WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing urban contamination

  1. Assessing the Educational Needs of Urban Gardeners and Farmers on the Subject of Soil Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Thien, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in urban agriculture is growing throughout the United States; however, potential soil contaminants in urban environments present challenges. Individuals in direct contact with urban soil should be aware of urban soil quality and soil contamination issues to minimize environmental and human health risks. The study reported here…

  2. Scenarios for the assessment of urban exposures after radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.N.G.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Accidents involving radioactive material are not frequent but may include releases of radionuclides to the air, land or waterways. These releases are usually uncontrollable and may lead to doses in the public in excess of the reference levels established by regulations defined by the national regulatory agencies of each country. Although they had occurred sporadically since the last century, it was observed that, after the emergency phase, the public concern is enhanced when they feel that there is an unpreparedness of authorities responsible for remediation actions, due to the lack of definition of strategies to be adopted in the long term after such events. The aim of this work is to describe reference urban scenarios, considering the characteristics observed in residential and free access areas of urban centers. These scenarios were developed based on the counties surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plant. Considering the counties within 50 km from the nuclear power plant, nine belong to the state of Rio de Janeiro and seven belong to São Paulo state; the highest population densities were observed in five counties of Rio de Janeiro. Based on the different types of residences and outdoor areas observed in these 16 counties, six reference scenarios for urban areas were developed including areas comprised by four types of residential houses (with low, medium and high shielding building material and houses in a row), apartments in buildings, and park areas with lawn and trees. The characteristics of each of these scenarios were raised through Google Earth images considering 1 km 2 of different locations comprised by each type of area defined. In a next step, the information obtained in each scenario shall be used in computer simulations to characterize the effects and consequences on public exposure of the application of decontamination procedures. (authors)

  3. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  4. PARATI: A program for radiological assessment after radioactive contamination of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.; Conti, L.F.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic model aimed on the assessment of the long-term consequences of an accidental contamination of urban environments has been developed. The model was designed to assess the radiation exposure, as a function of time, of the different kinds of people that uses the contaminated environment, the relative contribution of each exposure pathway to simulate the application of countermeasures and its effects on the reduction of surfaces contamination and on the exposure of the individuals and of the population. The model is an empirical one, mainly based on environmental data gathered after the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, and takes into account climatic and population habits characteristics of tropical areas. The model was applied here to a contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs but can be easily adapted to other nuclides by changes on parameter values. An analysis of the variabilities associated to the model outputs regarding population habits, different kinds of urban environment and parameters uncertainty has shown that the main source of uncertainty on model predictions is associated to a correct knowledge of population characteristics, its habits and uses of the contaminated environment. (author)

  5. PARATI - a dynamic model for radiological assessments in urban areas. Pt. 1. Modelling of urban areas, their contamination and radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, L.F.C.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    The structure and mathematical model of PARATI, a detailed computer programme developed for the assessment of the radiological consequences of an accidental contamination of urban areas, is described with respect to the scenarios used for the estimation of exposure fields in a village or town, the models for the initial and secondary contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs, the concepts for calculating the resulting radiation exposures and the changes with time of the contamination and radiation fields. Kerma rates at various locations in tropical urban areas are given, and the contribution of different contaminated surfaces to these rates after dry or wet deposition are discussed. (orig.). With 6 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ M ), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  8. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  9. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Bodar and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Batavia) were seasonally surveyed in 4 farm plots in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona. A pristine site, where rain-groundwater is used for irrigation, was selected for background concentrations. The average concentration levels of TEs and CECs in the irrigation water impacted by treated wastewater (TWW) were 3 (35±75μgL -1 ) and 13 (553±1050ngL -1 ) times higher than at the pristine site respectively. Principal component analysis was used to classify the irrigation waters by chemical composition. To assess the impact of the occurrence of these contaminants on agriculture, a seed germination assay (Lactuca sativa L) and real field-scale study of crop productivity (i.e., lettuce and tomato) were used. Although irrigation waters from the peri-urban area exhibited a higher frequency of detection and concentration of the assessed chemical contaminants than those of the pristine site (P1), no significant differences were found in seed phytotoxicity or crop productivity. In fact, the crops impacted by TWW showed higher productivity than the other farm plots studied, which was associated with the higher nutrient availability for plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacteriological safety assessment, hygienic habits and cross-contamination risks in a Nigerian urban sample of household kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ochei, Ono P

    2017-06-01

    Urban household kitchen environment was assessed for safety by determining their levels of indicator bacteria, hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination. Household kitchens (60) were selected in Warri Town, Nigeria, by the multi-stage sampling technique. Contact surfaces, water and indoor kitchen air were analysed for aerobic plate counts, total and faecal coliforms using Nutrient and McConkey media by swab/rinse method, membrane filtration and sedimentation methods, respectively. Hygienic habits and risk of cross-contamination were assessed with structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic variables. On the basis of median counts, the prevalence of high counts (log cfu/cm 2 /m 3 /100 mL) of aerobic plate counts (>3.0), total coliforms (>1.0) and faecal coliforms (>0) on contact surfaces and air was high (58.0-92.0%), but low in water (30.0-40.0%). Pots, plates and cutleries were the contact surfaces with low counts. Prevalence of poor hygienic habits and high risk of cross-contamination was 38.6 and 67.5%, respectively. Education, occupation and kitchen type were associated with cross-contamination risk (P = 0.002-0.022), while only education was associated with hygienic habits (P = 0.03). Cross-contamination risk was related (P = 0.01-0.05) to aerobic plate counts (OR 2.30; CL 1.30-3.17), total coliforms (OR 5.63; CL 2.76-8.25) and faecal coliforms (OR 4.24; CL 2.87-6.24), while hygienic habit was not. It can be concluded that urban household kitchens in the Nigerian setting are vulnerable to pathogens likely to cause food-borne infections.

  11. Urban contamination and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, E.; Barry, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear power reactors and other nuclear facilities are being built near or even within urban centres. Accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere in built-up areas result in radiological exposure pathways that differ from those caused by releases in rural environments. Other than inhalation, exposure pathways involve external radiation from the plume while it passes and from radioactivity deposited onto the many and varied surfaces after it has passed. Radiation fields inside buildings are attenuated but many people are potentially exposed so while individual doses may be relatively low, population integrated doses may be high enough to cause concern. It is important, therefore, to assess the potential exposures and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dose reduction measures in urban environments. This report describes a model developed to carry out such assessments. The model draws heavily on experience gained in European cities after their contamination fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Input is time integrated concentrations of specific radionuclides in urban air, obtained either by direct measurement or by prediction using an atmospheric dispersion model. The code includes default values for site specific variables and transfer parameters but the user is invited if desired to enter other values from the keyboard. Output is the time integrated dose rates for individuals selected because of the characteristic living, working and recreational habits. An accompanying manual documents the technical background on which the model is based and leads a first-time suer through various steps and operations encountered while the model is running. (author). 60 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on a drinking water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo-Joon; Hwang, Won-Tae; Kim, Eun-Han; Han, Moon-Hee

    2009-01-01

    This paper specifically discusses a water quality modeling and health risk assessment for cesium-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from drinking water contaminated by a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. With respect to the source term caused by a terrorist attack, it was assumed that 50 TBq of cesium-137 was introduced into the Paldang Lake which is a single water resource for the Seoul metropolitan area. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic and water quality for the model domain, Paldang Lake. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients caused by the ingestion of tap water were used to assess a human health risk due to cesium-137. The transport of cesium-137 in the Paldang water system was mainly dependent on the flow streamlines and the effect of the dilution from the other branches. The mortality and morbidity risks due to the drinking water contamination by cesium-137 were 4.77 x 10 -7 and 6.92 x 10 -7 , respectively. Accordingly, it is very important to take appropriate countermeasures when radiological terrorist attacks have occurred at water resources to prevent radiological risks by radionuclides.

  13. An assessment of subsurface contamination of an urban coastal aquifer due to oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, Indumathi M; Rajasekhar, Bokam; Loganathan, Vijay; RaviKrishna, R

    2017-04-01

    Incidences of leakages of chemicals from underground oil storage tanks or oil-carrying pipelines have posed huge threat to the coastal aquifers around the world. One such leak was recently identified and notified by the people of Tondiarpet, Chennai, India. The assessment of the contamination level was done by obtaining electrical resistivity maps of the subsurface, drilling of 20 new borewells for soil and water analysis, and testing the water quality of 30 existing borewells. Samples were collected from the borewells, and observations were made that included parameters such as odor, moisture, contamination characteristics, lithology, groundwater level, thickness of the free product that are used to demarcate the extent of soil, and water contamination. Furthermore, a multigas detector was used to detect hydrocarbon presence as soil vapor. Moreover, to capture the transport of dissolved hydrocarbons, 10 samples were collected in the periphery of the study area and were analyzed for the presence of petroleum hydrocarbon and polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Analysis of the data indicated the presence of free-phase hydrocarbon in soil and groundwater close to the junction of Thiruvottiyur high (TH) road (TH) and Varadaja Perumal Koil (VPK) street. Although the contaminant plume is confined to a limited area, it has spread more to the southern and eastern side of the pipeline possibly due to continuous abstraction of groundwater by residential apartments. After cutting a trench along the VPK street and plotting of the plume delineation map, observations indicated that the source of the hydrocarbon leak is present in VPK street close to TH road. A multipronged strategy was suggested targeting the remediation of oil in various phases.

  14. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  15. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-12-21

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  16. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2015-01-01

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8 × 10 −4 –9.7 × 10 −1 per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6 × 10 −7 –4.3 × 10 −2 pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1 × 10 −7 –1.3 × 10 −4 pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation > showering > toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ≤ 10 −4 pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ≤ 10 −6 DALYs pppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • Human health risks for three non-potable uses of treated stormwater are modeled. • Crop

  17. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Keah-Ying [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617-2175 (United States); Hamilton, Andrew J. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Dookie Campus, Currawa, VIC 3647 (Australia); Federation University Australia, Mt Helen Campus, VIC 3353 (Australia); Jiang, Sunny C., E-mail: sjiang@uci.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617-2175 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8 × 10{sup −4}–9.7 × 10{sup −1} per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6 × 10{sup −7}–4.3 × 10{sup −2} pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1 × 10{sup −7}–1.3 × 10{sup −4} pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation > showering > toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ≤ 10{sup −4} pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ≤ 10{sup −6} DALYs pppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • Human health risks for three non-potable uses of treated

  18. Phytoavailability, human risk assessment and transfer characteristics of cadmium and zinc contamination from urban gardens in Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Nafiu; Agbenin, John O; Buerkert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative data about phytoavailability and transfer into consumed plant parts for heavy metals in intensively managed urban vegetable production areas of sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We therefore studied the transfer of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) from soil to the root and subsequent translocation to edible portions of four vegetables in six urban gardens. While respective diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-available Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 18 to 66 mg kg(-1) and from 0.19 to 0.35 mg kg(-1) , respectively, in soils, total Zn and Cd were 8.4-256 mg kg(-1) and 0.04-1.7 mg kg(-1) in shoot parts. Metal transfer factor (MTF) ratios were higher in Zn (0.2-0.9) than in Cd (0.1-0.6). Our data suggest that total Zn concentration in soil is a reliable indicator to assess its transfer from soil to crop in lettuce, carrot and parsley, while for Cd DTPA-extractable concentration may be used to estimate soil-crop transfer of Cd in amaranthus and carrot. Overall, Cd was more easily translocated to the aerial plant parts than Zn. Zinc and Cd accumulation by vegetables in our soils is mainly a metabolically controlled process. Such accumulation can contaminate the ecosystem but under our conditions intake and ingestion of these metals will likely have to occur over a prolonged period to experience health hazard. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros Mercadal, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras Riba, Núria; Comas Angelet, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areaswherewater demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, itmust copewith the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging fromtrace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants ...

  20. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel an...

  1. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  2. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Addition of contaminant bioavailability and species susceptibility to a sediment toxicity assessment: Application in an urban stream in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huizhen; Sun, Baoquan; Chen, Xin; Lydy, Michael J.; You, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Sediments collected from an urban creek in China exhibited high acute toxicity to Hyalella azteca with 81.3% of sediments being toxic. A toxic unit (TU) estimation demonstrated that the pyrethroid, cypermethrin, was the major contributor to toxicity. The traditional TU approach, however, overestimated the toxicity. Reduced bioavailability of sediment-associated cypermethrin due to sequestration explained the overestimation. Additionally, antagonism among multiple contaminants and species susceptibility to various contaminants also contributed to the unexpectedly low toxicity to H. azteca. Bioavailable TUs derived from the bioavailability-based approaches, Tenax extraction and matrix-solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), showed better correlations with the noted toxicity compared to traditional TUs. As the first successful attempt to use matrix-SPME for estimating toxicity caused by emerging insecticides in field sediment, the present study found freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations significantly improved the prediction of sediment toxicity to H. azteca compared to organic carbon normalized and Tenax extractable concentrations. Highlights: •Over 80% sediments from an urban stream in China were acutely toxic to H. azteca. •Toxic unit analysis showed cypermethrin was the major contributor to toxicity. •The traditional toxic unit approach overestimated sediment toxicity. •Reduced bioavailability was the reason for overestimating sediment toxicity. •Freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations greatly improved toxicity prediction. -- Field sediment toxicity caused by current-use pesticides could be more accurately evaluated by incorporating bioavailability measurements into the toxic unit analysis

  4. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  5. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of toxic trace elements in the Xi River, an urban river of Shenyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.

  6. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartjes, Frank A.; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  7. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  8. Contaminants in urban runoff to Norwegian fjords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway); Pettersen, Arne [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Introduction: Sediments from urban stormwater runoff have been collected and analyzed for the content of various contaminants in harbor areas of Harstad, Trondheim, Bergen, and Drammen, Norway. Materials and methods: The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tributyltin, heavy metals, and total organic carbon were determined in most samples. This study provides substantial empirical data on the active, ongoing dispersion of pollutants from land-based sources in an urban area toward the marine environments in Norway. Results and discussion: The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. Conclusion: The concentrations of different contaminants in the urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the runoff systems with PCBs, PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)p), and heavy metals such as lead, mercury, zinc, and cadmium. This study describe the usefulness of the methods on how to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients before any remediation plan for improving the environmental condition of marine sediments is effectuated. (orig.)

  9. Reclamation of nuclear contaminated urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, Kasper; Sandalls, J.

    1991-01-01

    From a knowledge of the distribution and levels of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides on urban surfaces, the dose rate at various locations in an urban complex can be calculated. The information produced provides a quantitative guide of where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction. The efficiency and cost of practicable reclamation and decontamination procedures has been considered and, combined with dose rate calculations before and after treatment, a strategy for reclamation of various urban contamination scenarios has been developed. The study has shown that decontamination of green areas and streets is relatively highly cost-effective in terms of dose reduction and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Roofs are shown to make a significant contribution to dose rate but decontamination of roofs is difficult and not highly cost-effective. Decontamination of walls would rank lowly in a list of priorities, since they represent large areas carrying very little contamination. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  10. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Selected Crops in Zanjan Urban and Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are types of elements naturally present in soil or enter into soil as a result of human activities. The most important route of exposure to heavy metals is daily intake of food. Crops grown in contaminated soil (due to mining activities, industrial operations and agriculture may contain high concentrations of heavy metals. Also closeness to cities and industrial centers can have a great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals to agricultural products grown in the region. The study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products around urban and industrial areas of Zanjan province (North West of Iran and consumption hazard probability. Materials and Methods: Soil (75 samples of soil from a depth of 0 to 10 cm and plant (101 samples samples, in the summer 2011, were randomly taken from industrial areas as follow: tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M, wheat seed (Triticum vulgare, barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare, alfalfa shoots (Medicago sativa L., potato tubers (Solanumtuberosum L., apple fruit, vegetables and fruits such as Dill (Aniethum graveolens L., leek (Allium porrum L., Gardencress (Barbara verna L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Plant samples were then washed with distilled water, oven dried for48 hours at a temperature of 70 ´C until constant weight was attained and then they digested using 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl and nitric acid digestion in 5 M. Concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and crops were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. DTPA extraction of metals by Lindsay and Norvell (1978 method and sequential extraction method by Tessier et al. (1979 were performed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using the software SPSS 16.0 and the comparison of mean values was done using the Duncan test at the 5% level of significance. Results and Discussion: The magnitude of variations for total copper was from 11.5 to 352.5 (average 52.4, zinc was from 96

  11. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  12. Assessment of trace metal contamination in groundwater in a highly urbanizing area of Shenfu New District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yintao; Zang, Xinghua; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shichao; Sun, Shaobin; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Shenfu New District, located between two old industrial cities, Shenyang and Fushun, is a typical area undergoing industrialization and urbanization in China. The sources and distributions of heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater by multivariate analysis and GIS, and the impact of urbanization on the aqueous distribution of these metals was investigated. The results indicated that the mean contents of zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the wet periods were about two times of those in the dry period. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) were considered to be associated with the same anthropogenic origins (i.e., wastewater from agricultural processing). The concentration of Zn was high under natural conditions, but was also affected by human activities (e.g., wastewater from foundry and instrument manufacturers). As, Cd, and Pb are likely derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources (agricultural and water-rock interactions). The spatial distributions of heavy metals in groundwater were region-specific, with the highest concentrations mostly along the Hun River. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values from the dry and wet periods showed similar trends at different sampling sites. Only one site's HPI was above the critical value of 100. These results provide information that can be used to understand potential threats to the groundwater resources of other developing cities.

  13. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  14. Mapping the radioactive contamination in urban environments after nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Jan Christian; Proehl, Gerhard; Woda, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the event of a nuclear emergency in an urban environment a reliable overview on the radioactive contamination is crucial for decision making. To assess the radiological situation both measurements of the gamma dose or dose rate (GDR) and results from urban dispersion and deposition models are used. Measurements may arrive from various sources like car-borne detectors or man-borne radiation-sensitive materials embedded in cell phones, flash memory devices or RFID chips. The measurements depend strongly on the detector environment. To account for this dependence each signal is multiplied by a location factor, which quantifies the deviation of the recorded signal from the hypothetical signal of a reference surface of infinitely extended lawn. Furthermore, the data originate from geo-referenced points or lines but do not provide full spatial information. We present here two approaches to produce maps of the reference GDR or surface contamination in urban areas, which are implemented in the Inhabited Areas Monitoring Module (IAMM) as part of the European decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS. Immediately after the accident, a few measurements are combined with the predictions of urban models using data assimilation. If enough measurements are available they are regionalised with geo-statistical interpolation algorithms like inverse distance weighting or kriging. Both approaches are demonstrated in hypothetical scenarios based on the explosion of a radioactive dispersion device. (author)

  15. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  16. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-10-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (10 8 -10 16 CFU/day for Escherichia coli ) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.

  17. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  18. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  19. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings...

  20. Weathering of radiocaesium contamination on urban streets, walls and roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations in Russia have emphasised the significance of dose contributions from contamination on urban streets and roof pavings, and, typically to a lesser extent, walls in the urban environment. The crucial factor determining the magnitude of these contributions is the retention of the contamination by the different types of urban surface. Since the Chernobyl accident, a series of long-term field studies has been carried out on urban streets, walls and roofs, to examine the weathering processes of 137 Cs on the various surface types. The derived time-functions are applied to estimate resultant long-term doses to inhabitants of an urban centre. The paper highlights the effect on caesium retention of surface material characteristics

  1. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the bioavailability and risk from metal-contaminated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to contaminated soil and dust is an important pathway in human health risk assessment. Physical and chemical characteristics, as well as biological factors, determine the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants. Within a single sample, contamination may arise from multiple sources of toxic elements that may exist as different forms (species) which impact bioavailability. In turn, the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants has a direct impact on human health risk assessment and risk management practices. Novel research efforts focusing on development and application of in vitro and in vivo methods to measure the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of metal contaminated soils have advanced in the past few years. The objective of this workshop was to focus on recent developments in assessing the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of arsenic contaminated soils, metal contamination in urban residences in Canada and potential children’s exposures to toxic elements in house dust, a community-based study known as the West Oakland Residential Lead Assessment , studies of the bioavailability of soil cadmium, chromium, nickel and mercury and human exposures to contaminated Brownfield soils. These presentations covered issues related to human health and bioavailability along with the most recent studies on community participation in assessing metal contamination, studies of exposures to residential contamination, and

  3. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  4. Contamination of Detained Sediment in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonie Allen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a key water pollution remediation measure used to achieve stormwater quality improvement in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS. The level of contamination of detained sediment within SuDS assets is not well documented, with published investigations limited to specific contaminant occurrence in ponds, wetlands or infiltration devices (bioretention cells and generally focused on solute or suspended sediment. Guidance on contamination threshold levels and potential deposited sediment contamination information is not included in current UK SuDS design or maintenance guidance, primarily due to a lack of evidence and understanding. There is a need to understand possible deposited sediment contamination levels in SuDS, specifically in relation to sediment removal maintenance activities and potential impact on receiving waterways of conveyed sediment. Thus, the objective of the research presented herein was to identify what major elements and trace metals were observable in (the investigated SuDS assets detained sediment, the concentration of these major elements and trace metals and whether they met/surpassed ecotoxicity or contaminated land thresholds. The research presented here provides evidence of investigated SuDS sediment major element and trace metal levels to help inform guidance and maintenance needs, and presents a new methodology to identify the general cause (anthropocentric land use and extent of detained SuDS fine urban sediment contamination through use of a contamination matrix.

  5. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  6. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  7. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-01-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple

  8. Perceived Benefits of Participation and Risks of Soil Contamination in St. Louis Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Roger; Gable, Leah; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar

    2018-06-01

    Community gardens are credited for promoting health within neighborhoods, by increasing healthy food intake and exercise frequency. These benefits, however, are potentially undermined as urban soils are often contaminated from industrial legacies. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits of participation and risks of soil contamination within urban community gardens, and factors associated with soil contamination concerns. Ninety-three gardeners were interviewed across 20 community gardens in St. Louis, Missouri between June and August 2015. Surveys included questions on demographics, gardening practices, and perceptions of community gardening. Multilevel logistic models assessed how gardener demographics, gardening practices, and garden characteristics were associated with soil contamination concerns. Common perceived benefits of community gardening were community building (68.8%), healthy and fresh food (35.5%), and gardening education (18.3%). Most gardeners (62.4%) were not concerned about soil contamination, but nearly half (48.4%) stated concerns about heavy metals. Black race was significantly associated with soil contamination concerns (OR 5.47, 95% CI 1.00-30.15, p = .04). Community gardens offer numerous social and health benefits. Although most gardeners were not concerned about soil contamination, black gardeners were more likely to have concerns. Garden leaders should provide resources to gardeners to learn about soil contamination and methods to manage their risk, particularly in minority neighborhoods.

  9. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  10. Temporal dynamics of urbanization-driven environmental changes explored by metal contamination in surface sediments in a restoring urban wetland park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guangbin; Li, Hongbo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jiang, Yueping [The Management Committee of the National Xixi Wetland Park, Hangzhou 310013 (China); Li, Guilin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Lin, Jinchang [The Management Committee of the National Xixi Wetland Park, Hangzhou 310013 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Urban-rural distribution pattern of metals in sediment faded out with urbanization. • Urban emissions were identified as sources of metal elevation in surface sediment. • Metal level homogenization with urbanization posed a moderate risk to the public. - Abstract: Spatial patterns of metal distribution along urban-rural or multi-city gradients indicate that the urbanization process directly lead to metal enrichment and contamination in the environments. However, it has not yet looked at homogenization dynamics of an urban-rural gradient pattern over time with urbanization process in an area. This study monitored anthropogenic metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from channels of a newly-opened National Wetland Park to elucidate the urbanization-driven dissolution of urban-rural gradient pattern between 2008 and 2011. Sixty-eight surface sediment samples were taken from these channels in July of both 2008 and 2011. Results showed that a spatial distribution pattern of total metal contents along the gradient of urbanization influence, evident in 2008, was homogenized in 2011 with the area development. The lead stable isotope ratio analysis identified anthropogenic Pb origins from vehicular exhausts, cements, and coal flying ashes, which elevated metal contents in the inner channels via atmospheric deposition. Specific hazard quotients of the metal contamination in surface sediment were also assessed and enhanced over time in the study wetland park. These findings suggest that emissions from traffic, construction, and energy generation contribute metal loadings in the urbanizing environment.

  11. Temporal dynamics of urbanization-driven environmental changes explored by metal contamination in surface sediments in a restoring urban wetland park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guangbin; Li, Hongbo; Yu, Shen; Jiang, Yueping; Li, Guilin; Lin, Jinchang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban-rural distribution pattern of metals in sediment faded out with urbanization. • Urban emissions were identified as sources of metal elevation in surface sediment. • Metal level homogenization with urbanization posed a moderate risk to the public. - Abstract: Spatial patterns of metal distribution along urban-rural or multi-city gradients indicate that the urbanization process directly lead to metal enrichment and contamination in the environments. However, it has not yet looked at homogenization dynamics of an urban-rural gradient pattern over time with urbanization process in an area. This study monitored anthropogenic metals (Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from channels of a newly-opened National Wetland Park to elucidate the urbanization-driven dissolution of urban-rural gradient pattern between 2008 and 2011. Sixty-eight surface sediment samples were taken from these channels in July of both 2008 and 2011. Results showed that a spatial distribution pattern of total metal contents along the gradient of urbanization influence, evident in 2008, was homogenized in 2011 with the area development. The lead stable isotope ratio analysis identified anthropogenic Pb origins from vehicular exhausts, cements, and coal flying ashes, which elevated metal contents in the inner channels via atmospheric deposition. Specific hazard quotients of the metal contamination in surface sediment were also assessed and enhanced over time in the study wetland park. These findings suggest that emissions from traffic, construction, and energy generation contribute metal loadings in the urbanizing environment.

  12. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  13. Polar pesticide contamination of an urban and peri-urban tropical watershed affected by agricultural activities (Yaoundé, Center Region, Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchet, Perrine; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Fenet, Hélène; Sebag, David; Ngatcha, Benjamin Ngounou; Borrell-Estupina, Valérie; Ngoupayou, Jules Remy Ndam; Kengne, Ives; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2018-04-18

    Urban agriculture is crucial to local populations, but the risk of it contaminating water has rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide contamination of surface waters from the Méfou watershed (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by 32 selected herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides (mainly polar) according to their local application, using both grab sampling and polar organic compounds integrative samplers (POCIS). Three sampling campaigns were conducted in the March/April and October/November 2015 and June/July 2016 rainy seasons in urban and peri-urban areas. The majority of the targeted compounds were detected. The quantification frequencies of eight pesticides were more than 20% with both POCIS and grab sampling, and that of diuron and atrazine reached 100%. Spatial differences in contamination were evidenced with higher contamination in urban than peri-urban rivers. In particular, diuron was identified as an urban contaminant of concern because its concentrations frequently exceeded the European water quality guideline of 0.200 μg/L in freshwater and may thus represent an ecological risk due to a risk quotient > 1 for algae observed in 94% of grab samples. This study raises concerns about the impacts of urban agriculture on the quality of water resources and to a larger extent on the health of the inhabitants of cities in developing countries. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  14. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  15. Bacterial contamination of groundwater in urban area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, A.; Rippey, B.

    1999-01-01

    Well-water samples (in=193) were collected from urban areas of five districts of Karachi during the period 1993 to 1995 to evaluate its bacteriological quality and their impact on city environment and morbidity patterns of inhabitants. Samples were analyzed by the standard method American Public Health Association. The bacteriological contamination level suggest that the groundwater of Chaahi is mainly affected by contamination of wastewater containing high levels of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria. This study points towards serious need to control the seepage from sewerage system and use of contaminated well-water should be discouraged to reduce the incidence of water-borne diseases in order to improve the quality of life and health. (author)

  16. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in lettuce grown in peri-urban horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2018-05-14

    Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 μg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 · 10 -5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 μg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  18. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  19. Some perspectives for environmental risk assessment of urban stormwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of new technologies for disposing stormwater locally, e.g. via infiltration into the ground, implies that the 'traditional' list of key-substances is not exhaustive and consequently, consultants and authorities have difficulties deciding whether to approve new technologies for stormw...... and groundwater, in an integral and transparent manner. This paper reviews some concepts used within risk assessment of chemical substances and seeks to plot a course for further developments related to risk assessments of stormwater contaminants....... for stormwater disposal. The risk for contamination of surface waters also needs to be assessed, even though this contamination is silently accepted by society. A proper risk assessment needs to consider contamination of all environmental compartments within the urban environment, i.e. surface water, soil...

