addition to reductions in financial strain and their own illegal activities. However, these associations did not explain the relation between maternal employment and youths’ improved behavior. These results do not support the predictions of either the supporters or the opponents of welfare reform, an outcome we discuss. PMID:21966077

  16. Some possible factors affecting horse welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Fejsáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.

  17. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment...

  18. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  19. Party politics as we knew it? Failure to dominate government, intraparty dynamics and welfare reforms in continental Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthouwer, G.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Party politics as we knew it?’ is an investigation of welfare state reforms in Austria, Germany and the Netherlands from the early 1980s to 2006. In the post-World War II era, social democrats and Christian democrats played a central role in building and expanding welfare states. This book argues

  20. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) PROVISIONS What... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

  1. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  2. Experimental evidence of welfare reform impact on clinical anxiety and depression levels among poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we employ a classical experiment to determine if welfare reform causes poor women to experience increased levels of clinical anxiety and depression. We organize our analyses around the insights provided by lifestyle change and ecosocial theories of illness. Our data come from the New Jersey Family Development Program (FDP), one of the most highly publicized welfare experiments in the U.S. A sample of 8393 women was randomly assigned into two groups, one which stressed welfare-to-work and the other which offered traditional welfare benefits. These women were followed from 1992 through 1996 and information on clinical diagnoses was collected quarterly from physician treatment claims to the government Medicaid program. Our intention-to-treat estimates show that for short-term welfare recipients FDP decreased the prevalence of anxiety by 40% and increased depression by 8%. For black women both anxiety and depression diagnoses declined while Hispanic women experienced a 68% increase in depression. We discuss several public policy implications which arise from our work. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hopelessness, demoralization and suicidal behaviour: the backdrop to welfare reform in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Fairweather, A Kate; Anstey, Kaarin J; Windsor, Timothy D

    2006-08-01

    To estimate rates of suicidal ideation and attempts, and psychological characteristics of demoralization among Australian income support recipients. To provide information for policy-makers to inform the current welfare reform discussion. Data from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were analysed using sequential logistic regression models, comparing working age people dependent on government income support payments with those having other main sources of income. Three groups of income support recipients, unemployed, lone mothers and disability payment recipients, reported significantly higher levels on all psychological measures related to demoralization (hopelessness, worthlessness and dissatisfaction with life) than non-recipients. A similar pattern was demonstrated for measures of suicidal ideation and reported suicide attempts, with increased odds of between 3 and 9 for these high-risk groups of welfare recipients. The elevated rates of suicidal ideation, attempts and demoralization among income support recipients were in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics (socioeconomic status, age, educational qualification, experience of serious violence, loneliness, experience of psychiatric disorders), though the unemployed and disability payment recipients remained elevated on the psychological measures. Demoralization, poor mental health and suicidal behaviour are common among income support recipients targeted by recently announced welfare reforms. This needs to be considered in the design and implementation of Australian Government policies. Psychiatric epidemiology has a key role in policy development and evaluation.

  4. Supplemental security income among older immigrants from Central and South America: the impact of welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the impact of federal welfare policy changes on older immigrants born in Central and South America. Using data from the 1990 and 2000 US. Census 5% Public-Use Microdata Samples, the study examines (1) the change in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) uptake rate after welfare reform for noncitizens from Latin America, naturalized Latin Americans, and U.S.-born Hispanics and (2) how much of the change can be attributed to a change in behavior rather than to a change in eligibility rates. Findings show that the decline in SSI receipt after welfare reform was greater for Latin American noncitizens compared to naturalized citizens and Hispanic U.S.-born citizens. Decomposition analyses show that among eligible elderly noncitizens, the decline in recipiency rate was due mostly to a change in behavior rather than a change in eligibility. This pattern is not found for U.S.-born and naturalized citizens, where changes were mostly due to a decline in the proportion of persons eligible for SSI. This suggests that as a result of legislative changes, older immigrants may not be applying for benefits for which they may be legally entitled. Policy implications are discussed.

  5. State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, Martin; And Others

    This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

  6. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Ganji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1,200 labor migrants working in Qatar’s construction sector died, with another 4,000 deaths projected by the start of the event. Foreign workers are subject to conditions of forced labor, human trafficking, and indefinite detention. Advocacy groups cite deplorable living and working conditions, coupled with lax legal protections for workers, as the main culprits. Absent significant improvements in worker welfare, Qatar’s World Cup will be remembered as a human rights tragedy.This article examines whether it is possible for Qatar’s World Cup to forge a different legacy, as an agent of change on behalf of worker welfare reform. In examining the issue, the article takes a two-fold approach. First, it locates the policy problem of worker welfare abuses in the context of the migration life cycle. The migration life cycle represents the range of activities that mediate the relationship between an individual migrant and the labor migration system — from the time the migrant first considers working overseas to his employment abroad to his eventual return to the home country. An understanding of worker welfare abuses in Qatar does not begin or end with reports of migrant deaths. A much broader pattern of abuse exists that, if ignored, will undermine effective policy responses.Second, the article frames worker welfare as a matter that lies at the intersection of business and human rights. Mega events are large-scale, internationally recognized activities

  7. A Qualitative Study of the Long Term Impact of Welfare Reform on Cambodian American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Quintiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Cambodian American families have struggled on the economic margins since their arrival to the U.S. in the 1980s. To raise families in poverty Cambodians created family survival strategies to buffer themselves against economic uncertainty and the vagaries of the social welfare system. They combine public assistance with formal and informal work activities of household members, including teenagers and young adults, to survive. With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 or Welfare Reform, Cambodians lost vital economic resources. Based upon a longitudinal qualitative study from 1998-2007, this article looks back on how first generation Cambodian American household members adjusted to changes in welfare policy practices and how the loss of vital resources impacted the youth (15-19 years old coming of age in these families. The research findings and family case histories presented in this article illustrate the shared struggle of Cambodian family members in poverty. It reveals the significant challenges second generation Cambodian Americans face to achieve higher education goals when welfare policies systematically undercut family survival strategies.

  8. Adaptation of the animal welfare assessment grid (AWAG) for monitoring animal welfare in zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, W S M; O'Brien, M F; Szyszka, O; Shotton, J; Gilmour, J E M; Riordan, P; Wolfensohn, S

    2017-08-05

    Animal welfare monitoring is an essential part of zoo management and a legal requirement in many countries. Historically, a variety of welfare audits have been proposed to assist zoo managers. Unfortunately, there are a number of issues with these assessments, including lack of species information, validated tests and the overall complexity of these audits which make them difficult to implement in practice. The animal welfare assessment grid (AWAG) has previously been proposed as an animal welfare monitoring tool for animals used in research programmes. This computer-based system was successfully adapted for use in a zoo setting with two taxonomic groups: primates and birds. This tool is simple to use and provides continuous monitoring based on cumulative lifetime assessment. It is suggested as an alternative, practical method for welfare monitoring in zoos. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Living with It: Federal Policy Implementation in Adult Basic Education. The Cases of the Workforce Investment Act and Welfare Reform. NCSALL Reports #24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Alisa

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act ("welfare reform") and the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) have influenced greatly the provision of services in adult basic education (ABE). WIA and welfare reform provide two excellent cases for the study of questions related to how federal legislation affects ABE…

  10. Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

    Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

  11. Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Health Care Utilization Among Single Mothers After Welfare Reforms in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Rehkopf, David H; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-15

    We studied the health of low-income US women affected by the largest social policy change in recent US history: the 1996 welfare reforms. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1993-2012), we performed 2 types of analysis. First, we used difference-in-difference-in-differences analyses to estimate associations between welfare reforms and health outcomes among the most affected women (single mothers aged 18-64 years in 1997; n = 219,469) compared with less affected women (married mothers, single nonmothers, and married nonmothers of the same age range in 1997; n = 2,422,265). We also used a synthetic control approach in which we constructed a more ideal control group for single mothers by weighting outcomes among the less affected groups to match pre-reform outcomes among single mothers. In both specifications, the group most affected by welfare reforms (single mothers) experienced worse health outcomes than comparison groups less affected by the reforms. For example, the reforms were associated with at least a 4.0-percentage-point increase in binge drinking (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 7.0) and a 2.4-percentage-point decrease in the probability of being able to afford medical care (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 4.8) after controlling for age, educational level, and health care insurance status. Although the reforms were applauded for reducing welfare dependency, they may have adversely affected health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring......Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes....... In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial...

  13. Exclusive purpose: abstinence-only proponents create federal entitlement in welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, D

    1997-01-01

    Since 1981, the US government has funded a program promoting sexual abstinence among young people through its Office of Population's Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Grants program (AFLA). A 1983 court challenge which held that AFLA violated the separation of church and state by endorsing a particular religious viewpoint was settled out of court in 1993 with stipulations that AFLA-funded sexuality education must not include religious references, must be medically accurate, must respect the principle of self-determination of teenagers regarding contraceptive referrals, and must not be implemented on church property. Critics continue to charge that AFLA's abstinence-only programs have failed to receive proper evaluation. While AFLA has no broad-based support, it is backed by the same small group of Congressional proponents who are attempting to promote broad-scale, federally-funded abstinence-only programs. Thus, the August 1996 welfare reform legislation represents the broadest attack on the provision of comprehensive sexuality education in the US. While opponents of sexuality education could not restrict the content of education programs, they could restrict programs through health policy and funding mechanisms. Congress, thus, mandated $50 million a year for 1998-2002 to a matching grant with entitlement status, which was tagged on to final versions of the larger welfare reform bill. The intent of this action was to use federal law to change the social norm of premarital sexual activity. Funds will not go to programs which discuss contraception. Additional problems with the statute include misinformation, ambiguity, and a lack of evaluation requirements. It remains for states to decide whether to accept the restricted funds and for parties on both sides of the issue to continue to lobby for their positions.

  14. New Lives for Poor Families? Mothers and Young Children Move through Welfare Reform. The Growing Up in Poverty Wave 2 Findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna

    This report examines how state welfare-to-work programs have affected young children since the 1996 welfare reform act, which moved millions of women into low-wage jobs. Researchers followed a sample of 948 mothers and young children for 2-4 years after the women entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida. After…

  15. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

  16. Behaviour as a tool in the assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2003-01-01

    A central issue in animal welfare research is how to assess the welfare state of animals objectively and scientifically. I argue that this issue can be approached by asking two key questions: 1) is the animal physically healthy and 2) does the animal have what it wants? Behaviour is used to answer both of these questions. In the assessment of physical health, it can be used for clinical and pre-clinical diagnosis. In the assessment of what animals want, it has a major role through choice and preference testing. It is particularly important that applied ethologists develop methods for assessing welfare in situ--in the places where concern for animal welfare is greatest such as on farms and in zoos.

  17. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validity...... and reliability. In this situation, it is worthwhile to consider the option of systems for assessing the animal welfare without having an external observer visiting the farm....

  18. Defining, assessing and promoting the welfare of farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2014-04-01

    As currently practised, the culture of fish for food potentially raises concerns about the welfare of farmed fish, and this is a topic that has received considerable attention. As vertebrates, fish share a number of features with the birds and mammals that are more commonly farmed, so many welfare principles derived from consideration of these groups may also be applied to fish. However, fish have a long, separate evolutionary history and are also adapted to a very different, aquatic environment. For these reasons, they have a number of special features that are relevant to how welfare is defined, assessed and promoted and these are discussed. The various methods that are available to researchers for identifying and assessing good and bad welfare in fish are considered, including assessment of physical health and physiological, behavioural and genomic status. The subset of practical welfare indicators that can be used on working farms is also reviewed. Various aspects of intensive aquaculture that can potentially compromise fish welfare are outlined, as are some strategies available for mitigating such adverse effects. Finally, the paper ends by looking briefly to the future, identifying likely changes in aquaculture practices and how these might affect the welfare of farmed fish.

  19. New Social Risks and Welfare State Reforms in Norway and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  20. Market reforms in health care and sustainability of the welfare state: lessons from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderichsen, F

    1995-01-01

    Reforming health care systems which are predominantly publicly provided and financed has usually been motivated as a way of increasing efficiency even if it seldom is explicit whether it is in the official sense related to individual utility or in the unofficial sense related to health outcomes. In the case of Sweden the welfare state has been made politically sustainable through a construction where cash benefits and service provision are tailored to satisfy not only the basic needs but even the more discriminating needs of the middle classes. Their loyalty with the taxes is politically crucial and therefore their evaluation of the services in the welfarist sense equally important. That loyalty was however threatened in a situation where cost-containment policies were applied while equity principles were still a strong priority. Health care utilization was increasing among the very old and chronically ill while it was decreasing for other groups. The reforms introduced in some counties during the 1990s have been focussing on a purchaser-provider split and fee-for-service payment of providers. They have increased productivity sharply, increased utilization even among the groups that previously were 'pressed out' and reduced waiting lists. Increased efficiency however, threatens equity in some specific aspects. Fee-for-service payment means increased production and so far even increased costs. If they are to be met with increased private financing, rather than with present tax financing, it will bring the risk of inequities. Payment of hospitals through DRG systems means payment to providers for medical interventions with no incentives to deal with social consequences of illness. Inequities in health care can be related to the way health care deals with inequalities in health due to inequalities in living conditions or inequalities in living conditions due to ill health. In the short perspective the reforms may threaten equity in the second aspect, in the longer

  1. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  2. Public policy update. Welfare reform and teen parents: are we missing the point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, B L; Gambrell, A E

    1994-01-01

    The aim of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives should be to provide sexuality education that is age-appropriate, medically accurate, and available at each grade level with a positive view of sexuality and information and skills that contribute to sexual health and the ability to make decisions. Abstinence should be included as long as it is not fear-based and is part of the promotion of responsible sexuality. Contraceptive information must be available to those already sexually active. Subsidized day care for children of poor adolescent mothers must be at the top of the agenda of services integrated with job programs and school-to-work initiatives. Quality child care can provide a solid foundation in personal health, negotiation, self-esteem, and individual rights and responsibilities. Quick-fix and punitive measures are out of place in programs that rely on growth in individual responsibility. An innovative approach to social welfare programming would include comprehensive sexuality education, reproductive health services, child care, health insurance, and job training. The Clinton welfare reform drafts combine elements of teen pregnancy prevention with punitive action. What is needed is greater investment in programs enhancing sexuality education, acceptance and understanding of sexuality, and access to affordable reproductive health services. The Clinton plan focuses primarily on the National Mobilization for Youth Opportunity and Responsibility, which is a national media campaign to educate youth about responsibility and the benefits of staying in school and delaying childbearing. About 1000 middle and high schools in high-poverty areas would be targeted. Opportunities would be offered to go to college or have access to job training. Controls would be placed on adolescents by requiring minor parents to live with a responsible adult, minor mothers to stay in school, and to limit disbursements for additional children while on Aid to Families with Dependent

  3. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  4. Innovative agents versus immovable objects : the role of ideational leadership in German welfare state reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiller, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990's, despite growing pressures for change, the prominent tendency of welfare state scholars was to explain the persistence of welfare state institutions. Among the approaches that identified the mechanisms responsible for the welfare states' resistance to change, historical

  5. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  6. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Several authors have concluded that scientists should not attempt to perform overall animal welfare assessment (OWA). They argue that scientists have continued to fail to make progress in this area and that value judgements are inherently involved in OWA for which science cannot provide answers. We

  7. On-farm broiler welfare assessment and associated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Butterworth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, people who care for animals as stock keepers, stockmen, farmers, producers are placed in a position where they can greatly influence the quality of life of the animals they manage. This is particularly true in broiler chickens, where large numbers of animals can be cared for by comparatively small numbers of people. There is an international progression to start to assess poultry welfare on farm by looking at the animals themselves using (Animal Based Measures ABMs rather than by looking exclusively at the resources provided (space, light heat, litter material - Resource Based Measures RBM's. In general, the areas being assessed are: Are the animals properly fed and supplied with water? Are the animals properly housed? Are the animals healthy? Can the animals express a range of behaviours and emotional states? Different types of organisations are starting to use ABM's - Government inspection bodies - for example state veterinary staff, Research institutes - wishing to use standardized assessment methods for research, Animal Welfare NGO's, Farm assurance companies and Legislators. The WelfareQualityNetwork® (WQN http://www.welfarequality.net/everyone has described ABM's which address twelve health and welfare criteria and has tested them on a large number of farms across Europe. Some examples from this assessment scheme are described.

  8. Welfare reform and elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage: the roles of federal and state medicaid eligibility rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju

    2011-11-01

    Immigrants' access to federally-funded Medicaid became limited after welfare reform imposed restrictive noncitizen eligibility rules. This study used a representative sample from the Current Population Survey (N = 105,873) and state-level data to examine the effects of these policy changes on elderly immigrants. Triple difference-in-differences analyses show that federal restriction of eligibility had a significantly negative association with elderly immigrants' Medicaid coverage, and generous state eligibility had significantly positive relationships with Medicaid and any health insurance coverage. Findings indicate the important role of eligibility on elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage. Results call for social workers' actions to expand elderly immigrants' Medicaid eligibility.

  9. Modelling of animal welfare : the development of a decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A computer-based decision support system for welfare assessment in pregnant sows was constructed. This system uses a description of a husbandry system as input and produces a welfare score on a scale from 0 to 10 as output. Pregnant sows were chosen as a case in search for a formalised,

  10. Welfare reform, family support, and child development: perspectives from policy analysis and developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitzer, J; Yoshikawa, H; Cauthen, N K; Aber, J L

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the implications of recent welfare-related policy change for the well-being of children in low-income families, and for research investigating child development processes and outcomes. It provides an overview of current welfare-related policies and explores the implications for developmental researchers. The article also synthesizes early findings from research, highlighting both overall impacts and the more nuanced evidence that while families are transitioning off welfare, only a small number are transitioning out of poverty, and a subgroup of families at risk are not faring well. It then examines, from a theoretical and methodological framework, what developmental psychopathology might bring to the study of welfare-related impacts on children in the context of this complex and changing policy landscape, and what welfare researchers might bring to the field of developmental psychopathology. The article concludes with broad recommendations for both research and policy.

  11. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Implementation of the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol – final report : overview of outcome-based measurement of broiler welfare and a general discussion on the Welfare Quality broiler assessment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Gunnink, H.; Hindle, V.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, two topics related to our study on the implementation of the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol are discussed. First, animal-based measures for broiler welfare, currently included in the Welfare Quality® broiler assessment protocol, are discussed with respect to

  13. The status of low-income neighborhoods in the post-welfare reform environment: mapping the relationship between poverty and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Johnson, Michelle A; Austin, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that children and adults living in poverty are at risk for a number of negative outcomes. As inequality in the distribution of wealth, income and opportunity has grown in the U.S. during the post-welfare reform era, impoverished children and their families have tended to become increasingly concentrated in urban low-income neighborhoods. Research evidence demonstrates that living in these neighborhoods affects family well-being in several key areas: economic and employment opportunity, health and mental health condition, crime and safety, and children's behavioral and educational outcomes. Using the neighborhood indicator approach, public and nonprofit social service agencies will be better positioned to develop a comprehensive and integrated service delivery model at the neighborhood level by using neighborhood assessment to locate services and utilize neighborhood intervention strategies.

  14. Physiological Indicators in the Welfare Assessment of Riding Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The welfare assessment of horses includes the evaluation of their ability to cope with the challenges of theirenvironment and of work given to them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare of 12 clinically healthyhorses from a riding school, using physiological indicators. Double determinations were made (in winter and inspring of 2011 by a set of two tests each time, before and after physical effort. The clinical parameters (heart andrespiratory rate were in the normal range at 20 minutes after effort, decreasing towards the resting values. Slightlyhigher values were recorded in the spring comparing with the winter, but the differences were not statisticallysignificant (P>0.05. Even if were in the normal range, the results of the haematology tests and the blood sugarvalues showed clearly the response of the horses’ organisms to exercise. The serum cortisol concentrations presentedan effort dependent elevation and higher values of the basic level were observed in the spring than in winter. Theother stress-response indicator recorded, the neutrophyle-lymphocyte ratio, showed dynamics correlated with that ofthe cortisol level. The physiological indicators tested in this study proved their real value in the riding horses’welfare assessment.

  15. [Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjavila, Myriam; Fernandez, José; Moreira, Constanza

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs) nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive restructuring (i.e., reform by default). In this context and given the system's built-in inequities, the current trend is towards an even more regressive distribution of goods and services. The authors use qualitative and quantitative techniques to show that inequities in expenditure, access, and quality have resulted from long-term developments and adaptive movements of an IAMC system in fiscal stress and the public system's declining quality. Thus, in the absence of changes in state policy that redefine the actors' power or in the absence of system collapse, the country should expect this same regressive trend to deepen.

  16. Welfare reform and older immigrant adults' Medicaid and health insurance coverage: changes caused by chilling effects of welfare reform, protective citizenship, or distinct effects of labor market condition by citizenship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju

    2012-06-01

    To examine how federal noncitizen Medicaid eligibility restriction and generous state policy affect Medicaid and health insurance coverage among older adults with different citizenship status. This study uses an older adult sample (65 years or older) from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and state data and employed a triple difference-in-differences approach to incorporate variations in citizenship status, time, and state eligibility. Findings show that Medicaid coverage significantly declined among older noncitizens but increased among older naturalized citizens after Welfare Reform. Findings also show that the differences in older noncitizens' health insurance coverage changes were significant between generous and nongenerous states. Medicaid eligibility affects older immigrant adults' Medicaid and health insurance coverage. Findings support the "protective citizenship" hypothesis but not the "chilling effect" and "labor market condition" hypotheses. Opposite patterns of change in Medicaid coverage between naturalized citizens and noncitizens raise doubt about the effectiveness of eligibility restrictions in reducing government spending.