  20. Geodiversity assessment in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Marina; Stojković, Sanja; Rundić, Ljupko; Ćalić, Jelena; Sandić, Dejan

    2017-04-01

    Conflict over natural resources figured prominently in the urban areas. On the one hand there is a constant need for space for the construction of new buildings for housing, agriculture and industrial production, and on the other hand the resources need protection because of the threat of degradation or even complete destruction. Considering the fact that urbanization is one of the most serious threats to geodiversity, it is important that this issue is taken into account in spatial development plans and georesource management strategies in urban areas. The geodiversity, as well as natural resource, must be managed in a sustainable manner in which it is very important its protection. The mapping of specific categories of geodiversity (geological, geomorphological, hydrological and soil) on the basis of quantitative assessment with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can allow spatial planners and managers to take further steps that would reduce threats and protect the natural values. This work presents the application of geodiversity evaluation method by using the geodiversity index (Gd), based on the quantity of abiotic elements and relief roughness within a spatial unit in the case of the City of Belgrade, Serbia. The acquired results are analyzed in the context of sustainable use of georesources and the threats to which geodiversity is exposed due to the development of the city.

  1. A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee

    2007-01-01

    A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment, METRO-K has been developed. Characteristics of the model are as follows ; 1) mathematical structures are simple (i.e. simplified input parameters) and easy to understand due to get the results by analytical methods using experimental and empirical data, 2) complex urban environment can easily be made up using only 5 types of basic surfaces, 3) various remediation measures can be applied to different surfaces by evaluating the exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface. Exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface at a particular location of a receptor were evaluated using the data library of kerma values as a function of gamma energy and contamination surface. A kerma data library was prepared for 7 representative types of Korean urban building by extending those data given for 4 representative types of European urban buildings. Initial input data are daily radionuclide concentration in air and precipitation, and fraction of chemical type. Final outputs are absorbed dose rate in air contributing from the basic surfaces as a function of time following a radionuclide deposition, and exposure dose rate contributing from various surfaces constituting the urban environment at a particular location of a receptor. As the result of a contaminative scenario for an apartment built-up area, exposure dose rates show a distinct difference for surrounding environment as well as locations of a receptor

  2. Model for evaluation of the radiological exposure in an urban environment after a radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine Rua Rodriguez

    1994-08-01

    A dynamic model aimed on the assessment of the long-term consequences of an accidental contamination of an urban environments has been developed. The model was designed to assess the radiation exposure, as a function of time, of the different kinds of people that uses the contaminated environment, the relative contribution of each exposure pathway and to simulate the application of countermeasures and its effects on the reduction of surfaces contamination and on the exposure of the individuals and of the population. The model is an empirical one, mainly based on environmental data gathered after the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, and takes into account climatic and population habits characteristic of tropical areas. The model was applied here to a contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs but can be easily adapted to other nuclides by changes on parameter values. An analysis of the variabilities associated to the model outputs regarding population habits, different kinds of urban environment and parameters uncertainty has shown that the main source of uncertainty on model predictions is associated to a correct knowledge of population characteristics, its habits and used of the contaminated environment. (author)

  3. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  4. Assessment of mercury contamination of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. in the urban agglomeration of Brno in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kružíková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total mercury and methylmercury content in the muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L., the total mercury in the river sediments and the evaluation of health risks associated with fish contamination. Chub were caught at seven localities on the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the agglomeration of Brno in 2008. The results were compared to those obtained from the same sites in 2007. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using an AMA 245 analyzer, and methylmercury was determined by gas chromatography (using an electron-capture detector after acid digestion and toluene extraction in chub muscle. The highest concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury (0.12 ± 0.14 and 0.07 ± 0.02 mg·kg-1 fresh weight, respectively were found in Svratka before junction (south of Brno, whereas the lowest concentration of mercury and methylmercury in chub (0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·kg-1 was detected in Svitava before junction with the Svratka River. Total mercury in sediments ranged from 0.01 to 1.05 mg·kg-1 dry weight, the highest value was detected in the sediment from Rajhradice. The lowest content (0.01 mg·kg-1 was at Kníničky. Hazard indices calculated for the selected localities showed no health risk for either a standard consumer or a fishing family. Fish from the Svitava and Svratka rivers show very low mercury concentration and hazard index and their consumption poses no health risk from total mercury and methylmercury contamination.

  5. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  6. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  7. Community based bioremediation: grassroots responses to urban soil contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kellogg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The past 150 years of industrial processes have left a legacy of toxicity in the soils of today’s urban environments. Exposure to soil based pollutants disproportionately affects low-income communities who are frequently located within formerly industrialized zones. Both gardeners, who come into direct contact with soil, as well as those who eat the products grown in the soil, are at risk to exposure from industrial contaminants. Options for low-income communities for remediating contaminated soils are limited, with most remediation work being carried out by costly engineering firms. Even more problematic is the overall lack of awareness and available information regarding safety and best practices with soils. In response to these challenges, a grassroots movement has emerged that seeks to empower urban residents with the tools and information necessary to address residual industrial toxicity in their ecosystems. Focusing on methods that are simple and affordable, this movement wishes to remove the barriers of cost and technical expertise that may be otherwise prohibitive. This paper will give an overview of this exemplar of generative justice, looking at case studies of organizations that have been successful in implementing these strategies.

  8. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban-rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban-rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban-rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban-rural dichotomy

  9. Assessment of molecular contamination in mask pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, Jean Marie; Dejaune, Patrice; Sergent, Pierre; Gough, Stuart; Cheung, D.; Davenet, Magali; Favre, Arnaud; Rude, C.; Trautmann, T.; Tissier, Michel; Fontaine, H.; Veillerot, M.; Avary, K.; Hollein, I.; Lerit, R.

    2008-04-01

    Context/ study Motivation: Contamination and especially Airbone Molecular Contamination (AMC) is a critical issue for mask material flow with a severe and fairly unpredictable risk of induced contamination and damages especially for 193 nm lithography. It is therefore essential to measure, to understand and then try to reduce AMC in mask environment. Mask material flow was studied in a global approach by a pool of European partners, especially within the frame of European MEDEA+ project, so called "MUSCLE". This paper deals with results and assessment of mask pod environment in term of molecular contamination in a first step, then in a second step preliminary studies to reduce mask pod influence and contamination due to material out gassing. Approach and techniques: A specific assessment of environmental / molecular contamination along the supply chain was performed by all partners. After previous work presented at EMLC 07, further studies were performed on real time contamination measurement pod at different sites locations (including Mask manufacturing site, blank manufacturing sites, IC fab). Studies were linked to the main critical issues: cleaning, storage, handling, materials and processes. Contamination measurement campaigns were carried out along the mask supply chain using specific Adixen analyzer in order to monitor in real time organic contaminants (ppb level) in mask pods. Key results would be presented: VOC, AMC and humidity level on different kinds of mask carriers, impact of basic cleaning on pod outgassing measurement (VOC, NH3), and process influence on pod contamination... In a second step, preliminary specific pod conditioning studies for better pod environment were performed based on Adixen vacuum process. Process influence had been experimentally measured in term of molecular outgassing from mask pods. Different AMC experimental characterization methods had been carried out leading to results on a wide range of organic and inorganic

  10. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  11. Contaminant Dynamics and Trends in Hyperalkaline Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alex; Mayes, William

    2015-04-01

    Streams in post-industrial urban areas can have multiple contemporary and historic pressures impacting upon their chemical and ecological status. This paper presents analysis of long term data series (up to 36 years in length) from two small streams in northern England (catchment areas 0.5-0.6km2). Around 3.5 million m3 of steel making slags and other wastes were deposited in the headwater areas of the Howden Burn and Dene Burn in northeast England up to the closure of the workings in the early 1980s. This has led to streams draining from the former workings which have a hyperalkaline ambient pH (mean of 10.3 in both streams), elevated alkalinity (up to 487 mg/L as CaCO3) from leaching of lime and other calcium oxides / silicates within the slag, and enrichment of some trace elements (e.g. aluminium (Al), lithium (Li) and zinc (Zn)) including those which form oxyanions mobile at high pH such as vanadium (V). The high ionic strength of the waters and calcium enrichment also leads to waters highly supersaturated with calcium carbonate. Trace contaminant concentrations are strongly positively correlated, and concentrations generally diminish with increased flow rate suggesting the key source of metals in the system is the highly alkaline groundwater draining from the slag mounds. Some contaminants (notably Cr and ammonium) increase with high flow suggesting sources related to urban runoff and drainage from combined sewer overflows into one of the catchments. Loading estimates instream show that many of the contaminants (e.g. Al, V and Zn) are rapidly attenuated in secondary calcium carbonate-dominated deposits that precipitate vigorously on the streambeds with rates of up to 250 g CaCO3/m2/day. These secondary sinks limit the mobility of many contaminants in the water column, while concentrations in secondary deposits are relatively low given the rapid rates at which Ca is also attenuated. Long-term trend analysis showed modest declines in calcium and alkalinity over

  12. Emerging contaminants in urban groundwater sources in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J P R; Lapworth, D J; Nkhuwa, D C W; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bell, R A; Chirwa, M; Kabika, J; Liemisa, M; Chibesa, M; Pedley, S

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of emerging organic contaminants within the aquatic environment in Africa is currently unknown. This study provides early insights by characterising a broad range of emerging organic contaminants (n > 1000) in groundwater sources in Kabwe, Zambia. Groundwater samples were obtained during both the dry and wet seasons from a selection of deep boreholes and shallow wells completed within the bedrock and overlying superficial aquifers, respectively. Groundwater sources were distributed across the city to encompass peri-urban, lower cost housing, higher cost housing, and industrial land uses. The insect repellent DEET was ubiquitous within groundwater at concentrations up to 1.8 μg/L. Other compounds (n = 26) were detected in less than 15% of the sources and included the bactericide triclosan (up to 0.03 μg/L), chlorination by-products - trihalomethanes (up to 50 μg/L), and the surfactant 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (up to 0.6 μg/L). Emerging contaminants were most prevalent in shallow wells sited in low cost housing areas. This is attributed to localised vulnerability associated with inadequate well protection, sanitation, and household waste disposal. The five-fold increase in median DEET concentration following the onset of the seasonal rains highlights that more mobile compounds can rapidly migrate from the surface to the aquifer suggesting the aquifer is more vulnerable than previously considered. Furthermore it suggests DEET is potentially useful as a wastewater tracer in Africa. There was a general absence of personal care products, life-style compounds, and pharmaceuticals which are commonly detected in the aquatic environment in the developed world. This perhaps reflects some degree of attenuation within the subsurface, but could also be a result of the current limited use of products containing emerging contaminants by locals due to unaffordability and unavailability. As development and population increases in Africa, it is

  13. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils I Zinc Accumulation Phenomenon in Urban Environments as Clues of Study

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    As an introduction of the continuing study on the heavy metal contamination in urban soils, zinc accumulation phenomenon observed in urban areas in south Osaka was reported. The survey of zinc concentration in soybean leaves taken in urban and suburban arable lands indicated its accumulation in a wide area. And a correlation between easy soluble zinc level in soils and leaf zinc content were shown. Zinc concentrations in suspended particles in air, falling dust and some water samples were che...

  15. Environmental Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment in Urban Water Mines (Porto, NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Afonso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary approach was developed to estimate urban groundwater vulnerability to contamination combining hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, subterranean hydrogeotechnics, groundwater ecotoxicology and isotope tracers. Paranhos and Salgueiros spring waters in Porto City were used as a case study. Historical and current vulnerability scenarios were compared using hydrogeological GIS-based modelling. Potential contamination sources were mapped around the spring galleries. Most of these were point sources and their potential contamination load was moderate. The ecotoxicological assessment indicated a low acute toxicity potential. Groundwater radionuclides appeared to be mainly controlled by geological factors and biomineralisation. Vulnerability maps suggest that most of the area has a moderate to low vulnerability to contamination. However, some surface sources such as sewage systems cause contamination and contribute to increased vulnerability. This integrated approach was demonstrated to be adequate for a better knowledge of urban hydrogeological processes and their dynamics, and highlighted the importance of a vulnerability assessment in urban areas.

  16. The study of metal contamination in urban soils of Hong Kong using a GIS-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangdong; Lee Siulan; Wong Szechung; Shi Wenzhong; Thornton, Iain

    2004-01-01

    The study of regional variations and the anthropogenic contamination by metals of soils is very important for environmental planning and monitoring in urban areas. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanized Kowloon area (46.9 km 2 ) of Hong Kong, using a systematic sampling strategy with a sampling density of 3-5 composite soil samples (0-15 cm) per km 2 . Geochemical maps of 'total' metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from strong acid extraction in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. A significant spatial relationship was found for Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soils using a GIS-based analysis, suggesting that these metal contaminants in the soils of the Kowloon area had common sources. Several hot-spot areas of metal contamination were identified from the composite metal geochemical map, mainly in the old industrial and residential areas. A further GIS analysis revealed that road junctions, major roads and industrial buildings were possible sources of heavy metals in the urban soils. The Pb isotope composition of the contaminated soils showed clear anthropogenic origins. - GIS can be used to identify soil contamination hot-spot areas and to assess potential pollutant sources in an urban community

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  18. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  19. Modelling of a large-scale urban contamination situation and remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Arkhipov, A.; Batandjieva, B.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.; Golikov, V.; Hwang, W.T.; Tomas, J.; Zlobenko, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the first of two modelling exercises, which was based on Chernobyl fallout data in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces and radionuclides, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided a valuable opportunity to compare modelling approaches and parameter values, as well as to compare the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures with respect to short-term and long-term reduction of predicted doses to people.

  20. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul J.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Crane, Dakota L.

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves are the largest cause of environment-related deaths globally. On average, over 6,000 people in the United States alone are hospitalized each summer due to excessive heat. Key elements leading to these disasters are elevated humidity and the urban heat island effect, which act together to increase apparent temperature and amplify the effects of a heat wave. Urban demographics and socioeconomic factors also play a role in determining individual risk. Currently, advisories of impending heat waves are often too generalized, with limited or no spatial variability over urban regions. This frequently contributes to a lack of specific response on behalf of the population. A goal of this project is to develop a product that has the potential to provide more specific heat wave guidance invoking greater awareness and action.

  1. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermont, G., E-mail: dermonge@gmail.com [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique Eau Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490, rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 {mu}m. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (< 20 {mu}m) caused a flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (> 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 {mu}m) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  2. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Richer-Laflèche, M; Mercier, G

    2010-02-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions >250microm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor>2.5), and volume reduction (>80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles (flotation selectivity drop, especially with a long flotation time (>5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 microm) showed the best flotation selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Remediation of metal-contaminated urban soil using flotation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermont, G.; Bergeron, M.; Richer-Lafleche, M.; Mercier, G.

    2010-01-01

    A soil washing process using froth flotation technique was evaluated for the removal of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from a highly contaminated urban soil (brownfield) after crushing of the particle-size fractions > 250 μm. The metal contaminants were in particulate forms and distributed in all the particle-size fractions. The particle-by-particle study with SEM-EDS showed that Zn was mainly present as sphalerite (ZnS), whereas Cu and Pb were mainly speciated as various oxide/carbonate compounds. The influence of surfactant collector type (non-ionic and anionic), collector dosage, pulp pH, a chemical activation step (sulfidization), particle size, and process time on metal removal efficiency and flotation selectivity was studied. Satisfactory results in metal recovery (42-52%), flotation selectivity (concentration factor > 2.5), and volume reduction (> 80%) were obtained with anionic collector (potassium amyl xanthate). The transportation mechanisms involved in the separation process (i.e., the true flotation and the mechanical entrainment) were evaluated by the pulp chemistry, the metal speciation, the metal distribution in the particle-size fractions, and the separation selectivity indices of Zn/Ca and Zn/Fe. The investigations showed that a great proportion of metal-containing particles were recovered in the froth layer by entrainment mechanism rather than by true flotation process. The non-selective entrainment mechanism of the fine particles ( 5 min) and when a high collector dose is used. The intermediate particle-size fraction (20-125 μm) showed the best flotation selectivity.

  4. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events

  6. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  7. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  8. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  9. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, Jim [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Aondoakaa, Stephen [Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria); School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hossain, Rifat [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartram, Jamie, E-mail: jbartram@unc.edu [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  10. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert; Wright, Jim; Aondoakaa, Stephen; Hossain, Rifat; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  11. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  12. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  13. Superfund risk assessment in soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddinott, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 30-31, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on risk assessment associated with soil contamination. The conference included presentations in the following categories: site characterization; fate and transport; toxicity, exposures, and receptors; risk characterization/case studies; and establishing cleanup levels. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  14. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  15. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.

    2003-01-01

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  16. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  17. Isotope chemistry of an extensively nitrate-contaminated urban aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, O.; de Souza, L. C.; de Queiros, M. A.; Stegemann, C.; Hunziker, J.

    2003-04-01

    The supply of drinking water for the approximately 800.000 inhabitants of the city of Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil) is strongly dependent on the use of local groundwater from the Barreiras Aquifer. Over 70 % of the public production are served by a system of about 130 tubular wells, that are distributed all over the urban area. Yet, no groundwater protection zones have been declared. In addition, a comparable number of private wells also depend on the cities underground water resources. Depending on the local topography, the groundwater table is located several tens of meters below surface. Useable groundwater occurrences are bound to an up to hundred meters thick series of unconsolidated clastic sediments from the younger tertiary (Barreiras Formation), that is underlain by less permeable cretaceous carbonates. Natals topography is dominated by impressive quaternary dunes formations, that play an important role for the infiltration of rain as the only source of recharge for the local groundwater. During the last decades, an extensive and rapidly growing groundwater-contamination with up to over 100 mg/l nitrate was observed by the local authorities. Hydrochemical data indicate this deterioration to be due to a massive spill of sanitary effluents over septic pits, as only 20 % of the city is yet served by a sewer system. The isotopic composition of Natals groundwater shows only small variations, with an average δ18O value of -2,3 per mill and δ2H value of -10,5 per mill vs. SMOW. Its origin from recent local precipitation is revealed by a good correspondence with the annual weighted means for precipitation in Ceara Mirim (nearest GNIP station, situated 45 km NE of Natal). In contrast, a set of samples from different regional surface waters indicated a strong evaporation trend with systematic enrichment in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition. Samples from 33 production wells with a wide variation of nitrate concentrations were investigated for their

  18. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  19. Feedback on the radiological management of a urban site contaminated with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institut de radioportection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: In November 2010, the IRSN is reached on a rare case of environmental tritium contamination on a site located in an urban area near Paris (Saint-Maur-des-Fosses - dpt 94). This contamination resulted from the presence in an enterprise's premises of an experimental device containing molecular sieve from the Valduc nuclear site, wrongly considered as un-used. First actions: IRSN has quickly performed an initial characterization of tritium contamination in the premises of the company and its close environment. The first results showed the existence of a strong local contamination (tritium activity> 150 000 Bq/m{sup 3} in air) and a important labeling in samples collected in the close vicinity of the company premises (between 1000 and 10000 Bq/kg f.w. in plants, between 500 and 1500 Bq/L in water). These results led IRSN to conduct multiple investigations: - tritium measurements on samples of water, air and plants collected in the area close to the building to know the importance and extent of environmental marking and follow its evolution over time. In this aim, 450 measurements were made between 2010 and 2013; - measurements of tritium in the urine of residents living near the contaminated building: the results showed traces of tritium for some of them but the assessments conducted by the IRSN from these results led to extremely low dosimetry estimates without consequences for the health of these people; - dosimetric evaluations of tritium exposure of employees and visitors of the company contaminated. Informing the public and stakeholders In November 2010, IRSN has collaborated with the mayor to facilitate early interventions in urban areas and in particular to facilitate contacts for access to private property. In this perspective, the IRSN participated in public meetings to explain the cause of this accident and the results of tritium measurements to residents. IRSN also published regularly on its web site briefing notes reflecting the results

  20. [Ecological hygienic assessment of soils quality in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V

    Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.

  1. A Survey to Assess Barriers to Urban Teaching Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Mays, Jennifer; Lee, Robert; D'Santiago, Verenice

    2016-01-01

    The "Urban Teaching Barriers" survey was created to assess barriers to urban teaching careers. Pre-service teachers (N = 377) completed this instrument, along with questionnaires that assessed urban teaching intentions and urban teaching self-efficacy. Six barrier domains were identified that tapped concerns over (a) lack of resources,…

  2. Occurrence, distribution, and seasonality of emerging contaminants in urban watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuelian; Lutz, Alex; Carroll, Rosemary; Keteles, Kristen; Dahlin, Kenneth; Murphy, Mark; Nguyen, David

    2018-06-01

    The widespread occurrence of natural and synthetic organic chemicals in surface waters can cause ecological risks and human health concerns. This study measured a suite of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in water samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 around the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The results showed that 109 of 144 analyzed pharmaceutical compounds, 42 of 55 analyzed waste-indicator compounds (e.g., flame retardants, hormones, and personal care products), and 39 of 72 analyzed pesticides were detected in the water samples collected monthly between April and November in both 2014 and 2015. Pharmaceutical compounds were most abundant in the surface waters and their median concentrations were measured up to a few hundred nanograms per liter. The CEC concentrations varied depending on sampling locations and seasons. The primary source of CECs was speculated to be wastewater effluent. The CEC concentrations were correlated to streamflow volume and showed significant seasonal effects. The CECs were less persistent during spring runoff season compared with baseflow season at most sampling sites. These results are useful for providing baseline data for surface CEC monitoring and assessing the environmental risks and potential human exposure to CECs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. URBAN COHESION: A PUBLIC SPACE NETWORK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Pinto

    2015-07-01

    With this in mind, we have analysed one study case in Barcelona – the Barceloneta neighbourhood, a historic quarter outside the old walled city that is now part of its consolidated urban fabric. The analysis of this case allows us to assess both (1 the role that the urban layout plays in the configuration of the public space network, forcing us to reflect on the role of “boundaries” as fundamental elements in the articulation among the local and overall public space networks in the city; and (2 the role of several socio-economic dynamics affecting to the everyday life of these neighbourhoods

  4. Assessment of radiological properties of wastes from urban decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, D.N.G.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Rochedo, P.R.R.; De Luca, C.

    2015-01-01

    One important activity associated to urban areas contaminated from accidental releases to the atmosphere of nuclear power plants is the management of radioactive wastes generated from decontamination procedures. This include the collection, conditioning, packing, transport and temporary/final disposition. The final destination is defined usually through a political decision. Thus, transport of packed radioactive wastes shall depend on decisions not just under the scope of radiological protection issues. However, the simulations performed to assess doses for the public and decontamination workers allows the estimate of radiological aspects related to the waste generated and these characteristics may be included in a multi-criteria decision tool aiming to support, under the radiological protection point of view, the decision-making process on post-emergency procedures. Important information to decision makers are the type, amount and activity concentration of wastes. This work describes the procedures to be included in the urban area model to account for the assessment of qualitative and quantitative description of wastes. The results will allow the classification of different procedures according to predefined criteria that shall then feed the multi-criteria assessment tool, currently under development, considering basic radiological protection aspects of wastes generated by the different available cleanup procedures on typical tropical urban environments. (authors)

  5. PAHs contamination in urban soils from Lisbon: spatial variability and potential risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Ruth; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can become major contaminants in urban and industrial areas, due to the existence of a plethora of diffuse and point sources. Particularly diffuse pollution, which is normally characterized by continuous and long-term emission of contaminants below risk levels, can be a major problem in urban areas. Since PAHs are persistent and tend to accumulate in soils, levels are often above the recommended guidelines indicating that ecological functions of soils may be affected. Moreover, due to the lipophilic nature, hydrophobicity and low chemical and biological degradation rates of PAHs, which leads to their bioconcentration and bioamplification, they may reach toxicological relevant concentrations in organisms. The importance and interest of studying this group of contaminants is magnified due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In this study, a risk assessment framework has been followed in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by the presence of PAHs in Lisbon urban soils. Hence, the first step consisted in screening the total concentrations of PAHs followed by the calculation of risks based on existing models. Considering these models several samples were identified as representing a potential risk when comparing with the guidelines for soil protection. Moreover, it was found that for 38% of samples more than 50% of species can be potentially affected by the mixture of PAHs. The use of geostatistical methods allowed to visualize the predicted distribution of PAHs in Lisbon area and identify the areas where possible risk to the environment are likely occurring However, it is known that total concentration may not allow a direct prediction of environmental risk, since in general only a fraction of total concentration is available for partitioning between soil and solution and thus to be uptake or transformed by organisms (bioacessible or bioavailable) or to be leached to groundwater. The

  6. An Intercomparison of Model Predictions for an Urban Contamination Resulting from the Explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hyo Jun; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The METRO-K is a model for a radiological dose assessment due to a radioactive contamination in the Korean urban environment. The model has been taken part in the Urban Remediation Working Group within the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety) program. The Working Croup designed for the intercomparison of radioactive contamination to be resulted from the explosion of a radiological dispersal device in a hypothetical city. This paper dealt intensively with a part among a lot of predictive results which had been performed in the EMRAS program. The predictive results of three different models (METRO-K, RESRAD-RDD, CPHR) were submitted to the Working Group. The gap of predictive results was due to the difference of mathematical modeling approaches, parameter values, understanding of assessors. Even if final results (for example, dose rates from contaminated surfaces which might affect to a receptor) are similar, the understanding on the contribution of contaminated surfaces showed a great difference. Judging from the authors, it is due to the lack of understanding and information on radioactive terrors as well as the social and cultural gaps which assessors have been experienced. Therefore, it can be known that the experience of assessors and their subjective judgements might be important factors to get reliable results. If the acquisition of a little additional information is possible, it was identified that the METRO-K might be a useful tool for decision support against contamination resulting from radioactive terrors by improving the existing model.

  7. An Intercomparison of Model Predictions for an Urban Contamination Resulting from the Explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hyo Jun; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2009-01-01

    The METRO-K is a model for a radiological dose assessment due to a radioactive contamination in the Korean urban environment. The model has been taken part in the Urban Remediation Working Group within the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety) program. The Working Croup designed for the intercomparison of radioactive contamination to be resulted from the explosion of a radiological dispersal device in a hypothetical city. This paper dealt intensively with a part among a lot of predictive results which had been performed in the EMRAS program. The predictive results of three different models (METRO-K, RESRAD-RDD, CPHR) were submitted to the Working Group. The gap of predictive results was due to the difference of mathematical modeling approaches, parameter values, understanding of assessors. Even if final results (for example, dose rates from contaminated surfaces which might affect to a receptor) are similar, the understanding on the contribution of contaminated surfaces showed a great difference. Judging from the authors, it is due to the lack of understanding and information on radioactive terrors as well as the social and cultural gaps which assessors have been experienced. Therefore, it can be known that the experience of assessors and their subjective judgements might be important factors to get reliable results. If the acquisition of a little additional information is possible, it was identified that the METRO-K might be a useful tool for decision support against contamination resulting from radioactive terrors by improving the existing model.

  8. Metabolomic Profiles of a Midge (Procladius villosimanus, Kieffer Are Associated with Sediment Contamination in Urban Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Jeppe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic techniques are powerful tools for investigating organism-environment interactions. Metabolite profiles have the potential to identify exposure or toxicity before populations are disrupted and can provide useful information for environmental assessment. However, under complex environmental scenarios, metabolomic responses to exposure can be distorted by background and/or organismal variation. In the current study, we use LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure metabolites of the midge Procladius villosimanus inhabiting 21 urban wetlands. These metabolites were tested against common sediment contaminants using random forest models and metabolite enrichment analysis. Sediment contaminant concentrations in the field correlated with several P. villosimanus metabolites despite natural environmental and organismal variation. Furthermore, enrichment analysis indicated that metabolite sets implicated in stress responses were enriched, pointing to specific cellular functions affected by exposure. Methionine metabolism, sugar metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism associated with total petroleum hydrocarbon and metal concentrations, while mitochondrial electron transport and urea cycle sets associated only with bifenthrin. These results demonstrate the potential for metabolomics approaches to provide useful information in field-based environmental assessments.

  9. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.

    1997-10-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man's intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG)

  10. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P; Skuterud, L [eds.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Melin, J [ed.; Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man`s intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG).

  11. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper, boron, and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1967-04-01

    Spectrochemical analysis of representative samples of topsoil from urban gardens and from individual fields in rural areas indicates that the level of total copper, EDTA-extractable copper, water-soluble boron, and acetic-acid extractable lead are markedly enhanced in urban areas. No significant differences were discovered between levels of these elements in soils from built-up areas in small towns and large conurbations. These results suggest the possibility of general enhancement of the trace element content of plants grown in private gardens in built-up areas.

  12. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  13. Local dose assessment for a contaminated wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Chaptinel, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Contaminated wounds present a great variability concerning the type of lesion. Assessment of the local dose is one amongst other factors for a decision as to the surgical operation. A simple model has been used to calculate the doses in a representative volume, that of a phalanx for instance. The dose rates are given for current radionuclides. The method of calculation is enough simple in order to allow the practitioners to use it in situations involving other radionuclides. Committed dose depends on the biological half-life which can be estimated from the local measurements. Some examples of calculation of committed dose are given considering half-lives characteristic of the compound. Transposition of the dose to the local risk is easy for the non-stochastic risk. Conversely, this is not the case for the risk of chronic inflammation or cancer. The latter question could only be solved by a feedback based on the analysis of real till now observed cases, nevertheless taking into account the fact that the available data are generally not so easy to make use for establishing an unquestionable dose - effect relation. A critical issue remains open as to the use of these doses for their comparison to the regulatory limits and for the subsequent decisions in case of exceeding the limits. The actual impact of an irradiation, especially by alpha particles, is not linked to the calculated dose in a simple and direct way. This question needs further consideration and perhaps a practical guide concerning this topic would be useful. The anatomical (surgical side effects), psychological and professional consequences should have a large weight relatively to the doses, obviously except for the cases, involving actually large contamination. (authors)

  14. The assessment of Urban Storm Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyandito, Oki; Wijayanti, Yureana; Alwan, Muhammad; Chayati, Cholilul; Meilani

    2017-12-01

    A Sustainable and integrated plan in order to solve urban storm inundation problem, is an urgent issue in Indonesia. A reliable and complete datasets of urban storm inundation area in Indonesia should become its basis to give clear description of inundation area for formulating the best solution. In this study, Statistics Indonesia data in thirty three provinces were assessed during 2000 until 2012 providing data series of urban flood area, flood frequency and land cover changes. Drainage system condition in big cities should be well understood to ensure its infrastructure condition and performance. If inundation occurred, it can be concluded that there is drainage system problem. Inundation data is also important for drainage system design process in the future. The study result is provided estimation of urban storm inundation area based on calculation of Statistics Indonesia data. Moreover, this study is preceded by analyzing and reviewing the capacity of existing drainage channel, using case study of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Rainfall data was obtained from three rainfall stations surround Mataram City. The storm water quantity was calculated using three different approaches as follows: 1) Rational Method; 2) Summation of existing inundation and surface run off discharge; 3) Discharge calculation from existing channel dimensions. After that, the result of these approaches was compared. The storm water quantity gap was concluded as quantity of inundation. The result shows that 36% of drainage channel in Brenyok Kanan River sub system could not accommodate the storm water runoff in this area, which causing inundation. The redesign of drainage channel using design discharge from Rational Method approach should be performed. Within area with the lowest level topography, a construction of detention or storage pond is essential to prevent inundation in this area. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the statistics database are discussed. Recommendations

  15. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  16. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  17. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  18. Bacteria from contaminated urban and hilly areas as a source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production and extraction of different bacterial strains isolated from contaminated urban and hilly areas was conducted. The 30 bacterial isolates were Gram negative and belonged to Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Bacterial level of resistance ...

  19. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Assane Diop, BS; Meredith Block, MPA; Alexander Smith-Jones, BS; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background. This paper describes the impact of improper used lead-acid battery (ULAB) handling and disposal. A specific case study is presented describing the field assessment and remediation of lead contamination in a community in Senegal where at least 18 children died from lead poisoning. Objectives. The assessment and remediation process utilized to address the Senegal lead contamination has been used as a model approach to solving used lead-acid battery (ULAB) contamination in other e...

  20. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia

    2017-04-01

    of soil contamination in industrial, residential areas and parks has increased by 8-18%. This is caused by the accumulation of zinc, manganese, lead and mineral salts, sometimes in excess of the permitted rate. The contamination of plants in Mariupol is higher than soil contamination due to deposition of heavy metals directly from the atmosphere. Phytotoxicity effect has been discovered on the most of monitoring sites. Conclusions. Due to extremely high heterogeneity and combination of pollution from multiple sources, the changes of urban soil quality can be objectively assessed using observations which are systematic in space and time. The quality of urban soils is improving over five-ten years after reducing the amount of industrial pollution, but heavy metals are continuing to dissipate from the industrial zone to the surrounding land. Soil quality is deteriorating significantly in case of a constant dominance of the steel industry over other activities.

  1. Assessment of CHSST maglev for U.S. urban transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of the Urban Maglev system proposed by the Maglev Urban Systems Associates MUSA team for application in the United States. The proposed system is the Japanese Chubu high speed surface transportation (HSST) Maglev wh...

  2. A Systematic Review of Urban Sustainability Assessment Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cohen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the world rapidly urbanizes, there is much focus on achieving sustainability outcomes within cities. Accomplishing this goal requires not only envisioning sustainable cities and implementing strategies, but it also demands assessing progress towards sustainable urban development. Despite a growing literature on sustainability assessment, there is room to further understand the application of sustainability assessment in urban contexts. This paper presents a systematic review of urban sustainability assessment literature to (1 identify the most common methods used for urban sustainability assessment, (2 identify the most common framings for urban sustainability assessment, and (3 identify the most common categories for organizing indicators that measure urban sustainability. This research finds that urban sustainability assessment in general lacks a unifying framing and that it could be better aligned with common sustainability principles. The paper provides recommendations for future urban sustainability assessment research, including the employment of mixed-methods research among other strategies. In closing, this research offers a generic framework around which to structure urban sustainability assessment and within which to assign indicators for measuring progress towards sustainable urban development.

  3. Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of a highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Davoli, Enrico; Riva, Francesco; Palmiotto, Marinella; Camporini, Paolo; Manenti, Angela; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-12-22

    The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM). Specific analytical methods were developed for quantitative analysis based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ECs were measured in rivers upstream and downstream of the main city (Milan), and in untreated and treated wastewater from Milan to assess the contribution to river contamination, and in superficial and deep groundwater in the city area to study the relationship between river and groundwater contamination. Samples were collected in a two-year monitoring campaign. Almost all ECs were ubiquitous in untreated wastewater, at concentrations up to the μg/L range, and the most abundant classes were PHARM and AM. Removals during different wastewater treatment processes were studied and the most stable substances were PHARM, PCPs and PERF. The mass loads increased for all the classes of ECs along the River Lambro basin. A mass balance was done in the river basin and allowed to identify the main sources of contamination, which were domestic, from treated or untreated wastewater, for PHARM, PCPs and IDs, mainly industrial for PERF, and both industrial and domestic for Alk-BPA. The study of AM helped to identify direct discharges of untreated wastewater. A substantial contribution of surface water to groundwater contamination was observed. This study improves the knowledge on occurrence, sources and fate of multiple classes of ECs in a highly urbanized area providing

  4. Generic Assessment Criteria for human health risk assessment of potentially contaminated land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nathanail, Paul C

    2009-12-20

    Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) are derived using widely applicable assumptions about the characteristics and behaviour of contaminant sources, pathways and receptors. GAC provide nationally consistent guidance, thereby saving money and time. Currently, there are no human health based Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) for contaminated sites in China. Protection of human health is therefore difficult to ensure and demonstrate; and the lack of GAC makes it difficult to tell if there is potential significant risk to human health unless site-specific criteria are derived. This paper derived Chinese GAC (GAC) for five inorganic and eight organic substances for three regions in China for three land uses: urban residential without plant uptake, Chinese cultivated land, and commercial/industrial using the SNIFFER model. The SNIFFER model has been further implemented with a dermal absorption algorithm and the model default input values have been changed to reflect the Chinese exposure scenarios. It is envisaged that the modified SNIFFER model could be used to derive GAC for more contaminants, more Regions, and more land uses. Further research to enhance the reliability and acceptability of the GAC is needed in regional/national surveys in diet and working patterns.

  5. Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals - methodology of calculation for pollution assessment (minireview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmannová, Helena Doležalová; Pavlovský, Jiří

    2017-11-07

    This article provides the assessment of heavy metal soil pollution with using the calculation of various pollution indices and contains also summarization of the sources of heavy metal soil pollution. Twenty described indices of the assessment of soil pollution consist of two groups: single indices and total complex indices of pollution or contamination with relevant classes of pollution. This minireview provides also the classification of pollution indices in terms of the complex assessment of soil quality. In addition, based on the comparison of metal concentrations in soil-selected sites of the world and used indices of pollution or contamination in soils, the concentration of heavy metal in contaminated soils varied widely, and pollution indices confirmed the significant contribution of soil pollution from anthropogenic activities mainly in urban and industrial areas.

  6. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.

    2007-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  7. Widespread polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of urban soils in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas J; Morrison, Paul D; Sandiford, Christopher J; Ball, Andrew S; Clarke, Bradley O

    2016-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a variety of materials and products. PBDEs have been shown to accumulate in the environment and human populations while exhibiting a range of toxic effects. In this study, surface soil samples from 30 sites in the city of Melbourne, Australia, were analysed for PBDEs. Eight congeners of environmental concern (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154 -183 and -209) were assessed using selective pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). PBDEs were detected in 29/30 samples with Σ 8 PBDE soil concentrations ranging nd-13,200 ng/g dw and Σ 7 PBDEs (excluding BDE-209) levels of nd-70.5 ng/g dw. Soils from waste disposal sites (n = 6) contained the highest median Σ 7 PBDE and Σ 8 PBDE concentrations, followed by manufacturing sites (n = 18) and then non-source sites (n = 6). Electronics recycling facilities contained the greatest levels of Σ 8 PBDEs by a significant margin (p production, with the most significant congener correlation existing between BDE-47 and BDE-99 (p < 0.001, r = 0.943). This first assessment of PBDEs in Melbourne soils indicates widespread contamination of the urban environment, including locations where direct sources to soil are not clear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A stable isotope approach for source apportionment of chlorinated ethene plumes at a complex multi-contamination events urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Schmidt, Marie; Pellegatti, Eleonora; Paramatti, Enrico; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Gargini, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of chlorinated aliphatic compounds such as chlorinated methanes, ethanes and ethenes was examined as an intrinsic fingerprint for apportionment of sources. A complex field site located in Ferrara (Italy), with more than 50 years history of use of chlorinated aliphatic compounds, was investigated in order to assess contamination sources. Several contamination plumes were found in a complex alluvial sandy multi-aquifer system close to the river Po; sources are represented by uncontained former industrial and municipal dump sites as well as by spills at industrial areas. The carbon stable isotope signature allowed distinguishing 2 major sources of contaminants. One source of chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was strongly depleted in 13C (-40‰ which is commonly observed in recent production of chlorinated solvents. The degradation processes in the plumes could be traced interpreting the isotope enrichment and depletion of parent and daughter compounds, respectively. We demonstrate that, under specific production conditions, namely when highly chlorinated ethenes are produced as by-product during chloromethanes production, 13C depleted fingerprinting of contaminants can be obtained and this can be used to track sources and address the responsible party of the pollution in urban areas.

  9. Emerging contaminants: strategies for the assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants 

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine. Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these compounds could be important

  10. Assessing urban forest effects and values, Scranton's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Vincent. Cotrone

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the urbanized portion of Scranton, PA, reveals that this area has about 1.2 million trees with canopies that cover 22.0 percent of the area. The most common tree species are red maple, gray birch, black cherry, northern red oak, and quaking aspen. Scranton's urban forest currently store about 93,300 tons of carbon valued at $1.9 million. In...

  11. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Mugoša

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA, soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed.

  12. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  13. Complex assessment of urban housing energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Karakozova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project's structural analysis with the use of advanced intelligent collection systems, processing (self-organizing maps - SOM) and data visualization (geo-informational systems - GIS). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. The authors propose mechanisms for increasing the area's energy stability level by implementing a set of reproduction activities for residential development of various groups. The analysis showed that modern multilevel and high-rise construction buildings have the least heat losses. At present, however, ow-rise wood buildings is the dominant styles of buildings of Arkhangelsk city. Data visualisation on the created heat map showed that such housing stock covers the largest urban area. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. An urban regeneration programme for severely rundown urban housing estates is in a high-rise construction building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city.

  14. The spread of 137Cs by resuspension of contaminated soil in the urban area of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, M.A.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Paretzke, H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements regarding the population exposure were performed in Goiania after the radiological accident as well as studies on resuspension and redeposition of 137 Cs in urban areas, on the contribution of soil splash to the 137 Cs uptake by leafy vegetables and on the transfer of 137 Cs from soil to chicken meat and eggs. Periodical street dust sampling was used to follow-up the spreading of the radionuclide in the city. The results do not indicate a measurable spreading of this radionuclide throughout the city from the contaminated areas, but resuspension can lead to significant local contamination of agricultural products, equipment, structures, etc. (author)

  15. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils around Cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations, contamination/pollution index, anthropogenic input and enrichment factors for metals in soil in the vicinity of cassava processing mills in sub-urban areas of Delta State of Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of metals in all sites and depths ranged from 0.1 to 383.2 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4.0 to 11.3 mg ...

  17. Review of Urban Sustainability Indicators Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, Florianna Lendai; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the processes, methodologies and resulting sets of indicators for urban sustainability carried out in three of Asia's developing countries; Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The paper analytically discusses the challenges of developing urban sustainability indicators...... among the developing countries. The comparison reveals the urban indicators development's processes, contents and outcomes and whether the resulting set of urban indicators is operational and has changed the way things were....

  18. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms in urban soils and its implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; Coelho, C; Gavina, A; Dias, A C; Patinha, C; Reis, A P; da Silva, E Ferreira; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a global problem, and in urban soils they can be found at potentially hazard levels. Nevertheless, the real risks that these contaminants pose to the environment are not well known, since the bioavailability of PAHs in urban soils has been poorly studied. Therefore, the bioavailability of PAHs in some selected urban soils from Lisbon (Portugal) was evaluated. Moreover, the applicability of a first screening phase based on total contents of PAHs was assessed. Results show that bioavailability of PAHs is reduced (low levels in earthworms, low accumulation percentages, and low biota-to-soil accumulation factors values), especially in more contaminated soils. The aging of these compounds explains this low availability, and confirms the generally accepted assumption that accumulation of PAHs in urban areas is mostly related with a long-term deposition of contaminated particles. The comparison of measured PAHs concentrations in earthworm tissues with the ones predicted based on theoretical models, reinforce that risks based on total levels are overestimated, but it can be a good initial approach for urban soils. This study also highlights the need of more reliable ecotoxicological data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... As well as participating in a development program, Africa Research in ...

  20. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  1. Contamination by urban superficial runoff: accumulated heavy metals on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the behaviour of accumulated contamination on urban surfaces is important in designing control methods minimising the impacts of surface runoff on the environment. This paper presents data regarding the sediment collected on the surface of an urban road in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a period of 65 days during which 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. The results showed that heavy metal concentration in the collected sediment (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd was inversely proportional to particle diameter. High heavy metal concentrations were found in the smaller fraction (63 pm. Regression equations were calculated for heavy metal concentration regarding particle diameter. Large heavy metal loads were found in the larger fraction (125 pm. The results provide information for analysing runoff water quality in urban areas and designing treatment strategies.

  2. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River intertidal zone due to urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Huan; Han, Xiaofei; Zhang Weiguo; Yu Lizhong

    2004-01-01

    Three short sediment cores ( 210 Pb and 7 Be. The 210 Pb xs profile shows a non-steady-state sedimentation pattern in the study area and 7 Be is only found in the upper 1 cm layer of sediment in high and middle tidal flats. In this study, we found that Cu, Pb and Zn contaminants are present in the upper 20 cm of the tidal flat sediment and, after normalizing with Al, the contamination is more striking in the upper ∼5 cm sediment. Relationships between the metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) enrichment factor and 210 Pb xs activity suggest that contamination increases with time. Factor analyses shows that differences in sediment grain size have insignificant effects on Cu and Pb concentrations, but have some influence on Zn concentration in the study area. This preliminary study shows that urbanization and recent coastal wetland reclamation have had an environmental impact on this area

  4. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  5. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included

  6. Assessing urban forest effects and values: Toronto's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Alexis Ellis; Theodore A. Endreny; Yang Yang; Tian Zhou; Ruthanne. Henry

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of trees in Toronto, Ontario, reveals that this city has about 10.2 million trees with a tree and shrub canopy that covers approximately 26.6 percent of the city. The most common tree species are eastern white-cedar, sugar maple, and Norway maple. The urban forest currently stores an estimated 1.1 million metric tons of carbon valued at CAD$25.0 million. In...

  7. geochemical assessment of influence of urbanization on heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Trace element enrichment and pollution caused by urbanization with its ... The result of the concentration of trace elements in ppm showed in the order of ... environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant ... processing industries, sawmill abattoir and waste metal ... plastic packer to avoid contamination of samples. At.

  8. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  9. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  10. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A model for evaluating the radioactive contamination in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee

    2005-01-01

    A model for evaluating radioactive contamination in the urban environment, named METRO-K, was developed as a basic step for accident consequence analysis in case of an accidental release. The three kind of radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 131 I) and the different chemical forms of iodine (particulate, organic and elemental forms) are considered in the model. The radioactive concentrations are evaluated for the five types of surface (roof, paved road, wall, lawn/soil, tree) as a function of time. Using the model, the contaminative impacts of the surfaces were intensively investigated with respect to with and without precipitation during the measurement periods of radionuclides in air. In addition, a practical application study was conducted using 137 Cs concentration in air and precipitation measured in an European country at the Chernobyl accident. As a result, precipitation was an influential factor in surface contamination. The degree of contamination was strongly dependent on the types of radionuclide and surface. Precipitation was more influential in contamination of 137 Cs than that of 131 I (elemental form)

  12. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in Europe. Of these, approximately 340,000 sites are thought to be contaminated to a degree that may require remediation (Joint Research Center, 2014). Until recently, remediation was considered...... to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment...

  13. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  14. Analysis of surface contributions to external doses in a radioactively contaminated urban environment designed by the EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► External dose and contribution from radio-activated surface were evaluated for EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group scenarios. ► The external doses showed a distinctive difference with the locations and precipitation. ► The contribution of contaminated surfaces for external dose depends on locations and precipitation. ► These results provide the essential information for decision-making support of countermeasures. - Abstract: The EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group, which is supported by the IAEA, has designed a variety of accidental scenarios to test and improve the capabilities of the models used for an evaluation of radioactive contamination in an urban environment. A variety of models including a Korean model, METRO-K, are used for predictive results on the hypothetical scenarios. This paper describes the predictive results of METRO-K for the hypothetical scenarios designed in the Working Group. The external dose resulting from the air contamination of Co-60 was evaluated, and its contribution was analyzed with time as a function of the location of a receptor and precipitation conditions at the time of the contamination event. As a result, the external doses showed a distinctive difference with the locations to be evaluated and the precipitation conditions. Moreover, the contribution of contaminated surfaces for external doses was strongly dependent on the locations to be evaluated and the precipitation conditions. These results will provide essential information to assist the decision-making of appropriate countermeasures in an emergency situation of a radioactively contaminated urban environment

  15. Urban Landscape Metrics for Climate and Sustainability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    To test metrics for rapid identification of urban classes and sustainable urban forms, we examine the configuration of urban landscapes using satellite remote sensing data. We adopt principles from landscape ecology and urban planning to evaluate urban heterogeneity and design themes that may constitute more sustainable urban forms, including compactness (connectivity), density, mixed land uses, diversity, and greening. Using 2-D wavelet and multi-resolution analysis, landscape metrics, and satellite-derived indices of vegetation fraction and impervious surface, the spatial variability of Landsat and MODIS data from metropolitan areas of Manaus and São Paulo, Brazil are investigated. Landscape metrics for density, connectivity, and diversity, like the Shannon Diversity Index, are used to assess the diversity of urban buildings, geographic extent, and connectedness. Rapid detection of urban classes for low density, medium density, high density, and tall building district at the 1-km scale are needed for use in climate models. If the complexity of finer-scale urban characteristics can be related to the neighborhood scale both climate and sustainability assessments may be more attainable across urban areas.

  16. [Establishment of Assessment Method for Air Bacteria and Fungi Contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-ling; Yao, Da-jun; Zhang, Yu; Fang, Zi-liang

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, in order to settle existing problems in the assessment of air bacteria and fungi contamination, the indoor and outdoor air bacteria and fungi filed concentrations by impact method and settlement method in existing documents were collected and analyzed, then the goodness of chi square was used to test whether these concentration data obeyed normal distribution at the significant level of α = 0.05, and combined with the 3σ principle of normal distribution and the current assessment standards, the suggested concentrations ranges of air microbial concentrations were determined. The research results could provide a reference for developing air bacteria and fungi contamination assessment standards in the future.

  17. Contamination by persistent toxic substances in surface sediment of urban rivers in Chaohu City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Zhang, Haiping; Meng, Xiangzhou; Chen, Ling; Yin, Daqiang

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the river sediment in Chaohu City, China were investigated. A total of nine surface sediments were collected and the selected PTS pollutants including six heavy metals and nineteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentrations (in mg/kg, dry weight) ranged within 0.18-1.53 (Hg), 50.08-200.18 (Cu), 118.70-313.65 (Zn), 50.77-310.85 (Cr), 37.12-92.72 (Pb) and 13.29-197.24 (As), and Cu, Zn and As have been regarded as the main metal pollutants. The levels of PBDEs (1.2-12.1 ng/g) and BDE-209 (2.4-30.5 ng/g) were at the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (67.0%-85.7%), which agrees with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are the dominant PBDE formulation in China. The relative high level of PTS pollutants in the western part of the city is probably owing to the intensive agricultural activities and lack of sewerage system there. The ecological risk assessment with the sediment quality guidelines (SOGs) indicates that the urban river sediments in the city have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals with probable ecotoxicological impacts on freshwater organisms and the main toxic pollutants are Hg and As. The results of current study imply that the city, and perhaps many other small cities in China as well, requires immediate pollution control measures with emphasis on not only conventional organic pollutants but also on PTS such as heavy metals and PBDEs.

  18. Radiological risk assessment of a radioactively contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted at a radioactively contaminated site under current site use conditions and based on the available preliminary radiological characterization data for the site. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  20. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  1. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Terry L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sweet, Stephen T. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: sweet@gerg.tamu.edu; Klein, Andrew G. [Geography Department, Texas A and M University, 814B Eller O and M Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay.

  2. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay

  3. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    KEY WORDS: Income, urban forest, education, age ... at the various levels of his education, his endeavours ... conservation developmental activities should be ... tourism. Well-maintained trees improve residential. “curb appeal” and increase ...

  4. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Quality and User Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed urban infrastructure quality and the level of user satisfaction with urban infrastructure in low income residential neighbourhoods in Minna, Nigeria. Five (5) neighbourhoods were selected for the study, and a total of 250 housing units were sampled. Questionnaire was administered on households that fell ...

  5. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation of Quality of Cows' Raw Milk: A Case of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha Towns of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Bacterial load Ethiopia Horro Guduru Peri-Urban Dairying Raw milk ...

  6. [Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei

    2012-12-30

    Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05).

  7. Outlier identification in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaosheng

    2010-05-01

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  9. Determination of Airborne Lead Contamination in Cichorium intybus L. in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    YAKUPOĞLU, Dilmaç; GÜRAY, Tülin; SARICA, Deniz YURTSEVER; KAYA, Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The major source of environmental lead (Pb) is the combustion of leaded gasoline. After emission as exhaust, lead in the air falls to earth and contaminates soil and plants. Seventeen wild chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plant samples were collected from each of 2 urban sites in Ankara, one is located at the road side of major intercity road (heavy traffic) and the other one is located in relatively less traffic area that is about 1 km away from the first location. Lead content of chicory plan...

  10. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  11. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO3+SO4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO2, that is the CO2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical data

  12. Assessing ecological sustainability in urban planning - EcoBalance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, I., Email: irmeli.wahlgren@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Urban planning solutions and decisions have large-scale significance for ecological sustainability (eco-efficiency) the consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of greenhouse gas and other emissions and the costs caused by urban form. Climate change brings new and growing challenges for urban planning. The EcoBalance model was developed to assess the sustainability of urban form and has been applied at various planning levels: regional plans, local master plans and detailed plans. The EcoBalance model estimates the total consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of emissions and wastes and the costs caused directly and indirectly by urban form on a life cycle basis. The results of the case studies provide information about the ecological impacts of various solutions in urban development. (orig.)

  13. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  14. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl...... sulfate (SDS) solution was used as a hypothetical gut fluid. Pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were the main PAH species in the SIDS extractable fraction of road dust, as well as the whole extract. Benzo(ghi)perylene showed relatively low concentrations in the SIDS extract in spite of a high...... concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants...

  15. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  16. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  17. A feasibility study for decision-making support of a radioactive contamination model in an urban environment (METRO-K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Han, Moon Hee; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-01-01

    A Korean urban contamination model METRO-K (Model for Estimates the Transient behavior of RadiOactive materials in the Korean urban environment), which is capable of calculating the exposure doses resulting from radioactive contamination in an urban environment, is taking part in a model testing program EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) organized by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). For radioactive contamination scenarios of Pripyat districts and a hypothetical RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device), the predicted results using METRO-K were submitted to the EMRAS's urban contamination working group. In this paper, the predicted results for the contamination scenarios of a pripyat district were shown in case of both without remediation measures and with ones. Comparing with the predicted results of the models that have taken part in EMRAS program, a feasibility for decision-making support of METRO-K was investigated. As a predicted result of METRO-K, to take immediately remediation measures following a radioactive contamination, if possible, might be one of the best ways to reduce exposure dose. It was found that the discrepancies of predicted results among the models are resulted from 1) modeling approaches and applied parameter values, 2) exposure pathways which are considered in models, 3) assumptions of assessor such as contamination surfaces which might affect to an exposure receptor and their sizes, 4) parameter values which are related with remediation measures applied through literature survey. It was identified that a Korean urban contamination model METRO-K is a useful tool for decision-making support through the participation of EMRAS program

  18. Assessing social impacts in urban waterfront regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairinen, Rauno; Kumpulainen, Satu

    2006-01-01

    The target of this article is to identify the social impacts of urban waterfront regeneration. For this purpose, four different dimensions of social impacts in urban waterfront planning are presented: resources and identity, social status, access and activities and waterfront experience. The four social dimensions refer to the different ways of experiencing and using the edges of the sea, lake or river to make an understanding of their qualities to the community. The contents of this typology are illustrated by analysing some basic features of three different newly built waterfront areas in Helsinki. The article is based on post-evaluation

  19. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  20. Solubility and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in Two Contaminated Urban Soils from Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oborn, Ingrid; Linde, Mats

    2001-01-01

    The solubility and potential mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu,Hg, Pb and Zn) in two urban soils were studied by sequential and leaching extractions (rainwater). Compared to rural (arable) soils on similar parent material, the urban soils were highly contaminated with Hg and Pb and to a lesser extent also with Cd,Cu and Zn. Metal concentrations in rainwater leachates were related to sequential extractions and metal levels reported from Stockholm groundwater. Cadmium and Zn in the soils were mainly recovered in easily extractable fractions, whereas Cu and Pb were complex bound. Concentrations of Pb in the residual fraction were between two- and eightfold those in arable soils, indicating that the sequential extraction scheme did not reflect the solid phases affected by anthropogenic inputs. Cadmium and Zn conc. in the rainwater leachates were within the range detected in Stockholm groundwater, while Cu and Pb conc. were higher, which suggests that Cu and Pb released from the surface soil were immobilised in deeper soil layers. In a soil highly contaminated with Hg, the Hg conc. in the leachate was above the median concentration, but still 50 times lower than the max concentration found in groundwater, indicating the possibility of other sources. In conclusion, it proved difficult to quantitatively predict the mobility of metals in soils by sequential extractions

  1. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guitao; Chen Zhenlou; Xu Shiyuan; Zhang Ju; Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan; Teng Jiyan

    2008-01-01

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai

  2. Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Guitao [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Chen Zhenlou [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)], E-mail: gt_shi@163.com; Xu Shiyuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Ju [School of Environment and Planning, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Wang Li; Bi Chunjuan [Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Teng Jiyan [Shanghai Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve, Shanghai 202183 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A detailed investigation was conducted to understand the contamination characteristics of a selected set of potentially toxic metals in Shanghai. The amount of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Ni were determined from 273 soil/dust samples collected within urban area. The results indicated that concentration of all metals except Ni in soils was significant, and metal pollution was even severer in roadside dust. A series of metal spatial distribution maps were created through geostatistical analysis, and the pollution hotspots tended to associate with city core area, major road junctions, and the regions close to industrial zones. In attempt of identifying the source of metals through geostatistical and multivariate statistical analyses, it was concluded as follows: Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from traffic contaminants; soil Ni was associated with natural concentration; Cd largely came from point-sourced industrial pollution; and Cr, Ni in dust were mainly related to atmospheric deposition. - Human activities have led to high accumulation of potentially toxic metals in urban soils and roadside dust of Shanghai.