  17. The Invisible Realities of Welfare Reform in Wisconsin: Perspectives of African American Women and Their Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of African American women as they transitioned from welfare to work and develop economic self-sufficiency. The barriers to self-sufficiency included the "work-first" philosophy and case management practices, labor market conditions and employment practices, and personal history. HRD can help minimize…

  18. Pedagogy of the Consumer: The Politics of Neo-Liberal Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Situated against the backdrop of a widespread and growing interest in the linkages between neo-liberalism and welfare, this paper introduces the lens of neo-liberalism as a conceptual strategy for thinking about contemporary issues in education policy. Through charting the historic rise of unfettered market institutions and practices in the…

  19. The Juggling Act: Navigating Parent Involvement in the Welfare Reform Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how parents supported their children's education while transitioning from welfare to work. Interviews with parents, elementary school educators, and staff at a community-based organization were conducted in an urban Tennessee community. Navigating work and parenting responsibilities was particularly challenging when children…

  20. Repeatability of lameness, fear and slipping scores to assess animal welfare upon arrival in pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmau, A.; Geverink, N.A.; Nuffel, van A.; Steenbergen, van L.; Reenen, van C.G.; Hautekiet, V.; Vermeulen, K.; Velarde, A.; Tuyttens, F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The EU project Welfare Quality (R) proposes an overall assessment system for animal welfare based on animal outcomes. The objective of this study was to test inter-observer reliability (IOR) when assessing lameness, fear and slipping and falling scores as parameters for monitoring the welfare of

  1. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  2. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  3. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence, resolve…

  4. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    to reduce the number of measurements needed in the welfare assessment system WelFur-Mink in the different production periods without compromising the validity of the assessment. There seems to be an effect of date of the assessment in the nursing period, which can be handled elegantly if the other two...

  5. The interplay of actor-related strategies and political context: a fuzzy-set QCA analysis of structural reforms in continental welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiller, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    European welfare states face numerous challenges which often necessitate risky policy choices. This article focuses on the role of key political actors, asking which actor-related strategies, under certain conditions, lead to structural reforms. These strategies are ideational leadership or

  6. The Myth of “Broken Britain”: Welfare Reform and the Production of Ignorance

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article takes on the challenge of what Robert Proctor calls “agnotology” (the study of ignorance) to analyse the current assault on the British welfare state by think tanks, policy elites and conservative politicians. The assault is traced back to the emergence of the Centre for Social Justice think tank, founded in 2004 by the current Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan-Smith. I argue that a familiar litany of social pathologies (family breakdown, worklessness, antisocial behaviour,...

  7. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ben; Kinderman, Peter; Whitehead, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Several indicators of population mental health in the UK have deteriorated since the financial crisis, during a period when a number of welfare reforms and austerity measures have been implemented. We do not know which groups have been most affected by these trends or the extent to which recent economic trends or recent policies have contributed to them. We use data from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey to investigate trends in self reported mental health problems by socioeconomic group and employment status in England between 2004 and 2013. We then use panel regression models to investigate the association between local trends in mental health problems and local trends in unemployment and wages to investigate the extent to which these explain increases in mental health problems during this time. We found that the trend in the prevalence of people reporting mental health problems increased significantly more between 2009 and 2013 compared to the previous trends. This increase was greatest amongst people with low levels of education and inequalities widened. The gap in prevalence between low and high educated groups widened by 1.29 percentage points for women (95% CI: 0.50 to 2.08) and 1.36 percentage points for men (95% CI: 0.31 to 2.42) between 2009 and 2013. Trends in unemployment and wages only partly explained these recent increases in mental health problems. The trend in reported mental health problems across England broadly mirrored the pattern of increases in suicides and antidepressant prescribing. Welfare policies and austerity measures implemented since 2010 may have contributed to recent increases in mental health problems and widening inequalities. This has led to rising numbers of people with low levels of education out of work with mental health problems. These trends are likely to increase social exclusion as well as demand for and reliance on social welfare systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Civil Society-Driven Drug Policy Reform for Health and Human Welfare-India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallath, Nandini; Tandon, Tripti; Pastrana, Tania; Lohman, Diederik; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James; Ramanath, Ganpati; Rajagopal, M R

    2017-03-01

    The lack of adequate access to opioids in India as analgesics and for agonist therapies, forces millions to live with severe unalleviated pain, or languish with suffering associated with drug dependence. Although India is a major opium exporter, the excessively prohibitive 1985 narcotics law formulated to control harmful use of drugs, impeded the availability and access to opioids for medical and scientific purposes. Amendment of this law in 2014 established a new national regulatory framework for improved access to essential opioid analgesics. This article reflects on key elements and processes that led to this landmark achievement. Unlike quick timelines associated with effecting policy reforms for law enforcement, realizing the 2014 drug policy change primarily to mitigate human suffering, was a 22-year-long process. The most exacting challenges included recognizing the multilayered complexities of the prior policy framework and understanding their adverse impact on field practices to chart an appropriate and viable path for reform. The evolution of an informal civil society movement involving health care professionals, lawyers, media, policy analysts, government officials, and the public was pivotal in addressing these challenges and garnering momentum for reform. The success of the effort for improving access to opioid medications was underpinned by a three-pronged strategy of 1) persuading the executive arm of the government to take interim enabling measures; 2) leveraging judicial intervention through public interest litigation; and 3) crafting a viable policy document for legislative approval and implementation. We hope our findings are useful for realizing drug policy reforms, given the current transformed global policy mandates emphasizing humanitarian, healthcare, and quality-of-life considerations. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems Using a Community Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…

  10. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joseph C E

    2009-11-01

    There continues to be intense public, professional, and scientific focus on the welfare of animals in zoos and aquariums, but implementing welfare assessment tools consistently throughout this community remains challenging. Indirect measures can be used to assess "welfare potential"-the potential that animals will experience good welfare based on the care that they are provided with. Zoos and aquariums focus on welfare potential with their continued commitment to develop animal care guidelines (e.g. Animal Care Manuals) that can play a role within institutional accreditation or certification. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Committee has been pursuing approaches to maximize welfare potential by developing the concept of an integrated welfare approach or framework-an attempt to identify recommended animal care programs (e.g. enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, research, and animal training programs) and their programmatic components. Objectively assessing the influence that animal care recommendations have on the welfare of individual animals is important to determine the efficacy of programmatic approaches. The future of welfare assessment within zoos and aquariums will include population-level evaluations-tracking emerging trends in health and behavior that come from both formal and informal institutional animal reports. Sharing this information, and performing meta-analyses of the data using epidemiological approaches, will become easier with advances in technology and database management software. Identifying welfare "red/green flags" throughout captive populations will provide direction for more focused assessments that will ultimately inform the design of more effective animal care programs.

  11. Salmon welfare index model 2.0: an extended model for overall welfare assessment of caged Atlantic salmon, based on a review of selected welfare indicators and intended for fish health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersen, J.M.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Midtlyng, P.J.; Folkedal, O.; Stien, L.H.; Steffenak, H.; Kristiansen, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present an extended version of a semantic model for overall welfare assessment of Atlantic salmon reared in sea cages. The model, called SWIM 2.0, is designed to enable fish health professionals to make a formal and standardized assessment of fish welfare using a set of reviewed welfare

  12. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  13. Hydrogen production from methane reforming: thermodynamic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.J.; Hori, Carla E.; Avila Neto, Cicero; Franco, Tatiana [Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: adilsonjassis@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The main contributions of this study are to conduct a comparative thermodynamic analysis of methane reforming reactions and to asses the influence of key operational variables on chemical equilibrium using an in-house code, developed in the open-source software Scilab{sup c} INRIA-ENPC (www.scilab.org). Equilibrium compositions are calculated by two distinct methods: evaluation of equilibrium constants and Lagrange multipliers. Both methods result in systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically using the Scilab function 'fsolve'. Comparison between experimental and simulated equilibrium data, published in the literature, was used to validate the simulated results. Effects of temperature, pressure, initial H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 4} ratio (steam reforming), initial CH{sub 4}:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ratio (dry reforming) and initial O{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} ratio (partial oxidation) on the reaction products were evaluated. (author)

  14. Understanding Elementary Teachers' Different Responses to Reform: The Case of Implementation of an Assessment Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how teachers implemented an assessment reform in South Korea, with an analysis of different aspects of the reform. Using a mixed method design, this study reveals that the relation between policy and practice depends upon the nature of the changes that reform policies propose. Teachers' implementation varies in terms of…

  15. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Welfare assessment of dairy cows housed in a tie-stall system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučemilo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare assessment methods and techniques developed as a result of great interest of scientific and consumer populations regarding the welfare of animals housed in farms. In view of the fact that welfare by definition includes both physical and mental health, the welfare quality assessment includes an extensive number of measures. Welfare assessment was performed in two stables in which cows are kept in tie-stall by using the specific method described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The measures included body condition score, qualitative behaviour assessment and body hygiene. The welfare assessment confirmed the importance of quality housing for ensuring better performance from animals, thus also affecting their health and productivity. It also pointed out the necessity of freeing animals by providing them with the possibility of free movement, whereat they can exhibit their physiological behaviour. It is definitely important to continue research, expand the number of researched measures in order to confirm the most useful indicators for welfare assessment and to identify the factors that within the animals’ physical and social environment affect the increase of their welfare.

  17. Race, welfare reform and caseworkers' treatment of welfare recipients: an examination of an alternative service delivery system-the Wisconsin Works (W-2) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how welfare recipients in the Wisconsin Works Program were treated by community-based organizations' caseworkers, as opposed to government agencies, to determine if racial disparities existed. The same racial disparities found with public agencies existed. And CBOs were not providing Blacks with services needed to get off welfare.

  18. Assessment of Social Welfare Services of Sufferers of Leprosy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Better supports are received from Non governmental organizations. However, inmates' suggestion for governments employment is seen by this author as realistic and the strategic block to bridge the gap between Governments intended social welfare services and practicable social welfare practices. Keywords: focus group ...

  19. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  20. Prioritization and the elusive effect on welfare - a Norwegian health care reform revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2015-03-01

    The Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme that Norwegian authorities implemented in 2007 is an example of a policy that builds on the human capital approach. The main idea behind the scheme is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of absence from work. To achieve a reduction in average sickness absence duration, the allocation of FRW funds and new treatment capacity is exclusively aimed at people on sick leave. Many countries have allocated funds to reduce waiting times for hospital treatment and research shows that more resources allocated to the hospital sector can reduce waiting times. Our results support this as the FRW scheme significantly reduces waiting times. However, on average the reduction in waiting times is not transformed into an equally large reduction in the sickness absence period. We find significant difference in the effects of FRW on length of sick leave between surgical and non-surgical patients though. The duration of sick leave for FRW patients undergoing surgical treatment is approximately 14 days shorter than for surgical patients on the regular waiting list. We find no significant effect of the scheme on length of sick leave for non-surgical patients. In sum, our welfare analysis indicates that prioritization of the kind that the FRW scheme represents is not as straightforward as one would expect. The FRW scheme costs more than it contributes in reduced productivity loss. We base our analyses on several different econometric methods using register data on approximately 13,500 individuals over the period 2007-2008. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  2. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  3. Development and Pilot Study of a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Dairy Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, John Patrick; Kennedy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    As agricultural systems continue to develop and become more refined, so too must protocols used to assess the welfare of animals experiencing them. The aim of this research was to develop a welfare assessment protocol for pre-weaned dairy calves (<12 weeks old),and investigate, and improve, its

  4. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is a complex concept that encompasses an animal's biological functioning, emotional states, and opportunities to experience a natural life, including the performance of natural behaviors. Further, animal welfare can be viewed as quality of life from the perspective of the animal and thus must consider the animal's subjective experiences. Therefore, assessing and enhancing animal welfare should include multidisciplinary, scientific ventures that strive to create a complete picture of how animals' bodies and minds respond to both aversive and pleasant situations. Practical assessment of animal welfare should include outcome-based measures from the animal that provide information about the individual's welfare as well as resource-based measures that can help identify causes of or risk factors for poor welfare. Increasingly, scientists are examining the emotional states of animals as well as the impact of pain, pleasure, and consciousness on animal welfare. This article discusses approaches such as preference testing, instrumental learning, examination of space and resource use, and qualitative assessments of animal welfare that might be useful and practical for assessing and enhancing welfare in zoo settings.

  5. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005–2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors’ assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors’ reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83% were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9% as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24% were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  6. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-09-28

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors' assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors' reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83%) were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9%) as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24%) were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  7. A Proposal for Assessing the Economic Welfare Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Maria BĂLĂ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades many economists, sociologists and other researchers expressed their views concerning the importance of using economic welfare as an instrument for socio-economic policies instead of relying only on economic growth. This paper aims to present on one hand the weaknesses of the most important macroeconomic aggregate, GDP, in the characterization of the economic welfare of citizens and on the other hand intends to provide some evidence for the theoretical criticism made to GDP, with reference to the case of Romania, taking into account three essential components in quantifying the sustainable economic welfare of the citizens in a country: the social, economic and environmental part. Thus, it is proposed an index more appropriate than GDP in measuring economic welfare for Romania and it is compared their evolution on the last twenty years.

  8. Parents and Mathematics Education Reform: Voicing the Authority of Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Stephanie Z.

    1996-01-01

    Examines how parents think about assessment in a reformed middle school mathematics program, how a group of parents knew about their children's growing competence, and how these ideas generated norms that positioned parents and their children in the elitist hierarchy that characterizes school mathematics. The authors argue that assessment is a…

  9. INVITED REVIEW: The usefulness of measuring glucocorticoids for assessing animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Tilbrook, A J

    2016-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (corticosterone in birds and rodents and cortisol in all other mammals) are glucoregulatory hormones that are synthesized in response to a range of stimuli including stress and are regularly measured in the assessment of animal welfare. Glucocorticoids have many normal or non-stress-related functions, and glucocorticoid synthesis can increase in response to pleasure, excitement, and arousal as well as fear, anxiety, and pain. Often, when assessing animal welfare, little consideration is given to normal non-stress-related glucocorticoid functions or the complex mechanisms that regulate the effects of glucocorticoids on physiology. In addition, it is rarely acknowledged that increased glucocorticoid synthesis can indicate positive welfare states or that a stress response can increase fitness and improve the welfare of an animal. In this paper, we review how and when glucocorticoid synthesis increases, the actions mediated through type I and type II glucocorticoid receptors, the importance of corticosteroid-binding globulin, the role of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and the key aspects of neurophysiology relevant to activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is discussed in the context of animal welfare assessment, particularly under the biological functioning and affective states frameworks. We contend that extending the assessment of animal welfare to key brain regions afferent to the hypothalamus and incorporating the aspects of glucocorticoid physiology that affect change in target tissue will advance animal welfare science and inspire more comprehensive assessment of the welfare of animals.

  10. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

    2008-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions.

  11. Scientist' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare in

  12. Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows. B. Validation by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight

  13. Animal welfare assessment at slaughter in Europe: moving from inputs to outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Dalmau, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    Producers, retailers and other food chain actors increasingly recognize that consumer concerns for good animal welfare represent a business opportunity that could be profitably incorporated into their commercial strategies. Therefore, during the last decade, numerous trade groups (producers, processors, retailers and restaurant chains) have developed certification systems with their suppliers which include elements of animal welfare. The Welfare Quality® project has developed an integrated and standardised welfare assessment system based on twelve welfare criteria grouped into four main principles (good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour) according to how they are experienced by animals. One of the innovations of the Welfare Quality® assessment system is that it focuses more on outcome measures (e.g. directly related to animal body condition, health aspects, injuries, behaviour, etc.). This paper has the objective to discuss the rationale behind the welfare assessment and to describe the Welfare Quality® assessment of pigs and cattle at the slaughterhouse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objecti...

  15. A framework to assess welfare mix and service provision models in health care and social welfare: case studies of two prominent Italian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco; Notarnicola, Elisabetta; Tasselli, Stefano

    2015-04-09

    The mechanisms through which the relationships among public institutions, private providers and families affect care and service provision systems are puzzling. How can we understand the mechanisms in these contexts? Which elements should we explore to capture the complexity of care provision? The aim of our study is to provide a framework that can help read and reframe these puzzling care provision mechanisms in a welfare mix context. First, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding how service provision occurs in care systems that are characterised by a variety of relationships between multiple actors, using an evidence-based approach that looks at both public and private expenditures and the number of users relative to the level of needs coverage and compared with declared values and political rhetoric. Second, we test this framework in two case studies built on data from two prominent Italian regions, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. We argue that service provision models depend on the interplay among six conceptual elements: policy values, governance rules, resources, nature of the providers, service standards and eligibility criteria. Our empirical study shows that beneath the relevant differences in values and political rhetoric between the case studies of the two Italian regions, there is a surprising isomorphism in service standards and the levels of covering the population's needs. The suggested framework appears to be effective and feasible; it fosters interdisciplinary approaches and supports policy-making discussions. This study may contribute to deepening knowledge about public care service provision and institutional arrangements, which can be used to promote more effective reforms and may advance future research. Although the framework was tested on the Italian welfare system, it can be used to assess many different systems.

  16. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...

  17. Pig welfare assessment: development of a protocol and its use by veterinary undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Angela J; Powney, Sonya L; Nevel, Amanda; Wathes, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to teaching welfare assessment is described and has been used with two cohorts of first-year veterinary undergraduates (totaling 515 students). The welfare assessment protocol was devised and trialed using pigs as an exemplar, but its principles are applicable to other species. A robust learning scheme was created, comprising didactic teaching, interactive seminars, practical hands-on training, and computer-based learning. Practical training included a formative virtual assessment of clinical signs of health and welfare using Questionmark Perception, which improved the students' performance significantly. Validation studies are being carried out to establish if acceptable levels of inter-observer variability can be achieved by students conducting on-farm assessments of pig welfare during their extramural studies program. The resulting assessments of welfare will be analyzed in a cross-sectional epidemiological study to identify risk factors for good and poor welfare, and the results will be fed back to participating farmers. This new approach enables veterinary students to learn key transferable skills in the early stages of their education and provides a strong grounding in a holistic approach to animal welfare.

  18. The impact of welfare reform on methadone treatment: policy lessons from service providers in New York city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Ellen; Young, Rebecca; Magura, Stephen; Staines, Graham L

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of recent changes in welfare policy on public assistance recipients who are in methadone maintenance treatment, from the perspective of methadone service providers. Data were collected between late 2000 and early 2002, and included in-depth interviews with 11 providers from three methadone treatment programs in New York city, contextual interviews with three welfare agency personnel and three patient advocates, and participant-observation in trainings and clinical meetings related to vocational services and public assistance for methadone patients. Because service providers are front-line implementers of new welfare regulations, their experiences, and insights should be consulted by policymakers as welfare policy continues to evolve.

  19. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  20. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs....... In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  1. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981...

  2. Behavioral Ecology of Captive Species: Using Behavioral Adaptations to Assess and Enhance Welfare of Nonhuman Zoo Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed,

  3. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  4. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...

  5. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  6. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  7. Criteria and methods for the assessment of animal welfare - Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the issue of animal welfare is under consideration, two opposing views have recently been in contrast with each other: 1 The first can be expressed with a quote from Mahatma Gandhi (cited by Appleby and Hughes, 1997: The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated. Similar, but more direct, is the statement by Dawkins (1980 to define welfare: Absence of suffering. Suffering understood to be an unpleasant emotional state induced by fear, pain, frustration, exhaustion, loss of social companions; 2 The second is otherwise explained by Blosser (1987: as long as the animal is growing normally, performing well, is properly nourished and free from diseases, and suffers no physical mistreatment, there is no cause of concern. The first statement can be understood in an ethical approach that considers animals as part of nature, thus similar to a “goddess”. The second one can be also understood, but only if the animals are considered exclusively as a useful tool. Although they are quite far from each other, some area of compromise is possible. On the contrary, provocative suggestions like A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy; they’re all equal (PETA, cit. Kertz, 1996 or the assumption that animals possess objective rights and must be free to freely choose what they want, would render completely impossible any attempt to breed them (not only for profit, but also as pets. A promising approach can be seen in Appleby’s (1996 definition of welfare: The state of well-being brought about by meeting their physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the supervision or influence of people. Another positive contribution toward a possible agreement among the aforementioned attitudes is a more sound interpretation of “5 freedoms” as required by Webster (1994: Absolute attainment of all five freedoms is unrealistic, indeed they are to some

  8. Conceptualising Teachers' Assessment Literacies in an Era of Curriculum and Assessment Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jill; Adie, Lenore; Klenowski, Val

    2013-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy is a phrase that is often used but rarely defined. Yet understanding teacher assessment literacy is important in an international curriculum and assessment reform context that continues to challenge teachers' assessment practices. In this article situated examples of classroom assessment literacies are analysed using…

  9. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators” with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, there has so far been a lack of more precise provisions regarding the content and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, around 50 experts have selected indicators for assessing animal welfare with regard to reliability, validity and practicability. In on-farm self-assessment, the sets of largely animal-based indicators selected for cattle, pigs and poultry (hens and turkeys should be surveyed and evaluated as completely as possible. Integration into farm management systems is recommended. This paper exemplarily presents the set of indicators proposed for dairy cattle.