  3. Mass separation and risk assessment of commingled contamination in soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Q.L.; Chau, T.S. [Alberta Environment, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gasoline service stations in urban areas may be sources of groundwater pollution if petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were to leak from underground storage tanks. Depending on the site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, the PHC could be retained in the soil, float on top of the groundwater table, dissolve in the groundwater or partition into soil vapour. This study focused on risk assessment and and management of soil and groundwater pollution caused by PHC releases from multiple sources which lead to commingling of subsurface plumes that require identification, assessment and control. Risk management decisions are made according to the different protection zones corresponding to different exposure pathways into which the commingled groundwater plume is divided, such as inhalation, ingestion and freshwater aquatic life. In order to effectively evaluate and manage commingled plumes, responsible parties must cooperate in sharing information on contaminated sites and developing joint programs for investigation, monitoring, remediation and risk management. This study proposed methodologies for determining mass contribution to a commingled plume from multiple contaminant sources. It was concluded that the levels of risk to human and environmental health can be determined by considering contaminant sources, migration pathways and potential receptors. Migration of PHCs in the subsurface is influenced by several uncertainties such as pollutant release and remediation histories, preferential pathways and hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Proper site characterization is necessary for reliable mass separation and to delineate contaminant plumes. Mathematical models can be used to simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. ASSESSING URBAN DROUGHTS IN A SMART CITY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Obringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation. This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  5. Incorporating Contaminant Bioavailability into Sediment Quality Assessment Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently adopted sediment quality assessment framework for evaluating bay and estuarine sediments in the State of California incorporates bulk sediment chemistry as a key line of evidence(LOE) but does not address the bioavailability of measured contaminants. Thus, the chemis...

  6. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  7. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  8. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  9. Short communication Assessment of heavy metal contamination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-27

    May 27, 2016 ... Assessment of heavy metal contamination in raw milk for human consumption ... Long-term exposure to lower levels of Cd and Cr leads to stomach ... Toxicity by Pb can result in decreased performance, and damage to the ...

  10. Assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic workshops in Oyo town in order to assess their possible adverse health implications on man and his environment. Concentrations of metals above certain levels have been shown to impair man's health.

  11. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the

  12. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  13. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Safety of gardening on lead- and arsenic-contaminated urban brownfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Phillip P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Benedict, Christopher; Martin, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Elevated levels of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are not uncommon for urban soils. Test plots were established at urban gardens in Tacoma and Seattle, WA. The Tacoma site was contaminated with Pb (51-312 mg kg) and As (39-146 mg kg), and the Seattle site had high Pb soil concentrations ranging from 506 to 2022 mg kg and As concentrations of Food-chain transfer of Pb and As were evaluated by measuring plant Pb and As concentrations after kitchen-style washing, a laboratory cleaning procedure, or peeling. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement. Tacoma site treatments included a Class A biosolids mix (TAGRO) with dolomite, and soil at the Seattle site was amended with Cedar-Grove compost (CGC) plus dolomite. TAGRO amendment diluted soil Pb by 10 to 23% and As by 12 to 25% at the Tacoma site, and CGC + dolomite resulted in 20 to 50% dilution in soil Pb at the Seattle site. Both amendments reduced Pb concentrations in vegetables by 50 to 71%, and As reductions ranged from 46 to 80%. At the Tacoma site, Pb concentrations (dry weight basis) in carrots, lettuce, and tomatoes ranged from 8.89 to 25.0, from 0.37 to 3.83, and from 0.54 to 1.24 mg kg, respectively. Plant As concentrations were below 703 μg kg (dry weight) for the vegetables and followed the order lettuce > carrot > tomato. Food-chain transfer of Pb and As in vegetables grown in contaminated urban soils were reduced by laboratory cleaning. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range < 300 microm. Therefore, the urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  16. Storm water runoff-a source of emerging contaminants in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, K.; Chen, C.; FitzGerald, K.; Badgley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) that refers to prescription, over-the-counter, veterinary, and illicit drugs in addition to products intended to have primary effects on the human body, such as sunscreens and insect repellants. Historically municipal wastewater treatment effluent has been considered to be the main source of ECs in aquatic environment. However, recent investigations have suggested urban storm water runoff as an important source of ECs in the environment. The objective of this multi-year study was to investigate the occurrence of a wide range of ECs and the special and temporal change of 4-Nonlyphenol (4-NP), an endocrine disruptor, in a stream solely impacted by the storm water runoff from Blacksburg, VA. Urban land cover has doubled during the past 15 years surrounding this. Water and sediment samples were collected periodically along the stream during a 3-year period and analyzed for 4-NP using a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and for EC screening using an ultra- performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) was analyzed to explore possible cross contamination between the sewer system and storm water collection system of the city. Fifteen ECs were detected in water samples from various locations along the stream at estimated levels ranging from low ppt to low ppb. The levels of 4-NP in the storm water sediment samples, ranging from 30-1500 µg/kg (d.w.), positively correlated with the levels of Human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) in the storm water. Our study suggested: 1) collective urban activity and leaky urban sewer systems are significant sources of ECs in storm water runoff that are often untreated or with minimum treatment before flowing into urban streams; and 2) sediment transport and re-suspension can further releases accumulated ECs back into stream water during rain events, resulting in occurrence of ECs downstream and possibly in the receiving river. This

  17. Establishing the importance of human health risk assessment for metals and metalloids in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development, industrialisation, and urbanisation have resulted in serious contamination of soil by metals and metalloids from anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. Exponential urban and economic development has resulted in human populations settling in urban areas and as a result being exposed to these pollutants. Depending on the nature of the contaminant, contaminated urban soils can have a deleterious effect on the health of exposed populations and may require decontamination, recovery, remediation and restoration. Therefore, human health risk assessments in urban environments are very important. In the case of Spain, there are few studies regarding risk assessment of trace elements in urban soils, and those that exist have been derived mainly from areas potentially exposed to industrial contamination or in the vicinity of point pollution. The present study analysed Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn soil concentrations in and around the city of Alcalá de Henares (35 km NE of Madrid). Soil samples were collected in public parks and recreation areas within the city and in an industrial area on the periphery of the city. From these results, an assessment of the health risk for the population was performed following the methodology described by the US EPA (1989). In general, it was observed that there could be a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic (As) through ingestion of the soils studied (oral intake), as well as an increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of chromium (Cr) present in re-suspended soils from the industrial area. Our group has previously reported (Granero and Domingo, 2002; Peña-Fernández et al., 2003) that there was an increased risk of developing cancer following exposure to As in the same soils in a previous study. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the levels of contaminants in these soils, especially As and Cr

  18. Permeable Asphalt: A New Tool to Reduce Road Salt Contamination of Groundwater in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Michael E; Angel, Derek R; Robbins, Gary A; McNaboe, Lukas A

    2017-03-01

    Chloride contamination of groundwater in urban areas due to deicing is a well-documented phenomenon in northern climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of permeable pavement on degraded urban groundwater. Although low impact development practices have been shown to improve stormwater quality, no infiltration practice has been found to prevent road salt chlorides from entering groundwater. The few studies that have investigated chlorides in permeable asphalt have involved sampling directly beneath the asphalt; no research has looked more broadly at surrounding groundwater conditions. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient of an 860 m 2 permeable asphalt parking lot at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut). Water level and specific conductance were measured continuously, and biweekly samples were analyzed for chloride. Samples were also analyzed for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Analysis of variance analysis indicated a significantly (p monitoring revealed lower Cl concentrations downgradient than upgradient for the majority of the year. These results suggest that the use of permeable asphalt in impacted urban environments with high ambient chloride concentrations can be beneficial to shallow groundwater quality, although these results may not be generalizable to areas with low ambient chloride concentrations. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Assessment of Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Phthalates in Two Urban Rivers of the Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Colón, Ana I; Piñero-Santiago, Luis E; Rivera, Nilsa M; Sosa, María A

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization adjacent to rivers has increased in recent years and is considered a source of environmental contamination. The resulting increase in number of urban rivers in highly populated areas, such as the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, has led to the appearance of synthetic as well as naturally occurring chemicals not previously observed nor regularly monitored in freshwater habitats. Some of these chemicals, such as heavy metals and plasticizers, have been shown to affect endocrine, respiratory, and nervous system function in animals and humans, even at relatively low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of such emergent contaminants on rivers of urbanized areas on the northeast of Puerto Rico, as one element in the assessment of the impact of urbanism on water quality in these communities. To accomplish this, we used Inductively Coupled Plasma and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry to measure amounts of heavy metals and phthalates, respectively, in superficial water of three rivers of Puerto Rico: Mameyes (non-urban), Río Piedras (urban river without a dam), and La Plata (urban river with a dam). The urban rivers had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals arsenic, barium, cadmium, manganese, and antimony, when compared with the reference non-urban river. Manganese was the only metal found in concentrations higher than limits established by the EPA for drinking water. Of eight phthalates amenable to measurement with the chosen protocol and instrumentation, only dibutyl phthalate was detected, only in the La Plata river, and at concentrations ranging from 3 to 8 parts-per-billion. These findings suggest that urbanism close to rivers of Puerto Rico is likely having an impact on water quality and thus further study to identify the potential sources, as well as the inclusion of these emergent contaminants on the list of chemicals regularly monitored by government agencies is justified. PMID:27148470

  20. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  1. SUSTAINABLE URBAN LANDSCAPE: AN APPROACH FOR ASSESSING AND APPROPRIATING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Amin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of development on its context is considered a key issue that governs the discussion and understanding of sustainability. For the reason, that ethics of sustainability are based on developing with no or less negative impacts on the contextual environment despite its urban scale whether limited or extended. This describes types of development that increase the good impacts on the tangible and intangible aspects of the built environment. Thus, achieving sustainability is no more a choice but it is a must especially, in an environment suffering from a lot of threats and stresses that affect all aspects of life; socially, economically, environmentally and also affect the beauty and aesthetics of urban fabrics. Assessing sustainability, the applied indicators and ways of assessment are allimportant concerns for urban sustainability discourses. Especially in such sensitive interacting domains as landscape, that links nature with the built environment. Approaching these concerns has a great deal when enhancing our environment aiming at better urban life containers. This paper aims at investigating the issue of sustainable urban landscape assessment through discussing the hue of indicators, their ways of classification, the criteria of selection and stating the variety of methods in which they can be assessed. Finally, it appropriates an approach for stating and assessing urban landscape sustainability indicators, which evaluates their both qualitative and quantitative value upon performance scale.

  2. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  4. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  5. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model ( p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  6. Ecotoxicological hazard assessment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Y.; Pauwels, S.J.; Chasse, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment (EHA) developed by the Quebec Ministry of Environment and Wildlife was used as part of the management scheme of contaminated soils from a former refinery. The study consists of assessing five types of soils (reference, heavily contaminated, slightly contaminated, thermally-treated, and biotreated) to determine their relative intrinsic hazard. During the exploratory activities a series of ten assessment endpoints where identified to support this typical EHA. During SOURCE characterization, the physicochemical make-up of the soils is described and the presence and concentrations of priority pollutants is determined. During FATE characterization, the potential for bioconcentration, mobility, and persistence of pollutants is determined. During EFFECTS characterization, the soils and their leachates are tested using standard terrestrial and aquatic bioassays. The data from the toxicological and analytical testing program are evaluated semi-quantitatively on the basis of a scoring system developed by consensus. The discussion will highlight how data are used within an EHA to streamline the decision-making process regarding the follow-up cleanup and disposal of contaminated soils

  7. Assessing materialism in Indian urban youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Abidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the concept of materialism has shifted from (the Indian philosophical concepts Lokāyata/Cārvāka, from supernaturalism to naturalism, following the development of science and modernism. People, who were predominantly religious and believed in philosophical idealism, as opposed to materialism, have started following philosophical materialism to express their worldview and progress. E.g., living in a big city and owning a car is perceived as an orientation toward material goods and materialism, which may not be true. This study makes an attempt to develop a measure for materialistic orientation, which takes into account the cultural and behavioural distinctions of Indian urban youth. Existing measures of materialism are reviewed to develop a measure that is more attuned to trace the contextual materialism in Indian urban youth. Findings of the study suggest that, in order to measure the level of materialism, three dimensions need to be considered, i.e. significance, individuality and satisfaction.

  8. Contamination and source differentiation of Pb in park soils along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongbo; Yu Shen; Li Guilin; Deng Hong; Luo Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    Urban soil Pb contamination is a great human health risk. Lead distribution and source in topsoils from 14 parks in Shanghai, China were investigated along an urban-rural gradient. Topsoils were contaminated averagely with 65 mg Pb kg -1 , 2.5 times higher than local soil background concentrations. HCl-extracts contained more anthropogenic Pb signatures than total sample digests as revealed by the higher 207/206 Pb and 208/206 Pb ratios in extracts (0.8613 ± 0.0094 and 2.1085 ± 0.0121 versus total digests 0.8575 ± 0.0098 and 2.0959 ± 0.0116). This suggests a higher sensitivity of HCl-extraction than total digestion in identifying anthropogenic Pb sources. Coal combustion emission was identified as the major anthropogenic Pb source (averagely 47%) while leaded gasoline emission contributed 12% overall. Urbanization effects were observed by total Pb content and anthropogenic Pb contribution. This study suggests that to reduce Pb contamination, Shanghai might have to change its energy composition to clean energy. - Highlights: → Coal combustion emission is identified as a main Pb source in Shanghai park soils. → HCl-extraction is sensitive in identifying anthropogenic isotope Pb sources. → Soil Pb contamination and its anthropogenic sources showed urbanization effects. - Coal combustion emission was identified as the main anthropogenic source of soil Pb contamination affecting Shanghai parks.

  9. Assessing verticalization effects on urban safety perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Ricardo Barros

    2017-01-01

    We describe an experiment with the modeling of urban verticalization effects on perceived safety scores as obtained with computer vision on Google Streetview data for New York City. Preliminary results suggests that for smaller buildings (between one and seven floors), perceived safety increases with building height, but that for high-rise buildings, perceived safety decreases with increased height. We also determined that while height contributing for this relation, other zonal aspects also ...

  10. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  11. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Rohan J.; Varun, Mayank; Masih, Jamson; Paul, Manoj S.

    2010-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial > Roadside > Riverbank > Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R 2 values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress.

  12. Holistic countermeasures evaluation and the sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wright, S.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.; Cox, G.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency planning as conducted by most national authorities is often focussed upon short-term response (few days - weeks) and addresses issues such as the need for evacuation, problems associated with 1 31I and immediate requirements for restrictions on food and water. There is limited systematic consideration of the long-term management of contaminated areas to ensure their sustainability. Experience following the Chernobyl accident, most especially within the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) but also in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, have demonstrated that countermeasures may have to be employed for a number of decades. The evaluation criteria for the many countermeasures which have been developed needs to be extended from simply effectiveness and radiological protection criteria to a more integrated, holistic approach. Specifically, there needs to be an assessment as to whether countermeasures: can be practically applied; incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; have significant environmental side-effects; and are acceptable to society. In addition, suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stake holders must be explored. This is an essential step in developing a decision framework and avoiding problems previously experienced in emergency management. This paper presents results from an ongoing project (see www.strategy-ec.org.uk) to develop a framework for the identification of strategies for the sustainable management of contaminated urban, rural and industrial areas

  13. De-icing salt contamination reduces urban tree performance in structural soil cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Barona, Camilo; Sabetski, Vadim; Millward, Andrew A; Steenberg, James

    2018-03-01

    Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance. We analyzed soil chemistry and collected tree attributes; these data were examined together to understand the effect of salinity on tree mortality rates and foliar condition. Data collected from continuous soil salinity loggers from April to June for one of the two sites were used to determine whether there was a long-term accumulation of salts in the soils. Results for both sites indicate that both sites displayed high salinity and alkalinity, with levels elevated beyond those suggested before those reported to cause negative tree effects. For one site, trees that were alive and trees that had a better foliar condition had significantly lower levels of soil salinity and alkalinity than other trees. High salinity and alkalinity in the soil were also associated with lower nutrient levels for both sites. Although tests for salinity accumulation in the soils of one site were negative, a longer monitoring of the soil conditions within the soil cells is warranted. Despite structural cells being increasingly utilized for their dual role in storm-water management and tree establishment, there may be a considerable trade-off between storm-water management and urban-forest function in northern climates where de-icing salt application continues to be commonplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    With a changing climate and increased urbanisation, the occurrence and the impact of flooding is expected to increase significantly. Floods can bring pathogens into homes and cause lingering damp and microbial growth in buildings, with the level of growth and persistence dependent on the volume and chemical and biological content of the flood water, the properties of the contaminating microbes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, including the restoration time and methods, the heat and moisture transport properties of the envelope design, and the ability of the construction material to sustain the microbial growth. The public health risk will depend on the interaction of these complex processes and the vulnerability and susceptibility of occupants in the affected areas. After the 2007 floods in the UK, the Pitt review noted that there is lack of relevant scientific evidence and consistency with regard to the management and treatment of flooded homes, which not only put the local population at risk but also caused unnecessary delays in the restoration effort. Understanding the drying behaviour of flooded buildings in the UK building stock under different scenarios, and the ability of microbial contaminants to grow, persist, and produce toxins within these buildings can help inform recovery efforts. To contribute to future flood management, this paper proposes the use of building simulations and biological models to predict the risk of microbial contamination in typical UK buildings. We review the state of the art with regard to biological contamination following flooding, relevant building simulation, simulation-linked microbial modelling, and current practical considerations in flood remediation. Using the city of London as an example, a methodology is proposed that uses GIS as a platform to integrate drying models and microbial risk models with the local building stock and flood models. The integrated tool will help local governments, health authorities

  15. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  16. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  17. Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S

    2003-01-31

    The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates.

  18. Ecological risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at a site with historical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Janes, A.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    An Ecological Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The ERA assessed risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated no undue risk to aquatic biota from radionuclides. Small potential risks were identified for terrestrial biota at limited locations associated with this industrial site. Recommendations are provided for follow-up risk-informed activities. (author)

  19. Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelková, Marcela; Randák, Tomáš; Blahová, Jana; Slatinská, Iveta; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2008-01-01

    The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment. PMID:21218108

  20. Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: Methods and shortcomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Olsson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure, and changes in the precipitation patterns caused by anthropogenic climate change. The present paper provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art methods...... for assessing the impacts of climate change on precipitation at the urban catchment scale. Downscaling of results from global circulation models or regional climate models to urban catchment scales are needed because these models are not able to describe accurately the rainfall process at suitable high temporal...... and spatial resolution for urban drainage studies. The downscaled rainfall results are however highly uncertain, depending on the models and downscaling methods considered. This uncertainty becomes more challenging for rainfall extremes since the properties of these extremes do not automatically reflect those...

  1. Assessment of arsenic surface contamination in a museum anthropology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovich, Andrey; Lacey, Steven; Franke, John; Hinkamp, David

    2013-02-01

    To assess potential arsenic (As) contamination of work surfaces to improve upon the control strategy at an anthropology department in a large natural history museum. Work practices were observed and control strategy reviewed to inform an occupational hygiene assessment strategy utilizing surface wipe sampling. A total of 35 sampling targets were identified, focusing on surfaces that receive high touch traffic, including workstations, artifact transport carts, and elevator buttons. Arsenic sampling and analysis were performed using reference method Occupational Safety and Health Administration ID-125G. Four of the sampling areas returned detectable levels of As, ranging from 0.052 to 0.350 μg/100 cm. Workplace observations and wipe sampling data enabled the development of recommendations to help to further reduce potential occupational exposure to As. Continuous reduction of surface contamination is prudent for known human carcinogens.

  2. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Mäenpää, Kimmo

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) reaching the aquatic environment are largely stored in sediments. The risk of contaminated sediments is challenging to assess since traditional exhaustive extraction methods yield total HOC concentrations, whereas freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree......) govern diffusive uptake and partitioning. Equilibrium sampling of sediment was introduced 15 years ago to measure Cfree, and it has since developed into a straightforward, precise and sensitive approach for determining Cfree and other exposure parameters that allow for thermodynamic assessment...... of polluted sediments. Glass jars with µm-thin silicone coatings on the inner walls can be used for ex situ equilibration while a device housing several silicone-coated fibers can be used for in situ equilibration. In both cases, parallel sampling with varying silicone thicknesses can be applied to confirm...

  3. Engineering hyporheic zones for the attenuation of urban pesticides and other stormwater trace organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, A. C.; Halpin, B. N.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C.; McCray, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a natural bioreactor that can provide in-stream attenuation of various nonpoint source contaminants. Main contributions of nonpoint source pollution are coming from urban stormwater and agricultural runoff, which both adversely impact aquatic life. Stormwater pollutants of concern commonly include nutrients, metals, pathogens, and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs). Despite substantial water quality challenges, current stormwater management typically focuses on water quantity issues rather than pollutant removal. Furthermore, current HZ restoration best management practices do not explicitly control HZ residence times, and generally only induce localized effects. To increase hyporheic exchange and therefore improving water quality, we introduced engineered streambeds featuring modifications to subsurface hydraulic conductivity (K) and reactivity - termed Biohydrochemical Enhancements for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST modifications comprise subsurface modules that employ 1) low-permeability sediments to drive hyporheic exchange and control subsurface residence times, and 2) permeable reactive geomedia to change reaction rates within the HZ. Here we present performance data collected in constructed stream experiments, comparing an all-sand control condition with a stream containing BEST modules and a mixture of 70/30 sand/woodchips (v/v). We evaluated the attenuation of a suite of TOrCs in the BEST versus the control system for two different streambed media: a coarse sand with K = 0.48 cm/s and a fine sand with K = 0.16 cm/s. The range of TOrCs investigated comprises urban pesticides and other stormwater relevant TOrCs. Benefits of applying BEST include increased exchange between streamwater and HZ water, leading to diverse redox conditions that are beneficial for aquatic organisms and will facilitate in-stream pollutant transformation. Future work will focus on tailoring the BEST design for specific pollutants, thereby controlling HZ

  4. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer; Flesch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  5. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  6. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... relative removal of isoprenoids (e.g. norpristane, pristane and phytane). It is concluded that the CHEMSIC method is a valuable tool for assessing bioremediation efficiency....

  7. Scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment: The design of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranjan Filho, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper to be presented will discuss, specifically, technical aspects of the Repository design in case of urban contamination. It will be emphasise what to decide, how to decide and what are the difficulties to decide. The case of Goiania it will be used as demonstration, in some cases, as a practical example. (author)

  8. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-01-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM 2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p  206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM 2.5 ), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. - Highlights: • Lead levels and isotope ratios in atmospheric particles, street dust and surface soil. • Significant enrichment of lead in atmospheric particles was observed. • Street dust and atmospheric particles have similar lead sources. • Endmembers of soil lead differ from street dust and atmospheric particles. • Airborne lead poses the main risks to unban environmental quality. - Transfer of airborne particle bound lead into street dust and surface soil in unban environmental based on lead levels and isotopic compositions

  9. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p lead to the major crustal elements (Al, Sr, Ti and Fe) indicates significant lead enrichment in atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rainfall-induced landslide vulnerability Assessment in urban area reflecting Urban structure and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Cho, M.; Lee, D.

    2017-12-01

    Landslide vulnerability assessment methodology of urban area is proposed with urban structure and building charateristics which can consider total damage cost of climate impacts. We used probabilistic analysis method for modeling rainfall-induced shallow landslide susceptibility by slope stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. And We combined debris flows with considering spatial movements under topographical condition and built environmental condition. Urban vulnerability of landslide is assessed by two categories: physical demages and urban structure aspect. Physical vulnerability is related to buildings, road, other ubran infra. Urban structure vulnerability is considered a function of the socio-economic factors, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. The analysis was performed in a geographic information system (GIS) environment because GIS can deal efficiently with a large volume of spatial data. The results of the landslide susceptibility assessment were compared with the landslide inventory, and the proposed approach demonstrated good predictive performance. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  11. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  12. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of emerging organic chemicals in urban rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Feng Jiao; Pan, Chang Gui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nai Sheng; Windfeld, Ronja; Salvito, Daniel; Selck, Henriette; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Ying, Guang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Urban rivers may receive contamination from various sources including point sources like domestic sewage and nonpoint sources (e.g., runoff), resulting in contamination with various chemicals. This study investigated the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (3 endocrine disrupting

  13. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of emerging organic chemicals in urban rivers: Guangzhou as a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng-Jiao; Pan, Chang-Gui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Windfeld, Ronja; Salvito, Daniel; Selck, Henriette; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Urban rivers may receive contamination from various sources including point sources like domestic sewage and nonpoint sources (e.g., runoff), resulting in contamination with various chemicals. This study investigated the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (3 endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and 17 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) in six urban rivers of a representative subtropical city, Guangzhou (southern China). Our results showed that EDCs and personal care products were frequently detected in the water phase and sediment phase. 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was the most predominant compound with the highest concentration of 5050ng/L in the water phase and 14,400ng/g dry weight (dw) in the sediment. Generally, higher total concentrations of EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the four urban streams compared to the main stream Zhujiang River and the Liuxi River at the suburb area. A screening-level risk assessment showed that 4-nonylphenol and triclosan (TCS) pose potential risks to aquatic organisms in most sampling sites. For individual taxa, 4-NP may pose risks to various groups of aquatic organisms, while TCS only might pose high risks to algae. Higher contamination of EDCs and PPCPs was observed in rivers in urban area; 4-nonylphenol and triclosan showed RQs>1 in >70% of the reported area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between domestic animal presence and ownership and household drinking water contamination among peri-urban communities of Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Amber N; Anderson, John D; Mumma, Jane; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Cumming, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Household drinking water can be contaminated by diarrheagenic enteropathogens at numerous points between the source and actual consumption. Interventions to prevent this contamination have focused on preventing exposure to human waste through interventions to improve drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). In many cases though, the infectious agent may be of zoonotic rather than human origin suggesting that unsafely managed animal waste may contribute to the contamination of household drinking water and the associated diarrheal disease burden. A cross-sectional household survey of 800 households was conducted across three informal peri-urban neighborhoods of Kisumu, Kenya, collecting stored drinking water samples, administering a household survey including water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and behaviors, and recording domestic animal presence and ownership. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association of traditional WASH factors and domestic animal presence and ownership on microbial contamination of household drinking water. The majority of households sampled had fecally contaminated drinking water (67%), defined by the presence of any colony forming units of the fecal indicator bacteria enterococci. After adjustment for potential confounders, including socio-economic status and water and sanitation access, both household animal ownership (aOR 1.31; CI 1.00-1.73, p = 0.05) and the presence of animal waste in the household compound (aOR 1.38; CI 1.01, 1.89, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with household drinking water contamination. None of the conventional WASH variables were found to be significantly associated with household drinking water contamination in the study population. Water, sanitation, and hygiene strategies to reduce diarrheal disease should consider the promotion of safe animal contact alongside more traditional interventions focusing on the management of human waste. Future research on

  15. A review of probabilistic risk assessment of contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, T.; Bergbaeck, B.

    2005-01-01

    Background, Aims and Scope. The management and decisions concerning restoration of contaminated land often require indepth risk analyses. An environmental risk assessment is generally described as proceeding in four separate steps: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The risk assessment should acknowledge and quantify the uncertainty in risk predictions. This can be achieved by applying probabilistic methods which, although they have been available for many years, are still not generally used. Risk assessment of contaminated land is an area where probabilistic methods have proved particularly useful. Many reports have appeared in the literature, mostly by North American researchers. The aim of this review is to summarize the experience gained so far, provide a number of useful examples, and suggest what may be done to promote probabilistic methods in Europe and the rest of the world. Methods. The available literature has been explored through searches in the major scientific and technical databases, WWW resources, textbooks and direct contacts with active researchers. A calculation example was created using standard simulation software. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production......, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical...... stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality...

  17. Assessing impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in weathered contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric; Weber, John; Aleer, Sam; Dandie, Catherine E; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2013-10-15

    In this study, impediments to hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils were assessed using chemical and molecular methodologies. Two long-term hydrocarbon contaminated soils were utilised which were similar in physico-chemical properties but differed in the extent of hydrocarbon (C10-C40) contamination (S1: 16.5 g kg(-1); S2: 68.9 g kg(-1)). Under enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) conditions, hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed in S1 microcosms (26.4% reduction in C10-C40 hydrocarbons), however, ENA was unable to stimulate degradation in S2. Although eubacterial communities (PCR-DGGE analysis) were similar for both soils, the alkB bacterial community was less diverse in S2 presumably due to impacts associated with elevated hydrocarbons. When hydrocarbon bioaccessibility was assessed using HP-β-CD extraction, large residual concentrations remained in the soil following the extraction procedure. However, when linear regression models were used to predict the endpoints of hydrocarbon degradation, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between HP-β-CD predicted and microcosm measured biodegradation endpoints. This data suggested that the lack of hydrocarbon degradation in S2 resulted primarily from limited hydrocarbon bioavailability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelmulder, S.D.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  19. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanniah, K D; Kang, C S; Muhamad, N

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO 2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R 2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ∼70 t C ha −1 . Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region

  20. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils II Comparison of Urban Park Soils Between Two Cities with Different City and Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    A comparative investigation on the state of heavy metal contamination in park soils of two cities with different city and industrial activities was carried out. Sakai and Kishiwada, both situated in southern Osaka Prefecture, were chosen as the investigated cities which had similar natural conditions but different human activities. Park soils were regarded as suitable sites for the investigation of heavy metal problem in urban environments. Samples were taken at 34 parks distributed widely in...

  2. Assessment of radioecological situation of a site contaminated by technologically enhanced natural radioactivity in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactivity contamination originating from the coal fired power plant and its waste dumps located in a bay of the Adriatic which is due to geographical characteristics sensitive to any kind of pollution including radioactivity is discussed. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustile ash and slag showed increased concentrations of natural radioactivity which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of Croatian Adriatic. There are two coal slag and ash piles, one of them was closed and covered by soil and the other is a still operating pile. The location of both piles presents a considerable environmental problem: situated close to the seaside, slag and ash are accumulating in the littoral zone and, in the case of operating pile, are being filled up directly into the sea. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactivity level at the ash and slag deposits and to assess the risk of increased radioactivity for the inhabitants of the nearby urban area, for the plant workers and general environment of the bay including the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic. (author)

  3. Uncertainty Assessment in Urban Storm Water Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    The object of this paper is to make an overall description of the author's PhD study, concerning uncertainties in numerical urban storm water drainage models. Initially an uncertainty localization and assessment of model inputs and parameters as well as uncertainties caused by different model...

  4. A national-scale assessment of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; Stuart, Marianne; Talbot, John; Lapworth, Dan; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-10-15

    A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fowl play? Forensic environmental assessment of alleged discharge of highly contaminated effluent from a chicken slaughterhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Handley, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple lines of geochemical and biological evidence are applied to identify and fingerprint the nature and source of alleged contamination emanating from a chicken slaughterhouse on the urban fringe of Sydney, Australia. The slaughterhouse has a long history of alleged environmental misconduct. The impact of the facility on catchment source waters by the slaughterhouse has been the subject of controversy. The facility owner has persistently denied breach of their licence condition and maintains it is `a very environmentally conscious operation'. The disputed nature of the possible sources of discharges and its contaminants required a detailed forensic environmental assessment. Water samples collected from off-site discharge points associated with the facility show highly elevated concentrations of faecal coliforms (max 68,000 cfu), ammonia-N (51,000 µg/L), total nitrogen (98,000 µg/L) and phosphorous (32,000 µg/L). Upstream and adjacent watercourses were markedly less contaminated. Water discharge points associated with the slaughterhouse and natural catchment runoff were sampled for arsenic speciation, including assessment for the organoarsenic compound Roxarsone. Roxarsone is used as a chicken growth promoter. Water draining the slaughterhouse facility contained concentrations around 10 times local background levels. The Roxarsone compound was not detected in any waters, but inorganic arsenic, As(V), was present in all waters with the greatest concentrations in waters draining from the slaughterhouse. The environmental evidence was compiled over a series of discharges events and presented to the NSW EPA. Subsequent to receipt of the data supported by their own investigations, the NSW EPA mandated that the slaughterhouse be subject to a pollution reduction program. The efficacy of the pollution reduction program to stem the release of highly contaminated effluent is currently subject to ongoing investigation using a suite of water chemistry measures including

  6. Risk assessment methodology for evaluating releases of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are expected to be required in the near future in association with license termination of nuclear power facilities and cleanup efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons production facilities. In advance of these D ampersand D activities, it is becoming increasingly urgent that standards be established for the release of materials with residual radioactive contamination. The only standards for unrestricted release that currently exist address surface contamination. The methods used to justify those standards were developed some 20 yr ago and may not satisfy today's criteria. Furthermore, the basis of setting standards has moved away from the traditional open-quotes instrumentation-basedclose quotes concept toward a open-quotes risk-basedclose quotes approach. Therefore, as new release standards are developed, it will be necessary that risk assessment methodology consistent with modern concepts be incorporated into the process. This paper discusses recent developments in risk methodology and issues and concerns regarding the future development of standards for the release of radioactively contaminated materials

  7. Ecological risk assessment of a site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starodub, M.E.; Feniak, N.A.; Willes, R.F.; Moore, C.E.; Mucklow, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aquatic and terrestrial health risks associated with petroleum contamination on a decommissioned military base, contaminated with products ranging from Bunker C oil to aviation fuel, were assessed using a methodology whereby an analytical measurement of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) could be correlated with compositional characterization and thus with toxicity. The constituents of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination represent wide ranges of physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, and toxicity. The composition of TPH can vary greatly, dependent on the sources or fuel types and the interaction of age as well as site- and chemical-specific characteristics in determining the impact of weathering processes. Therefore, a bulk sum analysis of TPH cannot be related to toxicity without characterization of its composition and association of the constituents, and therefore composition, with actual toxicity data. To address this need, the constituents of TPH were represented by surrogate chemicals, with selection based on structure-activity relationships and available toxicity data. Toxicological profiles were developed from governmental regulations and on the published literature for both the aquatic and terrestrial media. Risk characterization consisted of a comparison of water concentration limits and exposure limits, developed for each surrogate, to estimated surrogate concentrations throughout the site. The concentrations of surrogates were extrapolated from TPH composition characterization analyses, conducted at a select number of sampling locations, to bulk sum analyses of TPH at related sampling locations

  8. Mercury contamination and exposure assessment of fishery products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Ran; Kim, Na-Young; Hwang, Lae-Hong; Park, Ju-Sung; Kim, Jung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, total (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) contamination was investigated in fishery products including canned fish, fish sauces, dried bonito and frozen tuna sashimi, collected from retail markets in Korea, to assess dietary exposure. Direct mercury analyser and gas chromatography-electron captured detector were employed to measure T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The highest T-Hg and Me-Hg contamination was present in tuna sashimi, followed by dried bonito, respectively. Canned tuna showed more frequent detection and higher content than other canned fishery products. The weekly exposure estimate indicates that exposure to mercury from fishery products is safe, showing 2.59% provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for T-Hg, 1.82% PTWI for Me-Hg and 4.16% reference dose for Me-Hg. However, it should be addressed to monitor the mercury contamination in fish and fishery products regularly, to safeguard vulnerable population such as children, to limit intake of these food products.

  9. Morphology Dependent Assessment of Resilience for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fischer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new threats and the increasing complexity of urban built infrastructures underline the need for more robust and sustainable systems, which are able to cope with adverse events. Achieving sustainability requires the strengthening of resilience. Currently, a comprehensive approach for the quantification of resilience of urban infrastructure is missing. Within this paper, a new generalized mathematical framework is presented. A clear definition of terms and their interaction builds the basis of this resilience assessment scheme. Classical risk-based as well as additional components are aligned along the timeline before, during and after disruptive events, to quantify the susceptibility, the vulnerability and the response and recovery behavior of complex systems for multiple threat scenarios. The approach allows the evaluation of complete urban surroundings and enables a quantitative comparison with other development plans or cities. A comprehensive resilience framework should cover at least preparation, prevention, protection, response and recovery. The presented approach determines respective indicators and provides decision support, which enhancement measures are more effective. Hence, the framework quantifies for instance, if it is better to avoid a hazardous event or to tolerate an event with an increased robustness. An application example is given to assess different urban forms, i.e., morphologies, with consideration of multiple adverse events, like terrorist attacks or earthquakes, and multiple buildings. Each urban object includes a certain number of attributes, like the object use, the construction type, the time-dependent number of persons and the value, to derive different performance targets. The assessment results in the identification of weak spots with respect to single resilience indicators. Based on the generalized mathematical formulation and suitable combination of indicators, this approach can quantify the

  10. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  11. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  12. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  13. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained

  14. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained.

  15. The uses of bioindicators in radionuclide contamination assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E. J.; McGarry, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a brief review and discussion of some approaches to sampling using bioindicators that have been employed in the assessment of radionuclide contamination in Ireland. Studies by other researchers are also referred to and the fields of research in radioecology where the use of bioindicators could be further developed are discussed. The review includes a discussion of the important attributes of bioindicators and how they can best be used in the development of effective but economical sampling strategies that yield the maximum amount of information. (author)

  16. Ecological aspects of environmental assessment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1990-04-01

    When large landscapes are contaminated by radionuclides released from nuclear activities, physical processes, such as atmospheric and hydrological transport may move the radioactive materials over large distances resulting in direct external exposure of man and organisms. This paper provides an overview of the modeling of radionuclide movement through defined ecological pathways, describes some ecological problems at remediated sites, and briefly reviews effects of environmental radiation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. This paper describes pathways that should be considered when conducting environmental dose assessments for radionuclides released to the environment. 4 refs

  17. Assessment of soil contamination--a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straalen, Nico M

    2002-01-01

    In many industrialized countries the use of land is impeded by soil pollution from a variety of sources. Decisions on clean-up, management or set-aside of contaminated land are based on various considerations, including human health risks, but ecological arguments do not have a strong position in such assessments. This paper analyses why this should be so, and what ecotoxicology and theoretical ecology can improve on the situation. It seems that soil assessment suffers from a fundamental weakness, which relates to the absence of a commonly accepted framework that may act as a reference. Soil contamination can be assessed both from a functional perspective and a structural perspective. The relationship between structure and function in ecosystems is a fundamental question of ecology which receives a lot of attention in recent literature, however, a general concept that may guide ecotoxicological assessments has not yet arisen. On the experimental side, a good deal of progress has been made in the development and standardized use of terrestrial model ecosystems (TME). In such systems, usually consisting of intact soil columns incubated in the laboratory under conditions allowing plant growth and drainage of water, a compromise is sought between field relevance and experimental manageability. A great variety of measurements can be made on such systems, including microbiological processes and activities, but also activities of the decomposer soil fauna. I propose that these TMEs can be useful instruments in ecological soil quality assessments. In addition a "bioinformatics approach" to the analysis of data obtained in TME experiments is proposed. Soil function should be considered as a multidimensional concept and the various measurements can be considered as indicators, whose combined values define the "normal operating range" of the system. Deviations from the normal operating range indicate that the system is in a condition of stress. It is hoped that more work

  18. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for environmental quality assessment of peri-urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindorf, David C; Zhu, Yuanda; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Bakr, Noura; Huang, Biao

    2012-01-01

    Urban expansion into traditional agricultural lands has augmented the potential for heavy metal contamination of soils. This study examined the utility of field portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry for evaluating the environmental quality of sugarcane fields near two industrial complexes in Louisiana, USA. Results indicated that PXRF provided quality results of heavy metal levels comparable to traditional laboratory analysis. When coupled with global positioning system technology, the use of PXRF allows for on-site interpolation of heavy metal levels in a matter of minutes. Field portable XRF was shown to be an effective tool for rapid assessment of heavy metals in soils of peri-urban agricultural areas.

  19. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  20. Quantitative assessment of urban transport development – a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Artur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport is considered the basis of properly functioning cities and their development. The main aim of the paper is to attempt the assessment of urban transport development in selected voivodeships (provinces as a crucial factor of macro logistics. The research also aimed to identify the underdeveloped areas of urban transport in Poland as the basis for the implementation of support policy. The source of information in the investigation process was data drawn from the Central Statistical Office in Poland for 2013–2016. In the scope of dealing with the research problem, chosen classical and order multivariate statistical measures were implemented into the research process. Next, the taxonomic measures for the years of interest served as the basis for the construction of the total (general synthetic measure applicable to the entire period. The main results and findings of the research indicate that the level of urban transport development is correlated with the whole transportation system which affects the socio-economic development of some regions of Poland. The research can lead to a better understanding of Polish urban transportation development in selected regions. Hence, the results can be helpful in the investment process and for shaping the right transportation policy to improve the use of financial resources.

  1. Contaminants of emerging concern in ambient groundwater in urbanized areas of Minnesota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Melinda L.; Langer, Susan K.; Roth, Jason L.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    A study of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in ambient groundwater in urbanized areas of Minnesota was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. For this study, water samples were collected from November 2009 through June 2012 from 118 wells located in different land-use settings. The sampled wells primarily were screened in vulnerable sand and gravel aquifers (surficial and buried glacial aquifers) or vulnerable bedrock aquifers such as the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. Sampled well depths ranged from 9 to 285 feet below land surface. Water samples were collected by Minnesota Pollution Control Agency staff. The water samples were analyzed at U.S. Geological Survey laboratories for steroidal hormones, human-use pharmaceutical compounds, human- and animal-use antibiotics, and a broad suite of organic chemicals associated with wastewater. Reported detections were censored and not counted as detections in the data analyses if the chemical was detected in a laboratory or field blank at a similar concentration.

  2. Assessment of sustainable urban transport development based on entropy and unascertained measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yancang; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huawang; Li, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    To find a more effective method for the assessment of sustainable urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment model of sustainable urban transport development was established based on the unascertained measure. On the basis of considering the factors influencing urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment indexes were selected, including urban economical development, transport demand, environment quality and energy consumption, and the assessment system of sustainable urban transport development was proposed. In view of different influencing factors of urban transport development, the index weight was calculated through the entropy weight coefficient method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted according to the actual condition. Then, the grade was obtained by using the credible degree recognition criterion from which the urban transport development level can be determined. Finally, a comprehensive assessment method for urban transport development was introduced. The application practice showed that the method can be used reasonably and effectively for the comprehensive assessment of urban transport development.

  3. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Anne Th; McKnight, Ursula S; Rønde, Vinni; Bjerg, Poul L

    2017-11-15

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality of all three stream compartments - stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment - made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs of chlorinated ethenes and pharmaceutical compounds discharge into the stream every year. The strongly reduced redox conditions in the plume result in high concentrations of dissolved iron and additionally release arsenic, generating the complex contaminant mixture found in the narrow discharge zone. The fingerprint of the plume was observed in the stream several km downgradient, while nutrients, inorganics and pesticides played a minor role for the stream health. The

  4. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  5. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  6. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  9. Evaluating cadmium bioavailability in contaminated rice paddy soils and assessing potential for contaminant immobilisation with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosolsaksakul, Peerapat; Oliver, Ian W; Graham, Margaret C

    2018-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils from the Mae Sot district in northwest Thailand, a region in which rice Cd concentrations often exceed health limits (0.4 mg/kg) set by the World Health Organisation, were examined for isotopically exchangeable Cd (Cd E values using a 111 Cd spike) to determine how this rates as a predictor of rice grain Cd in comparison with soil total Cd and solution extractable Cd (using the commonly applied BCR scheme and, in an attempt to distinguish carbonate bound forms, the Tessier soil sequential extraction scheme reagents). Step 1 of the BCR scheme (0.11 M CH 3 COOH) and step 1 of the Tessier scheme (1M MgCl 2 ) showed the highest R 2 values in regressions with rice Cd (91% and 90%, respectively), but all predictors were strongly linked to rice Cd (p soil, of the six tested, was an exception to this, where all predictors over-estimated grain Cd by a factor of 2.5-5.7, suggesting that rice grain Cd had been restricted here by the differing flooding regime and subsequent changes to redox conditions. E values and Tessier step 1 extractions were closely related, indicating that these measurements access similar pools of soil Cd. Separately, the isotopic exchangeability (representing bioavailability) of Cd was also assessed in two soils amended with rice husk and miscanthus biochars (0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) in order to assess the utility of the biochars as a soil amendment for immobilising Cd in situ. One soil showed significant reductions in Cd E value at 5% rice husk biochar addition and at 15% miscanthus biochar addition however, based on the E value-rice grain Cd regression relationship previously established, the E values in the amended soils still predicted for a rice Cd concentration above the health limit. In the second soil, neither of the biochars successfully reduced the Cd E value. This indicates that further work is needed to customise biochar properties to suit specific soil and contaminant situations if they are to be

  10. Evaluation of Countermeasures Effectiveness in a Radioactively Contaminated Urban Area Using METRO-K : The Implementation of Scenarios Designed by the EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group within the EMRAS-2 (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety, Phase 2), which has been supported by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), has designed some types of accidental scenarios to test and improve the capabilities of models used for evaluation of radioactive contamination in urban areas. For the comparison of the results predicted from the different models, the absorbed doses in air were analyzed as a function of time following the accident with consideration of countermeasures to be taken. Two kinds of considerations were performed to find the dependency of the predicted results. One is the 'accidental season', i.e. summer and winter, in which an event of radioactive contamination takes place in a specified urban area. Likewise, the 'rainfall intensity' on the day of an event was also considered with the option of 1) no rain, 2) light rain, and 3) heavy rain. The results predicted using a domestic model of METRO-K have been submitted to the Urban Areas Working Group for the intercomparison with those of other models. In this study, as a part of these results using METRO-K, the countermeasures effectiveness in terms of dose reduction was analyzed and presented for the ground floor of a 24-story business building in a specified urban area. As a result, it was found that the countermeasures effectiveness is distinctly dependent on the rainfall intensity on the day of an event, and season when an event takes place. It is related to the different deposition amount of the radionuclides to the surfaces and different behavior on the surfaces following a deposition, and different effectiveness from countermeasures. In conclusion, a selection of appropriate countermeasures with consideration of various environmental conditions may be important to minimize and optimize the socio-economic costs as well as radiation-induced health detriments.

  11. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development, evaluation, and application of sediment quality targets for assessing and managing contaminated sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.D.; Carr, R.S.; Eckenrod, D.; Greening, H.; Grabe, S.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Janicki, S.; Janicki, T.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Long, E.R.; Pribble, R.; Sloane, G.; Smorong, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a large, urban estuary that is located in west central Florida. Although water quality conditions represent an important concern in this estuary, information from numerous sources indicates that sediment contamination also has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms, aquatic-dependent wildlife, and human health. As such, protecting relatively uncontaminated areas of the bay from contamination and reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in contaminated sediments have been identified as high-priority sediment management objectives for Tampa Bay. To address concerns related to sediment contamination in the bay, an ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing sediment quality conditions was developed that included identification of sediment quality issues and concerns, development of ecosystem goals and objectives, selection of ecosystem health indicators, establishment of metrics and targets for key indicators, and incorporation of key indicators, metrics, and targets into watershed management plans and decision-making processes. This paper describes the process that was used to select and evaluate numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for assessing and managing contaminated sediments. These SQTs included measures of sediment chemistry, whole-sediment and pore-water toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. In addition, the paper describes how the SQTs were used to develop site-specific concentration-response models that describe how the frequency of adverse biological effects changes with increasing concentrations of chemicals of potential concern. Finally, a key application of the SQTs for defining sediment management areas is discussed.

  13. Fungal contamination assessment in Portuguese elderly care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Almeida-Silva, M; Gomes, A Quintal; Wolterbeek, H T; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend 80-90% of their day indoors and elderly subjects are likely to spend even a greater amount of time indoors. Thus, indoor air pollutants such as bioaerosols may exert a significant impact on this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize fungal contamination within Portuguese elderly care centers. Fungi were measured using conventional as well as molecular methods in bedrooms, living rooms, canteens, storage areas, and outdoors. Bioaerosols were evaluated before and after the microenvironments' occupancy in order to understand the role played by occupancy in fungal contamination. Fungal load results varied from 32 colony-forming units CFU m(-3) in bedrooms to 228 CFU m(-3) in storage areas. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated (38.1%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (16.3%) and Chrysonilia sp. (4.2%). With respect to Aspergillus genus, three different fungal species in indoor air were detected, with A. candidus (62.5%) the most prevalent. On surfaces, 40 different fungal species were isolated and the most frequent was Penicillium sp. (22.2%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (17.3%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not detect the presence of A. fumigatus complex. Species from Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were the most abundant in air and surfaces. The species A. fumigatus was present in 12.5% of all indoor microenvironments assessed. The living room was the indoor microenvironment with lowest fungal concentration and the storage area was highest.

  14. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H

    2013-06-15

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addition of nitrogen and phosphorous, molasses, hydrogen peroxide, and a surfactant (Tween 80). Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations and CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms (SIC) termed CHEMSIC method of petroleum biomarkers including terpanes, regular, diaromatic and triaromatic steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal of TPH. Furthermore, the CHEMSIC results demonstrated that the bacterial enrichment was more efficient in degradation of n-alkanes and low molecular weight PACs as well as alkylated PACs (e.g. C₃-C₄ naphthalenes, C₂ phenanthrenes and C₂-C₃ dibenzothiophenes), while nutrient addition led to a larger relative removal of isoprenoids (e.g. norpristane, pristane and phytane). It is concluded that the CHEMSIC method is a valuable tool for assessing bioremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  16. A Methodology to Assess UrbanSim Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    reconfigurable modules of video , game-based scenarios, digital tutors, and assessments tailored to learners. They incorporate the use of social...deeper levels for student decisions, it becomes increasingly more problematic to verify the desired underlying pedagogy is present (Wang et al...training impact of the training videos associated with the UrbanSim training package. The research team found that students that watched and implemented

  17. Assessment of photobiological safety of energy-efficiency urban lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Stanisław Pierzchała

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exceeding the safe threshold for exposure on high energy radiation (UV and blue light could cause the emergence of a number of diseases. Eyesight is particularly sensitive to excessive lighting. This paper presents the laboratory research on the assessment of the photobiological risk generated by the energy-efficiency urban lighting. The results show that LED lighting systems can be a source of radiation that significantly negatively affects the eyesight and could contribute to circadian rhythm disorders.

  18. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  19. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  20. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  1. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  3. Assessment of beef microbial contamination at abattoir and retail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infrastructure appeared obsolete. ... Water analysis showed heavy microbial contamination (mean TVC log 5.2±0.3). ... in meat indicate gross contaminations along the whole meat value chain and pose potential risks for public health.

  4. Assessment of the ecotoxicity of urban estuarine sediment using benthic and pelagic copepod bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Charry

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban estuarine sediments are sinks to a range of contaminants of anthropogenic origin, and a key challenge is to characterize the risk of these compounds to receiving environments. In this study, the toxicity of urban estuarine sediments was tested using acute and chronic bioassays in the benthic harpacticoid Quinquelaophonte sp., and in the planktonic calanoid Gladioferens pectinatus, two New Zealand copepod species. The sediment samples from the estuary tributary sites significantly impacted reproduction in Quinquelaophonte sp. However, results from one of the estuary sites were not significantly different to those from the tributaries sites, suggesting that chemicals other than trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia may be the causative stressors. Sediment elutriate samples had significant effects on reproductive endpoints in G. pectinatus, and on the induction of DNA damage in cells, as shown by the comet assay. The results indicate that sediment contamination at the Ahuriri Estuary has the potential to impact biological processes of benthic and pelagic organisms. The approach used provides a standardized methodology to assess the toxicity of estuarine sediments.

  5. Assessment of the ecotoxicity of urban estuarine sediment using benthic and pelagic copepod bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charry, Maria P; Keesing, Vaughan; Costello, Mark; Tremblay, Louis A

    2018-01-01

    Urban estuarine sediments are sinks to a range of contaminants of anthropogenic origin, and a key challenge is to characterize the risk of these compounds to receiving environments. In this study, the toxicity of urban estuarine sediments was tested using acute and chronic bioassays in the benthic harpacticoid Quinquelaophonte sp., and in the planktonic calanoid Gladioferens pectinatus , two New Zealand copepod species. The sediment samples from the estuary tributary sites significantly impacted reproduction in Quinquelaophonte sp. However, results from one of the estuary sites were not significantly different to those from the tributaries sites, suggesting that chemicals other than trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia may be the causative stressors. Sediment elutriate samples had significant effects on reproductive endpoints in G. pectinatus , and on the induction of DNA damage in cells, as shown by the comet assay. The results indicate that sediment contamination at the Ahuriri Estuary has the potential to impact biological processes of benthic and pelagic organisms. The approach used provides a standardized methodology to assess the toxicity of estuarine sediments.

  6. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  7. Multimedia screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECS) in coastal urban watersheds in southern California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Sengupta, Ashmita; Smith, Deborah J; Lyons, J Michael; Heil, Ann T; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the occurrence and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and inform future monitoring of CECs in coastal urban waterways, water, sediment, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial and/or household chemicals, current use pesticides, and hormones in an effluent-dominated river and multiple embayments in southern California (USA). In the Santa Clara River, which receives treated wastewater from several facilities, aqueous phase CECs were detectable at stations nearest discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants but were attenuated downstream. Sucralose and the chlorinated phosphate flame retardants tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were most abundant in water, with maximum concentrations of 35 μg/L, 3.3 μg/L, 1.4 μg/L, and 0.81 μg/L, respectively. Triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent in use for decades, was more prevalent in water than triclosan or nonylphenol. Maximum concentrations of bifenthrin, permethrin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and degradates of fipronil exceeded CEC-specific monitoring trigger levels recently established for freshwater and estuarine sediments by factors of 10 to 1000, respectively. Maximum fish tissue concentrations of PBDEs varied widely (370 ng/g and 7.0 ng/g for the Santa Clara River and coastal embayments, respectively), with most species exhibiting concentrations at the lower end of this range. These results suggest that continued monitoring of pyrethroids, PBDEs, and degradates of fipronil in sediment is warranted in these systems. In contrast, aqueous pharmaceutical concentrations in the Santa Clara River were not close to exceeding current monitoring trigger levels, suggesting a lower priority for targeted monitoring in this medium. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1986-1994. © 2016 SETAC

  8. Problems of the assessment of contaminated mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichterey, K.; Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany there are numerous relics of former mining activities with enhanced levels of radionuclides of the uranium/radium series. Of special importance are the relics of uranium and other non-ferrous ore mining in the three Federal States of Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The majority of these relics is situated in densely populated areas. This gives rise to the question whether measures have to be taken to protect the population from detrimental health impacts. Public concern often concentrates on radioactivity. Health impacts may, however, originate from chemically hazardous substances, too. Such substances like, for instance, arsenic, often accompany radioactive contamination in mining relics. Also, mining safety, landscape conservation and other aspects may play a significant role in the decision-making process, especially for large and complex mining sites. This is, however, outside the scope of the present paper, which is confined to the discussion of problems associated with the assessment of mining sites contaminated with both enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides and chemically toxic/carcinogenic substances. Sites with mixed contaminants like mining relics may cause special problems in the assessment of hazards to human health. Different scientific approaches and historic developments led to considerable differences in existing regulations. Both, on the national and international scale efforts are made towards a harmonization. Having reviewed studies carried out in Germany we arrived at the conclusion that generation of a common risk scale for all kinds of hazards seems to be a too challenging problem to be solved within a foreseeable time scale. It is reasonable, at least in principle, to define a unified metric for carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation and harmful chemicals. Even this needs a lot of research work as a basis for adaptations in the legal systems. What seems to be reasonable and in our opinion is much more

  9. Assessment of microbial in situ activity in contaminated aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, A.; Nijenhuis, I.; Stelzer, N.; Bombach, P.; Richnow, H.H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Isotopenbiogeochemie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Geyer, R. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Umweltmikrobiologie, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Tebbe, C.C. [Institut fuer Agraroekologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Microbial ecologists and environmental engineers share the interest in identifying the key microorganisms responsible for compound turnover in the environment and in estimating the respective transformation rates. For the successful application of Natural Attenuation processes, a reliable assessment of the in situ turnover of a contaminant in an aquifer is essential. Here, we review and present new details of two recently developed approaches concerning the assessment of in situ biodegradation: (i) determination of biodegradation caused by microbial metabolism in a contamination plume by stable isotope fractionation analysis (SIFA) and (ii) determination of the actual degradation under the respective environmental conditions in the aquifer by using in situ microcosms (BACTRAPS registered) amended with {sup 13}C-labeled substrates as tracer compounds. Based on stable isotope fractionation analysis, the degradation occurring under anoxic biogeochemical conditions at a respective site can be calculated for the entire plume. This has been shown for benzene and toluene at the Zeitz site and partly for chlorobenzene at the Bitterfeld site. By use of the in situ microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds, the microbial in situ degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions could be proven for benzene and toluene in Zeitz and for chlorobenzene in Bitterfeld. The transformation of {sup 13}C-carbon of the labeled substrate into microbial fatty acids confirmed the assimilation of the pollutant resulting in the formation of biomass. In addition, metabolites such as benzylsuccinic acid were found in the toluene-amended microcosms indicating anaerobic degradation of toluene. This result corresponds to the geochemical conditions found at the field site and therefore, the microcosm approach with {sup 13}C-labeled compounds can be used to assign the predominant in situ degradation pathways in a contaminated aquifer. Since fatty acids profiles alone are often too

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  12. Risk assessment and management of an oil contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braxein, A.; Daniels, H.; Rouve, G.; Rubin, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the provision of the basic information needed for the decision making process regarding the remedial measures leading to reutilization of an oil contaminated aquifer. The study refers to the case history of jet fuel contamination of an aquifer comprising part of the coastal aquifer of Israel. Due to that contamination two major water supply wells were abandoned. This study examines the use of numerical simulations in order to restore the contamination history of the aquifer. Such simulations also provide quantitative information needed for the decision making process regarding the future management of the contaminated aquifer

  13. Lessons from a transplantation of zebra mussels into a small urban river: An integrated ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, A; Gourlay-Francé, C; Vincent-Hubert, F; Palais, F; Geffard, A; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Pain-Devin, S; Tusseau-Vuillemin, M-H

    2010-10-01

    It is often difficult to evaluate the level of contamination in small urban rivers because pollution is mainly diffuse, with low levels of numerous substances. The use of a coupled approach using both chemical and biological measurements may provide an integrated evaluation of the impact of micro-pollution on the river. Zebra mussels were transplanted along a metal and organic pollution gradient in spring 2008. For two months, mussels and water samples were collected from two sites every two weeks and analyzed for metal and PAH content as well as water physicochemical parameters. Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were also used to assess levels of labile metals. Exposure of mussels to contaminants and potential impact were evaluated using physiological indices and various biomarkers including condition index (CI), defense mechanisms (glutathione-S-transferase: GST), digestive enzymes (amylase and cellulase) and genotoxicity (micronucleus test: MN and comet assay: CA). For most contaminants, the water contamination was significantly higher downstream. Bioaccumulation in zebra mussels was related to water contamination in the framework of the biodynamic model, which allowed us to take into account the biological dilution that was caused by the growth of soft tissue downstream. Thus, metal influxes were on average two times higher downstream than upstream in particular for Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd. Significant differences in condition index were observed (final CI was 0.42 ± 0.03 downstream and 0.31 ± 0.03 upstream) reflecting a better food availability downstream. Moreover a significant decrease of GST activity and digestive enzymes activity in the cristalline style was observed downstream. Interpreting this decrease requires considering not only micro-pollution but also the trophic status related to the water's physicochemistry. The MN test and the CA on gill cells highlighted genotoxicity in mussels transplanted downstream compared to upstream. © 2010 Wiley

  14. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  15. Outlier identification and visualization for Pb concentrations in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chaosheng; Tang Ya; Luo Lin; Xu Weilin

    2009-01-01

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with. - Outliers in urban geochemical databases can be detected to provide guidance for identification of potential contaminated land.