  10. Child well-being in an era of welfare reform: the sensitivity of transitions in development to policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela; Duncan, Greg J; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the age-specific pattern of effects of welfare policies on child achievement. Drawing from 7 random-assignment welfare and antipoverty evaluations that provided more than 30,000 observations of children's achievement, this study found that times of developmental transition are the only periods sensitive to the changes in families brought about by these policies. More specifically, small positive effects of welfare and antipoverty policies were found for children making the transition into middle childhood, and small negative effects of these same policies were found for children making the transition out of middle childhood and into early adolescence. Effects were robust across various program groupings and could not be attributed to family characteristics that differ for children of different ages. This research informs the understanding of how changes in employment and income for low-income parents affect development across childhood. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing outcome measures of welfare in dairy cattle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, E

    2017-03-01

    In most countries producing milk, industry- or other stakeholder-driven initiatives are in place to improve welfare and overall dairy farming sustainability. Those initiatives typically include a system of verification of reaching targets and progress over time. Reliable indicators are a fundamental requirement to provide public assurance and allow improvement on farms. Assessing dairy cattle welfare through outcome measures of welfare is done today through visual evaluations, including those of lameness, injuries, hygiene, and body condition. Numerical scoring charts for visual evaluation have been validated, and training programs have been developed to achieve high repeatability of assessors. Sampling strategies have been validated to determine how many animals and how many days are required to obtain reliable estimates of prevalence. However, visual evaluations require long periods of data collection, and multiple visits on farm, along with repeated checks of assessors to ensure repeatability over time, are, in turn, very costly to implement. An attractive alternative is relying on automated measures as activity monitors are becoming common on commercial farms; among those, lying time retains the most attention. The use of herd lying time in both free-stall and tie-stall situations has been validated. Current research is looking at relationships between lying time and other outcome measures of welfare, as well as lying time and risk factors for welfare in the environment (e.g., poor stall configuration or hoof trimming routine). We are not quite yet ready to rely solely on lying time to assess welfare; however, activity monitoring could certainly contribute to early detection of health and welfare issues (e.g., frequency of visits to the robotic milking system). Another interesting avenue is the development of early outcome measures of welfare and, possibly, remote indicators, for example, performance data collected routinely in Dairy Herd Improvement agencies

  12. From Situation to opposition: the welfare reform of the Lula’s government from the perspective of the PSDB deputies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Corral de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the defeat in the 2002 elections, the PSDB was characterized as the "strong opposition" to the government of the PT. He reached the command of the Executive in 2003, implemented a reform in Social Security, thus constituting the first time the opposition PSDB. Thus, the objective of this work is to understand the discursive behavior of federal PSDB deputies, held during the sessions of the Great Expedient of the Federal Chamber, when dealing with this reform. For the analysis, the theoretical and methodological aspects of discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe were used. It was possible to identify that the new political context has changed the identities of PT and PSDB, but kept the antagonistic relationship. Moreover, because it is the first time opposition, the PSDB did not build hegemonic discourse against the reform, but critical of its formatting.

  13. Welfare state reform and the Eurocrisis - a critical encounter (Dang fuli guojia gaige yu ouyuan weiji buqi eryu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Stepan, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008 marks a ‘stress test' for European welfare states. The Euro crisis is bringing the European Union to a new political crossroads, raising the stakes for devising effective pan-European macro economic governance structure and timely social policy

  14. Chances and limitations of "benchmarking" in the reform of welfare state structures - the case of pension policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schludi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of benchmarking, originally developed as a tool to improve the performance of business enterprises by learning from others’ "best practice", is now increasingly applied in the areas of employment and social policy. Rising internal and external pressures on national welfare states,

  15. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Social policies are no longer regarded as a burden on economies, but rather as investment in human capital. Hence, we are now beyond neo-liberalism. Secondly, the widespread welfare reforms in Europe must be distinguished according to welfare regime. Thus, the paper discusses welfare reform within five...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  16. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-09-25

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  17. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Battini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  18. The Effect of the Common Agricultural Policy Reform by 2013 on Direct Payments in Relation to Animal Welfare in the European Union - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of agriculture is to provide food and the European Union should be able to contribute to rising world food demand. The Common Agriculture Policy covers the wide variety of measures used to support and protect the European Union farmers. The most important measure within the Common Agriculture Policy is direct payments paid directly to farmers to protect their income. The Common Agriculture Policy is due to be reformed by 2013. The main object of the Common Agriculture Policy, which is a provision of safe, healthy choice of food at transparent and affordable prices, will remain unchanged, but further changes of the Common Agriculture Policy are necessary to respond to the new challenges such as animal welfare, global food security, natural resources such as water, air, biodiversity and soil, climate changes, increasing globalization and rising price volatility.

  19. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  20. Subjects of, or Subject to, Policy Reform? A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Regulation and Resistance in UK Narratives of Educational Impacts of Welfare Cuts: The Case of the "Bedroom Tax"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica; Greenstein, Anat; Bragg, Jo; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Lupton, Ruth; McCoy, Lauren; Sapin, Kate; Winter, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws on material generated from a qualitative study of educational impacts of a British welfare reform affecting housing rent subsidy, size and location commonly known as "the bedroom tax" (Bragg et al., 2015), which was partly taken as a topic for study specifically because of its iconic status as a controversial and…

  1. Relationship of risk assessment to placement characteristics in a statewide child welfare population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cindy Y.; Bory, Christopher T.; Caron, Colleen; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Connell, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments allow child and youth services to identify children who are at risk for maltreatment (e.g., abuse, neglect) and help determine the restrictiveness of placements or need for services among youth entering a child welfare system. Despite the use of instruments by many agencies within the U.S. to determine the appropriate placements for youth, research has shown that placement decisions are often influenced by factors such as gender, age, and severity of social–emotional and behavior problems. This study examined ratings of risk across multiple domains using a structured assessment tool used by caseworkers in the Rhode Island child welfare system. The relationship between ratings of risk and placement restrictiveness was also examined. Risk levels varied across placement settings. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower caseworker ratings of parent risk and higher ratings of youth risk were associated with more restrictive placements for youth. Implications for the child welfare system are discussed. PMID:25838617

  2. Evaluation of Animal-Based Indicators to Be Used in a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Richmond

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators derived from the literature for these criteria. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density, and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria “Absence of prolonged thirst,” we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators; however, for many, we found evidence of convergent validity and discriminant validity (e.g., lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score. The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioral indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalizations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise, and human approach test, this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required

  3. Evaluation of Animal-Based Indicators to Be Used in a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Susan E.; Wemelsfelder, Francoise; de Heredia, Ina Beltran; Ruiz, Roberto; Canali, Elisabetta; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators derived from the literature for these criteria. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density, and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria “Absence of prolonged thirst,” we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators; however, for many, we found evidence of convergent validity and discriminant validity (e.g., lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score). The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioral indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalizations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise, and human approach test), this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required for some

  4. Welfare assessments based on lifetime health and production data in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter; Thomsen, Peter Thorup

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe how information about the whole lifetime of the cow can be used when defining nonhuman animal-based criteria of the welfare of animals on the farm. Often measured over a short period, disease occurrence provides information relevant for assessing...... or other condition affecting animal welfare is carried by a few individuals or is distributed more evenly. To illustrate this principle, the study obtained data on disease treatment records and production from 392,287 cows from the Danish Cattle Database. The average cow had lived for 5 years and produced...

  5. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Child Welfare Systems: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…

  6. Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare: Screening, Assessment, and Treatment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Landsverk, John; Levitt, Jessica Mass; Leslie, Laurel K.; Hurley, Maia M.; Bellonci, Christopher; Gries, Leonard T.; Pecora, Peter J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    The Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference focused on developing guidelines in five key areas (screening and assessment, psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacologic treatment, parent engagement, and youth empowerment) related to children's mental health. This paper provides an overview of issues related to the…

  7. Reshaping Child Welfare's Response to Trauma: Assessment, Evidence-Based Intervention, and New Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…

  8. Consistency over time of animal-based welfare indicators as a further step for developing a welfare assessment monitoring scheme: The case of the Animal Welfare Indicators protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, E; Vieira, A; Battini, M; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2017-11-01

    Consistency over time (COT) of animal-based indicators is key to a reliable and feasible welfare protocol, indicating that results are representative over long-term situations. High levels of consistency ensure fairness for the farmer and credibility of the system. In addition, indicator COT reduces recording costs, as having indicators that do not change over a long period of time will require less farm visits to achieve reliable estimates. To date, COT of animal-based indicators included in the welfare assessment of dairy goats has never been tested. Therefore, our aim was to investigate COT of animal-based indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) welfare assessment prototype protocol for dairy goats. To meet this goal, a study was designed where an average of 3 mo elapsed between 2 sets of visits to the same 20 dairy goat farms (10 in Portugal and 10 in Italy), with no major changes in management routines or housing conditions occurring during this period. Initially, we performed a Wilcoxon signed rank test to investigate whether the results obtained during the 2 visits were significantly different. After this preliminary screening, the indicators presenting nonsignificant differences between visits were submitted to a second step analysis, where discriminative and evaluative analyses were conducted to reach a final indicator lineup. The discriminative approach helped distinguishing among farms, whereas the agreement analysis showed us the range of differences between repeated assessments. Some particular conclusions could be drawn from this combined analysis, helping to the development of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats and as a further step to develop a welfare assessment monitoring scheme for this and other species. In this sense, the AWIN welfare assessment protocol allows for the quick differentiation between farms based on the identification of persistent welfare problems, by recording highly consistent and

  9. Religious Groups as Interest Groups: The United States Catholic Bishops in the Welfare Reform Debate of 1995–1996 and the Health Care Reform Debate of 2009–20101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Cammisa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States has a long history of religious influence on public policy: the anti-slavery movement, progressivism, prohibition, civil rights, abortion, school vouchers, school prayer and nuclear disarmament are all issues that have involved religion and religious groups in policymaking. In recent decades, the number of religious interest groups (as well as interest groups in general has greatly expanded, but the role that the religious organizations play as interest groups in the policy arena has received relatively little attention. How are they similar to and different from other interest groups? What tactics do they use? How successful are they? Under what conditions is success or failure more likely? This article examines Roman Catholic religious groups as interest groups in the congressional policymaking process. First, it places Catholic interest groups in the context of the interest group literature, and second, it examines Catholic interest groups’ activity in the passage of welfare reform in 1996 and in the passage of health care reform in 2010. In both cases, they played a greater role in context-setting than in actually changing provisions.

  10. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  11. How assessing relationships between emotions and cognition can improve farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, A; Lee, C

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals. The first section describes a recent experimental approach based on the cognitive processes that the animal uses to evaluate its environment. This approach offers an integrative and functional framework to assess the animal's emotions more effectively. The second section focuses on the influence of emotions on cognitive processes and describes recently developed methodologies based on that relationship, which may enable an assessment of long-term affective states in animals. The last section discusses the relevance of behavioural strategies to improve welfare in animals by taking their cognitive skills into account. Specific cognitive processes eliciting positive emotions will be emphasised. Research into affective states of animals is progressing rapidly and the ability to scientifically access animal feelings should contribute to the development of innovative farming practices based on the animals' sentience and their cognitive skills in order to truly improve their welfare.

  12. The politics of ideas in welfare state transformation: Christian Democracy and the reform of family policy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of employment-centered family policies of the Grand Coalition in Germany came with some surprise, as Christian Democrats have traditionally been strongly committed to the male breadwinner model and corresponding family policies. This article investigates why Christian Democrats (though with some inconsistencies) promoted “social-democratic” family policies guided by the adult worker rather than by the male breadwinner model. Illuminating the politics of recent family policy reforms, the electoral rationale for this modernization of family policy, the role of political entrepreneurship, and intraparty political conflicts over the new policy paradigm are discussed.

  13. The impact of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage, utilization and health of low education single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Kimberly; Bitler, Marianne; Ponce, Ninez; Kominski, Gerald; Ettner, Susan

    2017-05-01

    The Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity and Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 imposed time limits on the receipt of welfare cash benefits and mandated cash benefit sanctions for failure to meet work requirements. Many studies examining the health implications of PRWORA have found associated declines in health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among single mothers but no impact of PRWORA on health outcomes. A limitation of this literature is that most studies cover a time period before time limits were implemented in all states and also before individuals began actually timing out. This work builds on previous studies by exploring this research question using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation that covers a time period after all states have implemented time limits (1991-2009). We use a difference-in-differences study design that exploits variability in eligibility for cash welfare benefits by marital status and state-level variation in timing of PRWORA implementation to identify the effect of PRWORA. Using ordinary least square regression models, controlling for state-level and federal policies, individual-level demographics and state and year fixed-effects, we find that PRWORA leads to 7 and 5 percentage point increases in self-reported poor health and self-reported disability among white single mothers without a diploma, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  15. Characterization of hazards, welfare promoters and animal-based measures for the welfare assessment of dairy cows: Elicitation of expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocchi, Luigi; Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Strano, Rosa Maria; Ginestreti, Jessica; Riuzzi, Giorgia; Moroni, Paolo; Lorenzi, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    An expert opinion elicitation, based on a modified Delphi technique, was organized to collect the opinion of 16 Italian veterinarians with the aim of conducting a hazard and a welfare promoter characterization for defining and weighing a list of management and housing factors potentially associated with negative or positive welfare outcomes in dairy cows kept in loose housing systems. In addition, the 16 experts judged a set of animal-based measures in order to rate them by appropriateness and by the level of animal pain and suffering due to the welfare consequences they measure. Veterinary experts were asked to score 52 hazards, 47 welfare promoters and 18 animal-based measures. Management and housing hazards, that were determined to be associated with a very high impact on the welfare of dairy cows, were mainly referred to lactating cows (absence of bedding material, presence of inadequate or slippery floor in walking areas, wrong design of the lying area), but also the use of harmful tools for animal handling and the lack of scheduled foot inspection, trimming and foot bathing reached very high impact scores. Management and housing welfare promoters dealing with optimal cow comfort around resting obtained the highest ratings, together with the presence of experienced and trained stockpersons, the implementation of an attentive animal grouping strategy and the control of temperature, humidity and ventilation. Considering animal-based measures, the highest ranking of importance was given to observation of lameness, records of mortality of adult cows and calves, observation of integument alterations and body condition scoring. This study has been the starting point for the development of the first Italian national protocol for the assessment of the welfare of dairy cows farmed in loose housing systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing animal welfare in sow herds using data on meat inspection, medication and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T; Houe, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements.

  17. Assessing welfare of individual sirenians in the wild and in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a “generalist” approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.

  18. Development of a new welfare assessment protocol for practical application in long-term dog shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, S; Pedernera, C; Candeloro, L; Ferri, N; Velarde, A; Dalla Villa, P

    2016-01-02

    In many European shelters, dogs may spend many years confined. A poor environment and inappropriate management may lead to a low quality of life. The absence of harmonised European regulatory frameworks defining the minimum requirements for shelter facilities makes the definition of welfare standards for kennelled dogs challenging. Here, a new protocol was developed and tested to help identify the main welfare issues for shelter dogs. Twenty-six indicators were identified including management, resource and animal based measures. Accuracy and interobserver reliability were checked between four assessors. The protocol was applied in 29 shelters (n=1308 dogs) in six European countries. Overall prevalence of poor health conditions was below 10%. Test-retest reliability and validity of the protocol were investigated with encouraging results. A logistic regression was carried out to assess the potential of the protocol as a tool to identify welfare hazards in shelter environments. Inappropriate space allowance, for example, was found to be a risk factor potentially affecting the animal's cleanliness, skin condition and body condition. The protocol was designed to be concise and easy to implement. Systematic data collection could help identify welfare problems that are likely to arise in certain shelter designs and thus determine improvement in animal care standards. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Extending ideas about animal welfare assessment to include 'quality of life' and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Mellor, D J

    2011-11-01

    Ideas within the animal welfare science arena have evolved continuously throughout the last 30 years, and will continue to do so. This paper outlines some of these developments. These included reformulation of the five freedoms concept into the five domains of potential welfare compromise. This accommodated weaknesses in the former by distinguishing between the physical/functional and the mental factors that contribute to an animal's welfare state. This development reflected a rising scientific acceptance that the mental experiences of animals were legitimate foci for study and highlighted that what the animal itself experiences represents its welfare status. Initially, most concepts of animal welfare emphasised predominantly negative subjective experiences, such as thirst, hunger and pain, and negative affective states or feelings including anxiety, fear and boredom, but today positive experiences or emotions such as satiety, vitality, reward, contentment, curiosity and playfulness are also considered to be important. During the same period, the focus shifted from evaluating the impacts of individual mental subjective experiences or emotions towards seeking a more comprehensive, multifactorial understanding. The five domains concept was specifically designed to achieve this. Subsequent notions about quality of life (QoL) had the same objective, and emphasised the importance of positive experiences. However, some approaches to QoL assessment relied heavily on empathetic speculation about what animals may experience subjectively and this raised concerns about inappropriate anthropomorphic projections. Such pitfalls may be minimised when informed personnel rigorously apply objectively based methodologies to QoL assessments limited to a short time frame. It is clear that both formal and somewhat less formal QoL assessments of this type are already used to guide decision-making about the ongoing care and therapeutic management of animals on a daily basis. However

  20. [Assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of pet animals: principles, rules and other measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-05-01

    The review deals with fundamental aspects of the problems and the assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of companion and pet animals, with legislation and with other measures to avoid breeding animals with extreme characteristics. Efforts are important in particular by breeding organisations to adapt breeding standards and to improve the education of judges and breeders. Furthermore adequate activities to correctly inform animal keepers are important.

  1. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Probhakar Biswas; Triveni Dutt; Patel, M.(Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom); Reena Kamal; Bharti, P.K.; Subhasish Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was ke...

  2. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  3. Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs from Farm to Slaughter based on Expert Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    For pigs, the day of slaughter involves potential animal welfare threatening elements at different stages such as pick-up pens, loading, transport, unloading, lairage and race. At present no tool for assessing the welfare of finishing pigs from farm exit to stunning is available. The present stud...... development of a feedback mechanism for optimization of the welfare of the pigs as well as for marketing.......For pigs, the day of slaughter involves potential animal welfare threatening elements at different stages such as pick-up pens, loading, transport, unloading, lairage and race. At present no tool for assessing the welfare of finishing pigs from farm exit to stunning is available. The present study...... builds on a protocol for assessment of animal welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, a protocol which was based on the structure of the Welfare Quality® protocol for finishing pigs at an abattoir. The present study aimed to develop an animal welfare index (AWI) for the day of slaughter...

  4. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  5. Operational Details of the Five Domains Model and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The Five Domains Model is a focusing device to facilitate systematic, structured, comprehensive and coherent assessment of animal welfare; it is not a definition of animal welfare, nor is it intended to be an accurate representation of body structure and function. The purpose of each of the five domains is to draw attention to areas that are relevant to both animal welfare assessment and management. This paper begins by briefly describing the major features of the Model and the operational interactions between the five domains, and then it details seven interacting applications of the Model. These underlie its utility and increasing application to welfare assessment and management in diverse animal use sectors. Abstract In accord with contemporary animal welfare science understanding, the Five Domains Model has a significant focus on subjective experiences, known as affects, which collectively contribute to an animal’s overall welfare state. Operationally, the focus of the Model is on the presence or absence of various internal physical/functional states and external circumstances that give rise to welfare-relevant negative and/or positive mental experiences, i.e., affects. The internal states and external circumstances of animals are evaluated systematically by referring to each of the first four domains of the Model, designated “Nutrition”, “Environment”, “Health” and “Behaviour”. Then affects, considered carefully and cautiously to be generated by factors in these domains, are accumulated into the fifth domain, designated “Mental State”. The scientific foundations of this operational procedure, published in detail elsewhere, are described briefly here, and then seven key ways the Model may be applied to the assessment and management of animal welfare are considered. These applications have the following beneficial objectives—they (1) specify key general foci for animal welfare management; (2) highlight the foundations of

  6. A "How-To" Guide for Designing Judgment Bias Studies to Assess Captive Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    Robust methods to assess nonhuman animal emotion are essential for ensuring good welfare in captivity. Cognitive bias measures such as the judgment bias task have recently emerged as promising tools to assess animal emotion. The simple design and objective response measures make judgment bias tasks suitable for use across species and contexts. In reviewing 64 studies published to date, it emerged that (a) judgment biases have been measured in a number of mammals and birds and an invertebrate; (b) no study has tested judgment bias in any species of fish, amphibian, or reptile; and (c) no study has yet investigated judgment bias in a zoo or aquarium. This article proposes that judgment bias measures are highly suitable for use with these understudied taxa and can provide new insight into welfare in endangered species housed in zoos and aquariums, where poor welfare impacts breeding success and, ultimately, species survival. The article includes a "how-to" guide to designing judgment bias tests with recommendations for working with currently neglected "exotics" including fishes, amphibians, and reptiles.

  7. Funneling Child Welfare Consumers into and through the Mental Health System: Assessment, Referral, and Quality Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoravicius, Nicole; McMillen, J. Curtis; Rowe, Jill E.; Kagotho, Njeri; Ware, Norma C.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how consumers of child welfare services reach nonpsychiatric mental health providers and the perceived quality of these services. It relies on iterative interviews with individuals and groups, as well as on court observations from one metropolitan area. Results suggest that, consistent with theories of street-level bureaucracy, efficiency issues drive mental health service use, as clients are routinely subjected to psychological evaluations and funneled into mental health services as a matter of course. Referral practices are shaped by child welfare professionals' routines, discretion, and desire to meet such system objectives as providing short turnaround times for reports. The results suggest that, despite stakeholders' best intentions, maltreated children are not benefiting from thoughtful processes geared to screen for, assess, and provide targeted treatment for unmet mental health needs. PMID:22740722

  8. Assessing parent education programs for families involved with child welfare services: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.