  16. Outlier identification and visualization for Pb concentrations in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Chaosheng, E-mail: chaosheng.zhang@nuigalway.i [School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Tang Ya [Department of Environmental Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Luo Lin; Xu Weilin [State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with. - Outliers in urban geochemical databases can be detected to provide guidance for identification of potential contaminated land.

  17. The association between domestic animal presence and ownership and household drinking water contamination among peri-urban communities of Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Jane; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Household drinking water can be contaminated by diarrheagenic enteropathogens at numerous points between the source and actual consumption. Interventions to prevent this contamination have focused on preventing exposure to human waste through interventions to improve drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). In many cases though, the infectious agent may be of zoonotic rather than human origin suggesting that unsafely managed animal waste may contribute to the contamination of household drinking water and the associated diarrheal disease burden. Methods A cross-sectional household survey of 800 households was conducted across three informal peri-urban neighborhoods of Kisumu, Kenya, collecting stored drinking water samples, administering a household survey including water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and behaviors, and recording domestic animal presence and ownership. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the association of traditional WASH factors and domestic animal presence and ownership on microbial contamination of household drinking water. Results The majority of households sampled had fecally contaminated drinking water (67%), defined by the presence of any colony forming units of the fecal indicator bacteria enterococci. After adjustment for potential confounders, including socio-economic status and water and sanitation access, both household animal ownership (aOR 1.31; CI 1.00–1.73, p = 0.05) and the presence of animal waste in the household compound (aOR 1.38; CI 1.01, 1.89, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with household drinking water contamination. None of the conventional WASH variables were found to be significantly associated with household drinking water contamination in the study population. Conclusions Water, sanitation, and hygiene strategies to reduce diarrheal disease should consider the promotion of safe animal contact alongside more traditional interventions focusing on the

  18. Characterizing Contamination and Assessing Exposure, Risk and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports its responders' ability to characterize site contamination by developing sampling protocols, sample preparation methods, and analytical methods for chemicals, biotoxins, microbial pathogens, and radiological agents.

  19. Assessing measurement uncertainty in meteorology in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci, S; Lavecchia, C; Frustaci, G; Pilati, S; Paganelli, C; Paolini, R

    2017-01-01

    Measurement uncertainty in meteorology has been addressed in a number of recent projects. In urban environments, uncertainty is also affected by local effects which are more difficult to deal with than for synoptic stations. In Italy, beginning in 2010, an urban meteorological network (Climate Network ® ) was designed, set up and managed at national level according to high metrological standards and homogeneity criteria to support energy applications. The availability of such a high-quality operative automatic weather station network represents an opportunity to investigate the effects of station siting and sensor exposure and to estimate the related measurement uncertainty. An extended metadata set was established for the stations in Milan, including siting and exposure details. Statistical analysis on an almost 3-year-long operational period assessed network homogeneity, quality and reliability. Deviations from reference mean values were then evaluated in selected low-gradient local weather situations in order to investigate siting and exposure effects. In this paper the methodology is depicted and preliminary results of its application to air temperature discussed; this allowed the setting of an upper limit of 1 °C for the added measurement uncertainty at the top of the urban canopy layer. (paper)

  20. Assessing measurement uncertainty in meteorology in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, S.; Lavecchia, C.; Frustaci, G.; Paolini, R.; Pilati, S.; Paganelli, C.

    2017-10-01

    Measurement uncertainty in meteorology has been addressed in a number of recent projects. In urban environments, uncertainty is also affected by local effects which are more difficult to deal with than for synoptic stations. In Italy, beginning in 2010, an urban meteorological network (Climate Network®) was designed, set up and managed at national level according to high metrological standards and homogeneity criteria to support energy applications. The availability of such a high-quality operative automatic weather station network represents an opportunity to investigate the effects of station siting and sensor exposure and to estimate the related measurement uncertainty. An extended metadata set was established for the stations in Milan, including siting and exposure details. Statistical analysis on an almost 3-year-long operational period assessed network homogeneity, quality and reliability. Deviations from reference mean values were then evaluated in selected low-gradient local weather situations in order to investigate siting and exposure effects. In this paper the methodology is depicted and preliminary results of its application to air temperature discussed; this allowed the setting of an upper limit of 1 °C for the added measurement uncertainty at the top of the urban canopy layer.

  1. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

  3. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  4. Ecotoxicological and analytical assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and application to ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saterbak, A.; Toy, R.J.; Wong, D.C.L.; McMain, B.J.; Williams, M.P.; Dorn, P.B.; Brzuzy, L.P.; Chai, E.Y.; Salanitro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated soil aim to understand the effect of introduced chemicals on the soil flora and fauna. Ecotoxicity test methods were developed and conducted on hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and on adjacent uncontaminated control soils from eight field locations. Tests included 7-d, 14-d, and chronic survival tests and reproduction assays for the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and seed germination, root length, and plant growth assays for corn, lettuce, mustard, and wheat. Species-specific responses were observed with no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from <1 to 100% contaminated soil. The 14-d earthworm survival NOEC was equal to or greater than the reproduction NOEC values for numbers of cocoons and juveniles, which were similar to one another. Cocoon and juvenile production varied among the control soils. Germination and root length NOECs for mustard and lettuce were less than NOECs for corn and wheat. Root length NOECs were similar to or less than seed germination NOECs. Statistically significant correlations for earthworm survival and seed germination as a function of hydrocarbon measurements were found. The 14-d earthworm survival and the seed germination tests are recommended for use in the context of a risk-based framework for the ecological assessment of contaminated sites.

  5. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  6. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J. Rebecca; Korre, Anna

    2006-01-01

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations. - A methodology for calculating and mapping risks to a population from intake of soil contaminants

  7. Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: A study based on GIS and multivariate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Celine Siu-lan; Li Xiangdong; Shi Wenzhong; Cheung, Sharon Ching-nga; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km 2 ) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km 2 in urban areas and two samples per km 2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree = 2)

  8. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. USING OF THE MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS METHODS FOR THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ELEMENTAL CONTAMINATION URBAN ECOSYSTEMS SOILS BY THE HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. Sustainable development of the urban ecosystems, taking into account the provision of ecological safety standards for the human life within the city and the rational use and restoration of the resource potential of the territory, requires the search for effective methods of the characteristic of the ecological situation. In the conditions of the progressive pressure to the environment, the leading role belongs to the mathematical statistics methods, as a tool that allows us to examine and analyze in detail ecological systems of the various complexity. Of all the environmental abiotic components, soils have been given the least attention, which is due, firstly, to the ambiguous characteristic of the environmental situation according to the total content of the contaminant, and secondly, to the problem of choice its additional forms for the statistical analysis. Purpose. Substantial using of the mathematical statistics methods in the ecomonitoring system along with the generally accepted for the characterization of the elemental soil contamination of the urban ecosystem by the heavy metals, by determining the statistical characteristics and establishing relationships between the total content, potentially available and available forms by the example of Zn contamination in the Dnieper. The total content, potentially available and available forms have been used to determine the elemental Zn contamination. An array of the content data of the studied Zn forms has been obtained in the network of ecological monitoring of soils of the Dnieper urban ecosystem: grid (2 km × 2 km, key sampling sites – 65. In the selected samples, the Zn total content yas been determined by the atomic absorption method after acidizing the soil, its potentially available forms in the extraction of 1 H HCl, and the available forms in AAB (pH 4.8 by standard methods. The mathematical statistics methods and the application package Microsoft Excel

  10. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  11. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  12. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Keith H. Nislow; David J. Nowak; Stephen DeStefano; David I. King; D. Todd. Jones-Farrand

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat...

  14. Preliminary contamination hazard assessment of land resources in Central Bekaa plain of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Jomaa, I.; Awad, M.; Boumetri, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Central Bekaa plain constitutes the main region with prime agricultural land in Lebanon. The agricultural sector is the main consumer of available water resources (up to70%). Intensive agriculture, urban expansion and industrial activity have been increasingly stressing the limited soil and water resources. In the Central Bekaa, farmers are enforced to use contaminated water to recompense water shortage during the peak crop demands. Water scarcity and mismanagement increased contagion hazards and pressure on soil and groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to provide a synopsis of the assessment methodologies and analyze the soil-groundwater vulnerability to contamination by heavy metals as based on the risks of metal transfer and the degree of protection offered by the soil cover and soil-metal interaction. The soils of the area are distinguished by a high content of clay and relatively high pH that would reduce the danger of heavy metals transfer and mobility. However, throughout the study area, the perched groundwater table is relatively high with a depth varying between 60 and 500 cm making it highly vulnerable to pollution. Metals might be more mobile under reducing conditions. The area of high, medium and low soil and groundwater table vulnerability were determined and spatially located according to international standards. Referring to the German Concept on soil protection effectiveness, the residence time of percolating water carrying soluble pollutants in the unsaturated soil zone was assessed. It varied between several months and 10 years. Zones of high soil and ground water vulnerability risk require special management to establish pollution prevention programs. Results can help land use planning oriented to the choice of suitable crops, promulgate sustainable use of natural resources and environmental preservation. (author)

  15. Multielement geochemistry identifies the spatial pattern of soil and sediment contamination in an urban parkland, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rate, Andrew W

    2018-06-15

    Urban environments are dynamic and highly heterogeneous, and multiple additions of potential contaminants are likely on timescales which are short relative to natural processes. The likely sources and location of soil or sediment contamination in urban environment should therefore be detectable using multielement geochemical composition combined with rigorously applied multivariate statistical techniques. Soil, wetland sediment, and street dust was sampled along intersecting transects in Robertson Park in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Samples were analysed for near-total concentrations of multiple elements (including Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, La, Mn, Nd, Ni, Pb, Y, and Zn), as well as pH, and electrical conductivity. Samples at some locations within Robertson Park had high concentrations of potentially toxic elements (Pb above Health Investigation Limits; As, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn above Ecological Investigation Limits). However, these concentrations carry low risk due to the main land use as recreational open space, the low proportion of samples exceeding guideline values, and a tendency for the highest concentrations to be located within the less accessible wetland basin. The different spatial distributions of different groups of contaminants was consistent with different inputs of contaminants related to changes in land use and technology over the history of the site. Multivariate statistical analyses reinforced the spatial information, with principal component analysis identifying geochemical associations of elements which were also spatially related. A multivariate linear discriminant model was able to discriminate samples into a-priori types, and could predict sample type with 84% accuracy based on multielement composition. The findings suggest substantial advantages of characterising a site using multielement and multivariate analyses, an approach which could benefit investigations of other sites of concern. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  16. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  17. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Cissé, Guéladio; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Ngoc, Pham; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Anh Vuong, Tuan; Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture has a long tradition throughout Asia. For example, in Hanoi, it creates important livelihood opportunities for > 500,000 farmers in peri-urban communities. Discharge of domestic effluents pollute the water streams with potential pathogenic organisms posing a public health threat to farmers and consumers of wastewater-fed foodstuff. We determined the effectiveness of Hanoi's wastewater conveyance system, placing particular emphasis on the quality of wastewater used in agriculture and aquaculture. Between April and June 2014, a total of 216 water samples were obtained from 24 sampling points and the concentrations of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and helminth eggs determined. Despite applied wastewater treatment, agricultural field irrigation water was heavily contaminated with TC (1.3 × 10"7 colony forming unit (CFU)/100 mL), E. coli (1.1 × 10"6 CFU/100 mL) and Salmonella spp. (108 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL). These values are 110-fold above Vietnamese discharge limits for restricted agriculture and 260-fold above the World Health Organization (WHO)'s tolerable safety limits for unrestricted agriculture. Mean helminth egg concentrations were below WHO tolerable levels in all study systems (< 1 egg/L). Hence, elevated levels of bacterial contamination, but not helminth infections, pose a major health risk for farmers and consumers of wastewater fed-products. We propose a set of control measures that might protect the health of exposed population groups without compromising current urban farming activities. This study presents an important example for sanitation safety planning in a rapidly expanding Asian city and can guide public and private entities working towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, that is to improve water quality by reducing pollution, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. - Highlights: • We

  18. Microbial contamination along the main open wastewater and storm water channel of Hanoi, Vietnam, and potential health risks for urban farmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel, E-mail: samuel.fuhrimann@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Pham-Duc, Phuc [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cissé, Guéladio [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Thu Ha, Hoang [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dung, Do Trung [Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Malaria, Parasitology, and Entomology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ngoc, Pham [Department of Animal Hygiene, National Institute for Veterinary Research, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen-Viet, Hung [Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi (Viet Nam); International Livestock Research Institute, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Anh Vuong, Tuan [Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Utzinger, Jürg; Schindler, Christian; Winkler, Mirko S. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-10-01

    The use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture has a long tradition throughout Asia. For example, in Hanoi, it creates important livelihood opportunities for > 500,000 farmers in peri-urban communities. Discharge of domestic effluents pollute the water streams with potential pathogenic organisms posing a public health threat to farmers and consumers of wastewater-fed foodstuff. We determined the effectiveness of Hanoi's wastewater conveyance system, placing particular emphasis on the quality of wastewater used in agriculture and aquaculture. Between April and June 2014, a total of 216 water samples were obtained from 24 sampling points and the concentrations of total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and helminth eggs determined. Despite applied wastewater treatment, agricultural field irrigation water was heavily contaminated with TC (1.3 × 10{sup 7} colony forming unit (CFU)/100 mL), E. coli (1.1 × 10{sup 6} CFU/100 mL) and Salmonella spp. (108 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL). These values are 110-fold above Vietnamese discharge limits for restricted agriculture and 260-fold above the World Health Organization (WHO)'s tolerable safety limits for unrestricted agriculture. Mean helminth egg concentrations were below WHO tolerable levels in all study systems (< 1 egg/L). Hence, elevated levels of bacterial contamination, but not helminth infections, pose a major health risk for farmers and consumers of wastewater fed-products. We propose a set of control measures that might protect the health of exposed population groups without compromising current urban farming activities. This study presents an important example for sanitation safety planning in a rapidly expanding Asian city and can guide public and private entities working towards Sustainable Development Goal target 6.3, that is to improve water quality by reducing pollution, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

  19. Relevant dimensions for proactive environmental assessment of urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alberto Soria Lara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of negative environmental impacts in urban transportation (air pollution, energy consumption, etc. is thought to be crucial in promoting sustainable development outcomes in cities, however evidence shows that this objective is hardly achieved in practice. In the case of urban transport planning, the transition to sustainability requests that its performance must be assessed. This has originated important challenges for the academia in providing efficient assessment tools. As a response to these challenges, sustainability assessment has become a rapidly developing area associated with the family of impact assessment tools ((e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment. In recent years, many countries have conferred to sustainability assessment, and specifically to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, an important and decisive role into their planning systems. The effectiveness of the traditional methods for evaluating urban transport plans/interventions (e.g. EIA, EAE, Cost-Benefit Analysis is contested as strongly argued by several academics. A key problem is that these methods currently focus too much on identifying environmental impacts that might happen rather than on finding ways of preventing them from happening. They are used reactively rather than proactively. Underlying this is the belief that traditional evaluation methods have difficulty guiding improvements in urban transport plans and projects in decision-making and their capacity to support technical decisions becomes limited. First, this is a consequence of the fact that the environmental assessment (EA process mainly includes EA-makers and they are not integrated enough in the transport planning process. Second, the used methods not always are the most suitable to identify ways of preventing potential impacts with respect to the particular nature of urban transportation. In seeking to answer these problems, the paper presents a strategy

  20. Preliminary assessment of contaminants in the sediment and organisms of the Swartkops Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, L; Strydom, N A; Bouwman, H

    2015-12-30

    Urban estuaries are susceptible to metal and organic pollution, yet most remain understudied in South Africa with respect to the presence, concentrations and distribution of contaminants. Metal and organic chemical concentrations were assessed in sediment and organisms from different trophic levels in the lower reaches of the Swartkops Estuary. Species sampled included Upogebia africana (Malacostraca: Upogebiidae), Gilchristella aestuaria (Clupeidae), Psammogobius knysnaensis (Gobiidae), Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), Lichia amia (Carangidae), Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae), Pomadasys commersonnii (Haemulidae) and Larus dominicanus (Avis: Laridae). This study is one of the most comprehensive studies to date assessing pollution levels in a food web in estuaries in South Africa. Due to biomagnification, higher concentrations of Arsenic, Lead, Mercury and Cadmium were found in the juveniles stages of popular angling fishes. High concentrations of Cadmium and Arsenic were recorded in the liver of L. amia, A. japonicus and P. commersonnii which exceed international quality food guidelines. Eggs from the gull, L. dominicanus, showed detectable concentrations of PCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiological assessment of radioactive contamination on private clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schartmann, F.; Thierfeldt, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the very rare, cases where private clothing of persons working in a nuclear installation are inadvertently contaminated and this contamination is not detected when leaving the facility, there may be radiological consequences for this person as well as for members of his or her family. The VGB (Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber) in Germany has investigated in detail the spread of contamination in nuclear power plants. Part of this evaluation programme was a radiological analysis which has been carried out by Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (Aachen/Germany). The radiological analysis started with the definition of the source term. It is highly unlikely that activities of more than 5 kBq 60 Co could leave a plant undetected on the body or the clothes. Nevertheless activities up to 50 kBq and different nuclide vectors were regarded. It has been found that 60 Co is the most important contaminant. The radiological analysis focusses on two types of contamination: particles and surface contamination. The pathways by which such a contamination can lead to an exposure by external irradiation or by ingestion depend on the type of contamination and are analysed in detail. For example, a particle could be retained in pockets or other parts of clothing and may lead to prolonged external irradiation until the piece of clothing is washed. The analysis is performed on the basis of conservative to realistic assumptions. In conclusion, the analysis has shown that especially particle contamination needs to be focussed on. However, by the advanced detection equipment in German plants doses which may pose a health hazard can safely be excluded. (authors)

  2. Assessment and treatment of external and internal radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The most serious problems arise from accidents involving radionuclide contamination. This was demonstrated by experience from the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, where large groups of people were externally and internally contaminated and which demanded significant management efforts from the health and other authorities. It is important that radionuclide contamination be minimized, not only by preventive measures, but also by good medical management when an exposure has occurred. This is an updated Technical Document based upon the IAEA Safety Series No. 88 ''Medical Handling of Accidentally Exposed Individuals'' and IAEA-TECDOC-366 ''What the General Practitioner (MD) Should Know about Medical Handling of Overexposed Individuals''. 26 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people

  4. assessment of trace metals contamination of soils around some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to determine the level of soil contamination by metals around some automobile mechanic .... and this was done all through the sample preparation. ... shaking was done by a mechanical sieve shaker and.

  5. The role of bioindicators in assessing radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovicj, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper is a survey of investigations into radioactive contamination of selected plant and animal species (bioindicators) which have the capacitr for multiple accumulation of fission products. Literature data on the contamination of bioindicators are compared with special reference to the accumulation of 131 I, 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a result of atmospheric nuclear experiments and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl. (author) 52 refs.; 3 figs [sh

  6. ELER software - a new tool for urban earthquake loss assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, U.; Tuzun, C.; Yenidogan, C.; Erdik, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid loss estimation after potentially damaging earthquakes is critical for effective emergency response and public information. A methodology and software package, ELER-Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, for rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses throughout the Euro-Mediterranean region was developed under the Joint Research Activity-3 (JRA3) of the EC FP6 Project entitled "Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology-NERIES". Recently, a new version (v2.0) of ELER software has been released. The multi-level methodology developed is capable of incorporating regional variability and uncertainty originating from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. Although primarily intended for quasi real-time estimation of earthquake shaking and losses, the routine is also equally capable of incorporating scenario-based earthquake loss assessments. This paper introduces the urban earthquake loss assessment module (Level 2) of the ELER software which makes use of the most detailed inventory databases of physical and social elements at risk in combination with the analytical vulnerability relationships and building damage-related casualty vulnerability models for the estimation of building damage and casualty distributions, respectively. Spectral capacity-based loss assessment methodology and its vital components are presented. The analysis methods of the Level 2 module, i.e. Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40, 1996), Modified Acceleration-Displacement Response Spectrum Method (FEMA 440, 2005), Reduction Factor Method (Fajfar, 2000) and Coefficient Method (ASCE 41-06, 2006), are applied to the selected building types for validation and verification purposes. The damage estimates are compared to the results obtained from the other studies available in the literature, i.e. SELENA v4.0 (Molina et al., 2008) and

  7. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  8. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  9. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  10. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  11. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebo, A. L.; Drechsel, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2014-11-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range.

  12. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebo, A L; Drechsel, P; Lambin, E F

    2014-01-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range. (letter)

  13. Contribution for an Urban Geomorphoheritage Assessment Method: Proposal from Three Geomorphosites in Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pica Alessia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban geomorphology has important implications in spatial planning of human activities, and it also has a geotouristic potential due to the relationship between cultural and geomorphological heritage. Despite the introduction of the term Anthropocene to describe the deep influence that human activities have had in recent times on Earth evolution, urban geomorphological heritage studies are relatively rare and limited and urban geotourism development is recent. The analysis of the complex urban landscape often need the integration of multidisciplinary data. This study aims to propose the first urban geomorphoheritage assessment method, which originates after long-lasting previous geomorphological and geotouristic studies on Rome city centre, it depict rare examples of the geomorphological mapping of a metropolis and, at the same time, of an inventory of urban geomorphosites. The proposal is applied to geomorphosites in the Esquilino neighbourhood of Rome, whose analysis confirm the need for an ad hoc method for assessing urban geomorphosites, as already highlighted in the most recent literature on the topic. The urban geomorphoheritage assessment method is based on: (i the urban geomorphological analysis by means of multitemporal and multidisciplinary data; (ii the geomorphosite inventory; and (iii the geomorphoheritage assessment and enhancement. One challenge is to assess invisible geomorphosites that are widespread in urban context. To this aim, we reworked the attributes describing the Value of a site for Geotourism in order to build up a specific methodology for the analysis of the urban geomorphological heritage.

  14. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  15. Assessment of the potential of urban organic carbon dynamics to off-set urban anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, P.; Churkina, G.; Wattenbach, M.; Cubasch, U.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of urban systems on current and future global carbon emissions has been a focus of several studies. Many mitigation options in terms of increasing energy efficiency are discussed. However, apart from technical mitigation potential urban systems also have a considerable biogenic potential to mitigate carbon through an optimized management of organic carbon pools of vegetation and soil. Berlin city area comprises almost 50% of areas covered with vegetation or largely covered with vegetation. This potentially offers various areas for carbon mitigation actions. To assess the mitigation potentials our first objective is to estimate how large current vegetation and soil carbon stocks of Berlin are. We use publicly available forest and soil inventories to calculate soil organic carbon of non-pervious areas and forest standing biomass carbon. This research highlights data-gaps and assigns uncertainty ranges to estimated carbon resources. The second objective is to assess the carbon mitigation potential of Berlin’s vegetation and soils using a biogeochemical simulation model. BIOME-BGC simulates carbon-, nitrogen- and water-fluxes of ecosystems mechanistically. First, its applicability for Berlin forests is tested at selected sites. A spatial application gives an estimate of current net carbon fluxes. The application of such a model allows determining the sensitivity of key ecosystem processes (e.g. carbon gains through photosynthesis, carbon losses through decomposition) towards external drivers. This information can then be used to optimise forest management in terms of carbon mitigation. Initial results of Berlin’s current carbon stocks and its spatial distribution and preliminary simulations results will be presented.

  16. Stochastic Assessments of Urban Employees’ Pension Plan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the uncertain environment of population and economy; the pension plan for urban employees in China is under threat from various types of financial risk. This paper mainly builds a comprehensive risk assessment system to evaluate the solvency sustainability of the urban employees’ pension plan of China. Specifically, we forecast annual accumulative net asset; actuarial balance; and potential support ratio for the next seventy years. To account for the impact of demographic uncertainty on long-term finances, stochastic simulations are used to estimate the probability distribution of relative risk indicators. Moreover, we integrate the Lee–Carter model into the population projection. According to the median projection, the public pension fund will have a gap in about 35 years; and the cash flow will be negative about 25 years later. Furthermore, under the existing policy, the burden of insured employees will increase rapidly. Delayed retirement could relieve the coming solvency risk, but it does not fundamentally resolve the solvency problem in the long run.

  17. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.C.F.; Conti, C.C.; Schirru, R.

    2010-01-01

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  19. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, M.C.F., E-mail: marcos@ird.gov.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schirru, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-09-21

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  20. Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban soils from southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Guo; FengchangWu; Fazhi Xie; Ruiqing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To identify the concentrations and sources of heavy metals,and to assess soil environmental quality,63 soil samples were collected in Yibin City,Sichuan Province,China.Mean concentrations of As,Pb,Zn,and Cu were 10.55,61.23,138.88 and 56.35 mg/kg,respectively.As concentrations were comparable to background values,while Pb,Zn,and Cu concentrations were higher than their corresponding background values.Industrial areas exhibited the highest concentrations of As,Pb,Zn,and Cu,while the lowest concentrations occurred in parks.Statistical analysis was performed and two cluster groups of metals were identified with Pb,Zn,and Cu in one group and As in the other.Spatial distribution maps indicated that Pb,Zn,and Cu were mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities,whereas As could be mainly accounted for by soil parent materials.Pollution index values of As,Pb,Zn,and Cu varied in the range of 0.24-1.93,0.66-7.24,0.42-4.19,and 0.62-5.25,with mean values of 0.86,1.98,1.61,and 1.78,respectively.The integrated pollution index(IPI)values of these metals varied from 0.82 to 3.54,with a mean of 1.6 and more than 90% of soil samples were moderately or highly contaminated with heavy metals.The spatial distribution of IPI showed that newer urban areas displayed relatively lower heavy metal contamination in comparison with older urban areas.

  1. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo 1. Ibirapuera Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur C.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years urban soils received increasing attention by scientists, leading to studies focused on their description and investigation all over the world, due to the increasing metal pollution derived from incinerators, industrial waste, atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols, and other activities. Metal contamination in Sao Paulo public parks is an important environmental question and there is little information on this subject. As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) from Ibirapuera park of Sao Paulo. Ibirapuera park is one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo, receiving during the weekends more than 400,000 visitors. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). For As, Ba, Cr and Sb, in some samples the concentrations were even higher than the Prevention values reported by CETESB. The high concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn in the Ibirapuera park top soils suggest an anthropogenic source and indicate a potential damage to soil quality. (author)

  2. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal−Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively, while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., “living with floods”, in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues.

  3. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal−Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thi Thao Nguyen; Van der Steen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively), while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., “living with floods”, in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues. PMID:29189715

  4. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal-Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Quan; Huynh, Thi Thao Nguyen; Pathirana, Assela; Van der Steen, Peter

    2017-11-30

    Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam) on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively), while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., "living with floods", in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues.

  5. Source apportionment of heavy metals and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in a subtropical urban area in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Chapman, H; Gardner, T; Shaw, G

    2012-03-15

    Due to prolonged droughts in recent years, the use of rainwater tanks in urban areas has increased in Australia. In order to apportion sources of contribution to heavy metal and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in Brisbane, a subtropical urban area in Australia, monthly tank water samples (24 sites, 31 tanks) and concurrent bulk deposition samples (18 sites) were collected during mainly April 2007-March 2008. The samples were analysed for acid-soluble metals, soluble anions, total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon, and characteristics such as total solid and pH. The Positive Matrix Factorisation model, EPA PMF 3.0, was used to apportion sources of contribution to the contaminants. Four source factors were identified for the bulk deposition samples, including 'crustal matter/sea salt', 'car exhausts/road side dust', 'industrial dust' and 'aged sea salt/secondary aerosols'. For the tank water samples, apart from these atmospheric deposition related factors which contributed in total to 65% of the total contaminant concentration on average, another six rainwater collection system related factors were identified, including 'plumbing', 'building material', 'galvanizing', 'roofing', 'steel' and 'lead flashing/paint' (contributing in total to 35% of the total concentration on average). The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for lead was exceeded in 15% of the tank water samples. The collection system related factors, in particular the 'lead flashing/paint' factor, contributed to 79% of the lead in the tank water samples on average. The concentration of lead in tank water was found to vary with various environmental and collection system factors, in particular the presence of lead flashing on the roof. The results also indicated the important role of sludge dynamics inside the tank on the quality of tank water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  9. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  11. Urban forestry research needs: a participatory assessment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Linda E. Kruger

    2010-01-01

    New research initiatives focusing on urban ecology and natural resources are underway. Such programs coincide with increased local government action in urban forest planning and management, activities that are enhanced by scientific knowledge. This project used a participatory stakeholder process to explore and understand urban forestry research and technology transfer...

  12. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  13. Contamination assessment of heavy metal in surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longjiang, M.; Qiang, F.; Duowen, M.; Ke, H.; Jinghong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The heavy metal contents and the contamination levels of the surface sediments of the Wuding River, northern China, were investigated. Heavy metal concentration ranged in μg g -1 : 50.15 - 71.91 for Cr, 408.1 - 442.9 for Mn, 20.11 - 43.59 for Ni, 17.51 - 20.1 for Cu, 68.32 - 89.57 for Zn, 0.2 - 0.38 for Cd and 15.08 - 16.14 for Pb in the Wuding River sediments. The enrichment factor (EF) and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that the sediments of the Wuding River had been polluted by Cd, Cr and Ni, which mainly originated from anthropogenic sources, whereas the sediments had not been polluted by Zn, Pb, Cu and Mn, which were derived from the crust. In addition, the assessment results of EF and Igeo suggested that the sediments of the Wuding River was 'moderately' polluted by Cd and 'unpolluted to moderately' polluted by Cr and Ni. The elevated urban sewage discharges and agriculture fertilizers usage in river basin are the anthropogenic sources of these heavy metals in river. (author)

  14. Soil contamination from urban and industrial activity: example of the mining district of Linares (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Llamas, J. F.; de Miguel, E.; Rey, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    The Linares region (southern Spain) has been subjected to two important sources of pollution: the intensive mining works and the urban-industrial activity. To obtain a geochemical characterisation of the soil, 31 trace elements were analysed and 669 soil samples were collected. By means of clustering analysis, we identified groups of elements and grid squares in which relations could be established concerning soil lithology, urban and industrial activities and the degree of pollution impact; in addition, we were able to characterise the geochemical background of the study area. The multivariate study led us to identify four factors. Particularly important was factor 2, which represented the elements associated with mineral paragenesis (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Mn, Zn, Sn, Ba). This factor also contains elements related with an urban-industrial activity, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, As and Ba. Furthermore, we identified factor 4, associating Ni, V and Cr, and which is related to the use of fuels.

  15. Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidales Alternative Fecal Indicators Reveal Chronic Human Sewage Contamination in an Urban Harbor▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; VandeWalle, Jessica L.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Gorelick, Marc H.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    detect sewage compared to general indicators, and the relationship to a human pathogen group suggests that the use of these alternative indicators will improve assessments for human health risks in urban waters. PMID:21803887

  16. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.

    different conceptual models may describe the same contaminated site equally well. In many cases, conceptual model uncertainty has been shown to be one of the dominant sources for uncertainty and is therefore essential to account for when quantifying uncertainties in risk assessments. We present here......A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is the formulation of a conceptual site model. The conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modelling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. A conceptual model should...... a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) approach for evaluating the uncertainty in risk assessment of groundwater contamination from contaminated sites. The approach accounts for conceptual model uncertainty by considering multiple conceptual models, each of which represents an alternative interpretation of the site...

  17. Zn and Cu isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic contamination in a sediment core from an urban lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita; Borrok, David M.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Landa, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. δ66Zn and δ65Cu varied by 0.50‰ and 0.29‰, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (∼1450 to 1900 with δ66Zn = +0.39‰ ± 0.09‰ and δ65Cu = +0.77‰ ± 0.06‰), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with δ66Zn = +0.14 ± 0.06‰ and δ65Cu = +0.94 ± 0.10‰), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with δ66Zn = 0.00 ± 0.10‰ and δ65Cu = +0.82‰ ± 0.12‰). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the δ66Zn and δ65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the δ66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn.

  18. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  19. Bioavailability assessment of contaminants in soils via respiration and nitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Simon, Markus

    2008-01-01

    For the assessment of contaminated soils ecotoxicological tests are used to estimate the bioavailability of contaminants in soil samples. Terrestrial tests reveal the habitat function of soils, and parameters applied in tests involving microorganisms include respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation. For such tests, the threshold values needed to assess the results have already been established in guidelines ISO 17155 and ISO 15685. In this paper, we discuss about the respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation results obtained from a wide variety of soils with different physico-chemical properties and levels of contamination. These results show that microbial respiration and potential ammonium oxidation have different sensitivities to various classes of contaminants. We demonstrated that both organic and inorganic contaminants influence potential ammonium oxidation, whereas microbial respiration is predominantly affected by biodegradable organic contaminants. These differences might be useful for more detailed assessments of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected. - The paper provides a further criterion for a more detailed assessment of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected

  20. Bioavailability assessment of contaminants in soils via respiration and nitrification tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)], E-mail: kerstin.hund-rinke@ime.fraunhofer.de; Simon, Markus [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)], E-mail: markus.simon@ime.fraunhofer.de

    2008-05-15

    For the assessment of contaminated soils ecotoxicological tests are used to estimate the bioavailability of contaminants in soil samples. Terrestrial tests reveal the habitat function of soils, and parameters applied in tests involving microorganisms include respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation. For such tests, the threshold values needed to assess the results have already been established in guidelines ISO 17155 and ISO 15685. In this paper, we discuss about the respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation results obtained from a wide variety of soils with different physico-chemical properties and levels of contamination. These results show that microbial respiration and potential ammonium oxidation have different sensitivities to various classes of contaminants. We demonstrated that both organic and inorganic contaminants influence potential ammonium oxidation, whereas microbial respiration is predominantly affected by biodegradable organic contaminants. These differences might be useful for more detailed assessments of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected. - The paper provides a further criterion for a more detailed assessment of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected.

  1. Emerging contaminants: Presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J.; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John

    2011-01-01

    A session entitled 'Emerging Contaminants' was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be 'emerging' because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene).

  2. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic

  3. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L.; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and

  4. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.

  5. Assessment of the radiological impact of contaminated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeck, L; Zeevaert, T

    1996-09-18

    A biosphere model has been used to calculate the release of radionuclides from contaminated soils and their dose impact on critical individuals in the environment. Normal evolution and accidental scenarios are considered. The objective of the model is to provide an indication of the radiological risk rather than to predict its future impact.

  6. Assessment of trace metal contamination of soils around Oluyole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of metals contamination of the soils around Oluyole industrial estate in Ibadan. Oluyole industrial estate has heavy concentration of manufacturing industries that generate a lot of waste products capable of introducing metals into the environment. Consequently, twenty-one ...

  7. Assessment of lead contamination of farmlands in Abare village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADO YUSUF

    Key words: Heavy metals, lead, Zamfara, health risk, soil contamination. ... Similarly, the. Zamfara State Ministry of Environment and Solid Minerals .... The average concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn were 17.5, ... was found on the interaction between sampling distance .... stalk) are essential components of livestock feed espe-.

  8. Assessment of hygienic practices and faecal contamination of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals were slaughtered, dressed and meat handled in dirty environment that caused gross contamination of meat. The drainage system was dilapidated and there were no defined means of waste disposal. E. coli Escherichia coli was isolated in all the samples analysed. However, E. coli O157 strain was not isolated in all ...

  9. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...

  10. An approach to detecting delayed effects of radioactive contamination on industrial-urban-area dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privalova, L.I.; Katsnelson, B.A.; Polzik, E.V.; Kazantsev, V.S.; Lipatov, G.Ya.; Beikin, Y.B.

    1994-01-01

    Detecting changes in humans that result from radioactive contamination of the area of residence many years after an incident (i.e., when the radiation has substantially decayed) presents a difficult epidemiological problem. Problems of this kind are even more complicated in areas where the population is continually exposed to other harmful man-made factors. The city of Kamensk-Uralsky (Sverdlovsk region, Russia) is a good case in point. In 1957, part of Kamensk-Uralsky was contaminated as the result of an accident at the Kyshtym nuclear plant. In addition, the population of the contaminated area is being exposed to atmospheric emissions from several industrial enterprises. Two comparable groups of residents were formed: one in the contaminated area and another in a control area within the same city characterized by similar levels of chemical pollution but substantially lower radioactive contamination. The groups were composed of only those people who had been living in these areas continually since time of the accident and who were under 15 years of age at the time of the accident. The groups were matched by sex, age, and socio-occupational characteristics. For each subject, data were gathered on more than 50 parameters including hematological, immunological, and biochemical indices of the health status. All these data were obtained from blood tests taken in the fall of 1992. Data processing was carried out with the help of a computerized mathematical pattern recognition methodology, which ensured reliable discrimination between the generalized health status in the areas under study. We found that the health status of inhabitants of the area more contaminated with radioactive fallouts were adversely affected by radiation

  11. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  12. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Entropy Weight Extension Decision Model in Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health evaluation can assist in sustainable ecological management at a regional level. This study examined urban agglomeration ecosystem health in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River with entropy weight and extension theories. The model overcomes information omissions and subjectivity problems in the evaluation process of urban ecosystem health. Results showed that human capital and education, economic development level as well as urban infrastructure have a significant effect on the health states of urban agglomerations. The health status of the urban agglomeration’s ecosystem was not optimistic in 2013. The majority of the cities were unhealthy or verging on unhealthy, accounting for 64.52% of the total number of cities in the urban agglomeration. The regional differences of the 31 cities’ ecosystem health are significant. The cause originated from an imbalance in economic development and the policy guidance of city development. It is necessary to speed up the integration process to promote coordinated regional development. The present study will aid us in understanding and advancing the health situation of the urban ecosystem in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and will provide an efficient urban ecosystem health evaluation method that can be used in other areas.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  14. Evaluation of organic contamination in urban groundwater surrounding a municipal landfill, Zhoukou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D M; Tong, X X; Jin, M G; Hepburn, Emily; Tong, C S; Song, X F

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the organic pollution status of shallow aquifer sediments and groundwater around Zhoukou landfill. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, monocylic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides and other pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been detected in some water samples. Among the detected eleven PAHs, phenanthrene, fluorine, and fluoranthene are the three dominant in most of the groundwater samples. Analysis of groundwater samples around the landfill revealed concentrations of PAHs ranging from not detected to 2.19 μg/L. The results show that sediments below the waste dump were low in pollution, and the shallow aquifer, at a depth of 18-30 m, was heavily contaminated, particularly during the wet season. An oval-shaped pollution halo has formed, spanning 3 km from west to east and 2 km from south to north, and mainly occurs in groundwater depths of 2-4 m. For PAH source identification, both diagnostic ratios of selected PAHs and principal component analysis were studied, suggesting mixed sources of pyro- and petrogenic derived PAHs in the Zhoukou landfill. Groundwater table fluctuations play an important role in the distribution of organic pollutants within the shallow aquifer. A conceptual model of leachate migration in the Quaternary aquifers surrounding the Zhoukou landfill has been developed to describe the contamination processes based on the major contaminant (PAHs). The groundwater zone contaminated by leachate has been identified surrounding the landfill.

  15. Inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water supplies in urban areas: the case of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rusca, Maria; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015. Faecal contamination (Escherichia coli) was detected in 10% of the 40 samples collected from planned areas, in 59% of the 64 samples collected from kiosks in the unplanned areas and in 75% of the 32 samples of water stored at household level. Differences in water quality in planned and unplanned areas were found to be statistically significant at p inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water are produced by decisions both on the development of the water supply infrastructure and on how this is operated and maintained.

  16. Multiple methods for assessing the dose to skin exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, J.; Heinmiller, B.E.; Corrigan, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is the possibility for a worker at a nuclear installation, such as a nuclear power reactor, a fuel production facility or a medical facility, to come in contact with radioactive contaminants. When such an event occurs, the first order of business is to care for the worker by promptly initiating a decontamination process. Usually, the radiation protection personnel performs a G-M pancake probe measurement of the contamination in situ and collects part or all of the radioactive contamination for further laboratory analysis. The health physicist on duty must then perform, using the available information, a skin dose assessment that will go into the worker's permanent dose record. The contamination situations are often complex and the dose assessment can be laborious. This article compares five dose assessment methods that involve analysis, new technologies and new software. The five methods are applied to 13 actual contamination incidents consisting of direct skin contact, contamination on clothing and contamination on clothing in the presence of an air gap between the clothing and the skin. This work shows that, for the cases studied, the methods provided dose estimates that were usually within 12% (1σ) of each other, for those cases where absolute activity information for every radionuclide was available. One method, which relies simply on a G-M pancake probe measurement, appeared to be particularly useful in situations where a contamination sample could not be recovered for laboratory analysis. (authors)

  17. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  18. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  19. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    available between sites and choosing between the need for further investigation or remediation. This is a question of prioritizing the sites that pose the greatest risk, and it is a matter of making decisions under uncertainty. Both tasks require a structured assessment of the risk posed by the contaminated...... sites. In a conventional risk assessment of a contaminated site, risk is evaluated by assessing whether a concentration guideline is exceeded at a specific point of compliance in the water resource of interest. If the guideline is exceeded, it is concluded that the site poses a risk. However......, a contaminated site may pose a threat to multiple water resources, or multiple contaminated sites may threaten a single water resource. For more advanced risk assessments, it is therefore relevant to develop methods that can handle this challenge. In this thesis, four contributions are made to the field...

  20. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  1. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  2. Application of Bioassays for the Ecotoxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María D.; Babín, Mar; Tarazona, José V.

    The use of bioassays for soil characterization is receiving significant attention as a complementary tool to chemical analysis. Bioassays consist of direct toxicity assays of environmental samples that are transferred to the laboratory and analyzed for toxicity against selected organisms. Such soil samples contain the combination of the different pollutants present in situ and enable factors such as the bioavailability of contaminants or the interactions (synergic and antagonic) between them to be simultaneously studied.

  3. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  4. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  5. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  6. Simulation and assessment of urbanization impacts on runoff metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Yu, Jingjie

    2018-01-01

    changes. The Qing River catchment as a peri-urban catchment in the Beijing metropolitan area is selected as our study region. Results show that: (1) the dryland agriculture is decreased from 13.9% to 1.5% of the total catchment area in the years 2000–2015, while the percentages of impervious surface...... information for urban planning such as Sponge City design.......Urbanization-induced landuse changes alter runoff regimes in complex ways. In this study, a detailed investigation of the urbanization impacts on runoff regimes is provided by using multiple runoff metrics and with consideration of landuse dynamics. A catchment hydrological model is modified...

  7. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  8. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2009-01-01

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB 7 up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment

  10. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Crittenden, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators. Highlights: •The soil PAH and HM contents were closely related to urbanization progression. •The PAH and HM contents were primarily affected by soil exposure time. •Local input loads of pollutants correlated with road density and population density. •The combined risks of PAHs and HMs increased with the urban development level. •The carcinogenic risks of PAHs and As were above 10 −5 and increased over time. -- The health risks of PAHs and HMs in residential soils were connected to building age, population density and road density of the community as well as its distance from urban center

  11. Performance evaluation of of caesium, iodine, strontium and ruthenium isotopes in urban areas after contamination by accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-03-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of I37 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, l03 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations (SIEM), developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclides are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with and without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving pressurized water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of the relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  12. Leveraging Spatial Data to Assess Where Sewers Leak and Impinge on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P. A.; Roehrdanz, P.; Lee, D. G.; Feraud, M.; Maier, M.; Means, J. C.; Snyder, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the modern urban water environment (UWE), engineered systems provide wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse; stormwater and graywater management; and potable water treatment, distribution and conservation. Underpinning such systems are physical, private and public, infrastructures whose integrities impinge on major goals of protecting groundwater and surface water resources, managing flooding, and securing safe drinking water. Here we study sanitary sewers, i.e. the main pipes in wastewater collection systems that improve public health by reducing pathogen exposure, and that afford reclaiming water for beneficial reuse. We ask: what is the relationship between sanitary sewer integrity and nearby water quality? Research methods include acquiring spatially defined sewer metadata that are analyzed using a published pipe leakage algorithm with variables of age, depth, materials of construction, length, diameter, slope, and nature of overburden. By executing the algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS), coupled with relating leakage probabilities to shallow groundwater table proximities—also digitally assembled, from well depth data—maps of wastewater exfiltration scores were produced for a city. Field sampling shallow groundwater allowed assessing concentrations of wastewater indicator compounds including personal care products and pharmaceuticals (PCPPs), and showing positive relationships between wastewater exfiltration scores and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), reactive nitrogen species, an artificial sweetener acesulfame, and a stable isotope of oxygen (δ18O). The approach is extended to surface waters, where exfiltrating wastewater may transport from leaking sanitary sewers through the unsaturated zone to nearby storm drains or to storm drains that are submerged in contaminated groundwater. Spatially assessing sewer interactions within the UWE, as such, could aid urban infrastructure management and investment.

  13. Introducing a Method for Social-ecological Assessment of Small Urban Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanariah Jasman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small parks in cities are important to support overall urban biodiversity and ecological network. The aim of this paper is to introduce a method of identifying and assessing the ecological characteristics and anthropogenic factors of small urban parks. We developed a framework that combined structured observation and field measurement. The method suggests an integrative assessment that is practical and understandable to the park planners and managers to enhance small parks to support overall urban biodiversity and ecosystem services. High biodiversity can provide opportunities for humans to experience nature and wildlife in cities, thus contributing to the quality of life of urban dwellers.

  14. Air contaminants and litter fall decomposition in urban forest areas: The case of São Paulo - SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano Ferreira, Maurício; Portella Ribeiro, Andreza; Rodrigues Albuquerque, Caroline; Ferreira, Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano; Figueira, Rubens César Lopes; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Urban forests are usually affected by several types of atmospheric contaminants and by abnormal variations in weather conditions, thus facilitating the biotic homogenization and modification of ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. Peri-urban forests and even natural forests that surround metropolitan areas are also subject to anthropogenic effects generated by cities, which may compromise the dynamics of these ecosystems. Hence, this study advances the hypothesis that the forests located at the margins of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, have high concentrations of atmospheric contaminants leading to adverse effects on litter fall stock. The production, stock and decomposition of litter fall in two forests were quantified. The first, known as Guarapiranga forest, lies closer to the urban area and is located within the MRSP, approximately 20km from the city center. The second, Curucutu forest, is located 70km from the urban center. This forest is situated exactly on the border of the largest continuum of vegetation of the Atlantic Forest. To verify the reach of atmospheric pollutants from the urban area, levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu) adsorbed on the litter fall deposited on the soil surface of the forests were also quantified. The stock of litter fall and the levels of heavy metals were generally higher in the Guarapiranga forest in the samples collected during the lower rainfall season (dry season). Non-metric multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis showed a clear distinction of the sample units related to the concentrations of heavy metals in each forest. A subtle difference between the units related to the dry and rainy seasons in the Curucutu forest was also noted. Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that both site and season of the year (dry or rainy) were important to differentiate the quantity of heavy metals in litter fall stock, although the analysis did not show the interaction between these two

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  16. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Ju, Meiting

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China) as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1) Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2) The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3) The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4) The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies. PMID:25032743

  17. Problems in assessing the risks of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderslice, R.R.; Orme, J.; Ohanian, E.V.; Sonich-Mullin, C.

    1989-01-01

    In conducting risk assessments on drinking water contaminants, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) attempts to evaluate all available toxicity data to develop Health Advisory (HA) and Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) values. The EPA often has grappled with the issues surrounding the toxicity of chemical mixtures, including radioactive contaminants, nitrate/nitrite, and trihalomethanes (THMs). In evaluating the toxicity of chemical mixtures, the EPA's immediate concern is whether the individual HA values and MCLGs are protecting public health when multiple contaminants are present in drinking water. Potential toxic interactions between drinking water contaminants are difficult to predict because experimental studies are generally performed only at high doses relative to environmental levels. Although the contamination of drinking water involves mixtures of contaminants, drinking water regulations are generally based on an assessment of the risks of individual contaminants. This paper discusses three issues of major concern to the EPA: the synergistic effects of solvent mixtures, vehicle effects in laboratory studies, and setting standards for essential trace nutrients where the absorption and/or toxicity are affected by an individual's nutritional status or other dietary components. 12 references

  18. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Crittenden, John C

    2013-07-01

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on assessment methods for urban public transport development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linghong; Dai, Hongna; Yao, Enjian; Jiang, Tian; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

  20. Geomorphic Assessment of Floods within the Urban Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined urban geomorphic conditions that lead to flooding in urban areas of ... the elimination of vegetation cover as well as deficient drainage networks ... Department of Geography & Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, .... A number of case studies from different parts of the world dealing.

  1. Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rapid transition from rural to urban lifestyle in Africa has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease burden and thus, the need for continuous reevaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in African slums which have been shown to harbor 40 to 80% of urban residents cannot be over emphasized.

  2. Urban camouflage assessment through visual search and computational saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to derive a multiscale urban camouflage pattern from a given set of background image samples. We applied this method to design a camouflage pattern for a given (semi-arid) urban environment. We performed a human visual search experiment and a computational evaluation study to

  3. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  4. Assessment of elemental contamination in road dust using EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saradhi, I.V.; Sandeep, P.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Road dust samples were collected in different locations of heavy traffic, medium traffic, express way and industrial areas of Mumbai. The concentrations of various elements (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) in road dust samples were analyzed using EDXRF. The average elemental profile of road dust in Mumbai was comparable with studies carried out in other countries with slight variations. The estimated geo accumulation indices and enrichment factors indicated moderate elemental contamination and enrichment of anthropogenic elements in road dust samples. Factor analysis of elemental data resolved four sources namely crustal, tyre wear, vehicular/industrial emissions and break wear. (author)

  5. Pathways and consequences of contaminant flux to Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) in urbanizing landscapes of Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Linnea M; Rodewald, Amanda D; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2014-07-01

    A prevalent environmental contaminant, mercury (Hg) is mobile and persistent in aquatic systems, where it often occurs in its bioavailable form methylmercury. Because methylmercury can bioaccumulate in aquatic insects and then transfer to terrestrial food webs, riparian consumers reliant upon aquatic emergent insects, should be disproportionately affected. Using the aerial insectivore Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) as a focal species, we examined (1) the extent to which total Hg loads in breeding flycatchers affected body condition and reproductive output and (2) potential pathways of contaminant flux in 19 riparian forest fragments distributed across an urban-to-rural landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. From April-August 2011-2012, we collected blood samples from adult (n=76) and nestling (n=17 from 7 nests) flycatchers, monitored their annual reproductive success (i.e., total number of fledglings), and sampled water, sediment, and aquatic emergent insects at each site. Hg concentrations in adult flycatcher blood (47 to 584 μg/kg, x¯=211.8, SD=95.5) were low relative to published advisory levels and not related to body condition. However, even at low concentrations, blood Hg was negatively related to reproductive success, with a 0.83 decline in the number of fledglings per μg/kg (loge) increase of blood Hg. Adult flycatchers had 11× greater concentrations of blood Hg than their offspring. Hg levels in flycatcher blood were not predicted by Hg concentrations in sediment, water, or aquatic emergent insects, with the exception of rural landscapes alone, in which flycatcher Hg was negatively related to sediment Hg. In addition to illustrating the difficulty of predicting exposure pathways that may vary among landscape contexts, our study provides evidence that even trace levels of contaminants may impair reproductive success of free-living songbirds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  7. Thermal extremes mortality risk assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Canário

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heat waves on mortality has been the subject of numerous studies and the focus of attention of various national and international governmental bodies. In the summer of 2003 alone, which was exceptionally hot, the number of deaths in 12 European countries increased by 70,000. The overall trend of warming will lead to an increase in frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves and to an increase in heat related mortality. The need to assess the risk of death due to extreme heat, at a detailed spatial scale, has determined the implementation of a research project based on a general model of risk for potentially destructive natural phenomena; the model uses the relationship between hazard and vulnerability and was designed primarily for urban areas. The major hazardous meteorological variables are those that determine the thermal complex (air temperature, radiative temperature, wind and humidity and the variables related to air quality (mainly ozone and Particulate matter. Vulnerability takes into account the population sensitivity (at various spatial scales and their exposure to thermal extremes.

  8. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  9. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  10. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project

  11. A Critique of the Application of Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment Tools in Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Boyle

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment Tools (NSA tools are fast becoming the principal framework for urban planners and developers for promoting urban sustainability. The majority of NSA tools promote a specific type of urban development that effectively excludes regeneration projects from the urban sustainability conversation. Given that the world’s megacities are mostly built, it is argued that it is essential that strategies for global sustainability consider that urban development is focussed internally to address existing, under-serviced communities in particular need of meaningful intervention and sustainable redevelopment frameworks. The paper uses existing knowledge on NSA tools to highlight the shortcomings of outcomes-based approaches to urban governance and builds the case that the technocratic “one-size-fits-all” approach adopted by many tools inadequately accounts for underlying institutional, social and economic arrangements that influence urban development, making them inappropriate for application in both planned and existing communities. The paper proposes that urban redevelopment strategies need to be derived from the urban realities of a particular place or context. Such strategies must be grounded in principles of urban governance, participatory action and an understanding of market dynamics. Without these collaborative procedural frameworks, urban regeneration projects will continue to inadequately transition towards more comprehensive sustainability.