  9. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  10. Social simulation and polycentric policy making: ex ante assessment of administrative reform in the region Rotterdam

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, G.; Meer, Frans-Bauke

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAdministrative reform is often practiced as solution for perceived problems. However, frequently results are disappointing. The authors relate this phenomenon to the multi-centered nature of administrative processes and propose a social simulation method to gain more insight in potential impact of administrative reforms considered by ex ante assessment. Their analysis is supported by a specific example.

  11. A critical assessment of the European approach to financial reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical assessment of the financial reforms adopted or proposed at the European level. The reshaping of the EU institutional architecture and the adoption of the new Basel 3 rules should reduce the national margins of discretion that have up to now characterised supervisory practices, often leading to light touch supervision, and restrain the growth of bankarisation, hence excessive systemic leveraging. However, the limitations of a purely prudential approach to regulation may not be overcome by setting up new institutions and make prudential requirements more stringent. In addition, given unavoidable national banking specificities, more severe rulebooks homogenously applied across the EU countries could further worsen the inconsistencies of a one-size-fits-all rule. The criticisms directed at the new regulatory framework assume particular relevance in the EU, whose peculiar construction requires that the financial sector should not be permitted to jeopardise its critical fiscal equilibrium. This opens the way to the adoption of structural measures, as the one presented by the Vickers Commission on ring-fencing. Looking at the financial system as a whole, we argue that even these measures do not offer effective protection for the economy and tax-payers, and that much more radical interventions are needed.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF INTER-REGIONAL CONVERGENCE IN THE SOCIAL WELFARE BASED ON THE A. SEN FUNCTION: RUSSIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Malkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is estimation of social welfare in Russian regions in 2004-2014 based on the A. Sen abbreviated function, the assessment of regions convergence in welfare and factors contributing to it. We adjusted the A. Sen welfare function by the cost of living in regions and presented it as a four-factor multiplicative model. By use of the coefficient of variation (CV we estimated the inter-regional inequality in welfare in statics and dynamics. The technique of decomposition of the squared CV for logarithm of welfare function enabled us to evaluate the contribution of main and intersect factors to Russian regions' convergence in welfare. As a result we assessed Russian regions social welfare in dynamics and evaluated factors contributing to its growth. Based on the weighted CV we discovered the negative impact of the recession of 2009 on the regions convergence in welfare, and unweighted CV even more revealed the turning point in the convergence tendency occurring in 2012. We discovered that in statics the redistributive factor makes the greatest and increasing contribution to inter-regional convergence in welfare, whilst the cost of living and intraregional income inequality factors have moderate and decreasing influence on it. The dynamic analysis revealed two factors predominantly contributing to regions' temporal convergence in welfare, namely growing convergence in GRP per capita and significant but unstable influence of distributive factor. Two other factors, the cost of living and intra-regional income inequality, counteracted to temporal convergence mainly due to attenuation of their negative correlation to nominal and real income per capita respectively. The results obtained may be applicable to both inter-budgetary and regional policy development.

  13. [Assessment of hereditary defects and dispositions of the horse under animal welfare aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Ch; Steiger, A

    2009-04-01

    Persons involved in equine breeding, namely veterinarians, horse breeders and breeding association judges, often lack of an apropriate consciousness about the relevance of heritability or supposed heritability of common horses diseases, which might play a distinctive role in the aetiology of numerous of these diseases. Executing animal welfare rights in equine breeding, the major concern should focus on an objective evaluation of pain, suffering and damages caused by different hereditary diseases. The basis of assessment for hygienic breeding has to be defi ned according to the actual animal welfare rights throughout guidelines, established by the state and by breeding associations. Hereditary diseases scientifi cally proven as relevant for animal welfare matters or including a potential risk of pain, suffering or damage, should be regarded as essential criterion in horse breeding. In this context following diseases have to be mentioned in particular: Osteochondritis dissecans, deep fl exor tendon contracture in the foal, navicular disease, tarsal osteoarthritis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Overo-lethal-white- foal-syndrome.

  14. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  15. Assessing Effectiveness of a Nonhuman Animal Welfare Education Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.

  16. Assessment of Welfare Issues During Traditional Slaughter of Goats in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W; Grace, Delia; Cenci-Goga, Beniamino T

    2017-01-01

    Goats are traditionally slaughtered to celebrate marriages and births, venerate ancestors, address personal problems, or perform a ritual during funerals. The objective of this study was to assess nonhuman animal welfare issues associated with the traditional slaughter of goats in and around Pretoria, South Africa. Participatory research methods were used to interview 105 respondents. Four of those interviewed were visited to observe the slaughter process. The most common method of transport was a vehicle (47%), followed by transport on foot (30%). The distance traveled (68%) was usually less than 10 km, and in all cases, it was less than 50 km. The most common (57%) method of restraining goats during transport was tying all 4 legs together. During slaughter, assistants held the head and legs of the goat (55%). Prior to slaughter, the majority of goats were tied under a tree (66%). In total, 97% of the goats were slaughtered within 24 hr, and no stunning was performed. In this study, animal welfare problems were widespread. Research should be undertaken to find practical ways to address animal welfare issues during traditional slaughter.

  17. [Animal welfare and corporate welfare in pharmaceutical R&D - the future of third-party assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    For research and development (R&D) of new drugs, animal experimentation is indispensable, and research institutes, pharmaceutical companies, or contract research organizations routinely conduct preclinical studies of efficacy, safety, or metabolism using laboratory animals. However, animal experimentation entails some organizational risks. One is the suspension of R&D of a new drug, because in the course of clinical studies it becomes apparent that the drug has limited efficacy, unexpected side effects, and/or unexpected metabolites. Another risk is damage to the company image by development of an unfavorable reputation. Society has accepted animal experimentation as a necessary evil, but if such experimentation is not conducted with adequate concern for animal welfare, social sanctions will against that institute, company or organization will result. Once this happens, it is difficult to recover a good public image. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies must conduct animal experiments so as to obtain highly useful data without sacrificing public favor. One way to maintain a good reputation is through third-party accreditation, which verifies that the institute, company or organization and its researchers value animal welfare appropriately.

  18. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...

  19. Chinas Goldwater-Nichols Assessing PLA Organizational Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    the PLA for outward-focused, risk-ac- ceptant behavior. Over the longer term, however, the PLA reforms could result in a leaner , more effective...officers. This introduces over the longer term, the PLA reforms could result in a leaner , more effective warfighting organization ndupress.ndu.edu SF No...between the different services.47 This is especially likely as China’s economic growth continues to slow , placing a premium on access to scarce budgetary

  20. Online Chats to Assess Stakeholder Perceptions of Meat Chicken Intensification and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani J. Howell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that there is variation in support for specific chicken farming practices amongst stakeholder groups, and this should be explored in more detail to understand the nature of these differences and work towards convergence. Online focus groups were used to assess attitudes to animal welfare in meat chicken farming in this pilot study. Across six online chats, 25 participants (general public, n = 8; animal advocacy group, n = 11, meat chicken industry, n = 3; research or veterinary practice who had experience with poultry but no declared industry affiliation, n = 3 discussed meat chicken intensification and welfare. Of those, 21 participants completed pre- and post-chat surveys gauging perceptions and objective knowledge about meat chicken management. Main reasons for intensification support were perceptions of improved bird health, and perceptions that it is a cost-effective, sustainable farming system. Reasons for opposition included perceptions that a large number of birds kept are in close proximity and have limited ability to perform natural behaviours. Misunderstandings about current practices were clarified in chats which contained industry representation. Participants agreed on the need for enforceable standards and industry transparency. Industry-affiliated members rated welfare of meat chickens higher, and gave lower ratings for the importance of natural living, than other stakeholder groups (both p = 0.001. On average, while objective knowledge of intensification increased after chat participation (p = 0.03, general welfare ratings and support for intensification did not change over time, counter to assertions that lack of knowledge results in lack of support for some practices.

  1. Assessment of the multi-criteria evaluation system of the Welfare Quality® protocol for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2017-09-01

    Animal welfare has become an important subject of public and political debate, leading to the necessity of an objective evaluation system for on-farm use. As welfare is a multi-dimensional concept, it makes sense to use a multi-criteria aggregation system to obtain an overall welfare score. Such an aggregation system is provided by the Welfare Quality® Network. The present paper focusses on the assessment of the multi-criteria evaluation model included in the Welfare Quality® protocol for growing pigs in order to aggregate the animal-based indicators first to criteria, then to principles and finally to an overall welfare score. Specifically, the importance of the indicators on the overall assessment of growing pig farms is analysed in a given population which consisted of a total of 198 protocol assessments carried out on a sample of 24 farms in Germany. By means of partial least squares modelling, the influence of measures in the calculation procedure is estimated by calculation and interpretation of Variable Importance for Projection (VIP) scores. Variable Importance for Projection scores revealed some meaningful, unexpected influences as the multi-criteria evaluation model of Welfare Quality® aimed at avoiding interferences and double-counting. Some of these influences led to the assumption that some measures might have potential as iceberg indicators, whereas others showed lesser importance. Thus, feasibility can be gained by the deletion and special weighting of indicators according to their importance. Altogether, the study is an essential contribution to the further development of the Welfare Quality® protocols as well as the application of multi-criteria decision systems in the field of animal welfare science in general.

  2. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    were evaluated for their validity, reliability and feasibility. At present, we have identified 15 fox and 9 mink animal-based (or outcome-based) welfare measures, and 11 and 13 input-based (resource-based or management-based) measures. For both foxes and mink, each of the four WQ principles is judged......The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  3. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2017-12-28

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economical margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was

  4. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    solution. Issues 3 and 4 (fairness and efficiency) require scientific data on the precision, repeatability, independence, and cost-of-scoring for the various candidate criteria. A process is also needed to bring the scientific information into the deliberative process, either as formal recommendations and....../or through direct participation of scientists. If these issues can be resolved, the use of on-farm assessment could in principle generate widespread acceptance, be responsive to change, and lead to better welfare outcomes than regulations that merely stipulate features of the physical environment....

  5. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  6. The questionable value of some science-based 'welfare' assessments in intensive animal farming: sow stalls as an illustrative example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, M P; Cambridge, H

    2008-11-01

    A recent review of the code of practice for pigs brought attention to the question of how to assess the impact of housing conditions on pig welfare. The stance adopted by the law-makers, which mirrors that of industry, is that the status quo should be maintained until there is irrefutable scientific evidence in favour of change. Sows in intensive pig farms are often confined in cages (sow stalls) that are little bigger than their body. Many people find this repellent and the question of whether keeping sows in stalls is detrimental to their welfare has become a major focus of debate. All animal welfare groups in Australia, including the RSPCA, oppose the use of sow stalls. This brief essay critically examines the rationale for refusing to sanction change unless supported by scientific evidence. We conclude that the criteria for assessing welfare should not be restricted to consideration of scientific evidence alone, but should be widened to encompass moral and ethical considerations.

  7. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.

  8. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-08

    This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2-45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.

  9. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of various non-invasive parameters for the prediction of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model in male C.B-17 SCID (C.B-Igh-1(b)/IcrTac-Prkdc(scid)) mice. The study showed that body weight, food and water consumpt......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of various non-invasive parameters for the prediction of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model in male C.B-17 SCID (C.B-Igh-1(b)/IcrTac-Prkdc(scid)) mice. The study showed that body weight, food and water...... consumption, and an animal welfare assessment (AWA) protocol revealed marked differences between control and cancer lines as the size of the tumor increased. However, only the AWA protocol was effective in predicting the tumor size and the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM). FCM levels were......, however, negatively-correlated to the AWA score, and the tumor size, both when evaluated on a given day and when accumulated over the entire period. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that body weight and food and water consumption were negatively-affected as tumor developed but only the animal...

  10. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess an...

  11. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    used for experimental purposes; and (2) the scientific outcome can be dependent upon the welfare state of the animals. In order to be able to quantify and control laboratory pig welfare, a practical tool is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of the current status...... a method for monitoring the welfare status of individual laboratory pigs, intended to relieve the practical scoring of the welfare of individual pigs as well as the interpretation of the findings....

  12. Welfare Assessment following Heterotopic or Orthotopic Inoculation of Bladder Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Miller

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed whether mice used as cancer models experience pain. Despite this possibility, the usual practice is to withhold analgesics as these are generally viewed as confounding. However, pain also alters cancer progression, so preventing it might not only be beneficial to welfare but also to study validity. Establishing the extent to which different cancer models result in pain is an important first step towards their refinement. We used conditioned place preference (CPP testing and body-weight and behaviour analyses to evaluate the assumption that heterotopically implanted tumours result in less pain and fewer welfare concerns than those implanted orthotopically. C57Bl/6 mice received MB49Luc luciferase expressing bladder cancer cells or saline implanted subcutaneously or into the bladder. These tumour-bearing or control groups underwent 2 daily 45 minute conditioning trials to saline or morphine (2mg/kg and then a 15 minute drug-free preference test on day 3 of a 3 day cycle, continuing until the study ended. Tumours were imaged and behaviour data obtained following preference tests. Development of preference for the morphine-paired chamber (morphine-seeking was determined over time. Heterotopic tumour development had no effect on morphine-seeking, and although the restraint used for heterotopic inoculation caused greater initial weight losses than anaesthesia, these mice steadily gained weight and behaved comparatively normally throughout the study. Orthotopic tumour inoculation caused no initial weight losses, but over the final 7 days these mice became less active and lost more body weight than cancer-free controls. This indicated orthotopic implantation probably caused a more negative impact on welfare or conceivably pain; but only according to the current test methods. Pain could not be confirmed because morphine-seeking in the tumour-bearing groups was similar to that seen in controls. Imaging was not found to be an

  13. The benefits of motivational interviewing and coaching for improving the practice of comprehensive family assessments in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth H; Lawrence, C Nicole; Weatherholt, Tara N; Nagy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The engagement of families in child welfare services is critical for successful outcomes related to safety, permanency, and child and family well-being. Motivational interviewing (MI), an effective approach to working with individuals struggling with alcohol and drug addiction, has great appeal for use with families involved with the child welfare system. Consequently, many social service agencies are beginning to integrate MI into their training curriculum. However, research has shown that training in MI alone is not enough; ongoing coaching is crucial in order to transfer learned MI skills into practice.The current study employs qualitative interview data from case-workers in order to examine the implementation of MI and long-term coaching within the child welfare system. Findings showed that MI can be implemented successfully within the child welfare system, and that caseworkers believed MI, supported by ongoing coaching, to be a valuable tool in engaging families in the assessment process.

  14. Barriers to employability among substance dependent and nonsubstance-affected women on federal welfare: implications for program design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S; Blanchard, Kimberly A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 nonsubstance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women.

  15. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  16. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states...... of these non-human primate species in human husbandry. In collaboration with researchers of this field valid, reliable and feasible indicators were composed to a holistic assessment protocol; agreement was reached with a Delphi method. The four principles from Welfare Quality were used as definition for Animal...... Welfare, whereas the 12 corresponding criteria were enriched with additional attributes: Comfortable Lighting, Absence of Noise, Ease of movement and natural habitat. The authors will further proceed with using more experts in a Delphi method for the translation procedure to aggre-gated levels to be able...

  17. Overall welfare assessment of laying hens: comparing science-based, environment-based and animal-based assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Bracke, Marc B M; De Mol, Rudi M; Hirahara, Satoshi; Uetake, Katsuji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    To increase the validity of evaluations and facilitate expansion and maintenance of assessment systems, we constructed a database of studies on the welfare of laying hens around the world. On the basis of this database, we devised a science-based welfare assessment model. Our model includes measurements, levels and weightings based on the scientific studies in the database, and can clarify the advantages and disadvantages of housing systems for laying hens from the viewpoint of the five freedoms. We also evaluated the usefulness of our model by comparing it with environment-based Animal Needs Index (ANI), another science-based model called FOWEL, and animal-based measurements. Our model showed that freedom from injury, pain and disease, and freedom from discomfort were more secure in the cage system, while non-cage systems scored better for natural behavior and freedom from fear and distress. A significant strong-positive correlation was found between the animal-based assessment and the total scores of ANI (rs = 0.94, P Animal Science.

  18. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... to increase reliability of the difficult subjective measures....

  19. TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers Under Age 18. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Gregory; Koball, Heather

    This brief uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort to profile teen mothers under welfare reform policies. Initially, it assesses the extent to which teen childbearing among 15- to 17-year-old girls has changed between the start of federal welfare reform in 1997 and 2000. Then, it examines changes in teen mothers'…

  20. Pediatric Health Assessments of Young Children in Child Welfare by Placement Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Arnold-Clark, Janet S.; McDaniel, Dawn; Xie, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To describe health-related problems across placement types (unrelated foster, kin foster, in-home with birth parent); to examine the association of placement and demographic/child welfare variables (child gender, age, race/ethnicity; caregiver language; type of maltreatment, and length of time receiving services from child welfare)…

  1. Improved Process Quality through Certification Systems: An Assessment of Selected Animal Welfare Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinke Heise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The process quality of food products is currently the subject of increased attention. In the area of meat production, public discussion has centered on perceived low standards of animal welfare. Besides an increase in legislative regulations, improved animal welfare standards are most frequently achieved through the establishment of socalled animal welfare labels. So far these labeling concepts have not been substantially evaluated in terms of how well they carry out their goal of improving process quality in agricultural animal husbandry. This paper will use a recognized list of criteria to evaluate selected animal welfare labels. Results show that competing labels vary strongly regarding the improvement of process quality. This has far‐reaching effects not only for consumers andother label users, but also for companies that want to enter the animal welfare segment of the meat market.

  2. Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

  3. The Reform Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kelli

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of welfare reform in Ohio's 29 Appalachian counties surveyed human services agencies, county commissioners, poor families, and employers and found that rural barriers to employment included lack of jobs, lack of child care, poor health, lack of education and job skills, and transportation problems. Many former welfare recipients…

  4. Evaluating the likelihood of the adoption of an animal welfare assessment system in European agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.; Roest, de K.; Tranter, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the likelihood of adoption of a recently designed Welfare Assessment System in agri‐food supply chains and the factors affecting the adoption decision. The application is carried out for pig and poultry

  5. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed for the overall assessment of animal welfare at the farm level for the purpose of advising farmers or assisting public decision-making. They are generally based on several measures compounded into a single evaluation, using different rules to assemble the inform...

  6. Alternative Assessment Practices of a Classroom Teacher: Alignment with Reform-Based Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore alignment between reform-based Turkish primary science curriculum and alternative assessment practices of a classroom teacher. Observational case study approach was utilized. A classroom teacher with 32 years of experience and his 31 students participated in the study. The data were collected during one…

  7. Teachers' Views on the New Measurement and Assessment Approaches with Regard to Mathematics Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansiz Aktas, Meral; Baki, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate teachers' views on the new measurement and assessment approaches within the context of secondary school mathematics education reform. With this purpose, the factors which affected the implementation process were determined. The research data were obtained from two teachers via in-depth interviews,…

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

    2000-09-28

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes.

  9. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  10. Using aversion learning techniques to assess the mental state, suffering, and welfare of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J

    1996-08-01

    The extent that handling farm animals causes them to suffer is a central concern when assessing their welfare. "Suffering" is a mental state, resulting from different emotions, such as fear, pain, or boredom, which have different causes and effects on the animal's behavior and physiology. What is common is that they are aversive; animals will seek to avoid such experiences. The degree of aversiveness can be measured using behavioral techniques, which are based on an animal's ability to learn the predictive relationships between events. Compared with physiological stress responses, aversion learning techniques are more easily interpreted in terms of animal suffering and are more able to discriminate between handling treatments. They can sometimes be used to predict physiological responses to handling. The outcome of experiments in aversion learning can be affected by factors influencing the learning ability and memory of animals, and researchers need be aware of potential confounding in experimental design. Such techniques have been used to compare sheep handling practices, examine which components of transport are aversive for pigs and poultry, and examine the relationship between animals and handlers.

  11. Is Tickling Torture? Assessing Welfare towards Slow Lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within Web 2.0 Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K Anne I; Musing, Louisa; Vazquez, Asier Gil; Donati, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Videos, memes and images of pet slow lorises have become increasingly popular on the Internet. Although some video sites allow viewers to tag material as 'animal cruelty', no site has yet acknowledged the presence of cruelty in slow loris videos. We examined 100 online videos to assess whether they violated the 'five freedoms' of animal welfare and whether presence or absence of these conditions contributed to the number of thumbs up and views received by the videos. We found that all 100 videos showed at least 1 condition known as negative for lorises, indicating absence of the necessary freedom; 4% showed only 1 condition, but in nearly one third (31.3%) all 5 chosen criteria were present, including human contact (57%), daylight (87%), signs of stress/ill health (53%), unnatural environment (91%) and isolation from conspecifics (77%). The public were more likely to like videos where a slow loris was kept in the light or displayed signs of stress. Recent work on primates has shown that imagery of primates in a human context can cause viewers to perceive them as less threatened. Prevalence of a positive public opinion of such videos is a real threat towards awareness of the conservation crisis faced by slow lorises. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-06-01

    During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess animal welfare risks also at small-scale operations. This study aimed to assess risks of poor animal welfare at small-scale lamb slaughter (≤5000 sheep/year and ≤70 sheep/day) in Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland, and to compare these risks to large-scale industrial slaughter. Assessment was done applying an individual expert opinion approach during a 2-day workshop. Nine experts in lamb slaughter procedures, behaviour, physiology, health, scoring schemes and/or risk assessment provided estimates of exposure, likelihood of negative consequences following exposure, and intensity and duration of negative consequences for 71 hazards. The methods applied mainly adhered to the risk assessment guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority. The list of hazards was modified from an earlier study and distributed to the experts before the assessment. No other literature was reviewed specifically for the purpose of the assessment. The highest risks to animal welfare identified in both small- and large-scale slaughter were related to inadequate conditions during overnight lairage at the slaughter plant. For most hazards, risk estimates were lower in small-scale slaughter. The reverse was true for splitting of groups and separation of one sheep from the group. Small-scale slaughter has a potential for improved sheep welfare in comparison with large-scale industrial slaughter. Keeping the animals overnight at the slaughterhouse and prolonged fasting before slaughter should be avoided. Solutions

  13. Welfare assessment: correlations and integration between a Qualitative Behavioural Assessment and a clinical/health protocol applied in veal calves farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brscic, M.; Wemelsfelder, F.; Tessitore, E.; Gottardol, F.; Cozzi, G.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding correlations and possible integration among Qualitative Behavioural Assessment (QBA) and a specific protocol of clinical/health evaluation. Both welfare assessment methods were based on direct animal observation and were applied in 24 Italian veal calves farms at 3

  14. Propuestas de reforma en salud y equidad en Uruguay: ¿redefinición del Welfare State? Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Mitjavila

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realizan una revisión y un análisis de las propuestas de reforma del sector Salud en Uruguay, y de los posibles efectos de estas reformas en términos de equidad, estructura institucional del sector y relaciones de poder entre los actores involucrados en el proceso. Encontramos que las características contradictorias del sistema de salud, por un lado altamente estructurado y, al mismo tiempo, fragmentado, conspiran contra los esfuerzos reformistas que intentan introducir cambios en el mismo. En función de lo expresado, las posibilidades de reforma no residen en la consolidación de las IAMC (Instituciones de Asistencia Médica Colectiva ni en la aplicación del modelo residual. Por el contrario, asistimos a un proceso de reestructuración pasiva del sistema. En este contexto, y teniendo en cuenta el nivel de inequidades existentes, la tendencia que se percibe es de profundización de una distribución regresiva de beneficios y servicios. A partir de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas, mostramos como las inequidades relacionadas con el gasto, el acceso y la calidad están relacionadas con procesos de desarrollo de largo tiempo del sistema IAMC y con los movimientos adaptativos frentes a su colapso fiscal, por una parte, y con la pérdida de calidad del sistema público, por otra.This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive

  15. Is the profitability of Canadian tiestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D

    2017-12-28

    In order for dairy producers to comply with animal welfare recommendations, financial investments may be required. In Canada, a new dairy animal care assessment program is currently being implemented under the proAction Initiative to determine the extent to which certain aspects of the Code of Practice are being followed and to assess the care and well-being of dairy cattle on farm. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting the proAction animal-based and the electric trainer placement criteria and certain aspects of productivity and profitability on tiestall dairy farms. The results of a previous on-farm cow comfort assessment conducted on 100 Canadian tiestall farms were used to simulate the results of a part of the proAction Animal Care assessment on these farms. Each farm's productivity and profitability data were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement associations. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the associations between meeting these proAction criteria and the farms' average yearly: corrected milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval, number of breedings/cow, culling rate, prevalence of cows in third or higher lactation, and margins per cow and per kilogram of quota calculated over replacement costs. The association between milk production and the proAction lameness criterion was moderated through an interaction with the milk production genetic index which resulted in an increase in milk production per year with increasing genetic index that was steeper in farms that met the proAction lameness criterion compared with farms that did not. Meeting the proAction body condition score criterion was associated with reduced SCC and meeting the proAction electric trainer placement criterion was associated with SCC through an interaction with the farms' average SCC genetic index. The increase in SCC with increasing SCC genetic index was milder in farms that met this

  16. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  17. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  18. From Policy to Practice: The Implementation and Negotiation of Technologies in Everyday Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue; Hall, Christopher; White, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A central element of the Every Child Matters reforms in England are measures which aim at improving information sharing. Amongst these are the children's database and the Common Assessment Framework, both representing technological solutions to long-standing concerns about information sharing in child welfare. This article reports some findings…

  19. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  20. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N; Mohamed, R A; Abouelenien, F

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens' health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality

  1. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  2. Welfare aspects of stocking density in farmed rainbow trout, assessed by behavioural and physiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline

    were investigated. At this density of 140 kg m–3, the lower oxygen consumption rates and lower quantity of scale loss collected from the tanks suggested reduced levels of social hierarchy related aggressive encounters. Higher brain serotonergic activity in the brain stem of individuals held......There is an increasing amount of interest in the welfare of fish from aquaculture. There are several aquaculture practices that may act as chronic stressors and therefore have the potential to negatively impact welfare. Stocking density has been highlighted as a particular welfare concern, from...... systems consisted of two identical tanks which were attached to each other with a doorway allowing the fish to move freely between the two tanks. By studying the spatial distribution of fish in two-tank systems stocked with different densities and the neuroendocrine stress levels of the fish, a density...

  3. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broom, D.; Doherr, M.G.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Animal-based measures, identified on the basis of scientific evidence, can be used effectively in the evaluation of the welfare of on-farm pigs in relation to laws, codes of practice, quality assurance schemes and management. Some of these measures are also appropriate for ante-mortem inspection...... prevent the negative effects of hazards arising from genetic selection, and of most housing-related problems, is extremely limited. Herd monitoring and surveillance programmes should be implemented within the pig industry using a range of appropriate animal-based measures to document welfare changes over...

  5. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Susmozas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol.

  6. Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2013-06-01

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life.

  7. Releasing biocontrol agents: Risk assessment and overdue reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Peterson; Sharlene Sing

    2007-01-01

    Although the need for universally instituting formal risk assessment (RA) in the screening and approval process for non-native biological control (BC) agent releases has been widely acknowledged for the past several years, little seems to have been accomplished in terms of codifying this practice within a regulatory framework. Given the low success rate of classical BC...

  8. Standardisation of resource-based parameters to assess the welfare status of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper identified resources for pigs, i.e. environment-based factors affecting pig welfare. Lists of resources have been described for both on-farm rearing conditions and for 'transport and slaughter conditions'. On-farm parameters include general information, density, flooring/bedding,

  9. Linking Child Welfare and Mental Health Using Trauma-Informed Screening and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Lisa; Wherry, Jeffrey; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    An abundance of research suggests that children in the child welfare system (CWS) have experienced numerous traumatic events and are exhibiting traumatic stress symptoms. Therefore, it is critical that the CWS work closely with the mental health system to ensure that these children receive the appropriate trauma screening, trauma-focused…

  10. A pilot study to develop an assessment tool for sheep welfare after long journey transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messori, S.; Sossidou, E.; Buonanno, M.; Mounaix, B.; Barnard, S.; Vousdouka, V.; Villa, Dalla P.; Roest, De K.; Spoolder, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sheep transport within Europe involves 9.5 million animals yearly, 63% of which travel over longjourneys (> 8 h). Livestock transport, particularly over long journeys, gives rise to concern about the welfare of transported animals. The European Commission stimulates the development of

  11. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  12. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  13. Welfare migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses major theories and empirical studies about the welfare magnet hypothesis, i.e. whether immigrants are more likely to move to countries with generous welfare systems. Although economic theory predicts that welfare generosity affects the number, composition and location of immigrants, the empirical evidence is rather mixed. We offer possible explanations for the existence of such mixed evidence and highlight that the literature so far has overlooked the presen...

  14. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D

    2009-06-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications.

  15. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare.

  16. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and –communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations’ veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare. PMID:21999393

  17. PhenoWorld: addressing animal welfare in a new paradigm to house and assess rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano-Carlos, Magda J; Baumans, Vera; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    The use of animals is essential in biomedical research. The laboratory environment where the animals are housed has a major impact on them throughout their lives and influences the outcome of animal experiments. Therefore, there has been an increased effort in the refinement of laboratory housing conditions which is explicitly reflected in international regulations and recommendations. Since housing conditions affect behaviour and brain function as well as well-being, the validation of an animal model or paradigm to study the brain and central nervous system disorders is not complete without an evaluation of its implication on animal welfare. Here we discuss several aspects of animal welfare, comparing groups of six rats living in the PhenoWorld (PhW), a recently developed and validated paradigm for studying rodent behaviour, with standard-housed animals (in cages of six rats or pair-housed). In this study we present new data on home-cage behaviour showing that PhW animals have a clearer circadian pattern of sleep and social interaction. We conclude that, by promoting good basic health and functioning, together with the performance of natural behaviours, and maintaining animals' control over some of their environment but still keeping some physical and social challenges, the PhW stimulates positive affective states and higher motivation in rats, which might contribute to an increased welfare for animals living in the PhW.

  18. The conditioned place preference test for assessing welfare consequences and potential refinements in a mouse bladder cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V Roughan

    Full Text Available Most pre-clinical analgesic efficacy assays still involve nociceptive testing in rodents. This is despite concerns as to the relevance of these tests for evaluating the pain-preventative properties of drugs. More appropriate methods would target pain rather than nociception, but these are currently not available, so it remains unknown whether animal pain equates to the negatively affective and subjective/emotional state it causes in humans. Mouse cancer models are common despite the likelihood of substantial pain. We used Conditioned Place Preference (CPP testing, assessments of thermal hyperalgesia and behaviour to determine the likelihood that MBT-2 bladder cancer impacts negatively on mouse welfare, such as by causing pain. There was no CPP to saline, but morphine preference in tumour bearing mice exceeded that seen in tumour-free controls. This occurred up to 10 days before the study end-point alongside reduced body weight, development of hyperalgesia and behaviour changes. These effects indicated mice experienced a negative welfare state caused by malaise (if not pain before euthanasia. Due to the complexity of the assessments needed to demonstrate this, it is unlikely that this approach could be used for routine welfare assessment on a study-by-study basis. However, our results show mice in sufficiently similar studies are likely to benefit from more intensive severity assessment and re-evaluation of end-points with a view to implementing appropriate refinements. In this particular case, a refinement would have been to have euthanased mice at least 7 days earlier or possibly by provision of end-stage pain relief. CPP testing was found to be a helpful method to investigate the responses of mice to analgesics, possibly on a subjective level. These findings and those of other recent studies show it could be a valuable method of screening candidate analgesics for efficacy against cancer pain and possibly other pain or disease models.

  19. Does locality make a difference? The impact of housing allowance reforms on private landlords

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Elizabeth; Wilson, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Housing subsidies are used by developed welfare states to ensure their citizens can access decent and affordable housing. This paper assesses the relative importance of individual and area level factors on the degree to which private sector landlords were affected by changes to Local Housing Allowance (LHA) in the UK. The changes were part of the Government’s package of measures to reform LHA and reduce the welfare benefit bill. Multi-level modelling techniques have been applied to a longitud...

  20. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...

  1. The Handbook of Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook is a timely compilation dedicated to exploring a rare diversity of perspectives and content on the development, successes, reforms and challenges within China’s contemporary welfare system. It showcases an extensive introduction and 20 original chapters by leading and emerging area...... specialists who explore a century of welfare provision from the Nationalist era, up to and concentrating on economic reform and marketisation (1978 to the present). Organised around five key concerns (social security and welfare; emerging issues and actors; gaps; future challenges) chapters draw on original...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for overweight horses at premises in Sweden assessed using official animal welfare control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Peta L; Hultgren, Jan; Frössling, Jenny; Emanuelson, Ulf; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-10-20

    There are Swedish animal welfare regulations concerning the body condition of horses and general advice on keeping horses including that horses should be fed so that they do not become over- or underweight relative to their use. Compliance is assessed by official animal welfare inspectors. The objective of this study was to determine whether the national animal welfare control database could be used to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for overweight horses in Sweden. The official animal welfare control checklist for horses contains 45 checkpoints (CP) of which CP-8 pertains to the acceptability of the horses' body condition including whether they were under- or overweight. Prevalence of non-compliance with CP-8, with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), were calculated for the years 2010-2013. Associations between risk factors and non-compliance for overweight body condition were estimated using logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95 % CIs. Of 7870 premises with registered horses that were inspected against CP-8, a total of 63 premises had non-compliant inspections due to overweight horses (0.80 %; CI 0.62, 1.02 %). In multivariable analyses, premises that were non-compliant with requirements for the care of sick or injured horses (OR 3.52; CI 1.51, 8.22) or with the requirements for feeding a balanced high-quality diet (OR 5.15; CI 2.49, 10.67) had greater odds of having overweight horses. Premises that also kept other species for meat production were more likely to have overweight horses (OR 2.12; CI 1.18, 3.81) whereas professional horse establishments were less likely (OR 0.09; 0.01, 0.64). Overweight horses were more likely in summer compared to winter (OR 2.18; CI 1.02, 4.70). Premises in regions of Sweden with more horses in relation to the human population were less likely to have overweight horses (OR 0.97; CI 0.95, 1.00). Official animal welfare control data may be used to monitor the premises prevalence of overweight horses

  3. An Indication of Reliability of the Two-Level Approach of the AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol for Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Czycholl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance feasibility, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN assessment protocol for horses consists of two levels: the first is a visual inspection of a sample of horses performed from a distance, the second a close-up inspection of all horses. The aim was to analyse whether information would be lost if only the first level were performed. In this study, 112 first and 112 second level assessments carried out on a subsequent day by one observer were compared by calculating the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (RS, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC and Limits of Agreements (LoA. Most indicators demonstrated sufficient reliability between the two levels. Exceptions were the Horse Grimace Scale, the Avoidance Distance Test and the Voluntary Human Approach Test (e.g., Voluntary Human Approach Test: RS: 0.38, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.21, LoA: −0.25–0.17, which could, however, be also interpreted as a lack of test-retest reliability. Further disagreement was found for the indicator consistency of manure (RS: 0.31, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.36, LoA: −0.38–0.36. For these indicators, an adaptation of the first level would be beneficial. Overall, in this study, the division into two levels was reliable and might therewith have the potential to enhance feasibility in other welfare assessment schemes.

  4. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform

  5. The impact of welfare to work on parents and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Cook

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When Welfare to Work activities for single parents were first introduced in the 2005 Commonwealth Budget, the primary claim was that these measures would increase individual wellbeing. A decade on, the veracity of this claim has yet to be comprehensively assessed. In this article, we systematically review the 41 Australian studies of income support recipients who were the primary carers of children, to examine the impacts of welfare-to-work on child and parent wellbeing. In line with the themes contained within these studies, we synthesized the findings related to three key areas of wellbeing: financial wellbeing; social connection and subjective wellbeing; and physical and psychological wellbeing. Academic research on the impact of Welfare to Work reforms on the wellbeing of single parents and their children presents an overwhelmingly negative picture whereby reforms have forced parents to participate in services that use ‘work-first’ and ‘one size fits all’, ‘blanket’ or ‘rigid’ approaches that do not help parents to meet their aspirations. Research also suggests that the reforms have decreased the financial wellbeing of single parents and their children, resulting in parents making the transition from welfare to work feeling less satisfied with their future security and standard of living, and higher poverty rates amongst the population of single parents with dependent children. However, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of how Welfare to Work affects parents and their children.

  6. Zoo foraging ecology: Preference and welfare assessment of two okapi (Okapia johnstoni at the Brookfield Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Troxell - Smith

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Applying principles of foraging ecology to zoo-housed animals can positively influence animal behavior, and assist with evaluating exhibit space and design. In this study, we implemented zoo foraging ecology by measuring giving-up densities (GUDs in food patches to address several welfare-related questions with captive okapi (Okapia johnstoni. Our objectives were to: (1 determine whether food patches can reveal how the individual animals perceive their exhibit space (i.e., areas of preference and aversion; landscapes of comfort; and (2 determine whether implementation of food patches could reduce performance of repetitive behavior. We established 24 food patches throughout the 929 m2 outdoor exhibit, determined each okapi’s landscape of comfort, and evaluated the effects of the presence or absence of these food patches on okapi behavior. Food patches revealed landscapes of comfort that were unique to each individual. Food patch presence did not significantly lower the proportion of time spent in repetitive behavior, but did significantly increase the proportion of time that each animal spent actively foraging and animal movement throughout the exhibit space. We conclude that utilizing food patches in animal enrichment and welfare regimes can benefit zoo-housed species, particularly okapi, by providing not only a valuable form of enrichment, but by also allowing animals to directly reveal their individual perceptions and exhibit preferences to their caretakers.

  7. A welfare cost assessment of various policy measures to reduce pollutant emissions from passenger road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.; Denis, C. [European Commission, Directorate-General II - Economic and Financial Affairs, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-11-01

    Policy options to reduce passenger transport emissions in Europe are simulated with the EUCARS model. The EUCARS welfare analysis includes changes in consumer surplus, congestion and tax revenues. Simulations also address consumer myopia, i.e., the underestimation of fuel costs by car buyers. The best policy mix to reduce CO{sub 2} consists of fuel taxes that are combined with differentiated purchase taxes to correct for the assumed myopia. This combination could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions of over 25% without reducing contemporaneous well-being. For the reduction of conventional emissions, an equivalent best mix includes an emissions-based kilometre tax combined with a purchase feebate. This mix allows a 60% reduction in toxic emissions without any noticeable welfare reduction. The overall superiority of these two mixes compared to alternative choices is higher when the evaluation includes a broad group of externalities, a premium on public funds, and positive feedbacks across emissions categories. Local traffic management measures are important zero-cost complements for an overall emissions strategy.

  8. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  9. Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence from Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of welfare reform's parental work requirements on low-income children's cognitive and social-emotional development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the work requirement rules--namely, age-of-youngest-child exemptions--as a source of quasi-experimental variation in first-year maternal…

  10. The accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone defect healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone defect healing in rat model. Sprague-Dawely strain rats weighing about 350 gms were selected. Then critical size bone defects were done at parietal bone with implantation of collagen sponge. The rats were divided into seven groups of 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks. The healing of surgical defect was assessed by multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images and three-dimensional (3-D) images of cone beam computed tomography, compared with soft X-ray radiograph and histopathologic examination. MPR images and 3-D images showed similar reformation of the healing amount at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks, however, lower reformation at 3 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks. According to imaging-based methodologies, MPR images revealed similar reformation of the healing mount than 3-D images compare with soft X-ray image. Among the four threshold values for 3-D images, 400-500 HU revealed similar reformation of the healing amount. Histopathologic examination confirmed the newly formed trabeculation correspond with imaging-based mythologies. MPR images revealed higher accuracy of the imaging reformation of cone beam computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography is a clinically useful diagnostic tool for the assessment of bone defect healing.

  11. Eight attention points when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Hjørdis Halvorsen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    of the central, regional and local government and a social policy reform. Meta-evaluations assess the usefulness of one or more evaluations and should not be confused with meta-analyses. The purpose of this meta-evaluation was to identify general principles for organizing the evaluations of large-scale public......This chapter analyses the challenges related to evaluations of large-scale public sector reforms. It is based on a meta-evaluation of the evaluation of the reform of the Norwegian Labour Market and Welfare Administration (the NAV-reform) in Norway, which entailed both a significant reorganization...... sector reforms. Based on the analysis, eight crucial points of attention when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms are elaborated. We discuss their reasons and argue that other countries will face the same challenges and thus can learn from the experiences of Norway....

  12. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  13. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  14. Examining welfare receipt and mental disorders after a decade of reform and prosperity: analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Burgess, Philip M; Whiteford, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Australian income support recipients in 2007, and to evaluate whether this has changed over the past 10 years. Analysis of data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB), a nationally representative survey of 8841 community-dwelling residents. The data were used to estimate and classify those working-age survey respondents who were income support recipients into categories reflecting major payment types, and to estimate the 12-month prevalence of affective, anxiety and substance use disorders. Data from the 1997 NSMHWB were also used for comparison. The 12-month prevalence of mental disorders among working-age recipients was 34% compared to 20% for non-recipients. Rates of mental disorders were elevated among all categories of income support recipients, including the unemployed, lone parents, partnered parents, and those classified as receiving disability payments. There were limited differences between the results from the two surveys. A marked increase in the prevalence of mental disorders in partnered parent recipients (from 21% in 1997 to 39% in 2007) seemed due to methodological differences in the estimation of income support categories and likely reflected greater accuracy of the 2007 estimate. Income support recipients are much more likely to experience mental disorders than those not receiving payments and there has been little change in the strength of the association between income support receipt and mental disorders over the past decade. Mental disorders represent a substantial barrier to work, community engagement and social participation. A greater focus on mental health in the design and delivery of social policy and services may be an appropriate strategy to promote more positive outcomes in areas such as welfare, employment and social inclusion.

  15. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  16. Unity and catholicity in the Korean Presbyterian Church: An ecumenical Reformed assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegeon Ha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I attempt to find the main causes of the serious disunity in the Presbyterian Church in Korea (PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, as well as a solution to promote the unity of the PCK. This attempt starts with an exegesis of Ephesians, with special reference to Ephesians 4:1�16, to understand the biblical principle on this matter. This article draws on a mature ecclesiology and a mature sense of unity as key concepts. After that, the history of the PCK disunity is briefly described, dealing with four major schisms. Based on this historical investigation, the disunity in the PCK is assessed. In addition, the weak sense of unity and weak ecclesiology of the PCK, which played a role in its disunity, are discussed in view of the confessions of faith, the ministry of the word and the Lord�s Supper, and ecumenical efforts in relation to national and international ecumenical organisations. Lastly, contributory suggestions based on the mature sense of unity are offered to the PCK in particular and the Reformed family and all Christian churches in general.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In my ecumenical Reformed intradisciplinary assessment of unity and catholicity in the PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, I identify the main causes of serious disunity in the PCK, namely a weak sense of unity, immaturity and secularisation.

  17. Equity through Assessment? Teachers' Mediation of Outcome-Focused Reforms in Socioeconomically Different Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandler, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Despite uncertainties regarding the effects of outcome-focused reforms on teaching practices, the political confidence in the potential of such reforms to create educational change remains high. This article problematizes the assumption that two such Swedish reforms (grades and national tests in younger years) can function as an impetus for…

  18. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP: Reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Falco, Marcello; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  19. Nonprofit financial assessment and research service learning: Evaluating the performance of an animal welfare nonprofit organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Maguire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.

  20. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  1. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries....

  2. The uneven patterning of welfare benefits at the twilight of AFDC: assessing the influence of institutions, race, and citizen preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Dixon, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have been slow to test welfare state theories on the extensive subnational variation in the United States during the recent period of retrenchment. We assess institutional politics theories, literature on race and social policy, and public opinion arguments relative to levels of support in states' Aid to Families Dependent Children programs from 1982 until its elimination in 1996. Pooled time-series results demonstrate that the determinants of spending during retrenchment are mostly similar to those driving development and expansion. Pro-spending actors and professionalized state institutions limit benefit curtailment, while jurisdictions with larger African- American populations have lower benefits. Additionally, liberal citizens positively impact support and strengthen the effects of state institutions, but this effect is attenuated in states with larger African-American populations.

  3. Measuring animal welfare within a reintroduction: an assessment of different indices of stress in water voles Arvicola amphibius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merryl Gelling

    Full Text Available Reintroductions are an increasingly common conservation restoration tool; however, little attention has hitherto been given to different methods for monitoring the stress encountered by reintroduced individuals. We compared ten potential measures of stress within four different categories (neuroendocrine, cell function, body condition and immune system function as proxies for animal welfare in water voles being reintroduced to the Upper Thames region, Oxfordshire, UK. Captive-bred voles were assessed pre-release, and each month post-release for up to five months. Wild-born voles were captured in the field and assessed from two months post-release. Plasma corticosteroid, hydration and body condition of captive-bred voles differed between their pre-release measures and both their first ("short-term" recapture, and their final recapture ("long-term" release, however only body condition and immunocompetence measured using the Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT test were significantly different post-release between the first and last recaptures. Captive-bred animals had lower fat reserves, higher weight/length ratios and better immunocompetence (NBT than did wild-born voles. Captive-bred males had higher ectoparasite burdens compared to wild-born males and, as reintroduction site quality decreased, became less hydrated. These observations indicate that some methods can identify changes in the stress response in individuals, highlighting areas of risk in a reintroduction programme. In addition, a single measure may not provide a full picture of the stress experienced; instead, a combination of measures of different physiological systems may give a more complete indication of stress during the reintroduction process. We highlight the need to monitor stress in reintroductions using measures from different physiological systems to inform on possible animal welfare improvements and thus the overall success rate of reintroductions.

  4. Access to jobs : a guide to innovative practices in welfare-to-work transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This series of short related articles looks at the role of transportation in supporting welfare to work reform. These articles find lack of timely affordable public transit is a major obstacle for welfare recipients attempting to find work. Strategie...

  5. Anchors for Education Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  6. The Colonization of (M)Others in Welfare-to-Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Leslie Rebecca; Kilgore, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Argues that welfare reform policies colonize poor mothers. Using ethnographic data of a welfare-to-work educational program, analyzes how colonizing public and governmental discourses about welfare mothers infiltrate the program's educational policy and everyday practices. Asserts that welfare-to-work neither fully colonizes nor fully educates,…

  7. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess......We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...

  8. Constructing a Female Delinquent Self: Assessing Pupils in the Dutch State Reform School for Girls, 1905-1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultman, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the ways in which the four key assessment techniques used in the Dutch State Reform School for Girls (1905-1975) functioned in processes of identity construction for the pupils. To do so, it looks inside the dossiers of the pupils, in which the paper traces of these

  9. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  10. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  11. Preliminary assessment of synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of methane and glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, hybrid steam reforming (HSR) of desulphurized methane, together with crude glycerol, in existing commercial steam reformers to produce synthesis gas is proposed. The proposed concept consists of a gasifier to produce vapors, gases, and char from crude glycerol, which is coupled with

  12. What Do We Know about School Discipline Reform? Assessing the Alternatives to Suspensions and Expulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Lacoe, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    What evidence supports the call for discipline reform? How might alternative strategies affect students and schools? In this article, the authors describe the critiques of exclusionary discipline and then examine the research base on which discipline policy reform rests. They also describe the alternative approaches that are gaining traction in…

  13. Assessment of health and welfare of Austrian laying hens at slaughter demonstrates influence of husbandry system and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafl, B; Polster, S; Sulejmanovic, T; Pürrer, B; Guggenberger, B; Hess, M

    2017-06-01

    1. Selected health and welfare variables of laying hens from 79 flocks kept in alternative husbandry systems were assessed at the end of lay. 2. Investigations were carried out on 100 hens per flock at the slaughter line and recorded as part of a novel scoring system. In addition, post-mortem investigations as well as parasitological examinations were conducted on 10 birds from each flock. 3. Birds with access to free range had better plumage than birds kept in barn systems. Housing in aviaries was associated with a higher prevalence of foot pad lesions and keel bone deformations. In addition, poorer plumage, more and worse skin and foot pad lesions were documented in hens slaughtered during the winter months. 4. Oophoritis and/or salpingitis were the most prevalent pathomorphological changes observed. Intestinal parasites, especially Heterakis gallinarum and Ascaridia galli, were frequent. Hens kept indoors had fewer nematoda and cestoda than those from conventional and organic free range. 5. The slaughterhouse protocol allowed direct comparison of variables between flocks and specific problems to be identified in particular flocks. The results could be used to initiate detailed investigations into problematic issues on selected farms.

  14. Antibacterial drugs in products originating from aquaculture: assessing the risks to public welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RIGOS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As aquaculture expands to meet human demand and compensate for pessimistic forecasts of fisheries catches, usage of antibacterial agents to combat or forestall bacterial diseases is still a necessity, although effective vaccines and improved hygiene have aided drastically to this battle. The hazards for the consumer perspective arising from the imprudent use of such chemicals can be detrimental especially if the residues persist above legal tolerance. These may include selection and dissemination of resistant bacteria, disruption of the colonization barrier in the human intestinal flora and allergic reactions. In cases that unlawful drugs reached the consumer via consumption of aquatic products, human health may be jeopardized even further. The present review article assesses these risks on human health.

  15. Identification and assessment of children with developmental disabilities in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patrick; Tappan, Christine

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of a Child Protective Services (CPS) screening and investigation process to identify children with developmental disabilities. The study used an emergent design, ethnographic interviews, purposive sampling, inductive data analysis, and grounded theory building. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with foster families, administrators, intake screeners, special investigators, and workers in one local CPS office. Participants expressed concern about the prevalence of children with developmental disabilities, lack of understanding of developmental disabilities, their ability to identify disabilities, and training to improve CPS workers' ability to identify children with developmental disabilities. Findings suggest a need to improve screening, determine strategies to improve interview reliability, develop the capacity to conduct developmental assessments, and improve the referral process for unfounded allegations.

  16. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts.

  17. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  18. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  19. A functional approach to the body condition assessment of lactating donkeys as a tool for welfare evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Valle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The breeding of lactating donkeys is increasing in Western Europe; with it the evaluation of body condition is growing in importance since it is considered a key principle for their welfare. However, assessment of body condition is a complex task, since several factors are involved. The aim of the present study is to investigate which animal-based indicators are the most reliable to describe the body condition of lactating donkeys. For this purpose, new animal-based indicators, which are easy to measure in field conditions (including body measurements, fatty neck score (FNS, dental score, are recorded and their relationship with BCS (a proxy measure for overall adiposity was assessed. The ones that reveal an association with the BCS are included in an integrated principal component analysis to understand which are the most related to BCS. Methods Fifty-three healthy lactating donkeys of various breeds, including 7 Martina Franca, 10 Ragusano, 2 Romagnolo and 34 crossbreeds, were evaluated. The animal-based indicators that were recorded were: length (OP, olecranon tuber-pinbone and SH, shoulder-hip, heart girth (HG, abdominal circumference (AC, neck length (NL, neck height (NH and neck thickness (NT at 0.50 and neck circumference (NC at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75, body condition score (BCS and fatty neck score (FNS. The owners’ evaluation of the BCS was also considered. A dental assessment was performed and the month of lactation and age of each animal was recorded. Results No correlation was found between BCS and the other morphometric body measurements. On the contrary the FNS was correlated with the morphometric measurements of the neck (positive correlation to 0.50 NH and 0.50 NT, 0.50 NC, 0.75 mean NC, and negative correlation to the mean NC:NH and mean NC:NT, 0.50 NC:NT and 0.50 NC:NH ratios. A significant inverse relationship was identified between BCS and dental score. A Principal Component analysis (PCA separated the BCS classes on

  20. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  1. What wins public support? Communicating or obfuscating welfare state retrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, C.; Baggesen Klitgaard, M.; Schumacher, G.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that in order to evade electoral punishment governments obfuscate welfare state retrenchment. However, governments do not uniformly lose votes in elections after they cut back on welfare benefits or services. Recent evidence indicates that some of these unpopular reforms

  2. Assessing the Impacts of Forests on Human Welfare: Prelimnary Results from the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessement

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; P.B. Aruna

    2000-01-01

    Abstract. This paper presents results from the first phase of the socio-economic assessment of forest ecosystems in the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA). First, we present results of the analysis of changes in the distribution of human population and forest land use in the region. Then, trends in wood products employment and income between...

  3. Welfare Dependence and Self-Control: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marc K Chan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from Florida Transition Program, a welfare reform experiment in the 1990s, to estimate a discrete choice dynamic programming model of labor supply and welfare participation with potentially time-inconsistent individuals. The time preference parameters are identified through exclusion restrictions generated by welfare time limits. Around one-fourth of the individuals can be regarded as present-biased, and they exhibit a low degree of naivety. Time-inconsistency reduces income by 15...

  4. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  5. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  6. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...... comment on the suggested development and application of AWIA in the case of badger control. Finally, we discuss the prospects of applying AWIA to other sorts of wild animal controversy. We argue that the AIWA, as developed by McCulloch and Reiss, relies on several dubious premises, including that killing...

  7. Self-assessment of the quality of life of children and adolescents in the child welfare system of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanović, Maja; Lakić, Aneta; Stevanović, Dejan; Jovanović, Ana; Jancić, Jasna; Jovanović, Mirjana; Leposavić, Ljubica

    2012-06-01

    Children and adolescents who enter a child welfare system are at higher risk of suffering from mental disorders, physical health, and/or social and educational problems than the general population of the same age is. This study was organized with the aim to evaluate the general characteristics of quality of life (QOL) in children and adolescents living in residential and foster care in Serbia. Two hundred and sixteen children and adolescents, aged 8-18 years, from residential and foster care and 238 children and adolescents from the general population participated in the study. QOL was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) - Serbian version. Three groups were created: residential care group (RCG), foster care group (FCG), and control group (children and adolescents from biological families - CG). Descriptive data were calculated for all questionnaires' scores, while t-test and ANOVA were used to compare them. The mean value of the total PedsQL was lower in the RCG, 67.47 +/- 17.75, than in the FCG and the CG, 88.33 +/- 11.27 and 80.74 +/- 11.23, respectively. Additionally, the RCG reported lower all PedsQL Scale scores, but the lowest value was for the psychosocial domain. These differences were statistically significant (F value ranged from 17.3 to 49.89, p 0.05). Children and adolescents living in residential care have significantly poorer QOL than those living in foster care or in biological families. On the other side, QOL in children and adolescents from foster care is similar to the one of those living in biological families.

  8. Self-assessment of the quality of life of children and adolescents in the child welfare system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Children and adolescents who enter a child welfare system are at higher risk of suffering from mental disorders, physical health, and/or social and educational problems than the general population of the same age is. This study was organized with the aim to evaluate the general characteristics of quality of life (QOL in children and adolescents living in residential and foster care in Serbia. Methods. Two hundred and sixteen children and adolescents, aged 8-18 years, from residential and foster care and 238 children and adolescents from the general population participated in the study. QOL was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Serbian version. Three groups were created: residential care group (RCG, foster care group (FCG, and control group (children and adolescents from biological families - CG. Descriptive data were calculated for all questionnaires’ scores, while t-test and ANOVA were used to compare them. Results. The mean value of the total PedsQL was lower in the RCG, 67.47 ± 17.75, than in the FCG and the CG, 88.33 ± 11.27 and 80.74 ± 11.23, respectively. Additionally, the RCG reported lower all PedsQL Scale scores, but the lowest value was for the psychosocial domain. These differences were statistically significant (F value ranged from 17.3 to 49.89, p < 0.000. However, only the scores of the RCG were statistically different from the FCG and the CG, while the differences between the FCG and the CG were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Children and adolescents living in residential care have significantly poorer QOL than those living in foster care or in biological families. On the other side, QOL in children and adolescents from foster care is similar to the one of those living in biological families.

  9. Assessing Accrual Accounting Reform in Greek Public Hospitals: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vasiliou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, several countries worldwide have introduced financial management reforms, as an important part of the New Public Management (NPM initiative at one or more levels of government sector, by either replacing or transforming their traditional budgetary cash accounting systems towards a business-like accrual accounting concept. Following the example of this upcoming managerial trend, the Greek government introduced in 2003 the accrual basis accounting into public hospitals, as the hospital sector is one of the areas where NPM reforms have been introduced in search of higher efficiency, effectiveness and economy in service production.The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to provide an overview of the government sector reform initiatives in Greece and to present empirical evidence regarding the adoption level of the accrual basis accounting standards in the Greek public Health sector. The second goal of the research is to investigate the impact of a range of potentially contingent factors on hospitals compliance with the accrual financial and cost accounting reform.The present analysis is based on the results of an empirical survey that took place during 2009. For the purposes of this survey, a structured questionnaire was prepared and sent to the Chief Financial Officers (CFOs of 132 Greek public hospitals. In particular, alinear regression model analysis was used to examine the cross-sectional differences on a number of explanatory and implementation factors of the accounting reform adoption level.The empirical evidence reveals that the level of accrual and especially cost accounting adoption in Greek public hospitals is realized only to a limited extent. In particular, results show that the level of reform adoption is positively related to IT quality, reform related training, education level of accounting staff, and professional consultants’ support. However, no significant relationship was found between

  10. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...... of the governance model of social housing policy in which the housing associations are conceived of as 'dialogue partners' in the local housing policy, expected to create solutions to, rather than produce problems in social housing areas. The reform testifies to the strategic ability of the Danish social housing...

  11. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  12. Adapting Systems of Care for Child Welfare Practice with Immigrant Latino Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in the child welfare system have called for child welfare agencies to provide community-based services and to increase the involvement of external stakeholders in identifying and developing services within the community. At the same time, child welfare agencies are faced with the challenge of providing services to an…

  13. Adolescents' Formal Employment and School Enrollment: Effects of State Welfare Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Astone, Nan M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in state welfare policies in the reform era may affect adolescents through two mechanisms: A competing labor market hypothesis posits that stringent state welfare policies may reduce adolescent employment; and a signaling hypothesis posits that stringent welfare policies may promote enrollment. To test these hypotheses, we use a dynamic…

  14. Study on assessing the environmental fiscal reform potential for the EU28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Elliott, Timothy; Elliott, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    and consumption taxes”. The AGS set out three pillars that it foresaw as underpinning the EU’s economic and social policy for 2015:  A coordinated response to boosting investment;  A renewed commitment to structural reforms; and  The pursuit of fiscal responsibility. Environmental taxes (together......, and the expressed desire to promote more efficient use of both energy and other resources, point towards a role for environmental fiscal reform (EFR) as a means to set the European economy on a trajectory of growth with a strong shade of green....

  15. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  16. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...

  17. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security.

  18. Reversing Early Retirement in Advanced Welfare EconomiesA Paradigm Shift to Overcome Push and Pull Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ebbinghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reform efforts of advanced welfare states have attempted to reverse trends in early retirement and increase the statutory retirement age. This paradigm shift often occurred against the protest of unions, firms and their employees. As a consequence of expanding welfare states and as response to economic challenges since the 1970s early exit from work has become a widespread practice. Early retirement has been part of Continental Europe’s welfare without work problem, while the Scandinavian welfare states, the Anglophone liberal economies and the Japanese welfare society were able to maintain higher levels of employment for older workers. Since the 1990s, an international consensus to reverse early exit from work emerged among international organisations and national policy experts. Based on a comparative historical analysis of selected OECD countries, this study analyses the cross-national variations in the institutionalisation of early exit regimes and its recent reversal using macro-indictors on early exit trends and stylised information on institutional arrangements. Comparing the interaction of social policy and economic institutions, it reviews the cross-national differences in welfare state “pull” and economic “push” factors that have contributed to early exit from work and discusses the likely impact of welfare retrenchment and assesses the importance of “retention” factors such as activation policies for decreasing early exit from work.

  19. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  20. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near

  1. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services....... This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...... of improved cost effectiveness or enhanced service quality within these three welfare areas. A part of the reason for this is that many studies are characterized by lack of data and insufficient methodological designs. The article concludes that more and better studies are needed in order to broaden...

  2. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  3. Evaluation of a welfare assessment tool to examine practices for preventing, recognizing, and managing pain at companion-animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lauren C; Dewey, Cate E; Stone, Elizabeth A; Mosley, Cornelia I; Guerin, Michele T; Niel, Lee

    2017-10-01

    Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices. Responses were analyzed according to a scoring scheme developed based on published literature and expert opinion. Based on weighted kappa statistics, interview scoring had substantial inter-observer (Kw = 0.83, 0.73) and near-perfect intra-observer (Kw = 0.92) agreement, which suggests that the tool reliably collects information about pain management practices. Interviews were completed at all recruited clinics, which indicates high feasibility for the methods. Validity could not be assessed, as participants were reluctant to share information about analgesic administration from their clinical records. Descriptive results indicated areas for which many veterinarians are acting in accordance with best practices for pain management, such as pre-emptive and post-surgical analgesia for ovariohysterectomy patients, and post-surgical care instructions. Areas that offer opportunity for enhancement were also highlighted, e.g., training veterinary staff to recognize signs of pain and duration of analgesia in ovariohysterectomy patients after discharge. Overall, based on this limited sample, most veterinarians appear to be effectively managing their patients' pain, although areas with opportunity for enhancement were also identified. Further research is needed to assess trends in a broader sample of participants.

  4. Social disadvantage and individual vulnerability: a longitudinal investigation of welfare receipt and mental health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter

    2013-07-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between mental health and welfare receipt among working-age Australians. We analysed 9 years of data from 11,701 respondents (49% men) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Mental health was assessed by the mental health subscale from the Short Form 36 questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to examine the longitudinal associations between mental health and income support adjusting for the effects of demographic and socio-economic factors, physical health, lifestyle behaviours and financial stress. Within-person variation in welfare receipt over time was differentiated from between-person propensity to receive welfare payments. Random effect models tested the effects of income support transitions. Socio-demographic and financial variables explained the association between mental health and income support for those receiving student and parenting payments. Overall, recipients of disability, unemployment and mature age payments had poorer mental health regardless of their personal, social and financial circumstances. In addition, those receiving unemployment and disability payments had even poorer mental health at the times that they were receiving income support relative to the times when they were not. The greatest reductions in mental health were associated with transitions to disability payments and parenting payments for single parents. The poor mental health of welfare recipients may limit their opportunities to gain work and participate in community life. In part, this seems to reflect their adverse social and personal circumstances. However, there remains evidence of a direct link between welfare receipt and poor mental health that could be due to factors such as welfare stigma or other adverse life events coinciding with welfare receipt for those receiving unemployment or disability payments. Understanding these factors is critical to inform the next stage of welfare reform.

  5. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households’ joint choice of numberof trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the effects of an increased CO2 tax...... for the households welfare loss. Approximatingthe welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positiveeffect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. The differencein the estimated loss measures, from the considered CO2 tax reform, is about 20%. Thisemphasizes...... the importance of accounting for substitutions toward longer stays in traveldemand policy evaluations....

  6. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Schofield

    Full Text Available The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243. Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  7. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent's personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes.

  8. An assessment of the management skills required of ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Grobler

    2008-07-01

      The research concludes with a recommendation that considera- tion should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is sugges- ted that this course be developed specifically taking into ac- count the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Mas- ters of Business Administration (MBA students.

  9. Accounting for inequality in transition economies: an empirical assessment of globalisation, institutional reforms, and regionalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Meschi, Elena

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the causes and mechanisms of inequality in transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States after the break-up of the Soviet Union. First, we show that both economic globalisation – namely, imports, exports, and foreign direct investment – and institutional factors – namely, privatisation reforms, labour market liberalisation, and product market liberalisation – are strongly associated with within-country rises in inequality. However, so...

  10. Training and deployment of medical doctors in Tanzania post-1990s health sector reforms: assessing the achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirili, Nathanael; Kiwara, Angwara; Gasto, Frumence; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2017-04-04

    The shortage of a skilled health workforce is a global crisis. International efforts to combat the crisis have shown few benefits; therefore, more country-specific efforts are required. Tanzania adopted health sector reforms in the 1990s to ensure, among other things, availability of an adequate skilled health workforce. Little is documented on how the post-reform training and deployment of medical doctors (MDs) have contributed to resolving Tanzania's shortage of doctors. The study aims to assess achievements in training and deployment of MDs in Tanzania about 20 years since the 1990s health sector reforms. We developed a human resource for health (HRH) conceptual model to study achievements in the training and deployment of MDs by using the concepts of supply and demand. We analysed secondary data to document the number of MDs trained in Tanzania and abroad, and the number of MDs recommended for the health sector from 1992 to 2011. A cross-sectional survey conducted in all regions of the country established the number of MDs available by 2011. By 1992, Tanzania had 1265 MDs working in the country. From 1992 to 2010, 2622 MDs graduated both locally and abroad. This translates into 3887 MDs by 2011. Tanzania needs between 3326 and 5535 MDs. Our survey captured 1299 MDs working throughout the country. This number is less than 40% of all MDs trained in and needed for Tanzania by 2011. Maldistribution favouring big cities was evident; the eastern zone with less than 30% of the population hosts more than 50% of all MDs. No information was available on the more than 60% of MDs uncaptured by our survey. Two decades after the reforms, the number of MDs trained in Tanzania has increased sevenfold per year. Yet, the number and geographical distribution of MDs practicing in the country has remained the same as before the reforms. HRH planning should consider the three stages of health workforce development conceptualized under the demand and supply model. Auditing and

  11. Monitoring the behavioral and adrenal activity of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis to assess welfare during seasonal housing changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vol 4, Issue 2, May 2017 Monitoring the Behavioral and Adrenal Activity of Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis to Assess Welfare During Seasonal Housing Changes Authors Catherine B. Razal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In inclement weather, northern zoos are required to provide animals from warmer climates with indoor exhibits. These indoor exhibits are typically smaller, lack natural substrate, and have lower levels of stimulation for the animals. The purpose of this study was to examine the welfare of four reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata exhibited at the Chicago Zoological Society - Brookfield Zoo - during the summer in an outdoor enclosure compared to the winter in an indoor enclosure. A combination of direct behavioral observations, percentage of time spent recumbent, and adrenal hormone monitoring through fecal samples were utilized for a more comprehensive look at welfare. Individual variation was observed between the giraffe. An adult female giraffe engaged in Active Forage behavior significantly more in the winter compared to summer (mean difference = 0.23, p = 0.049. An adult female and a juvenile male displayed significantly more Active Non-Forage behavior in the summer than in the winter (mean difference = 0.32, p = 0.048; mean difference = 0.31, p = 0.048. The predominant behavior in the summer for the group as a whole was Active Non-Forage (59%, whereas Active Forage was most prevalent in the winter (60%. There was also a significant positive correlation between time spent recumbent per hour for each 24-hour day measured in the summer and winter (r = 0.51, p = 0.010. Although no significant differences were found for individual FGM concentrations between the seasons, average FGM concentrations for the group were 2306.67 ng/g in the summer and 4261.64 ng/g in the winter. Information gained from this study can help aid animal managers to make informed decisions to ensure each individual giraffe is thriving year-round. In addition, we hope this study can serve as a model to examine the seasonal welfare of other animals in zoological institutions with similar conditions.

  12. The relationship between selected physiological post mortem measures and an overall pig welfare assessment from farm to slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Aaslyng, M.; Rousing, Tine

    2015-01-01

    at exsanguination was analysed for plasma concentration of glucose, lactate, albumin, total protein and creatine kinase activity. pH was measured 45 min after sticking in the m. longissimus dorsi (LD). All welfare measures were categorised on a three-point scale (mild level: 0, moderate level: 1, severe level: 2......) and aggregated into an AWI using a weighted (based on expert opinion of 38 experts) linear sum of prevalence on animal level. An overall AWI (AWIOverall) and an AWI per stage (AWIStage) were calculated. For AWIUnloading, significant relationships with the plasma concentration of glucose (positive), creatine...

  13. Welfare Effects of Food Miles Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Vincenzina; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Canavari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the consumer welfare effects of two generic food miles labels: carbon dioxide (CO2) emission label and number of miles label. Using data from a choice experiment, our results generally suggest that a mandatory labeling policy for either type of label would have a positive welfare effect on both informed and uninformed consumers. However, a label informing consumers about the number of miles the food product has travelled provides greater positive welfare effects than a label infor...

  14. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less...

  15. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  16. Assessing The Current Indonesia’s Electricity Market Arrangements and The Opportunities to Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani Setyawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existing subsidy arrangements and institutional settings in the Indonesian electricity sector distort investment decisions and lead to higher cost. Electricity supply is characterized by natural monopoly characteristics, requiring different management by governments than sectors with more straightforward market characteristics. Many countries have undergone significant re-structuring of their electricity sectors, away from one, state owned and vertically integrated monopoly supplier to a setting whereby competition has emerged either at the generation level and/or the retail level. Transmission and distribution networks are typically heavily regulated and transparent access arrangements are put in place as part of the restructuring efforts. The analysis showed that the current structure of Indonesia’s electricity sector firmly within Model 2 (the single buyer model and highlights that Indonesia is currently towards the less-competitive end of the spectrum of Model 2, identifying significant potential for efficiency enhancing reforms within this structure. Constitutional limitations have hampered previous efforts to restructure the sector in Indonesia but there is significant room for incremental reform to improve incentives in the sector and reduce the cost of generation in the process.

  17. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  18. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals.

  19. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  20. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  1. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research.......  The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply...... to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...

  2. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  3. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... system, which was designed in accordance with assessments and judgments from experts in animal and social sciences and stakeholders, we identify value-based decisions at the following five levels. First, there are several definitions of animal welfare (eg hedonist, perfectionist, and preferentialist......), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare...

  4. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. Copyright © 2014

  5. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  6. An assessment of the management skills required of ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Grobler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A congregation is not a business, and to manage it as such would be inappropriated. Although the church is primarily invis- ible and spiritual by nature, in this world it is functioning as an institution which must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that everything is done successfully and in good order. A major part of the responsibility to ensure order and effective- ness rests on the shoulders of the minister. The training of as- piring ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa does not involve specific training in managing and leading an organi- sation. This fact might leave them vulnerable, especially in the earlier stages of their careers.  Although some people are blessed with natural skills and ta- lents regarding management and leadership, it has been pro- ven that management skills required to manage an organisation successfully can be acquired by means of study and training.  An empirical study was performed to determine whether training in management could assist ministers in the execution of their calling. A questionnaire was sent to all the ministers of the Re- formed Churches of South Africa regarding the scope of circum- stances in a congregation which can be compared with other organisations, as well as the minister’s role in managing the situations.  The research concludes with a recommendation that considera- tion should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is sugges- ted that this course be developed specifically taking into ac- count the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Mas- ters of Business Administration (MBA students.

  7. Assessing physician productivity following Norwegian hospital reform: A panel and data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Karl Arne; Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Hagen, Terje P

    2017-02-01

    Although health care reforms may improve efficiency at the macro level, less is known regarding their effects on the utilization of health care personnel. Following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform, we studied the productivity of the physician workforce and the effect of personnel mix on this measure in all nineteen Norwegian hospitals from 2001 to 2013. We used panel analysis and non-parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) to study physician productivity defined as patient treatments per full-time equivalent (FTE) physician. Resource variables were FTE and salary costs of physicians, nurses, secretaries, and other personnel. Patient metrics were number of patients treated by hospitalization, daycare, and outpatient treatments, as well as corresponding diagnosis-related group (DRG) scores accounting for differences in patient mix. Research publications and the fraction of residents/FTE physicians were used as proxies for research and physician training. The number of patients treated increased by 47% and the DRG scores by 35%, but there were no significant increases in any of the activity measures per FTE physician. Total DRG per FTE physician declined by 6% (p productivity, whereas physician salary was neutral. In 2013, there was a 12%-80% difference between the hospitals with the highest and lowest physician productivity in the differing treatment modalities. In the DEA, cost efficiency did not change in the study period, but allocative efficiency decreased significantly. Bootstrapped estimates indicated that the use of physicians was too high and the use of auxiliary nurses and secretaries was too low. Our measures of physician productivity declined from 2001 to 2013. More support staff was a significant variable for predicting physician productivity. Personnel mix developments in the study period were unfavorable with respect to physician productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in

  9. Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

  10. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  11. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  12. Animal welfare: at the interface between science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; van der Staay, F J

    2012-04-01

    The general concept of animal welfare embraces a continuum between negative/bad welfare and positive/good welfare. Early approaches to defining animal welfare were mainly based on the exclusion of negative states, neglecting the fact that during evolution animals optimised their ability to interact with and adapt to their environment(s). An animal's welfare status might best be represented by the adaptive value of the individual's interaction with a given environmental setting but this dynamic welfare concept has significant implications for practical welfare assessments. Animal welfare issues cannot simply be addressed by means of objective biological measurements of an animal's welfare status under certain circumstances. In practice, interpretation of welfare status and its translation into the active management of perceived welfare issues are both strongly influenced by context and, especially, by cultural and societal values. In assessing whether or not a given welfare status is morally acceptable, animal welfare scientists must be aware that scientifically based, operational definitions of animal welfare will necessarily be influenced strongly by a given society's moral understanding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily travel distances of zoo-housed chimpanzees and gorillas: implications for welfare assessments and space requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Shender, Marisa A

    2016-07-01

    The degree to which the relatively smaller area of artificial environments (compared with natural habitats) has measureable effects on the behavior and welfare of captive animals has been debated for many years. While there is little question that these spaces provide far less opportunity for natural ranging behavior and travel, less is known about the degree to which captive animals travel within their environments and what factors influence these travel patterns. We intensively studied the movement of zoo-housed chimpanzees and gorillas using a computer map interface and determined their mean daily travel and found they travelled similar distances each day when restricted to their indoor areas, but when provided additional outdoor space, chimpanzees tended to increase their travel to a greater extent than did gorillas. Both species travelled shorter distances than has been recorded for their wild counterparts, however, when given access to their full indoor-outdoor exhibit; those differences were not as substantive. These findings suggest that while large, complex naturalistic environments might not stimulate comparable species-typical travel patterns in captive apes, larger spaces that include outdoor areas may be better at replicating this behavioral pattern than smaller, indoor areas.

  14. Improving farm animal welfare : science and society working together: the welfare quality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.; Jones, B.

    2013-01-01

    How do you define the quality of life of a farmed animal? This book addresses the complex and often controversial issues surrounding the assessment and improvement of farm animal welfare. It discusses the relevance of science based welfare assessments and the importance of establishing a fruitful

  15. Quicker method for assessing influences on teaching assistant buy-in and practices in reformed courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Matthew; Yang, Yuehai; Chini, Jacquelyn J.

    2016-12-01

    Teaching assistants (TAs) that lead reformed recitations and labs must understand and buy into the design of the course and the research-based instructional strategies that the course requires in order to create high-fidelity implementations. We present a model that outlines possible influences on TAs' buy-in and their in-class actions coupled with a method, using a Real-time Instructor Observation Tool-based [E. A. West et al. Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 010109 (2013)] exercise, to measure the effect of these influences that is not only quicker than interviews but also allows one to quantify these effects. We use this method to measure the influences on six graduate TAs teaching algebra-based introductory mechanics and electricity and magnetism recitations and labs ("mini studios") at the University of Central Florida. The results from the exercise are confirmed by interview responses from the TAs. We find a relatively high degree of buy-in to the design of the course, yet this is not reflected in the TAs' actions. The TAs' actions appear to be most influenced by student responses and expectations which do not align with the design of the course. Our study examines the effect of three influences shown in our model, and we argue that our method could be easily adapted to examine additional influences.

  16. Assessment of housing density, space allocation and social hierarchy of laboratory rats on behavioural measures of welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy Hugh; George, Rebecca Peta; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Whittaker, Alexandra Louise

    2017-01-01

    Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 64) were allocated to either high-density (n = 8) or low-density (n = 8) cages. The second experiment investigated the effects of surface area. SD rats (n = 40) were housed in dyads in either the large (n = 10) or small (n = 10) cage. In both experiments, animals were tested on a judgment bias paradigm, with their responses to an ambiguous stimulus being ascribed as optimistic or pessimistic. Animals were also tested on open-field, novel-object recognition and social-interaction tests. Recordings were taken from 1700-2100h daily for rat observation and social rank establishment. Dominant animals responded with significantly more optimistic decisions compared to subordinates for both the housing density (psocial affiliative behaviours in the social-interaction test, and spent more time in the centre of the open-field test for both experiments. No significance was detected between housing density or space allocation treatments. These findings suggest that social rank is a significantly greater modifier of affective state than either housing density or space allocation. This finding has not yet been reported and suggests that future drafts of housing guidelines should consider animal social status in addition to floor space requirements.

  17. Demand and welfare effects in recreational travel models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Jörgen; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    In this paper we present a non-linear demand system for households.joint choice of number of trips and days to spend at a destination. The approach, which facilitates welfare analysis of exogenous policy and price changes, is used empirically to study the e¤ects of an increased CO2 tax...... for the households welfare loss. Approximating the welfare loss by the change in consumer surplus, accounting for the positive e¤ect from longer stays, imposes a lower bound on the households welfare loss. From a distributional point of view, the results reveal that the CO2 tax reform is regressive, in the sense....... In the empirical study, a bivariate zero-in.ated Poisson lognormal regression model is introduced in order to accommodate the large number of zeroes in the sample. The welfare analysis reveals that the equivalent variation (EV) measure, for the count data demand system, can be seen as an upper bound...

  18. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is reflected in many wel-fare state areas. We differ from earlier prognoses of a race to the bottom...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...

  19. Welfare improving product bans

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanoğlu, Uğur Toker; Doganoglu, Ugur Toker; İnceoğlu, Fırat; Inceoglu, Firat

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a model of vertical differentiation to evaluate the welfare effects of removing a low quality product from the market. The mechanism through which a welfare improvement might arise is simple: Once the low quality low cost alternative is banned, entry into the high quality segment becomes more likely. This in turn may lead to a significant reduction in the price of the high quality product. We find that such a ban might improve aggregate welfare when consumers value the higher qua...

  20. The importance of reward-evaluating mechanisms for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanneke van der; Spruijt, Berry

    An increasing need exists for tools to assess and improve animal welfare in an objective and scientifically based manner. This review presents an overview of knowledge and factors related to animal welfare, and explains a new concept to approach animal welfare research. This concept is based on

  1. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  2. Health Insurance Reform and Economic Growth : Simulation Analysis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ihori, Toshihiro; Kato, Ryuta Ray; Kawade, Masumi; Bessho, Shun-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the drastic reforms of Japanese public health insurance initiated in 2006. We employ a computable general equilibrium framework to numerically examine the reforms for an aging Japan in the dynamic context of overlapping generations.Our simulation produced the following results: First, an increase in the co-payment rate, a prominent feature of the 2006 reform, would promote economic growth and welfare by encouraging private saving. Second, the ex-post moral hazard behavior...

  3. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.

  6. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  7. The constitutional mandate for social welfare – systemic differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... imperative to provide stronger land and housing rights. Important connections exist between these divergent constitutional imperatives that should be acknowledged to ensure the efficient realisation of social welfare concerns. KEYWORDS: property law; constitutional property law; land law; land reform; restorative justice; ...

  8. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics......, in this way, can be seen as a practice which mobilises and optimises this humanistic legacy, reproducing and transforming it into a new pedagogical desire....

  9. For the Welfare of Children: Lessons Learned from Class Action Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Judith, Ed.; Joseph, Rachel Molly, Ed.; Shookhoff, Andy, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This series of papers brings together distinguished experts writing on the use of class action litigation to reform public child welfare systems. It is an effort to tease out of four decades of experience in this work, the factors that increase the likelihood that litigation will result in successful system reform. This publication is an outgrowth…

  10. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    , the infrastructure to accommodate all teachers must be created as well. Most states' strategies include building statewide capacity for professional development beyond the opportunities sponsored directly by the SSI's. Three factors are explicitly recognized: (1) the SSI's do not have the resources to reach all teachers in most states, (2) the SSI's funding will eventually run out, and (3) the need for professional development will be on-going. Some states have developed regional centers to serve the on-going professional development needs of teachers. Another capacity-building strategy involves the use of technology to support teachers' efforts to change their practices. New non-governmental organizations are also playing key leadership roles in a number of states. Such organizations are of particular interest because they have the potential to build broad-based, bipartisan support that can sustain the SSI vision and its activities across electoral cycles. One of the central tenets of systematic reform is the alignment of the myriad of public policies governing the educational enterprise, from teacher credentiality to student assessment to textbook adoption, with the new goals and standards. In localities where the revision of state policies is simply not considered a fruitful strategy, strong traditions of local control are to be found. Some SSI's are working to improve the preparation of teachers. A common strategy has been to issue a request for proposals (RFP) to institutions for higher education to design and implement innovative pre-service teacher education programs. Scientists and mathematicians can have an enormous impact on this aspect of the SSI's mission, by becoming intimately involved in the development of courses that are meaningful for would-be teachers. This is the area where scientists and mathematicians can leverage their technical knowledge and skills to help educate teachers. Creating and sustaining a coalition of groups powerful enough to launch

  11. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...

  12. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Henc...

  13. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  14. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  15. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  16. Trade, Transparency, and Welfare in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutomo Abe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by USD 406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product (GDP of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase by approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

  17. The political control of medical diagnoses - welfare retrenchment through demedicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Thorup

    a medical issue into a question about the citizen’s motivation and will- ingness to work. The paper traces the genealogy of these two clashes between medicine and universal welfare rights and how both childlessness and incapacity to work have been ‘demedicalized’ by the polit- ical system in order to smooth......It is notoriously difficult to legitimize cutbacks in already existing welfare rights, but it somehow requires a redefinition of what falls within the limits of public responsibility. In Denmark, a universal welfare state, reforms have sought to regain political control over medical diagnoses...... interest or ‘need’. The paper compares two cases where retrenchment reforms have reframed medical conditions as personal preferences. First, access to fertility treatment has recently been cut off in the Danish health care system, because infertility is polit- ically reframed as putting their own interest...

  18. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...... supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory...

  19. Education Finance Reform in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harry A.

    1999-01-01

    The Education Improvement Act instigated funding allocation reform, equalization and equity, system accountability, systemwide report cards, value-added assessment, and governance reform. The most dissatisfied educators are those in large, wealthier urban systems. Horizontal equity, accountability, and test results have improved throughout the…

  20. Cultivating Opportunity Amid Crisis: Using Video-Based Assessment and Feedback to Support Parent-Child Relationships in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carla C.; Stacks, Ann M.; Rodgers, Andrea; Fox, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Infants, toddlers, and young children have unique needs when separated from their primary caregivers because of child abuse and neglect. Parents of these children often have their own histories of abuse and neglect and can benefit from assessments and interventions that bear in mind the effect caregiving histories have on present parenting. This…

  1. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  3. The welfare state and demographic dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Abío

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demographic transition experienced by developed countries produces initial positive effects on economic growth ‒ the first demographic dividend ‒ which can be extended into a second demographic dividend if baby boomers' savings increase capital accumulation. Nevertheless, aging might reverse this process if dissaving of elderly baby boomers and the pressure on the pay-as-you-go financed welfare state reduce savings and capital. Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which demographic dividends in Spain provide an opportunity for the reform of the welfare state system for an aging population. Methods: We decompose demographic dividends using a general equilibrium overlapping generations model with realistic demography and public transfers from the National Transfer Accounts database. This allows us to capture the endogenous evolution of savings and capital accumulation and, hence, the second demographic dividend. Results: When baby boomers enter the labor market, the purely demographic support ratio increases and this positive effect is extended by composition changes in the age structure of workers. When they start saving, the second demographic dividend arises, while its total net effect depends both on the strength of the aging process and on transfer size. Conclusions: The derived decomposition shows that the second demographic dividend might also disappear. Sharp population aging in Spain implies that capital will shrink drastically after 2040. Before this, there seems to be margin for reforms; however, an extension of the welfare state toward the Nordic model would considerably reduce capital. Contribution: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of demographics on economic growth by decomposing demographic dividends and investigating the impact of different welfare state transfer systems on the second demographic dividend.

  4. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  5. Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case

  6. The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Emma J. Brown; Andre Vosloo

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal’s ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human–cattle interactions. M...

  7. Searching for welfare, work and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Plantenga, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes to which extent European welfare states support an individual adult worker model and how the current policy should be assessed in terms of gender equality. Although a more individual design of welfare policies is clearly recognizable, the paper also illustrates the large gap between the implicit assumptions of the adult worker model and the actual reality of most European Member States. Only a few countries, with the Nordic countries as the most well-known examples, have d...

  8. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  9. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  10. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  11. Slab reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  12. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  13. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  14. Assessment of case-based integrated learning as a part of dental curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadershahi, Nader A.

    There has been a growing call for change in the management of dental education programs, and, in response to this call, the faculty and staff at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry developed the Pacific Dental Helix Curriculum management model. The first major component of this curriculum was the development of the Integrated Clinical Science Strand of the Helix focused on multidisciplinary and case-based andragogies. The mixed method research design was used to identify common aspects of Case-Based Learning and multi-disciplinary teaching through a qualitative analysis of curricular materials and to analyze their impact on selected student outcomes of pre and post-change through statistical analysis. The outcomes chosen for the quantitative portion were surrogate measures of National Board Scores and grade point averages to represent knowledge and skills. The overall analysis of the quantitative data shows negligible impact on the outcomes being measured. We know from the literature that active learning models motivate and engage students at a higher level in their learning and better prepare them to solve problems creatively versus a traditional educational model, so it is significant to see that there were no decreases in performance with a move to a more engaging curriculum. This study offers foundational information for future curriculum design, pedagogy, and assessment.

  15. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  16. Reforming Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Penner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Steam and dry reforming of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane or propane, alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethanol or glycerol or bio-compounds is one of the most promising and effective routes to enhanced hydrogen production and for the production of synthesis gas likewise.[...

  17. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Despite relatively generous coverage of the over-65 population, Danish home help services receive regular criticism in the media and public opinion polls. Perhaps as a consequence, reforms of Danish home care policy for senior citizens have placed strong emphasis on quality since the 1990s....... This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...... to increase the overall quality of care by increasing the transparency at the political, administrative and user levels. However, reforms have revolved around conflicting principles of standardisation and the individualisation of care provision and primarily succeeded in increasing the political and ad...

  18. Welfare indicators in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Malin

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the welfare of laying hens worldwide and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improving their welfare. Although several different welfare indicators are used today, their ability to accurately reflect welfare status is sometimes questioned. This thesis sought to increase knowledge regarding a number of these welfare indicators by investigating whether and to what extent they were affected when layers were exposed to different stressors. Three di...

  19. Behaviour among children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway, as assessed by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2013-06-01

    A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment is given without substitution. This investigation assesses the behaviour of the children between the ages 6 and 13 years of women who attended the clinic. It also explores the correlation between the behaviour and a neuropsychological screening performed one and a half year earlier. The study was set up to investigate the influence of prenatal substance exposure. Thirty-eight SCWC children and 63 children in a comparison group were scored by Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). Twenty-one (55%) SCWC mothers were classed as short-term users (ceased substance abuse before the end of first trimester), and 17 (45%) were classed as long-term users (continued a moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy). Thirteen (77%) of the children of the long-term users were living in foster homes at the time of the investigation. SCWC children were scored within normal ranges for most items, but their scores were significantly worse than those of the comparison group. Children of short-term users were given lower scores than comparisons on more issues in CBCL than were children of long-term users. The SCWC children were breastfed for a shorter time (p = 0.023) and had moved house more often (p children living with their biological mothers received more special education or remedial classes (p ≤ 0.001) than children of the comparisons. Most children of long-term users were living in foster homes. Notably, children of short-term users, that is, children living with their biological mothers, were given lower scores than comparisons in CBCL. Children of short-term users were more likely to receive special education than children of comparisons. More research is needed on how to reveal parenting problems and how to guide mothers with previous or present substance abuse problems. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  1. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  2. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  3. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  4. Fish welfare and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, P; Øverli, Ø; Douxfils, J; Bernardini, G; Kestemont, P; Baron, D

    2012-02-01

    There is a considerable public and scientific debate concerning welfare of fish in aquaculture. In this review, we will consider fish welfare as an integration of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive/emotional responses, all of which are essentially adaptative responses to stressful situations. An overview of fish welfare in this context suggests that understanding will rely on knowledge of all components of allostatic responses to stress and environmental perturbations. The development of genomic technologies provides new approaches to this task, exemplified by how genome-wide analysis of genetic structures and corresponding expression patterns can lead to the discovery of new aspects of adaptative responses. We will illustrate how the genomic approach may give rise to new biomarkers for fish welfare and also increase our understanding of the interaction between physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses. In a first part, we present data on expression of candidate genes selected a priori. This is a common avenue to develop molecular biomarkers capable of diagnosing a stress condition at its earliest onset, in order to allow quick corrective intervention in an aquaculture setting. However, most of these studies address isolated physiological functions and stress responses that may not be truly indicative of animal welfare, and there is only rudimentary understanding of genes related to possible cognitive and emotional responses in fish. We also present an overview on transcriptomic analysis related to the effect of aquaculture stressors, environmental changes (temperature, salinity, hypoxia), or concerning specific behavioral patterns. These studies illustrate the potential of genomic approaches to characterize the complexity of the molecular mechanisms which underlies not only physiological but also behavioral responses in relation to fish welfare. Thirdly, we address proteomic studies on biological responses to stressors such as salinity change and

  5. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  6. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However......, following debates starting in the early 1990s, it is now widely recognised that scientific assessments of animal welfare simply cannot avoid making ethical assumptions. Using simple but realistic examples, the presentation will explain how ethical assumptions inform the study and assessment of animal...... welfare at different levels. First, and most obviously, it matters a great deal how animal welfare is defined in the first place. Should we think of welfare in terms of animal function, or in terms of the avoidance of pain and other suffering? Or should we focus on the net balance of negative and positive...

  7. Assessment of the Impact of an Animal Welfare Educational Course with First Grade Children in Rural Schools in the State of Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Virginio; Orihuela, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an educational package used for animal welfare teaching would have significant effects on the knowledge of first grade children in a rural area of Mexico. The research was conducted with 276 students in six public schools. In the experimental group, 177 children participated in a 10 week-long animal…

  8. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case

  9. The provision of income protection and activiation services for the unemployed in 'active' welfare states : an international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, H.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075238691

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses reforms of the design of the organisational arena for policy implementation and service provision in European welfare states, focusing on the policy areas of income protection and activation. First, it discusses and compares recent reform programmes in four countries: the UK,

  10. Métodos de diagnóstico e pontos críticos de bem-estar de bovinos leiteiros Welfare assessment methods and critical points for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Borges Bond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O bem-estar de animais de produção tem sido discutido nos âmbitos comercial, social e acadêmico, sendo que tal discussão pode ser enriquecida pela elaboração de protocolos de diagnóstico de bem-estar animal bem definidos, favorecendo a regulamentação de uma legislação específica. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir os métodos de diagnóstico de bem-estar animal e apontar os principais pontos críticos que afetam o bem-estar dos bovinos leiteiros. O diagnóstico de bem-estar compreende a observação do comportamento animal e de indicadores fisiológicos e sanitários, como análise hematológica e dosagem de hormônios, análise do escore de locomoção, a observação de lesões corporais e o estado geral de saúde dos animais. Tais ferramentas permitem verificar quais são os principais pontos críticos que afetam o bem-estar dos animais e construir estratégias de melhoria. As vacas em lactação podem sofrer restrições ambientais, nutricionais e sanitárias. Os bezerros passam pelo distresse do desmame precoce e do isolamento social. Alguns pontos críticos de bem-estar de gado leiteiro reconhecidos internacionalmente parecem prováveis no cenário brasileiro. Entretanto, é possível a existência de diferenças importantes em relação aos sistemas de produção praticados no Brasil e no exterior, uma vez que o acesso ao pasto é um fator comum na produção brasileira e pode estar associado a um maior grau de bem-estar animal. Dessa forma, é importante a condução de trabalhos de diagnóstico de bem-estar específico para os animais envolvidos com a produção de leite no Brasil.The welfare of farm animals is under broad discussion within the commercial, social and academic environments, and discussion may be enriched by specific guidelines and legislation based on well-defined assessment protocols. The objective of this review is to discuss the methods for assessing animal welfare and to point out the main critical

  11. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  12. EMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the Lisbon Agenda, the Romanian Government drew up the National Programme for Reform for 2007-2010, which established national priorities, and ways and tools to achieve economic reform and growth. Transition in Romania implied a complex and extensive system of regulations and institutions for stimulating employment and creating a flexible system of social protection. The new regulations were focused on harmonisation with the Community labour law. Increasing investment in human capital is essential for a competitive and dynamic economy. Besides, labour market policies were formulated for correcting labour market imbalances.

  13. Changes in the welfare caseload and the health of low-educated mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Pobert; Tarlov, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Declines in the welfare caseload in the late 1990s brought significant change to the lives of many low-educated, single mothers. Many single mothers left welfare and entered the labor market and others found different ways to avoid going on public assistance. These changes may have affected the health and health behaviors of these women. To date, there has been little study of this issue. In this paper, we obtained estimates of the association between changes in the welfare caseload caused by welfare policy, and four health behaviors--smoking, drinking, diet, and exercise--and four self-reported measures of health--weight, days in poor mental health, days in poor physical health, and general health status. The results of our study reveal that recent declines in the welfare caseload were associated with less binge drinking, but otherwise welfare reform had little effect on health and health behaviors.

  14. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...

  15. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  16. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  17. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  18. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  19. Who Is Guarding Serbia’s Borders? An Assessment of Serbia’s Progress in Border Security Development and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    28 4. The Role of the Serbian Orthodox Church .....................................29 5. The 1990s and Milosevic’s Political Reform...recounted in Chapter II, of the Balkans as the gateway to Europe for Byzantine and Ottoman invasions. The Balkans had historically been contested...Pavlakovic does note that "many of the forces in Serbian society—the Serbian Orthodox Church , the military establishment, intellectuals, and most

  20. SocialWelfare Policy Changes and SocialWork Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris McGartland Rubio

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Managed care, welfare reform, changes in government-sponsored health insurance, privatization, for-profit commercial activity, and increasing competition for charitable funding are affecting nonprofit social service organizations. This study of 244 nonprofit social service agencies explores the influence of social policy changes on nonprofit organizations. The effects of such changes on social work practice and social work field education within nonprofit organizations are explicated. Guidance for social work field education departments is provided.

  1. The Role of Business in the Development of the Welfare State and Labor Markets in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    and historical literature on the welfare state. In a departure from existing employer-centered explanations, the author applies new empirical data to contend that the variation in acceptance of social reform depends more on changes in the types of political challenges faced by employers, than on changes...... in the type of institutions considered economically beneficial. Covering major reforms spanning more than a century of institutional development in unemployment insurance, accident insurance, pensions, collective bargaining, and codetermination, this book argues that employers support social policy as a means...... to contain political outcomes that would have been worse, including labour unrest and more radical reform plans. Using new and controversial findings on the role of employers in welfare state development, this book considers the conditions for a peaceful coexistence of a generous welfare state...

  2. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    OpenAIRE

    Spielfogel, Jill E.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of...

  3. Equity in Reform: Case Studies of Five Middle Schools Involved in Systemic Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Jane Butler; Kelly, Mary Kay

    Science and mathematics education reform documents of the last decade have called for improved teaching and learning for all children. To overcome inequalities, a systemic approach to reform has been adopted. The case studies synthesized in this analysis arc part of a larger effort to reform science and mathematics education systemically and assess the progress of systemic reform. The purpose of this study was to assess the progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform in five middle schools. A multiple-case study design was used, and qualitative data were collected. Kahle's Equity Metric was used to analyze the schools' progress toward achieving equitable systemic reform of mathematics and science. Two results occurred: Various equity issues were identified in the five case studies, and the metric proved efficacious in identifying barriers to or facilitators of equitable reform in the schools. Overall, the study illustrates how schools might assess their commitments to providing high-quality science and mathematics education to all students.

  4. Trade reform in Iran for accession to the World Trade Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, Zakariya; Zhu, Xueqin; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We developed a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to study the potential welfare and environmental impacts of Iran's trade reform for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our results show that removing trade barriers not only results in higher welfare and GDP as well as lower

  5. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Requirements Relating to Access and Renewability of Coverage § 148.128 State flexibility in individual market...

  6. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  7. On the declining health status of welfare caseloads: emerging dilemmas for serving the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2011-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform's potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. The authors examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, they examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. They augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and may need to take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level.

  8. Welfare Reform Implementing DOT's Access to Jobs Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Since the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century authorized the Access to Jobs program in June 1998, the Department of Transportation has made several important decisions about the program's...

  9. Assessing where vulnerable groups fare worst: a global multilevel analysis on the impact of welfare regimes on disability across different socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2012-09-01

    Investigations on health differences within welfare states between low- and high-socioeconomic groups are mainly conducted in Europe. With the aim of gaining global insight on the extent welfare regimes influence personal disability for the most vulnerable, we explore how these health differences vary between low- and high-socioeconomic groups. The World Health Survey data were analysed on 199595 adults from 46 countries using the welfare regime classification developed by Wood and Gough. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate welfare regime differences in self-reported disability according to individual educational attainment and employment status. As compared with the low educated in the European-conservative regime, the odds of having a higher prevalence of disability was found among low-educated people residing in the informal-security regime of South Asia, with OR being 3.16 (95% CI 2.23 to 4.47). While state-organised regimes seemed to offer more protection against disability to the low educated, the productivist regime of East Asia trailed closely behind, with OR being 1.10 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the low educated. Similar findings were also observed in the unemployed. State-organised regimes of Europe and the productivist regime of East Asia seem to contain protecting features against disability for all citizens and especially for the most vulnerable. Apart from the productivist regime of East Asia, the low educated and the unemployed seem to carry the greatest health burden within more insecure regimes, highlighting a deficiency in social provisions within these regimes aimed at protecting the most vulnerable.

  10. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  11. Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

  12. The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal’s ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human–cattle interactions. Measuring the activity of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis with plasma cortisol levels is a useful method for determining the effects of stress on animals as it is stimulated at the onset of a perceived stress. The activation of the HPA axis affects various target tissues or systems and can result in suppression of the immune system, increased susceptibility to disease and adverse effects on reproductive success in prenatal and neonatal calves. Although some levels of stress associated with farming practices are unavoidable, improvements in farming methods need to be implemented in order to maintain or increase the efficiency of cattle production in a way that does not compromise the welfare of the animal.

  13. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  14. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  15. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    An emerging consensus is that labor force participation is more responsive to taxes and transfers than hours worked. To understand the implications of participation responses for the welfare analysis of tax reform, this paper embeds this margin of labor supply in an explicit welfare theoretic...... framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  16. Assessment of the accuracy of physiological blood indicators for the evaluation of stress, health status and welfare in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii subject to chronic heat stress and dietary supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Simide

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing interest in the evaluation of stress, health and welfare of farm-raised fish. However, there is no scientific consensus about the methodology that is used to assess them. Sturgeon aquaculture is a recent industry with increasing interest in the production of caviar, which is characterized by high turnover and costs. To improve aquaculture efficiency, this study was conducted on routine blood samples, taken from Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii, to test the robustness of using only physiological indicators to assess heat stress, health, and welfare. Sampling was performed after 1 month of prebiotic dietary supplementation followed by 4 weeks of sublethal heat stress. Data interpretation was achieved with a multivariate statistical tool. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSP was assessed for the first time in sturgeon erythrocytes. Hsp70 and hsp90 expression was triggered by both stress and dietary supplementation. Indicators of non-specific immunity were modified mainly by stress. Complement activity increases with stress while lysozyme activity decreases, but to a lesser extent in supplemented fish. The antioxidant capacity increases with stress while oxidant metabolites decrease and overall oxidative stress was lower for fish that received dietary supplementation. The positive impact of dietary supplementation on health status was observable after a stress challenge. A principal component analysis was used to combine all the measured parameters and to observe patterns in physiological fish status. The four experimental groups of fish were clearly discriminated with this statistical tool. Physiological indicators from blood samples may enable heat stress, health, and welfare to be assessed in Siberian sturgeon.

  17. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  18. The reliability of welfare assessment according to the WelFur-protocol in the nursing period of mink (Neovison vison) is challenged by increasing welfare problems prior to weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body condition of the mink dam, the frequency of dirty nests, frequency of injuries and diarrhoea change significantly with the day of assessment, post-partum, within the data collection period from parturition to weaning, influencing...

  19. Inequality and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Yitzhaki, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of part of the literature on inequality and social welfare, with a special focus on the Gini index. The paper first presents the extended Gini index used for measuring inequality, as well as the source decomposition of the Gini used to analyze how changes in income and consumption sources affect overall inequality. The paper then provides a wide range of policy applications of the source decomposition of the extended Gini index, including techniques for analyzing ...

  20. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  1. Universal Design and Welfare Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn, Rudolph

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the background for the increased interest for and use of welfare technology. It discusses current definitions of welfare technology and suggests a typology of this technology based on the different definitions. It compares the definitions with that of assistive technology and endeavors to draw a clearer limit between them, in particular related to possibilities to utilize the principle of universal design on welfare technology. The issue of operationalization requirements of universal design to welfare technology through standardization is also discussed. Finally, the paper suggests what elements should be part of a new definition of welfare technology.

  2. Daycare as an entitlement and as a service in the social welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    Matković Gordana

    2009-01-01

    The social welfare reform recognizes the further development and expansion of daycare center services as an important precondition for deinstitutionalization as one of the key objectives of the reform. Decreasing the number of children and adults in residential institutions, their return to their natural families and preventing institutionalization depend primarily on the support provided at local level to the family for taking care of their family members. Today in Serbia there are 49 daycar...

  3. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. In this preliminary study behavioral response was used to assess potential correlations with PAA dosage. A behavioral change or response is not necessarily an indication of compromised welfare....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  4. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  5. Assessing the welfare effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy – A simple back-of-an-envelope calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Tommy; Marklund, Per-Olov

    2011-01-01

    Using a growth model that accounts for environmental and climate externalities, we take a closer look at the welfare e¤ects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy. As an illustration, a forest hypothetical intensive forest cultivation project is simulated. Costs and benefi…ts of the project show that we need not only determine the postive effects of promoting biomass growth and the use of bioenergy, such as substitution away from fossil fuels and carbon sequestration. But more i...

  6. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  7. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  8. Fiscal reforms and income inequalities in Senegal and Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been income and welfare redistribution in Burkina Faso and Senegal occasioned by fiscal reforms undertaken within the context of the WAEMU, where a unique VAT tax and common tariffs harmonization were adopted. The measure of redistributive effects and the costs of the horizontal inequality generated by ...

  9. Health Reform Cycles in Tanzania: 1924–1994 | Semali | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predominant information in each wave showed that the health system was underfinanced, there was poor performance of PHC strategies, non-integration of DMO and poor health workers income. Health reforms should focus on health system finance, integrated district health system, health workers welfare and community ...

  10. National Health Care Reform, Medicaid, and Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Neal; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Outlines access to health care for children in out-of-home care under current law, reviews how health care access for these children would be affected by President Clinton's health care reform initiative, and proposes additional measures that could be considered to improve access and service coordination for children in the child welfare system.…

  11. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  12. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... on extensive archival research from a variety of political actors across the Community, she illustrates how and why this supranational farm regime was created in the 1960s, and also provides us with a detailed narrative history of how national and European administrations gradually learned about this kind...

  13. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  14. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    to those in economies of transition. The dissertation provides a guide for policy makers in the energy sector for implementing power sector reform. At first the dissertation offers a general overview of different models of power sector organization, regulatory frameworks and market arrangements, and the potential impact of reform on social welfare. This knowledge is then applied for analysis of power sector reform in the Republic of Georgia. Social welfare analysis (SWA) is a major analytical tool used in the research for assessing the potential impacts of different power sector organization models on various stakeholders. Through the research it was identified that power industry arrangements in different countries have their particularities; however, after some level of simplification, power sector organization models can fit into one of three broad categories: (1) Government control and regulation of generation and retail segments of the power industry. (2) Full scale competition in the generation segment and retail choice. (3) Partial government control of the generation segment and limited retail choice. For SWA of different power market arrangement scenarios, electricity supply and demand curves had to be derived; for this purpose electricity demand forecasting and power supply evaluation methodologies were developed. This dissertation combines SWA, accepted demand forecasting methods and established power supply evaluation techniques to assess power sector performance under specified policy scenarios relevant to the circumstances of economies in transition such as the Republic of Georgia. Detailed analyses are performed for understanding possible outcomes with the introduction of different reform models. In addition, specific options for incorporating sustainable energy alternatives in the energy planning process are identified and assessed in economic, environmental and social terms. Special attention is given to market-based instruments for promoting

  15. Computer Modeling of Platinum Reforming Reactors | Momoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually, the reformate that is leaving any stage of the platinum reforming reactors in terms of hydrocarbon composition is assessed by laboratory analysis. The ideal composition can only be tested through theoretical means, which in most cases is avoided because of long computation time involved. This paper, instead of ...

  16. Financial Reform of Basic Education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Mun C.

    1996-01-01

    Assesses effects of the financial reform of China's basic education system, focusing on issues of structure, resource mobilization, equality, and efficiency. While decentralized funding reforms have succeeded in achieving structural change and resource mobilization, the current system is marked by glaring inequalities and significant…

  17. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  18. The reform of the Spanish public administration and the Wellfare State during the economic crisis (2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vidal Prado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes some structural reforms of public administrations implemented from 2012 in Spain, as a result of the economic crisis, and public policies implemented to achieve them, and if truly met the intended objectives (improve the quality and efficiency of services, transparency in public administrations and creating an Open Government. The work part of a brief diagnosis of the causes and consequences of the economic crisis, to tackle after reforms in public administration and in the model of Welfare State, especially in what refers to public employment, education, healthcare and the attention to the dependence. Finally, a brief assessment of the adopted solutions and its real impact on the current situation of the economy and the Spanish Administration is performed.

  19. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  20. Tools to measure and improve welfare of laboratory rats : reward-related behaviour end environmental enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanna Egberdina van der

    2003-01-01

    Animals are exploited by man for several different purposes. According to many, society should be concerned about the welfare of these animals. Currently, an increasing need exists to be able to assess and improve animal welfare. In this thesis a concept of welfare is applied that states that