  12. Mathematically aided risk assessment of crude oil contamination in Ogoni, Nigeria. Pt. 3. Spatial model of the multiple contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2012-03-15

    Mathematical modeling can support environmental risk assessment and decision making processes. Soil contamination caused by crude oil in the Ogoni region, Nigeria, is described in detail in part 1 to understand expected mathematical results. A mathematical-statistical analysis following in part 2 characterizes 33 contaminated sites as entire ecological complex. The sites are studied in part 3 by multivariate classifying models to derive precise information about kind and degree of contamination at every studied location. The 33 sites were studied by multivariate heuristic classifying methods (cluster analyses). Resulting classes or groups include all samples which are similar with respect to their pollution. The amount of 665 analyzed samples was reduced to 28 classes distinguishable by kind and degree of pollution. Mutual relationships between the classes were visualized by dendrograms. The calculated averaged properties of each class have been attached to any sample belonging to a class. Additionally, the geographic origin and depth of each sample was introduced to localize the pollution. The cluster membership of any sample can be marked by symbolic colors and visualized in mini-profiles which were drawn into geographic layers. Four sites in Ogoni have been selected to show and to discuss the result. (orig.)

  13. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  14. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is arguably one of the most dramatic forms of landscape change, and an important anthropogenic influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Cities have obvious impacts on local ecologies and environments, such as shifts in species diversity and alteration of local microclimates. While scientists are now familiar with many of these localized impacts of urbanization, cities and suburban areas contribute to 10-15 % of surface land cover in the conterminous U.S., pointing to the potential, yet poorly understood, contribution of cities to regional, national, and global carbon (C) and energy budgets. As cities continue to expand urban ecologists place more emphasis on understanding the functions of urban ecosystems and the ecosystem services (e.g. habitat, air, and water quality) that cities provide. While studies demonstrate that the urban environment alters the structure and function of remnant patches of native ecosystems relative to their non-urban counterparts, the ability of restoration, planning, and design to improve the provision of ecosystem services is a new approach within ecology. One strategy involves green urban design, or using ecological principles for planning or reinvigorating certain ecological processes, in cities. Increasing the amount of vegetative cover can reduce this effect by reinforcing ecosystem services in cities, including shading of surfaces, promotion of cooling through evapotranspiration, and the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in plant tissues and soils. However, the on-the-ground reality of such strategies is relatively unknown. A pilot study is being conducted in Tucson, AZ to investigate the impact of increasing the cover of trees in the urban landscape on local microclimates and the urban heat island. Trees (Velvet Mesquite, Chilean Mesquite, and Desert Willow) were planted in two neighborhoods in Tucson in 1990. We are collecting data during the summer 2011 monsoon (DBH, crown volume, and hemispherical

  15. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  16. Organohalogen contamination in passerine birds from three metropolises in China: Geographical variation and its implication for anthropogenic effects on urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in three metropolises of China, Beijing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou, and a reference rural site were determined using terrestrial residential passerine species as bioindicator. DDTs dominated in Wuhan whereas flame retardants dominated in Guangzhou and Beijing. No geographical variation was found for PCB levels but it exhibited different homologue profiles among different sites which could be attributed to different dietary sources of birds. Industry characteristics of the sampling location contributed to the geographical differences in the occurrence and contamination profile of OHPs. The transformation of traditional agriculture characterized contamination profiles to industry characterized profiles in Beijing and Guangzhou implicates significantly environmental concern on the flame retardants contamination in non-hot-spot regions of China. - Highlights: • Various OHPs were determined in passerine birds from three metropolises of China. • Geographical variations of OHPs levels and contamination profiles were observed. • More concern should be taken on the dominance of FRs in Chinese developed cities. • Diet source characterized by δ 13 C plays a key role in PCB pattern determination. - Geographical variations of OHPs contamination profiles indicate significant impact of industrialization and urbanization on Chinese urban environment

  17. Assessment of biotic response to heavy metal contamination in Avicennia marina mangrove ecosystems in Sydney Estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Bibhash; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Birch, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    Mangrove forests act as a natural filter of land-derived wastewaters along industrialized tropical and sub-tropical coastlines and assist in maintaining a healthy living condition for marine ecosystems. Currently, these intertidal communities are under serious threat from heavy metal contamination induced by human activity associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. Studies on the biotic responses of these plants to heavy metal contamination are of great significance in estuary management and maintaining coastal ecosystem health. The main objective of the present investigation was to assess the biotic response in Avicennia marina ecosystems to heavy metal contamination through the determination of metal concentrations in leaves, fine nutritive roots and underlying sediments collected in fifteen locations across Sydney Estuary (Australia). Metal concentrations (especially Cu, Pb and Zn) in the underlying sediments of A. marina were enriched to a level (based on Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines) at which adverse biological effects to flora could occasionally occur. Metals accumulated in fine nutritive roots greater than underlying sediments, however, only minor translocation of these metals to A. marina leaves was observed (mean translocation factors, TFs, for all elements micro-nutrients, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn) were greater than non-essential elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr and Pb), suggesting that A. marina mangroves of this estuary selectively excluded non-essential elements, while regulating essential elements and limiting toxicity to plants. This study supports the notion that A. marina mangroves act as a phytostabilizer in this highly modified estuary thereby protecting the aquatic ecosystem from point or non-point sources of heavy metal contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  19. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  1. An evaluation of contaminated estuarine sites using sediment quality guidelines and ecological assessment methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M; Key, P; Wirth, E; Leight, A K; Daugomah, J; Bearden, D; Sivertsen, S; Scott, G

    2006-10-01

    Toxic contaminants may enter estuarine ecosystems through a variety of pathways. When sediment contaminant levels become sufficiently high, they may impact resident biota. One approach to predict sediment-associated toxicity in estuarine ecosystems involves the use of sediment quality guidelines (ERMs, ERLs) and site-specific contaminant chemistry while a second approach utilizes site-specific ecological sampling to assess impacts at the population or community level. The goal of this study was to utilize an integrated approach including chemical contaminant analysis, sediment quality guidelines and grass shrimp population monitoring to evaluate the impact of contaminants from industrial sources. Three impacted sites and one reference site were selected for study. Grass shrimp populations were sampled using a push-netting approach. Sediment samples were collected at each site and analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Contaminant levels were then compared to sediment quality guidelines. In general, grass shrimp population densities at the sites decreased as the ERM quotients increased. Grass shrimp densities were significantly reduced at the impacted site that had an ERM exceedance for chromium and the highest Mean ERM quotient. Regression analysis indicated that sediment chromium concentrations were negatively correlated with grass shrimp density. Grass shrimp size was reduced at two sites with intermediate levels of contamination. These findings support the use of both sediment quality guidelines and site-specific population monitoring to evaluate the impacts of sediment-associated contaminants in estuarine systems.

  2. Assessment of combined electro–nanoremediation of molinate contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Helena I., E-mail: hrg@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); CERNAS — Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society, Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra, Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3045-601 Coimbra (Portugal); Fan, Guangping [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSCAS), East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mateus, Eduardo P. [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Dias-Ferreira, Celia [CERNAS — Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society, Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra, Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3045-601 Coimbra (Portugal); Ribeiro, Alexandra B. [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Molinate is a pesticide widely used, both in space and time, for weed control in rice paddies. Due to its water solubility and affinity to organic matter, it is a contaminant of concern in ground and surface waters, soils and sediments. Previous works have showed that molinate can be removed from soils through electrokinetic (EK) remediation. In this work, molinate degradation by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) was tested in soils for the first time. Soil is a highly complex matrix, and pollutant partitioning between soil and water and its degradation rates in different matrices is quite challenging. A system combining nZVI and EK was also set up in order to study the nanoparticles and molinate transport, as well as molinate degradation. Results showed that molinate could be degraded by nZVI in soils, even though the process is more time demanding and degradation percentages are lower than in an aqueous solution. This shows the importance of testing contaminant degradation, not only in aqueous solutions, but also in the soil-sorbed fraction. It was also found that soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. The main advantage of the simultaneous use of both methods is the molinate degradation instead of its accumulation in the catholyte. - Highlights: • Molinate is degraded in soil by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). • Higher contact time of nZVI with soil facilitates molinate degradation. • Soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. • When using nZVI and EK molinate is not only transported to catholyte, but also degraded.

  3. Contaminants in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment. National assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riget, F.; Aastrup, P.; Dietz, R.

    1997-01-01

    The present report reviews the available information on heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and radioactivity in the Greenland freshwater and terrestrial environments. Levels in lake sediments, soil, humus and organisms are presented, spatial and temporal trends are discussed and where possible also biological effects. Many of the contaminants that occur in the Greenland environment originate from distant sources outside of the region, and are transported to the Arctic via three major pathways - atmospheric, terrestrial/freshwater and marine. The main sources of pollution in Greenland is considered to be the industrialization of Eurasia. Pollutants are mainly. The organochlorine levels in Greenland char are typically in the low range compared to values reported from Canada. The Greenland sediment samples showed all organochlorine values below the detection limits of 0.1 μg/kg dry weight, thus being among the lowest contaminated sediments within the Arctic. The total content of PAH in the Greenland sediment samples ranged between 78-635 μ3 g/kg dry wight, with a geometric mean of 178 μg/kg, comparable to or lower than reported values from other arctic countries. The lowest concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment are found in the northern parts of Greenland and the highest in the south western parts. The main source of anthropogenic radioactivity is nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere and the fallout from this activity is closely related to the amounts of precipitation. The predominant foodchain in the Arctic with regard to transport of radiocaesium to man is: Lichen-reindeer-man. Although the doses from the terrestrial foodchain are 20 times higher than those received from the marine foodchain, they are not considered to be of any relevance for the human health in Greenland. 4 appendices contain experimental results. (EG)

  4. Characterization of heavy-metal-contaminated sediment by using unsupervised multivariate techniques and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2015-03-01

    This study characterized the sediment quality of the severely contaminated Erjen River in Taiwan by using multivariate analysis methods-including factor analysis (FA), self-organizing maps (SOMs), and positive matrix factorization (PMF)-and health risk assessment. The SOMs classified the dataset with similar heavy-metal-contaminated sediment into five groups. FA extracted three major factors-traditional electroplating and metal-surface processing factor, nontraditional heavy-metal-industry factor, and natural geological factor-which accounted for 80.8% of the variance. The SOMs and FA revealed the heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment hotspots in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary in the dry season. The hazardous index value for health risk via ingestion was 0.302. PMF further qualified the source apportionment, indicating that traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries comprised 47% of the health risk posed by heavy-metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminants discharged from traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary must be eliminated first to improve the sediment quality in Erjen River. The proposed assessment framework for heavy-metal-contaminated sediment can be applied to contaminated-sediment river sites in other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  7. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  8. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  11. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  12. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  13. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on food among urban households and it's implication for food security: Evidence from ... of the sample for the study involved a three-stage sampling technique. ... of enhancing their income to improve the household and economic conditions.

  14. Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa – not just ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cal system (the urban water cycle), whilst recognising that the system resides within an ... scenario planning, but is also about developing methodologies that prioritise .... a decision support framework; it should also take into account adaptive ...

  15. assessment of public willingness to commit time to urban forestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR AJEWOLE

    Time and money are very important prerequisite resources essential for participatory urban ..... Table 4 presents the results for the descriptive statistics for utility variables ..... Since Tobit coefficients do not directly give the marginal effects of the.

  16. Urban environment quality assessment. Management and knowledge instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovisolo, G.A.; Marino, C.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes various studies for characterization and quantization of air quality in urban environment. In this work are also reported information on electromagnetic fields effects, acoustic pollution and sanitary effects [it

  17. Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural diversity: a multi-dimensional approach to assess recreational services in urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Annette; Kabisch, Nadja; Wurster, Daniel; Haase, Dagmar; Breuste, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Urban green spaces provide important recreational services for urban residents. In general, when park visitors enjoy "the green," they are in actuality appreciating a mix of biotic, abiotic, and man-made park infrastructure elements and qualities. We argue that these three dimensions of structural diversity have an influence on how people use and value urban parks. We present a straightforward approach for assessing urban parks that combines multi-dimensional landscape mapping and questionnaire surveys. We discuss the method as well the results from its application to differently sized parks in Berlin and Salzburg.

  19. Assessing the Effect of Spatial Proximity on Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC reacts to demographic pressures, economic trends, or improved transport networks. Urban growth with implications on LUCC patterns can be measured using a diversity of methods. Our study derives from Tobler’s first law of geography: ‘everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant ones’. We identified and measured the influence of neighbouring distance on urban growth from the edge of existing urban areas. For that, we have developed a method, built using the NetLogo software tool, which we called Land-use chAnge and Neighbouring Distance (LAND. We selected Torres Vedras (Portugal to conduct our case study due to its increasing urban development in the past few years. The periods of analysis were 1995–2010, 1995–2007, and 2007–2010. The results have shown the influence and the effect of strong spatial correlation between the proximity of existing artificial surfaces and the emergence of new ones. The understanding of the patterns of urban growth is helpful to plan forward land developments. This method can be used to write guidelines for decision makers to monitor urban expansion and define spatial planning priorities.

  20. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg -1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm -1 . Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  1. Toxicological assessment of aquatic ecosystems: application to watercraft contaminants in shallow water environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Kemmish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Recreational boating and personal watercraft use have the potential to adversely impact shallow water systems through contaminant release and physical disturbance of bottom sediments. These nearshore areas are often already degraded by surface runoff, municipal and industrial effluents, and other anthropogenic activities. For proper management, information is needed on the level of contamination and environmental quality of these systems. A number of field and laboratory procedures can be used to provide this much needed information. Contaminants, such as metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, entering aquatic environments generally attach to particulate matter that eventually settles and becomes incorporated into the bottom sediments. Because bottom sediments serve as a sink and as a source for contaminants, environmental assessments generally focus on this matrix. While contaminant residues in sediments and sediment pore waters can reflect environmental quality, characteristics of sediment (redox potential, sediment/pore-water chemistry, acid volatile sulfides, percent organic matter, and sediment particle size) influence their bioavailability and make interpretation of environmental significance difficult. Comparisons of contaminant concentrations in pore water (interstitial water) and sediment with water quality criteria and sediment quality guidelines, respectively, can provide insight into potential biological effects. Laboratory bioaccumulation studies and residue concentrations in resident or caged biota also yield information on potential biological impacts. The usefulness of these measurements may increase as data are developed relating in-situ concentrations, tissue residue levels, and biological responses. Exposure of test organisms in situ or to field-collected sediment and pore water are additional procedures that can be used to assess the biological effects of contaminants. A battery of tests using multi

  2. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Beale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR, Queensland, Australia in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream to polluted (downstream environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants.

  3. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  4. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  5. Using bioavailability to assess contaminated sediment risk: Passive sampling and Pore Water Remedial Guidelines (PWRGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosted by the Contaminated Sediment Forum, this half-day course will introduce the RPM to the use of passive samplers to assess bioavailability and in ecological risk assessment. Passive sampling devices (PSD) are a technology with growing acceptance for measuring porewater conce...

  6. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Dussort, P.; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O’Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile,

  7. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Li Jinhui; Chen Shusheng; Diao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. - Highlights: ► No comprehensive environmental risk assessment method for hazardous waste management is proposed in China. ► An assessment indices system is established for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfill. ► All indicators are quantitative and applicable in China. - Capsule: This research identified critical indices and established a system for environmental risk assessment for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of HWLs in China.

  8. Assessment of the Chernobyl NPP radionuclide distribution at the territory of Kiev industrial-urban agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Results were presented of the complex of geological-ecological studies conducted in 1991-1992 with the aim of establishment of radionuclide distribution character in the upper part of geologic medium of the Kiev industrial-urban agglomeration (IUA). Soil, vegetative biomass, surface and underground water, atmospheric precipitations, atmospheric moisture were sampled for study. Distributions of 134,137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 238,239,240 Pu, 90 Sr, 3 H were investigated. Environmental contamination levels were compared with the preaccidental values. Anomaly fields of contamination density with radioisotopes of the Kiev IUA were revealed. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory' , 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  10. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Hussien, A.Sh.M.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  11. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  12. Radiological risk assessment for radioactive contamination at landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A limited-scope preliminary assessment of radiological risk has been conducted for a landfill site where radioactive residues resulting from past uranium ore processing operations are present. Potential radiation doses to an individual under different scenarios have been predicted using the RESRAD computer code. The assessment provides useful input to the remedial action planning for the site that is currently underway. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  13. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  14. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis in the smallholder pig value chains in urban of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Unger, Fred; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Grace, Delia; Tran-Thi, Ngan; Barot, Max; Pham-Thi, Ngoc; Makita, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    To quantify salmonellosis risk in humans through consumption of boiled pork in urban Hung Yen Province, Vietnam, using a quantitative microbial risk assessment. We collected 302 samples along the pork value chain in Hung Yen between April 2014 and February 2015. We developed a model in @Risk, based on microbiological, market, and household surveys on cooking, cross-contamination and consumption, and conducted sensitivity analysis. Salmonella prevalence of pen floor swabs, slaughterhouse carcasses and cut pork were 33.3, 41.7 and 44.4%, respectively. The annual incidence rate of salmonellosis in humans was estimated to be 17.7% (90% CI 0.89-45.96). Parameters with the greatest influence risk were household pork handling practice followed by prevalence in pork sold in the central market. Wide confidence interval in the incidence estimate was mainly due to the variability in the degree of reduction in bacteria concentration by cooking, and pork consumption pattern. The risk of salmonellosis in humans due to boiled pork consumption appears to be high. Control measures may include improving the safety of retailed pork and improving household hygiene.

  15. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India. Using shotgun metagenomics, we found a wide array (n = 175) of horizontally transferable antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including carbapenemases such as NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP types. The relative abundance of total ARGs was 30-fold higher in river sediments within the city compared to upstream sites. Forty four ARGs, including the tet(X) gene conferring resistance to tigecycline, OXA-58 and GES type carbapenemases, were significantly more abundant in city sediments, while two ARGs were more common at upstream sites. The recently identified mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was detected only in one of the upstream samples, but not in city samples. In addition to ARGs, higher abundances of various mobile genetic elements were found in city samples, including integron-associated integrases and ISCR transposases, as well as some biocide/metal resistance genes. Virulence toxin genes as well as bacterial genera comprising many pathogens were more abundant here; the genus Acinetobacter, which is often associated with multidrug resistance and nosocomial infections, comprised up to 29% of the 16S rRNA reads, which to our best knowledge is unmatched in any other deeply sequenced metagenome. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of Acinetobacter and the OXA-58 carbapenemase gene. Our study shows that uncontrolled discharge of untreated urban

  16. Lagrangian sampling for emerging contaminants through an urban stream corridor in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.B.; Battaglin, W.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent national concerns regarding the environmental occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) have catalyzed a series of recent studies. Many ECs are released into the environment through discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and other sources. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont initiated an investigation of selected ECs in a 13.8-km reach of St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Seven sites were sampled for ECs following a Lagrangian design; sites were located upstream, downstream, and in the outfall of the Longmont WWTP, and at the mouths of two tributaries, Left Hand Creek and Boulder Creek (which is influenced by multiple WWTP outfalls). Samples for 61 ECs in 16 chemical use categories were analyzed and 36 were detected in one or more samples. Of these, 16 have known or suspected endocrine-disrupting potential. At and downstream from the WWTP outfall, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, and steroids were detected at the highest concentrations, which commonly exceeded 1 ??g/l in 2005 and 2 ??g/l in 2006. Most individual ECs were measured at concentrations less than 2 ??g/l. The results indicate that outfalls from WWTPs are the largest but may not be the sole source of ECs in St. Vrain Creek. In 2005, high discharge was associated with fewer EC detections, lower total EC concentrations, and smaller EC loads in St. Vrain Creek and its tributaries as compared with 2006. EC behavior differed by individual compound, and some differences between sites could be attributed to analytical variability or to other factors such as physical or chemical characteristics or distance from contributing sources. Loads of some ECs, such as diethoxynonylphenol, accumulated or attenuated depending on location, discharge, and distance downstream from the WWTP, whereas others, such as bisphenol A, were largely conservative. The extent to which ECs in St. Vrain Creek affect native fish species and macroinvertebrate communities is unknown, but recent

  17. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  18. Assessing and monitoring urban resilience using COPD in Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Carvalho, Vânia; Velho, Sara; Sousa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    COPD morbidity is a good example of how the urban form may interfere with a disease's severity. Then, it may play an important role as a stimulus to increase the acceptability of several policy actions that aim to upgrade urban resilience. Despite the multiple dimensions of wellbeing, health is surely a key variable attracting everyone's attention, which is thus more likely to be able to persuade people that actions that may at first seem undesirable are fundamental in improving urban sustainability and well-being. After creating a short list of socio-economic and environmental factors relating to the onset and aggravation of COPD, daily admissions distributions were compared using both a non-weighted and a weighted multi-criteria hierarchical analysis procedure. Porto's COPD Social and Environmental Inequalities Index (SEII), calculated with a hierarchical analysis procedure, accurately illustrates a great relationship between COPD admissions and adverse urban form variables. COPD may be an important communication tool to stimulate the acceptability of some otherwise unpopular planning measures to improve urban resilience (sustainability and well-being). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using DTPA-extractable soil fraction to assess the bioconcentration factor of plants in phytoremediation of urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bocanegra, Javier; Roca, Núria; Tume, Pedro; Bech, Jaume

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils may be highly contaminated with potentially toxic metals, as a result of intensive anthropogenic activities. Developing cities are increasing the number of lands where is practiced the urban agriculture. In this way, it is necessary to assess the part of heavy metals that is transferred to plants in order to a) know the potential health risk that represent soils and b) know the relation soil-plant to assess the ability of these plants to remove heavy metals from soil. Nowadays, to assess the bioconcentration factor (BF) of plants in phytoremediation, the pseudototal o total concentration has been used by many authors. Two different urban soils with similar pH and carbonates content but with different pollution degree were phytoremediated with different plant species. Urban soil from one Barcelona district (Spain), the most contaminated soil, showed an extractability of Cu, Pb and Zn of 9.6, 6.7 and 5.8% of the total fraction respectively. The soil from Talcahuano city (Chile), with contents of heavy metals slightly above the background upper limit, present values of 15.5, 13.5 and 12% of the total fraction of studied heavy metals. Furthermore, a peri-urban analysed soil from Azul (Argentina) also showed an elevated extractability with values of 24, 13.5 and 14% of the Cu, Pb and Zn contents respectively. These soils presented more extractability than other disturbed soils, like for example, soils from mine areas. The urban soils present more developed soil with an interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted systems. The most important soil surface functional groups include the basal plane of phyllosilicates and metal hydroxyls at edge sites of clay minerals, iron oxyhydroxides, manganese oxyhydroxides and organic matter. The interaction between solution and solid phase in polluted urban systems tends to form labile associations and pollutants are more readily mobilized because their bonds with soil particles are weaker. Clay and organic

  20. Supplementary guidance for the investigation and risk-assessment of potentially contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Spadaro, P.; Starr, J.; Thomas, J. [Arcadis, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hildenbrand, B. [Energy Institute, London (United Kingdom); Smith, J.W.N.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; De Ibarra, M.; Medve, A.; Den Haan, K.

    2013-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sediments, focusing on the inland, estuarine and coastal environments. It is designed as a complementary, technical companion document to Energy Institute and CONCAWE (2013) report 'Guidance on characterising, assessing and managing risks associated with potentially contaminated sediments' (Report E1001). It highlights a number of significant challenges associated with assessing the aquatic and water bottom environment, which means that a sediment assessment should not be undertaken lightly. Where a decision is taken to undertake a site assessment, this report promotes the use of an iterative process of Conceptual Site Model (CSM) development, data collection, data evaluation and a continuous CSM refinement, taking into account the results obtained. Risk-based assessment is described throughout the report, entailing four tiers of assessment, which progress from a qualitative assessment (Tier 0) through to a detailed cause-attribution assessment (Tier 3), in which the decrease in uncertainty in the assessment process is balanced against the increased costs and timescales with progress to a higher tier assessment. The application of this evidence-driven risk-based approach to sediment site management, including remedial control measures, should help to overcome at least some of the challenges associated with contaminants in sediment sites in Europe, and promote a sustainable approach to sediment management on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Assessment of Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic Bacteria at a Hospital Laundry Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Karen E; No, David; Daniell, William E; Seixas, Noah S; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2017-11-10

    Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Voluntary participation of 23 employees consisted of nasal swabs for detection of MRSA, observations during work, and questionnaires. Contamination with all three pathogens was observed in both dirty (laundry handling prior to washing) and clean areas (subsequent to washing). The dirty area had higher odds of overall contamination (≥1 pathogen) than the clean area (odds ratio, OR = 18.0, 95% confidence interval 8.9-36.5, P contamination were high for each individual pathogen: C. difficile, OR = 15.5; MRSA, OR = 14.8; and VRE, OR = 12.6 (each, P contamination occurred in the primary and secondary sort areas where soiled linens were manually sorted by employees (OR = 63.0, P contaminated by soiled linens. Workers who handle soiled linen may have a higher risk of exposure to C. difficile, MRSA, and VRE than those who handle clean linens. Improved protocols for prevention and reduction of environmental contamination were implemented because of this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  3. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site-generic...... assessments poorly reflect the fate of frequent soil contaminants such as chloroethenes as they exclude the groundwater compartment and assume that the main part escapes to the atmosphere. Another important limitation of the generic impact assessment models is that they do not include the formation......The environmental impacts from remediation can be divided into primary and secondary impacts. Primary impacts cover the local impacts associated with the on-site contamination, whereas the secondary impacts are impacts on the local, regional and global scale generated by the remediation activities...

  4. Soil risk assessment of As and Zn contamination in a coal mining region using geostatisretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Modis, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    The present paper aims to map As and Zn contamination and assess the risk for agricultural soils in a wider disposal site containing wastes derived from coal beneficiation. Geochemical data related to environmental studies show that the waste characteristics favor solubilisation and mobilization of inorganic contaminants and in some cases the generation of acidic leachates. 135 soil samples were collected from a 34 km 2 area and analysed by using geostatistics under the maximum entropy principle in order to produce risk assessment maps and estimate the probability of soil contamination. In addition, the present paper discusses the main issues related to risk assessment in wider mining and waste disposal sites in order to assist decision makers in selecting feasible rehabilitation schemes

  5. 2006, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will document the use of historical imagery, GIS, photogrammetry and hyperspectral remote sensing in locating and removing chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin, and Lewisite from the environment and establishing a risk assessment methodology for...

  6. Assessment of the dynamics of urbanized areas by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeprintsev, S. A.; Klevtsova, M. A.; Lepeshkina, L. A.; Shekoyan, S. V.; Voronin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This research looks at the results of a study of spatial ecological zoning of urban territories using the NDVI-analysis of actual multi-channel satellite images from Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 in the Voronezh region for the period 2001 to 2016. The results obtained in the course of interpretation of space images and processing of statistical information compiled in the GIS environment “Ecology of cities Voronezh region” on the basis of which carried out a comprehensive ecological zoning of the studied urbanized areas. The obtained data on the spatial classification of urban and suburban areas, the peculiarities of the dynamics of weakly and strongly anthropogenically territories, hydrological features and vegetation.

  7. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  8. Impact Assessment and Bioremediation of oil Contaminated Soil: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted in two notable oil producing communities in. Niger Delta, South – South geopolitical zones of Nigeria with aim of assessing the impact and recommending a remediation technique for reclaiming the land for agricultural industrial, and residential purposes. The communities are; Ajoki Community ...

  9. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All intensive agriculture, like periurban agriculture, uses massive inputs such as agrochemicals. This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of agrochemical use in periurban agriculture in Togo. It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. These analyses were carried out by gas ...

  10. Assessment of pesticide residues and trace element contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    It was based on the chemical analyses of soil, water and vegetable samples. ... of the fine fraction (under 2 mm) were conserved away from light for ... To assess the migration and accumulation of trace elements ..... metals from sewage sludge in an agricultural soil. ... Pesticides and heavy metals in drinking water, soils.

  11. Tool for assessing eco-efficiency in urban planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, P., Email: pekka.lahti@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    The goal of this project was to develop a fast, comprehensive and user-friendly eco-efficiency estimation method for urban development. A preliminary study concluded that urban planners, designers and architects lack a practical and comprehensive tool for the overall assessment of community-level ecological performance. The report on the tool itself concluded findings concerning the needs of urban planners and designers in the City of Helsinki, which were transferred to the structure and contents of the assessment tool. The project continues the development efforts during the next couple of years, integrating 14 partners. (orig.)

  12. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on 90 Sr, 3 H, and 137 Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest po