WorldWideScience

Sample records for assessing urban contamination

  1. Risk assessment of urban soils contamination: The particular case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; da Silva, E Ferreira; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of soil quality and characterization of potential risks to the environment and human health can be a very difficult task due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the matrix, the poor understanding about the fate of contaminants in the soil matrix, scarcity of toxicological/ecotoxicological data and variability of guidelines. In urban soils these difficulties are enhanced by the patchy nature of urban areas and the presence of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic contaminants resulting from diffuse pollution caused by urban activities (e.g. traffic, industrial activity, and burning of carbon sources for heating). Yet, several tools are available which may help to assess the risks of soil contamination in a simpler, cost effective and reliable way. Within these tools, a tiered risk assessment (RA) approach, first based on a chemical screening in combination with geostatistical tools, may be very useful in urban areas. However, there is still much to improve and a long way to go in order to obtain a reliable RA, especially in the case of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This paper aims at proposing a RA framework to assess the environmental and human health risks of PAHs present in urban soils, based on existing models. In addition, a review on ecotoxicological, toxicological, and exposure assessment data was made, as well as of the existing soil quality guidelines for PAHs that can be used in the RA process. PMID:26878639

  2. Assessing the Educational Needs of Urban Gardeners and Farmers on the Subject of Soil Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Thien, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in urban agriculture is growing throughout the United States; however, potential soil contaminants in urban environments present challenges. Individuals in direct contact with urban soil should be aware of urban soil quality and soil contamination issues to minimize environmental and human health risks. The study reported here…

  3. Assessing the human health risks posed by industrially contaminated urban soil : chromium in Glasgow.

    OpenAIRE

    Broadway, A.; Farmer, J G; Ngwenya, B. T.; Cave, M.R.; Fordyce, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many cities throughout the UK have a long history of both urbanisation and industrialisation, resulting in elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soils. A recent survey by the British Geological Survey (BGS) of the Glasgow urban environment has highlighted numerous sites with PHE concentrations exceeding guideline values generated by the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. Whether or not these sites pose a hazard to human health depend...

  4. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQM), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  5. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R., E-mail: colin.black@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ{sub M}), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  6. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on an air contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper specifically discusses an atmospheric dispersion modeling and health risk assessment for Cs-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from an inhalation event due to a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. The source term was assumed to be 5 TBq of Cs-137, introduced into the central part of Seoul's metropolitan area by a terrorist attack. Atmospheric dispersion models can be used to support the decision making and risk assessments when terrorist attacks have happened in an urban area. The concepts of Gaussian plume modeling and computational fluid dynamics modeling were used to calculate the Cs-137 concentration in the air. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients for the inhalation of contaminated air were used to assess the human health risk. The mortality and morbidity are 1.12E-2 and 1.64E-2, respectively in case of the Gaussian plume, while 6.23E-3 and 9.13E-3 in case of the computational fluid dynamics model. The results of the modeling are dependent on the terror scenarios and dispersion models. Accordingly, the optimization process is needed for final decision making.

  7. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influx and sediment contamination in an urbanized estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marina R; Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo R; Caramão, Elina B

    2010-09-01

    Sediments from the Patos Lagoon Estuary in Southern Brazil and sludge from incoming effluents were assessed for the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shallow sediments adjoining the City of Rio Grande were found to be contaminated by PAHs mainly near urban effluent discharge, as well as in the port area. Effluents clustered into four groups according to their sources (sewage, industrial, runoff, and mixed), with each demonstrating different contributions of PAHs to the estuary. There was a predominance of runoff and mixed sources. Navigation activity was the second most important source of PAHs to sediments. The PAHs ratio identified the origin of these contaminants as essentially pyrolytic. The impact of PAHs as a result of uncontrolled disposal or accidental discharge of PAH-rich residues was suggested for several points. These points were primarily near gas stations and motor workshops. In about 30% of sampled sediments, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene surpassed the Threshold Effects Level adopted for marine environments. PMID:19672685

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF POLYELEMENT CONTAMINATION SOIL OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM BY HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAKOVYSHYNA T. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In modern conditions, anthropogenic impact to the soil urban ecosystems is fairly stable over time and space, is manifested in various forms, as the transformation of the soil profile, the change in direction of the soil-forming processes, contamination of the various pollutants, and, above all, heavy metals (HM – elements of the first class of the danger. Their sources of the income to the urban environment are industrial enterprises, transport, housing and communal services. Determination of the anthropogenic pressure to the urban soil is carried out by the environmental assessment of the HM polyelement contamination, which allows to establish not only the fact of pollution, but also limits of the possible load with considering regional background or sanitary standards – MPC. However, until now discussions arise regarding the index which will be carried out the valuation – the cornerstone of any methodological approach to the environmental assessment of the soil polyelement contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems, which allows to establish not only the fact of contamination, but also limits the possible load, taking into account the regional background or sanitary norm – MPC. Purpose. Lies in the grounded selection of the environmental assessment indexes of the soil contamination by the HM of the urban ecosystems through a comparative analysis of the existing approaches, such as the determination of the summary contamination index (SCI, the index of the soil contamination (ISC, factor imbalance (Sd, taking into account environmental safety standards and binding to the specific conditions territory. Conclusion. In summary it should be noted that it is necessary to use a set of integrated indexes, including the SCI to determine the violation of the metals content with respect to the geochemical background of zonal soil, ISC – link the contamination level with health indexes of the environmental safety

  9. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  10. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metals Contamination in the Sediments of Natural Urban Wetlands in Dry Tropical Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vivek; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jagadevan, Sheeja

    2016-09-01

    The pollution load due to metal contamination in the sediments of urban wetlands (Dhanbad, India) due to illegal release of domestic and industrial wastewater was studied by using various geochemical indices, such as contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) for Cu, Co, Cd, Cr and Mn. Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) of metals present in wetland sediments were carried out to assess their origin and relationship with each other. The Cf values for different metals in the wetlands under investigation indicated low to very high level of pollution (Cf ranged between 0.02 and 14.15) with highest Cf (14.15) for Cd. The wetland receiving both domestic and industrial wastewater had the highest values of Cd, mCd and PLI as 17.48, 3.49 and 1.03 respectively.

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metals Contamination in the Sediments of Natural Urban Wetlands in Dry Tropical Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vivek; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jagadevan, Sheeja

    2016-09-01

    The pollution load due to metal contamination in the sediments of urban wetlands (Dhanbad, India) due to illegal release of domestic and industrial wastewater was studied by using various geochemical indices, such as contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) for Cu, Co, Cd, Cr and Mn. Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) of metals present in wetland sediments were carried out to assess their origin and relationship with each other. The Cf values for different metals in the wetlands under investigation indicated low to very high level of pollution (Cf ranged between 0.02 and 14.15) with highest Cf (14.15) for Cd. The wetland receiving both domestic and industrial wastewater had the highest values of Cd, mCd and PLI as 17.48, 3.49 and 1.03 respectively. PMID:27424247

  12. Approaches to assessing the risk of chemical contamination of Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, O. A.; Makarov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The existing approaches to studying the risk of chemical contamination of soils are analyzed. It is noted that the actual and critical loads of contaminants on the soil cover are often compared for estimating these risks. The insufficient use of economic tools and methods for assessing the risk of soil contamination is emphasized. The sanitary-hygienic standards are found out to be exceeded for lead, zinc, cadmium and copper content in soils in six localities, each of 6250 m2 in the area, situated in the industrial and transport zones of Podol'sk and Moscow. The values of actual and maximal permissible damage exerted by the heavy-metal contamination to the studied soils are calculated. The probable damage R and the degree of probable damage implementation (DPDI) are used as the indices of soil contamination risk.

  13. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.;

    2009-01-01

    The impact on a population from an event resulting in dispersal and deposition of radionuclides in an urban area could be significant, in terms of both the number of people affected and the economic costs of recovery. The use of computer models for assessment of urban contamination situations...

  14. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  15. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on a drinking water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper specifically discusses a water quality modeling and health risk assessment for cesium-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from drinking water contaminated by a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. With respect to the source term caused by a terrorist attack, it was assumed that 50 TBq of cesium-137 was introduced into the Paldang Lake which is a single water resource for the Seoul metropolitan area. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic and water quality for the model domain, Paldang Lake. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients caused by the ingestion of tap water were used to assess a human health risk due to cesium-137. The transport of cesium-137 in the Paldang water system was mainly dependent on the flow streamlines and the effect of the dilution from the other branches. The mortality and morbidity risks due to the drinking water contamination by cesium-137 were 4.77 x 10-7 and 6.92 x 10-7, respectively. Accordingly, it is very important to take appropriate countermeasures when radiological terrorist attacks have occurred at water resources to prevent radiological risks by radionuclides.

  16. Use of Ambient Contamination and Stream Tracer Injections to Assess Solute Transport in an Urbanizing Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.; Packman, A. I.; Welty, C.; Kilham, S. S.

    2002-05-01

    As part of a comprehensive investigation of the effects of urbanization on Valley Creek watershed near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we are attempting to utilize documented historical and ongoing changes to the watershed to elucidate process-based watershed dynamics, particularly as related to the connections between the surface and groundwater systems. Valley Creek is underlain principally by fractured limestone and dolomite. The watershed is extensively developed, as quantified by 17% impervious area. This percentage is expected to increase due to ongoing and planned development projects. A variety of methods are being utilized to characterize the hydrologic and nutrient dynamics of the watershed. For example, a limestone quarry located upstream of the geographic and hydrologic center of the watershed has historically discharged accumulated groundwater seepage into the stream on an approximately 3 -1/2 hour cyclical basis. At the peak pumping rate, the quarry flow has constituted 20% to 50% of the surface water discharge of the entire watershed, as measured at a USGS gauging station located near the mouth of the main stem of Valley Creek. At the same time, a hazardous waste site on the property of an abandoned mineral processing plant located in the headwaters of the main stem of Valley Creek has resulted in a significant steady concentration of bromide entering the stream through faults and fractures of the limestone formation. This has resulted in bromide-free groundwater from the quarry entering the main stem of bromide-laden Valley Creek on a cyclical basis, thus allowing bromide from the mineral plant to be used as a tracer to assess the stream response to the quarry inflow. We measured the fluctuating bromide concentration at three stations over a 24-hour period. The decreasing amplitude and phase shift of the bromide sinusoidal wave as it moved 7 km downstream was evident. We have calibrated a transient hydrodynamic and transport model to the resulting data

  17. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Keah-Ying [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617-2175 (United States); Hamilton, Andrew J. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Dookie Campus, Currawa, VIC 3647 (Australia); Federation University Australia, Mt Helen Campus, VIC 3353 (Australia); Jiang, Sunny C., E-mail: sjiang@uci.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617-2175 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8 × 10{sup −4}–9.7 × 10{sup −1} per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6 × 10{sup −7}–4.3 × 10{sup −2} pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1 × 10{sup −7}–1.3 × 10{sup −4} pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation > showering > toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ≤ 10{sup −4} pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ≤ 10{sup −6} DALYs pppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • Human health risks for three non-potable uses of treated

  18. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8 × 10−4–9.7 × 10−1 per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6 × 10−7–4.3 × 10−2 pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1 × 10−7–1.3 × 10−4 pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation > showering > toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ≤ 10−4 pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ≤ 10−6 DALYs pppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks. - Highlights: • Human health risks for three non-potable uses of treated stormwater are modeled. • Crop irrigation

  19. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on Vegetables Grown in Long-term Wastewater Irrigated Urban Farming Sites in Accra, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lente, I.; Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.;

    2012-01-01

    Assessment was done of heavy-metal contamination and its related health risks in urban vegetable farming in Accra. Samples of irrigation water (n = 120), soil (n = 144) and five different kinds of vegetable (n = 240) were collected and analyzed for copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel...... higher. Health risk assessments showed for all elements that normal consumption of each of the vegetables assessed poses no risk. The highest hazard index obtained was 42 % for wastewater irrigated cabbage. Though within permissible limits, cabbage and ayoyo had the highest potential risk. Compared...

  20. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Otte, Piet F

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant-soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant-soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a 'conservative' vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a 'realistic worst case' site-specific vegetable

  1. Using Rapid Indicators for Enterococcus to assess the Risk of Illness after Exposure to Urban Runoff Contaminated Marine Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurement is too slow (>18 h) for timely swimmer warnings. OBJECTIVES: Assess relationship of rapid indicator methods (qPCR) to illness at a marine beach impacted by urban runoff. METHODS: We measured baseline and two...

  2. Heavy metal levels in dune sands from Matanzas urban resorts and Varadero beach (Cuba): Assessment of contamination and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O; Denis Alpízar, Otoniel

    2015-12-30

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in dune sands from six urban and suburban Matanzas (Cuba) resorts and Varadero beach were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ranges of metal contents in dune sands show a strong variation across the studied locations (in mg/kg(-1)): 20-2964 for Cr, 17-183 for Ni, 17-51 for Cu, 18-88 for Zn and 5-29 for Pb. The values of contamination factors and contamination degrees how that two of the studied Matanzas's resorts (Judio and Chirry) are strongly polluted. The comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines shows that dune sands from Judio resort represent a serious risk for humans, due to polluted Cr and Ni levels, while sands from the rest of the studied resorts, including Varadero beach, do not represent any risk for public use.

  3. Addition of contaminant bioavailability and species susceptibility to a sediment toxicity assessment: Application in an urban stream in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediments collected from an urban creek in China exhibited high acute toxicity to Hyalella azteca with 81.3% of sediments being toxic. A toxic unit (TU) estimation demonstrated that the pyrethroid, cypermethrin, was the major contributor to toxicity. The traditional TU approach, however, overestimated the toxicity. Reduced bioavailability of sediment-associated cypermethrin due to sequestration explained the overestimation. Additionally, antagonism among multiple contaminants and species susceptibility to various contaminants also contributed to the unexpectedly low toxicity to H. azteca. Bioavailable TUs derived from the bioavailability-based approaches, Tenax extraction and matrix-solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), showed better correlations with the noted toxicity compared to traditional TUs. As the first successful attempt to use matrix-SPME for estimating toxicity caused by emerging insecticides in field sediment, the present study found freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations significantly improved the prediction of sediment toxicity to H. azteca compared to organic carbon normalized and Tenax extractable concentrations. Highlights: •Over 80% sediments from an urban stream in China were acutely toxic to H. azteca. •Toxic unit analysis showed cypermethrin was the major contributor to toxicity. •The traditional toxic unit approach overestimated sediment toxicity. •Reduced bioavailability was the reason for overestimating sediment toxicity. Freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations greatly improved toxicity prediction. -- Field sediment toxicity caused by current-use pesticides could be more accurately evaluated by incorporating bioavailability measurements into the toxic unit analysis

  4. Assessment of Cesium, Iodine, Strontium and Ruthenium isotopes behaviour in urban areas, after contamination from accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, 103 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations, developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclide are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with an without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  5. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban topsoils from Las Tunas city (Cuba) using XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe in the topsoils (0-10 cm) from Las Tunas city were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mean Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples (97± 30, 14 ± 2, 35 ± 36, 94 ± 26, 199 ± 87 and 42 ± 29 mg.kg-1 respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world with similar population. Cr content in school grounds, parks and residential areas exceed background level in 20%. Highest content for Ni was determined in residential areas, for Zn in market gardens soils and as for Pb, the highest content ratios were observed for market gardens (2.7) and residential areas (2.3). Spatial distribution maps indicated the same behaviour for Cr-Co-Ni and Pb-Zn, respectively, whereas the spatial distribution of Cu differs from other heavy metals. On the other hand, the metal-to-iron normalisation, using (10-20) cm bottom soil contents as background, showed that topsoils in Las Tunas city are severe enriched with lead and not enriched with the rest of determined metals. The average values of integrated pollution index (IPI) indicated that soils are moderate contaminated by heavy metals (1.17 ≤ IPIave ≤ 1.39), but enrichment index values (EI) shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are not above the permissible levels for urban agriculture. (Author)

  6. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  7. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  8. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in window film: indoor/outdoor, urban/rural, and winter/summer contamination and assessment of carpet as a possible source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Crozier, Patrick W; Diamond, Miriam L; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H; Reiner, Eric J

    2009-10-01

    Window film concentrations of ionic perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) were determined indoors and outdoors at urban, suburban, and rural sites in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to identify locations of relatively elevated concentrations and the nature of potential sources. The role of carpet installation and floor wax application as possible sources was also evaluated by sampling indoor window films at five sites before and after new carpet installations, at one site before and after a floor wax application, and at two carpet stores. Low concentrations were found in all outdoor window films, with comparable relative proportions of individual PFCs among sites, suggesting similar sources to the outdoor environment and rapid air mixing. PFCs in indoor window film were up to 20-fold greater than outdoor, providing some evidence that a significant proportion of PFCs originate from the indoor environment, although precipitation wash-off of outdoor window film may be confounding these results. For both indoor and outdoor film, PFC concentrations generally changed between the summer and winter but the chemical profiles were similar between seasons. Concentrations of PFCs in window films increased one month post carpet installation at three of the five sites, suggesting that some of the carpets may have been a source to the indoor environment. Indoor window films from two carpet stores (sigmaPFC = 16 and 7 pg/cm2) contained higher concentrations than the other indoor locations (sigmaPFC = < MDL to 4.3 pg/cm2), which may reflect the carpets stored within these buildings. The use of window film allowed collection of a wide range of samples and the results can be used to focus the efforts of more traditional air sampling campaigns.

  9. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  10. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  11. Integrating Urban Heat Assessment in Urban Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarría Icaza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is increasingly concerned with sustainability issues. Climate change is not the least of these concerns. The complexity of these issues is such that data and information management form an important means of making the right decisions. Nowadays, however, the sheer quantity of data is overwhelming; large quantities of data demand means of representation that are comprehensible and effective. The above dilemma poses questions as to how one incorporates unknown climatologic parameters, such as urban heat, in future urban planning processes, and how one ensures the proposals are specific enough to actually adapt cities to climate change and flexible enough to ensure the proposed measures are combinable and compatible with other urban planning priorities. Conventional urban planning processes and mapping strategies are not adapted to this new environmental, technological and social context. In order come up with more appropriate urban planning strategies, in its first section this paper analyzes the role of the urban planner, reviews the wide variety of parameters that are starting to be integrated into the urban planners practice, and considers the parameters (mainly land surface temperature, albedo, vegetation, and imperviousness and tools needed for the assessment of the UHI (satellite imagery and GIS. The second part of the study analyzes the potential of four catalyzing mapping categories to integrate urban heat into spatial planning processes: drift, layering, game-board, and rhizome.

  12. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  13. Urban Community Gardeners' Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Contaminant Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Brent F.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Margulies, Jared D.; Katie L Dix; Palmer, Anne M.; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quanti...

  14. Quality assessment of urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere - urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  15. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.;

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings, ...

  16. Spatial patterns of heavy metal contamination by urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Nele; Verdoodt, Ann

    2015-04-01

    Source identification is an important step towards predictive models of urban heavy metal (HM) contamination. This study assesses the spatial distribution of enrichment of eight HMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the city of Ghent (156.18 km2; Belgium). A database with HM concentrations measured in the topsoil at 2138 point observations was collected from the Public Waste Agency of Flanders. The degree of anthropogenic HM enrichment was quantified using an urban pollution index (PI). Enrichment of HMs showed high variations throughout the study area due to manifold anthropogenic sources. Topsoil in Ghent was especially enriched with Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, with median PI's of 1.91, 1.74, 2.12 and 2.02 respectively. Contrastingly, As, Cd, Hg, Cr generally did not exceed expected background concentrations, with median PI values industrial and traffic emissions is suggested for Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn. Industrial non-airborne point source contaminations were mainly historical, rather than linked to current industrial activities. Results indicated that urban-rural gradients or current land use stratification approaches are inadequate to predict spatial HM distributions in cities with a long history of industrialization.

  17. Geological characterization of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs;

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. Hence there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated places. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken. Remediation...... is often time consuming and expensive. Moreover, as cities expand, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties...... in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. From two contaminated sites located around the city of Horsens, Denmark we carry out a geological characterization. The two sites are situated in urban areas. Existing data from the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order...

  18. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

  19. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  20. Impacts Assessment on Contaminants Level from Suspended Sand in Chongqing Urban Section of Yangtze River and Jialing River%悬浮泥沙对重庆主城区江段污染物影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢飞; 吕平毓; 陈静

    2012-01-01

    通过对重庆主城区江段2006-2010年主要代表监测断面水质监测数据的统计分析,对悬浮泥沙含量及其对污染物的影响进行研究。结果表明:监测断面的泥沙含量变化呈现出明显的季节变化特征,污染物浑样浓度明显大于清样浓度,并且浑样浓度变化与泥沙含量变化特征类似,这说明泥沙对这些污染物具有较为显著的吸附作用。%Statistical analysis have been conducted based on water quality data collected, from 2006 to 2010, in Chongqing Urban Section of Yangtze River and Jialing River, and the impacts on contaminants influenced by sand has been assessed. The analysis results show that sand level appear significant seasonal variation, while contaminants level in the turbid water sample, in general, are much greater than those in non turbid water samples. Moreover, the contaminants level tend to coincide with the shift tendency of sand level in turbid water. Therefore, which suggest sand might have substantial adsorption to those contaminants.

  1. Assessing urban climate change resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina

    2016-04-01

    Recent extreme weather events demonstrate that many urban environments are vulnerable to climate change impacts and as a consequence designing systems for future climate seems to be an important parameter in sustainable urban planning. The focus of this research is the development of a theoretical framework to assess climate change resilience in urban environments. The methodological approach used encompasses literature review, detailed analysis, and combination of data, and the development of a series of evaluation criteria, which are further analyzed into a list of measures. The choice of the specific measures is based upon various environmental, urban planning parameters, social, economic and institutional features taking into consideration key vulnerabilities and risk associated with climate change. The selected criteria are further prioritized to incorporate into the evaluation framework the level of importance of different issues towards a climate change resilient city. The framework could support decision making as regards the ability of an urban system to adapt. In addition it gives information on the level of adaptation, outlining barriers to sustainable urban planning and pointing out drivers for action and reaction.

  2. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:26980138

  3. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  4. Assessing geochemical influence of traffic and other vehicle-related activities on heavy metal contamination in urban soils of Kerman city, using a GIS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Aftabi, Alijan; Mirzaee, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution caused by traffic activities is increasingly becoming a great threat to urban environmental quality and human health. In this paper, soils of Kerman urban and suburban areas were collected to assess the potential effects of traffic and other vehicle-related pollution by heavy metal accumulation in soils. Eighty-six samples were collected along streets and from residential and rural sectors, as well as vehicle-related workshops from depth of 0-5 and 15-20 cm and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn), as well as major elements (Al, Ca, Fe and Mn). Several hot-spot areas were identified in the composite geochemical maps produced based on Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The majority of the hot-spot areas were identified to be vehicle-related workshops, fuel stations and road junctions. The most polluted hot-spot in the study area was located in soils close to a car battery processing workshop in the southwestern part of Kerman city, with concentrations of Cd (0.32 mg/kg), Cr (169 mg/kg), Cu (250 mg/kg), Pb (5,780 mg/kg), Sn (27.2 mg/kg) and Zn (178 mg/kg) of 1, 8.5, 8.3, 230, 13.5 and 3 times more than the relevant mean concentrations in natural soils, respectively. Traffic pollution has resulted in significant accumulation of heavy metals in soils and sediments, and that level of accumulation varied remarkably among elements. Based on X-ray diffraction analysis, most parts of soils and sediments of the Kerman basement consist of calcite and clay minerals. Abundance of clay minerals and medium to alkaline pH causes low mobility of heavy metals in soils of Kerman. PMID:21858454

  5. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  6. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tema is an important municipal city in the coastal region of Ghana. It is the main seaport as well as industrial nerve centre of the country with a teeming population estimated at about a million people. Major industries in Tema include aluminium smelting, petroleum refinery and processing, steel works, manufacture of dry cell battery as well as cement. Inappropriate disposal of industrial emissions and effluent from these industries causes environmental pollution in and around the city. Peri-urban fresh vegetable production is a fast-growing activity in the municipality. It is carried out by low-income dwellers living in deprived quarters. Crops grown include cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), carrot (Duacus carota), lettuce (Lactucca sativa), onion (Allium cepa) and sweet pepper (Capcicum annuum). They are cultivated as small holdings in backyard gardens or along drains, walkways, streets as well as on undeveloped parcels of land throughout the municipality. The produce are hawked or sold under sheds along the streets, with sizeable quantities purchased by middle-women for retail in the urban markets. These fetch premium prices as produce quality appears perfect due to limited handling. The industry, therefore, provides supplementary income for many people and in some cases the only source of livelihood. Fresh vegetables produced this way are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. There is, therefore, the need to assess these produce for the presence or absence of these contaminants (heavy and toxic metals), using the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA)

  7. Some perspectives for environmental risk assessment of urban stormwater management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Baun, Anders; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of new technologies for disposing stormwater locally, e.g. via infiltration into the ground, implies that the 'traditional' list of key-substances is not exhaustive and consequently, consultants and authorities have difficulties deciding whether to approve new technologies for...... stormwater disposal. The risk for contamination of surface waters also needs to be assessed, even though this contamination is silently accepted by society. A proper risk assessment needs to consider contamination of all environmental compartments within the urban environment, i.e. surface water, soil and...

  8. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  9. Nitrate contamination risk assessment in groundwater at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela, Ducci

    2016-04-01

    Nitrate groundwater contamination is widespread in the world, due to the intensive use of fertilizers, to the leaking from the sewage network and to the presence of old septic systems. This research presents a methodology for groundwater contamination risk assessment using thematic maps derived mainly from the land-use map and from statistical data available at the national institutes of statistic (especially demographic and environmental data). The potential nitrate contamination is considered as deriving from three sources: agricultural, urban and periurban. The first one is related to the use of fertilizers. For this reason the land-use map is re-classified on the basis of the crop requirements in terms of fertilizers. The urban source is the possibility of leaks from the sewage network and, consequently, is linked to the anthropogenic pressure, expressed by the population density, weighted on the basis of the mapped urbanized areas of the municipality. The periurban sources include the un-sewered areas, especially present in the periurban context, where illegal sewage connections coexist with on-site sewage disposal (cesspools, septic tanks and pit latrines). The potential nitrate contamination map is produced by overlaying the agricultural, urban and periurban maps. The map combination process is very easy, being an algebraic combination: the output values are the arithmetic average of the input values. The groundwater vulnerability to contamination can be assessed using parametric methods, like DRASTIC or easier, like AVI (that involves a limited numbers of parameters). In most of cases, previous documents produced at regional level can be used. The pollution risk map is obtained by combining the thematic maps of the potential nitrate contamination map and the groundwater contamination vulnerability map. The criterion for the linkages of the different GIS layers is very easy, corresponding to an algebraic combination. The methodology has been successfully

  10. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  11. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion.

  12. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. PMID:27213675

  13. Contaminants in urban waters—Science capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

    2016-04-29

    Streams and estuaries with urban watersheds commonly exhibit increased streamflow and decreased base flow; diminished stream-channel stability; excessive amounts of contaminants such as pesticides, metals, industrial and municipal waste, and combustion products; and alterations to biotic community structure. Collectively, these detrimental effects have been termed the “urban-stream syndrome.” Water-resource managers seek to lessen the effects on receiving water bodies of new urban development and remediate the effects in areas of existing urbanization. Similarly, the scientific community has produced extensive research on these topics, with researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) leading many studies of urban streams and the processes responsible for the urban-stream syndrome. Increasingly, USGS studies are evaluating the effects of management and restoration activities to better understand how urban waters respond to the implementation of management practices. The USGS has expertise in collecting and interpreting data for many physical, chemical, and ecological processes in urban waters and, thus, provides holistic assessments to inform managers of urban water resources.

  14. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  15. Assessment of groundwater contamination from land-use/cover change in rural-urban fringe of national capital territory of Delhi (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Suresh Chand; Kumari, Preeti

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between groundwater depletion/pollution and land-use/cover change in rural-urban fringe of Delhi, where agro-ecosystems and populations are dependent on access to reliable groundwater supplies. Results indicate a significant relationship between high proportionate decrease in groundwater and land being removed from irrigation. The higher values of most of the parameters were found in the agricultural field and industrial area. The study results suggest tha...

  16. Developing an integration tool for soil contamination assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Romero, Maria; Zingg, Felix; Pérez-Álvarez, José Miguel; Madejón, Paula; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades, huge soil areas have been negatively influenced or altered in multiples forms. Soils and, consequently, underground water, have been contaminated by accumulation of contaminants from agricultural activities (fertilizers and pesticides) industrial activities (harmful material dumping, sludge, flying ashes) and urban activities (hydrocarbon, metals from vehicle traffic, urban waste dumping). In the framework of the RECARE project, local partners across Europe are focusing on a wide range of soil threats, as soil contamination, and aiming to develop effective prevention, remediation and restoration measures by designing and applying targeted land management strategies (van Lynden et al., 2013). In this context, the Guadiamar Green Corridor (Southern Spain) was used as a case study, aiming to obtain soil data and new information in order to assess soil contamination. The main threat in the Guadiamar valley is soil contamination after a mine spill occurred on April 1998. About four hm3 of acid waters and two hm3 of mud, rich in heavy metals, were released into the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers affecting more than 4,600 ha of agricultural and pasture land. Main trace elements contaminating soil and water were As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Tl and Zn. The objective of the present research is to develop informatics tools that integrate soil database, models and interactive platforms for soil contamination assessment. Preliminary results were obtained related to the compilation of harmonized databases including geographical, hydro-meteorological, soil and socio-economic variables based on spatial analysis and stakeholder's consultation. Further research will be modellization and upscaling at the European level, in order to obtain a scientifically-technical predictive tool for the assessment of soil contamination.

  17. Micropollutants in urban stormwater: occurrence, concentrations and atmospheric contributions for a wide range of contaminants in three French catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Gasperi, Johnny; SEBASTIAN, Christel; RUBAN, Véronique; DELAMAIN, Mélissa; Percot, Stéphane; Wiest, Laure; MIRANDE, Cécile; Caupos, Emilie; Demare, Dominique; KESSOO KESSOO, Diallo; Saad, Mohammed; SCHWARTZ, Jean-Jacques; Dubois, Philippe; FRATTA, Cédric; WOLFF, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at: i) providing information on the occurrence and concentration ranges in urban stormwater for a wide array of pollutants (n=77); ii) assessing whether despite the differences between various catchments (land use, climatic conditions, etc.), the trends in terms of contamination level are similar; and iii) analyzing the contribution of total atmospheric fallout (TAF) with respect to sources endogenous to this contamination. The studied contaminants include conventional stormw...

  18. Risk assessment of down-the-drain chemicals at large spatial scales: Model development and application to contaminants originating from urban areas in the Saint Lawrence River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Günther; Khan, Usman; Lehner, Bernhard; Nicell, Jim; Ariwi, Joseph

    2016-01-15

    Chemicals released into freshwater systems threaten ecological functioning and may put aquatic life and the health of humans at risk. We developed a new contaminant fate model (CFM) that follows simple, well-established methodologies and is unique in its cross-border, seamless hydrological and geospatial framework, including lake routing, a critical component in northern environments. We validated the model using the pharmaceutical Carbamazepine and predicted eco-toxicological risk for 15 pharmaceuticals in the Saint-Lawrence River Basin, Canada. The results indicated negligible to low environmental risk for the majority of tested chemicals, while two pharmaceuticals showed elevated risk in up to 13% of rivers affected by municipal effluents. As an integrated model, our CFM is designed for application at very large scales with the primary goal of detecting high risk zones. In regulatory frameworks, it can help screen existing or new chemicals entering the market regarding their potential impact on human and environmental health. Due to its high geospatial resolution, our CFM can also facilitate the prioritization of actions, such as identifying regions where reducing contamination sources or upgrading treatment plants is most pertinent to achieve targeted pollutant removal or to protect drinking water resources.

  19. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected.......The necessity of assessing and addressing the environmental sustainability of urban systems is becoming increasingly relevant due to growing urbanization across the globe, higher consumption in urban systems and related competition for finite resource stocks. In this study we present how fused...

  20. Assessing sources of nitrate contamination in the Shiraz urban aquifer (Iran) using the δ(15)N and δ(18)O dual-isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Haleh; Zare, Mohammad; Widory, David

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) is one of the major threats to the quality of the drinking water taken from the Shiraz aquifer. This aquifer undergoes high anthropogenic pressures from multiple local urban (including uncontrolled sewage systems), agricultural and industrial activities, resulting in [Formula: see text] concentrations as high as 149 mg L(-1), well above the 50 mg L(-1) guideline defined by the World Health Organisation. We coupled here classical chemical and dual isotope (δ(15)N and δ(18)O of [Formula: see text]) approaches trying to characterize sources and potential processes controlling the budget of this pollutant. Chemical data indicate that nitrate in this aquifer is explained by distinct end-members: while mineral fertilizers isotopically show to have no impact, our isotope approach identifies natural soil nitrification and organic [Formula: see text] (manure and/or septic waste) as the two main contributors. Isotope data suggest that natural denitrification may occur within the aquifer, but this conclusion is not supported by the study of other chemical parameters. PMID:25941866

  1. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil from a Typical Contaminated Urban Coking Sites in Shenyang City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Zhang, Le; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Shuxian; Ji, Lan; Dan, Su

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the level of PAH pollution in typical contaminated coking sites in Shenyang. Sixty surface soil samples were collected from an area of 1.3 × 10(5) m(2) polluted by PAHs. The concentrations, sources and possible health risks of 16 PAHs in the area were analyzed. The average content of Σ16 PAHs was 6.1 × 10(3) mg/kg. In oral intake, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) presented the largest exposure risk (hazard quotient HQ = 1.17 × 10(-5)), followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DbA) (HQ = 1.14 × 10(-5)). The non-carcinogenic hazard indices and carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were arranged in the order of BaP > DbA > benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) > benz(a)anthracene (BaA) > indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) > benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) > chrysene (Chr). Bap and DbA were the principal pollution sources, followed by BbF, BaA, InP, BkF and Nap successively. Oral intake was the main route of PAH entry into the human body. PMID:26508427

  2. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil from a Typical Contaminated Urban Coking Sites in Shenyang City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Zhang, Le; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Shuxian; Ji, Lan; Dan, Su

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the level of PAH pollution in typical contaminated coking sites in Shenyang. Sixty surface soil samples were collected from an area of 1.3 × 10(5) m(2) polluted by PAHs. The concentrations, sources and possible health risks of 16 PAHs in the area were analyzed. The average content of Σ16 PAHs was 6.1 × 10(3) mg/kg. In oral intake, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) presented the largest exposure risk (hazard quotient HQ = 1.17 × 10(-5)), followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DbA) (HQ = 1.14 × 10(-5)). The non-carcinogenic hazard indices and carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were arranged in the order of BaP > DbA > benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) > benz(a)anthracene (BaA) > indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) > benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) > chrysene (Chr). Bap and DbA were the principal pollution sources, followed by BbF, BaA, InP, BkF and Nap successively. Oral intake was the main route of PAH entry into the human body.

  3. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  4. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  5. Anthropogenic contaminants as tracers in an urbanizing karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.; Massei, N.

    2007-01-01

    Karst aquifers are uniquely vulnerable to contamination. In the Barton Springs segment of the karstic Edwards aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.), urban contaminants such as pesticides and volatile organic compounds frequently are detected in spring base flow. To determine whether contaminant concentrations change in response to storms, and if they therefore might act as tracers of focused recharge, samples were collected from Barton Springs at closely spaced intervals following three storms. Two herbicides (atrazine and simazine), two insecticides (carbaryl and diazinon), and a solvent (tetrachloroethene) described breakthrough curves over a 1-week period following one or more storms. The breakthrough curves were decomposed into two to five log-normal subcurves, which were interpreted as representing pulses of contaminants moving through the aquifer. Each subcurve could be used in the same way as an artificial tracer to determine travel time to and recovery at the spring. The contaminants have several advantages over artificial tracers: they represent the actual compounds of interest, they are injected essentially simultaneously at several points, and they are injected under those conditions when transport is of the most interest, i.e., following storms. The response of storm discharge, specific conductance, and contaminant loading at the spring depended on initial aquifer flow conditions, which varied from very low (spring discharge of 0.48??m3/s) to high (spring discharge of 2.7??m3/s): concentrations and recovery were the highest when initial aquifer flow conditions were low. This behavior provides information about aquifer structure and the influence of aquifer flow condition on transport properties. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthropogenic contaminants as tracers in an urbanizing karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara; Massei, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Karst aquifers are uniquely vulnerable to contamination. In the Barton Springs segment of the karstic Edwards aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.), urban contaminants such as pesticides and volatile organic compounds frequently are detected in spring base flow. To determine whether contaminant concentrations change in response to storms, and if they therefore might act as tracers of focused recharge, samples were collected from Barton Springs at closely spaced intervals following three storms. Two herbicides (atrazine and simazine), two insecticides (carbaryl and diazinon), and a solvent (tetrachloroethene) described breakthrough curves over a 1-week period following one or more storms. The breakthrough curves were decomposed into two to five log-normal subcurves, which were interpreted as representing pulses of contaminants moving through the aquifer. Each subcurve could be used in the same way as an artificial tracer to determine travel time to and recovery at the spring. The contaminants have several advantages over artificial tracers: they represent the actual compounds of interest, they are injected essentially simultaneously at several points, and they are injected under those conditions when transport is of the most interest, i.e., following storms. The response of storm discharge, specific conductance, and contaminant loading at the spring depended on initial aquifer flow conditions, which varied from very low (spring discharge of 0.48 m 3/s) to high (spring discharge of 2.7 m 3/s): concentrations and recovery were the highest when initial aquifer flow conditions were low. This behavior provides information about aquifer structure and the influence of aquifer flow condition on transport properties.

  7. Promise and Peril: Assessment and Urban Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John C.; Nettles, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an historical review of state-level assessment research and practice and discusses current objectives and outcomes of state-level assessment policies throughout the United States. Considers possible explanations for the gap between assessment policy objectives and outcomes, and implications for urban institutions of higher education.…

  8. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Bain, Robert [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wright, Jim [Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Aondoakaa, Stephen [Geography and Environmental Management, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria); School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hossain, Rifat [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartram, Jamie, E-mail: jbartram@unc.edu [The Water Institute at UNC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  9. Examining the influence of urban definition when assessing relative safety of drinking-water in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing inequalities is a priority from a human rights perspective and in water and public health initiatives. There are periodic calls for differential national and global standards for rural and urban areas, often justified by the suggestion that, for a given water source type, safety is worse in urban areas. For instance, initially proposed post-2015 water targets included classifying urban but not rural protected dug wells as unimproved. The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the influence of urban extent definition on water safety in Nigeria, (ii) compare the frequency of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) contamination and prevalence of sanitary risks between rural and urban water sources of a given type and (iii) investigate differences in exposure to contaminated drinking-water in rural and urban areas. We use spatially referenced data from a Nigerian national randomized sample survey of five improved water source types to assess the extent of any disparities in urban–rural safety. We combined the survey data on TTC and sanitary risk with map layers depicting urban versus rural areas according to eight urban definitions. When examining water safety separately for each improved source type, we found no significant urban–rural differences in TTC contamination and sanitary risk for groundwater sources (boreholes and protected dug wells) and inconclusive findings for piped water and stored water. However, when improved and unimproved source types were combined, TTC contamination was 1.6 to 2.3 times more likely in rural compared to urban water sources depending on the urban definition. Our results suggest that different targets for urban and rural water safety are not justified and that rural dwellers are more exposed to unsafe water than urban dwellers. Additionally, urban–rural analyses should assess multiple definitions or indicators of urban to assess robustness of findings and to characterize a gradient that disaggregates the urban

  10. Contaminant Dynamics and Trends in Hyperalkaline Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alex; Mayes, William

    2015-04-01

    Streams in post-industrial urban areas can have multiple contemporary and historic pressures impacting upon their chemical and ecological status. This paper presents analysis of long term data series (up to 36 years in length) from two small streams in northern England (catchment areas 0.5-0.6km2). Around 3.5 million m3 of steel making slags and other wastes were deposited in the headwater areas of the Howden Burn and Dene Burn in northeast England up to the closure of the workings in the early 1980s. This has led to streams draining from the former workings which have a hyperalkaline ambient pH (mean of 10.3 in both streams), elevated alkalinity (up to 487 mg/L as CaCO3) from leaching of lime and other calcium oxides / silicates within the slag, and enrichment of some trace elements (e.g. aluminium (Al), lithium (Li) and zinc (Zn)) including those which form oxyanions mobile at high pH such as vanadium (V). The high ionic strength of the waters and calcium enrichment also leads to waters highly supersaturated with calcium carbonate. Trace contaminant concentrations are strongly positively correlated, and concentrations generally diminish with increased flow rate suggesting the key source of metals in the system is the highly alkaline groundwater draining from the slag mounds. Some contaminants (notably Cr and ammonium) increase with high flow suggesting sources related to urban runoff and drainage from combined sewer overflows into one of the catchments. Loading estimates instream show that many of the contaminants (e.g. Al, V and Zn) are rapidly attenuated in secondary calcium carbonate-dominated deposits that precipitate vigorously on the streambeds with rates of up to 250 g CaCO3/m2/day. These secondary sinks limit the mobility of many contaminants in the water column, while concentrations in secondary deposits are relatively low given the rapid rates at which Ca is also attenuated. Long-term trend analysis showed modest declines in calcium and alkalinity over

  11. Assessing the influence of long-term urban growth scenarios on urban climate

    OpenAIRE

    Aguejdad, Rahim; Hidalgo, Julia; Doukari, Omar; Masson, Valéry; Houet, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of future urban The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of future urban growth scenarios on future urban climate in Toulouse metropolitan area (France). Specifically, we aim to test the hypothesis that urban growth based on sprawling patterns has a significant influence on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena than compact patterns. Urban growth simulations, which are based on three contrasting scenarios built by 2100 with ...

  12. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  13. Modelling of a large-scale urban contamination situation and remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the first of two modelling exercises, which was based on Chernobyl fallout data in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces and radionuclides, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided a valuable opportunity to compare modelling approaches and parameter values, as well as to compare the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures with respect to short-term and long-term reduction of predicted doses to people.

  14. Urban Air Quality Assessment Model UAQAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pul WAJ; van Zantvoort EDG; de Leeuw FAAM; Sluyter RJCF; LLO

    1996-01-01

    Het Urban Air Quality Assessment Model (UAQAM) berekent de concentratie van luchtverontreiniging in stedelijk gebied veroorzaakt door emissies uit de stad zelf. In een werkversie van dit model werden 3 beschrijvingen van de verspreiding bestudeerd: een Box-model, het Gifford-Hanna (GH)-model en een

  15. Urban Air Quality Assessment Model UAQAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pul WAJ van; Zantvoort EDG van; Leeuw FAAM de; Sluyter RJCF; LLO

    1996-01-01

    The Urban Air Quality Assessment Model (UAQAM) calculates the city concentration caused by city emissions themselves, the so-called city background concentration. Three versions of the model for describing the dispersion were studied: Box, Gifford Hanna (GH) and a combined form of these two (the Box

  16. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  17. Accumulation of contaminants from urban rainfall runoff in blue crabs: A pilot study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of using caged blue crabs Callinectes sapidus to monitor accumulation of contaminants in urban...

  18. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  19. An integrative method to quantify contaminant fluxes in the groundwater of urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiedek, T.; Beier, M.; Ebhardt, G. [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. of Applied Geosciences

    2007-08-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Background, Aims, and Scope. Groundwater in urban areas is often contaminated and emission sources can be located close to groundwater wells. The delineation of contaminant plumes is difficult because of the various potential emission sources. Thus, detection, quantification and remediation of contaminated sites in a city need more integrative approaches. Materials and Methods: A method has been developed which allows quantification of mass fluxes of contaminants in groundwater between control planes. Budget zones along the flow path are defined to calculate a contaminant balance and to quantitatively reveal input areas. Concentrations and water budgets are used to calculate mass balances for each contaminant. The city of Darmstadt (Germany) was chosen to evaluate the method. Results: The groundwater monitoring wells (GMWs) upstream of the city showed anthropogenically superposed background values for all naturally occurring inorganic species. The contaminant concentrations increased in the city (probably influenced by road traffic, gas stations, leaking sewers, etc.). Downstream from the city, concentrations usually decreased. Organic compounds typical for urban environments, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), locally exceeded drinking water regulations. In GMWs with high concentrations of organic contaminants in the city or downstream from industrial areas, a significant increase in Fe{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} could be observed, in some cases coinciding with a decrease in NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4} and an increase in NH{sub 4}. Discussion: For typical urban contaminants, a positive budget was calculated in several zones, which shows that emissions from urban sources are reaching the groundwater. Negative budgets can be mainly explained with diving plumes and degradation. The input calculated from the individual budget zones is usually higher than the input estimated from urban emissions. Differences between the calculated and the

  20. Micropollutants in urban stormwater: occurrence, concentrations, and atmospheric contributions for a wide range of contaminants in three French catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J; Sebastian, C; Ruban, V; Delamain, M; Percot, S; Wiest, L; Mirande, C; Caupos, E; Demare, D; Kessoo, M Diallo Kessoo; Saad, M; Schwartz, J J; Dubois, P; Fratta, C; Wolff, H; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Cren, C; Millet, M; Barraud, S; Gromaire, M C

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at: (a) providing information on the occurrence and concentration ranges in urban stormwater for a wide array of pollutants (n = 77); (b) assessing whether despite the differences between various catchments (land use, climatic conditions, etc.), the trends in terms of contamination level are similar; and (c) analyzing the contribution of total atmospheric fallout (TAF) with respect to sources endogenous to this contamination. The studied contaminants include conventional stormwater contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Zn, Cu, Pb, etc.), in addition to poorly or undocumented pollutants such as nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO and OPnEO), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a wide variety of pesticides, and various metals of relevance (As, Ti, Sr, V). Sampling and analysis were performed using homogeneous methods on three urban catchments with different land use patterns located in three distinct French towns. For many of these pollutants, the results do not allow highlighting a significant difference in stormwater quality at the scale of the three urban catchments considered. Significant differences were, however, observed for several metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sr and Zn), PAHs, and PBDEs, though this assessment would need to be confirmed by further experiments. The pollutant distributions between dissolved and particulate phases were found to be similar across the three experimental sites, thus suggesting no site dependence. Lastly, the contributions of TAF to stormwater contamination for micropollutants were quite low. This finding held true not only for PAHs, as previously demonstrated in the literature, but also for a broader range of molecules such as BPA, NPnEO, OPnEO, and PBDEs, whose high local production is correlated with the leaching of urban surfaces, buildings, and vehicles. PMID:24323325

  1. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment: Perspectives and Chinese Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  2. Urban Growth and Spatial Transition in Nepal: An Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzini, Elisa; Aparicio, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Nepal is undergoing two momentous transformations-from a rural to an urbanizing economy and from a unitary to a federal state. This book aims at understanding the first of these two transitions: Nepal's journey toward becoming a predominantly urban economy. The study carries out an initial assessment of Nepal's transition from a predominantly rural to an urbanizing economy. This assessment...

  3. Comparative assessment of ecotoxicity of urban aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gelencsér

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its mass concentration, the health effects of urban particulate matter may depend on its particle size distribution and chemical composition. Yet air pollution regulations rely on exclusively bulk PM10 concentration measurements, without regard to their potentially different health effects under different conditions. Aerosols from various sources are well known to contain a plethora of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic constituents such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In spite of the fact that tremendous efforts have been put to establish links between aerosol pollution and human health or mortality, the potential acute effects of PM2.5/PM10 have never been assessed for lack of adequate methodology. Here we present the application of a simple and sensitive method for the direct assessment of the overall ecotoxicity of various PM2.5/PM10 samples collected on filters. The method is based on the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition bioassay that has been standardized for solid samples, representing a relevant biological exposure route. Direct emission samples proved to be significantly more ecotoxic than photochemically processed aerosol, thus marked differences were observed between the ecotoxicities of urban PM10 in summer and winter. The previously overlooked acute effects of urban PM10 may add to the established effects of gaseous primary pollutants aggravating health problems during severe air pollution episodes.

  4. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  5. An assessment of Nigeria urban youth music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi M. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Music embodies culture, expressing relevant features of a people’s life. Music is an integral aspect of African culture, occupying a special place in the celebration of birth and death and other events in-between. Indeed it is difficult to imagine life without music in traditional Nigerian society where all strata and age groups have their own music; a richness of life that urban communities failed to totally replicate, being that they are composites of ethno-linguistic fragments. Thus, the evolving youth popular music culture is significant in many respects, especially as it cuts across ethnic divides and provides entertainment for a group in heretofore largely ignored in Nigerian urban society. Its potentials, and its retrogressive potency, in national development require that popular culture be studied to ascertain the message and mindset of active and passive participants. This article summarises aspects of youth music in Nigeria as assessed by undergraduate students.

  6. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Mäenpää, Kimmo;

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) reaching the aquatic environment are largely stored in sediments. The risk of contaminated sediments is challenging to assess since traditional exhaustive extraction methods yield total HOC concentrations, whereas freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree...

  7. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P industrial development, and population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  8. Assessing urban adaptive capacity to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Muñoz, Dahyann; Metzger, Marc J; Stuart, Neil; Wilson, A Meriwether W; Alvarez, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Despite the growing number of studies focusing on urban vulnerability to climate change, adaptive capacity, which is a key component of the IPCC definition of vulnerability, is rarely assessed quantitatively. We examine the capacity of adaptation in the Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy modelling was developed to standardise and aggregate, through a stepwise approach, seventeen indicators derived from widely available census statistical data into an adaptive capacity index. The results indicate that all the municipalities in the CMA increased their level of adaptive capacity between 1992 and 2002. However, the relative differences between municipalities did not change significantly over the studied timeframe. Fuzzy overlay allowed us to standardise and to effectively aggregate indicators with differing ranges and granularities of attribute values into an overall index. It also provided a conceptually sound and reproducible means of exploring the interplay of many indicators that individually influence adaptive capacity. Furthermore, it captured the complex, aggregated and continued nature of the adaptive capacity, favouring to deal with gaps of data and knowledge associated with the concept of adaptive capacity. The resulting maps can help identify municipalities where adaptive capacity is weak and identify which components of adaptive capacity need strengthening. Identification of these capacity conditions can stimulate dialogue amongst policymakers and stakeholders regarding how to manage urban areas and how to prioritise resources for urban development in ways that can also improve adaptive capacity and thus reduce vulnerability to climate change.

  9. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole;

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment...... (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the Larval Development Ratio (LDR) test using the marine crustacean Acartia tonsa. The number of non...

  10. Effects of seasonal climatic variability on several toxic contaminants in urban lakes: Implications for the impacts of climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Wu; Xinghui Xia; Xinli Mou; Baotong Zhu; Pujun Zhao; Haiyang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is supposed to have influences on water quality and ecosystem.However,only few studies have assessed the effect of climate change on environmental toxic contaminants in urban lakes.In this research,response of several toxic contaminants in twelve urban lakes in Beijing,China,to the seasonal variations in climatic factors was studied.Fluorides,volatile phenols,arsenic,selenium,and other water quality parameters were analyzed monthly from 2009 to 2012.Multivariate statistical methods including principle component analysis,cluster analysis,and multiple regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between contaminants and climatic factors including temperature,precipitation,wind speed,and sunshine duration.Fluoride and arsenic concentrations in most urban lakes exhibited a significant positive correlation with temperature/precipitation,which is mainly caused by rainfall induced diffuse pollution.A negative correlation was observed between volatile phenols and temperature/precipitation,and this could be explained by their enhanced volatilization and biodegradation rates caused by higher temperature.Selenium did not show a significant response to climatic factor variations,which was attributed to low selenium contents in the lakes and soils.Moreover,the response degrees of contaminants to climatic variations differ among lakes with different contamination levels.On average,temperature/precipitation contributed to 8%,15%,and 12% of the variations in volatile phenols,arsenic,and fluorides,respectively.Beijing is undergoing increased temperature and heavy rainfall frequency during the past five decades.This study suggests that water quality related to fluoride and arsenic concentrations of most urban lakes in Beijing is becoming worse under this climate change trend.

  11. Effects of seasonal climatic variability on several toxic contaminants in urban lakes: Implications for the impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xia, Xinghui; Mou, Xinli; Zhu, Baotong; Zhao, Pujun; Dong, Haiyang

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is supposed to have influences on water quality and ecosystem. However, only few studies have assessed the effect of climate change on environmental toxic contaminants in urban lakes. In this research, response of several toxic contaminants in twelve urban lakes in Beijing, China, to the seasonal variations in climatic factors was studied. Fluorides, volatile phenols, arsenic, selenium, and other water quality parameters were analyzed monthly from 2009 to 2012. Multivariate statistical methods including principle component analysis, cluster analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between contaminants and climatic factors including temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and sunshine duration. Fluoride and arsenic concentrations in most urban lakes exhibited a significant positive correlation with temperature/precipitation, which is mainly caused by rainfall induced diffuse pollution. A negative correlation was observed between volatile phenols and temperature/precipitation, and this could be explained by their enhanced volatilization and biodegradation rates caused by higher temperature. Selenium did not show a significant response to climatic factor variations, which was attributed to low selenium contents in the lakes and soils. Moreover, the response degrees of contaminants to climatic variations differ among lakes with different contamination levels. On average, temperature/precipitation contributed to 8%, 15%, and 12% of the variations in volatile phenols, arsenic, and fluorides, respectively. Beijing is undergoing increased temperature and heavy rainfall frequency during the past five decades. This study suggests that water quality related to fluoride and arsenic concentrations of most urban lakes in Beijing is becoming worse under this climate change trend. PMID:25499484

  12. PAHs contamination in urban soils from Lisbon: spatial variability and potential risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Ruth; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can become major contaminants in urban and industrial areas, due to the existence of a plethora of diffuse and point sources. Particularly diffuse pollution, which is normally characterized by continuous and long-term emission of contaminants below risk levels, can be a major problem in urban areas. Since PAHs are persistent and tend to accumulate in soils, levels are often above the recommended guidelines indicating that ecological functions of soils may be affected. Moreover, due to the lipophilic nature, hydrophobicity and low chemical and biological degradation rates of PAHs, which leads to their bioconcentration and bioamplification, they may reach toxicological relevant concentrations in organisms. The importance and interest of studying this group of contaminants is magnified due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and endocrine disrupting effects. In this study, a risk assessment framework has been followed in order to evaluate the potential hazards posed by the presence of PAHs in Lisbon urban soils. Hence, the first step consisted in screening the total concentrations of PAHs followed by the calculation of risks based on existing models. Considering these models several samples were identified as representing a potential risk when comparing with the guidelines for soil protection. Moreover, it was found that for 38% of samples more than 50% of species can be potentially affected by the mixture of PAHs. The use of geostatistical methods allowed to visualize the predicted distribution of PAHs in Lisbon area and identify the areas where possible risk to the environment are likely occurring However, it is known that total concentration may not allow a direct prediction of environmental risk, since in general only a fraction of total concentration is available for partitioning between soil and solution and thus to be uptake or transformed by organisms (bioacessible or bioavailable) or to be leached to groundwater. The

  13. Urban contaminants project: Fish and Hood Creeks, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Urbanization has decreased water quality and adversely impacted biological communities in the lakes and streams of Anchorage, Alaska (Hock, 1981; Brabets, 1987;...

  14. Contaminated site risk and uncertainty assessment for impacts on surface and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak

    in the catchment include agriculture, residential settlements (urban discharges) and multiple contaminated sites. In all streams, ecological impacts were documented, including the physical quality of the habitats (hydromorphology), water quality (chemical) and impairment of the benthic macroinvertebrate community...... of contaminated site risk assessment. They include: 1) the use of mass discharge estimates in the assessment of the impact of old unlined landfill sites in clay till geology on multiple water resources; 2) the characterization of the spatial variability and attenuation of the leachate from landfills located...... in clay till geology and the impact on streams; 3) the characterization of the dominating anthropogenic stressors in headwater streams at catchment scale and 4) the development of a method for assessing the uncertainty in conceptual site models. Advances in risk assessment methods for contaminated sites...

  15. Trends in hydrophobic organic contaminants in urban and reference lake sediments across the United States, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    A shift in national policy toward stronger environmental protection began in the United States in about 1970. Conversely, urban land use, population, energy consumption, and vehicle use have increased greatly since then. To assess the effects of these changes on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey used sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality histories for38 urban and reference lakes across the United States. Cores were age-dated, and concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons were tested statistically. Significant trends in total DDT, p,p???-DDE, and total PCBs were all downward. Trends in chlordane were split evenly between upward and downward, and trends in PAHs were mostly upward. Significant trends did not occur in about one-half of cases tested. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and PCBs were about one-half as likely to exceed the probable effect concentration (PEC), a sediment quality guideline, in sediments deposited in the 1990s as in 1965-1975, whereas PAHs were twice as likely to exceed the PEC in the more recently deposited sediments. Concentrations of all contaminants evaluated correlated strongly with urban land use. Upward trends in PAH concentrations, the strong association of PAH with urban settings, and rapid urbanization occurring in the United States suggest that PAHs could surpass chlorinated hydrocarbons in the threat they pose to aquatic biota in urban streams and lakes.

  16. The triad approach to ecological assessment of urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, V. A.; Pukalchik, M. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The "triad" approach was suggested by Chapman [22] for assessing the risk of contamination of bottom deposits. We applied this approach for the analysis of urban soils under different loads from motor transport. On its basis, the results of chemical analysis (heavy metals, biogenic elements, and pH), bioindication parameters of the communities of microorganisms, and the results of toxicological investigations with the use of test-organisms were generalized to obtain an integral index of the soil status (IS). A comparison of IS values for test plots at different distances from a highway in the city of Kirov (58.3729-58.624722 N, 49.3743-49.628611 E) showed that the ecological status of the soils could be qualified as disturbed on the plots adjacent to the highway and as slightly disturbed at distances of 30-200 m from the highway. The IS calculated on the basis of data of three disciplines (chemistry, ecology, and toxicology) seems to be a more comprehensive characteristic for assessing the ecological status of urbanozems as compared to Zc indices of the chemical contamination of soils (suggested by Saet) or indices of the integral biological characteristics of soil quality.

  17. Citizen Assessment as Policy Tool of Urban Public Services: Empirical Evidence from Assessments of Urban Green Spaces in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Zhang Shan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery and precision provision of urban public services concern quality of urban life and urban sustainability. Amid much debate regarding citizen assessments as a policy tool of public services, this study examines the validity of citizen assessments through user assessments of urban green spaces (UGSs in Guangzhou, China. Users can distinguish the qualities of UGS across the dimensions and types, the assessment of individual UGSs matches the overall assessment of all UGSs in the city as a whole, and the overall assessment is only slightly influenced by personal backgrounds. Findings consistently support user assessments as a policy tool of UGSs and offer empirical evidence on the validity of citizen assessments. This positive evidence will encourage city managers to seriously consider citizen assessments and even institutionalize them as a standard management practice of (specific urban public services, including UGSs, in China and abroad.

  18. Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental impacts associated with excess salt in oil and surface water or groundwater (a frequent occurrence in oil and gas production) may be manifested as degradation of soil chemical or physical properties, impaired vegetable growth and degraded surface or groundwater quality. Spill prevention is by far the most effective and most efficient way of avoiding these adverse effects and the attendant remediation costs. However, when spills do occur effective response, based on a comprehensive understanding of impacts, salt movements and remediation procedures can mitigate the adverse environmental effects. This guide is designed to assist those involved in the prevention, assessment, remediation and management of salt-contaminated sites. It summarizes the regulatory requirements in Alberta, including salt remediation objectives, and provides an overview of salt spill problems and effective site assessment and remediation procedures. Background information on the sources of salt, the movement of salt in soil and groundwater, and the adverse effects of salt on soil, vegetation and groundwater is provided in an appendix attached to the Guide. A selected bibliography and a glossary of terms are also included. 42 refs., tabs., figs

  19. Contamination assessment for OSSA space station IOC payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, S.; Gordon, T.; Rantanen, R.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented from a study for the Space Station Planners Group of the Office of Space Sciences and Applications. The objectives of the study are: (1) the development of contamination protection requirements for protection of Space Station attached payloads, serviced payloads and platforms; and (2) the determination of unknowns or major impacts requiring further assessment. The nature, sources, and quantitative properties of the external contaminants to be encountered on the Station are summarized. The OSSA payload contamination protection requirements provided by the payload program managers are reviewed and the level of contamination awareness among them is discussed. Preparation of revisions to the contamination protection requirements are detailed. The comparative impact of flying the Station at constant atmospheric density rather than constant altitude is assessed. The impact of the transverse boom configuration of the Station on contamination is also assessed. The contamination protection guidelines which OSSA should enforce during their development of payloads are summarized.

  20. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Skuterud, L. [eds.] [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Melin, J. [ed.] [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man`s intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG).

  1. Reclamation of contaminated urban and rural environments following a severe nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a severe nuclear accident releasing radioactive materials to the atmosphere, there is a potential for widespread contamination of both the urban and rural environments. In some instances of environmental contamination, natural processes may eventually reduce or eliminate the problem without man's intervention. The situation with respect to radioactive contamination is no different except that radioactive contamination will also disappear through normal physical radioactive decay. In other cases, man is often able to mitigate potential harmful effects by cleaning, washing, abrading or by the application of chemicals. The actions taken by man to mitigate the potential harmful effects of contamination are described as countermeasures. In the case of radioactive contamination, the objective of countermeasures is to minimise radiation doses to man. This document is intended as a guide to those groups who may, at very short notice, be called upon to manage and reclaim radioactively contaminated urban and rural environments in the Nordic countries. However, much of the information and recommendations are also equally applicable in other countries. The document is divided into eight distinct parts, namely: 1. The Urban Environment; 2. The Cultivated Agricultural Environment; 3. Animals; 4. Forests; 5. Freshwater and Fish; 6. Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste from Clean-up Operations; 7. Radiation Protection and Safety of Clean-up Operators; 8. Resources Available in Society. (EG)

  2. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  3. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed; Soheil Sobhanardakani; Hajar Merrikhpour; Abbas Farmany; Mehrdad Cheraghi; Sanaz Ashorlo

    2015-01-01

    Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. T...

  4. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  5. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper, boron, and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1967-04-01

    Spectrochemical analysis of representative samples of topsoil from urban gardens and from individual fields in rural areas indicates that the level of total copper, EDTA-extractable copper, water-soluble boron, and acetic-acid extractable lead are markedly enhanced in urban areas. No significant differences were discovered between levels of these elements in soils from built-up areas in small towns and large conurbations. These results suggest the possibility of general enhancement of the trace element content of plants grown in private gardens in built-up areas.

  6. Assessment of awareness regarding climate change in an urban community

    OpenAIRE

    Pandve, Harshal T; Chawla, P. S.; Kevin Fernandez; Samir A.Singru; Deepak Khismatrao; Sangita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Background : Climate change has emerged as one of the most devastating environmental threats. It is essential to assess the awareness regarding climate change in the general population for framing the mitigation activities. Aim: To assess the awareness regarding climate change in an urban community. Settings and Design: Urban field practice area of a medical college in the Pune city. Observational study. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban adult popula...

  7. Methods for Sustainable Management of Contamination Sources in Urban Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sparrevik, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Managing contaminated urban coastal areas is an important issue in today’s society. Harbor areas are transformed from industrial sites and shipyards, to housing areas with high environmental requirements. The use of coastal areas for aquaculture and fishing activities increases the need for cleanup of previous contamination sources. High environmental standards when handling dredged material from harbors and industrial activities are also required in our society today.Many countries including...

  8. Review of Urban Sustainability Indicators Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, Florianna Lendai; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the processes, methodologies and resulting sets of indicators for urban sustainability carried out in three of Asia's developing countries; Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The paper analytically discusses the challenges of developing urban sustainability indicators...... among the developing countries. The comparison reveals the urban indicators development's processes, contents and outcomes and whether the resulting set of urban indicators is operational and has changed the way things were....

  9. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  10. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  11. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Mugoša

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA, soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed.

  12. Assessment of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metal Contamination in Coastal Municipalities of Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoša, Boban; Đurović, Dijana; Nedović-Vuković, Mirjana; Barjaktarović-Labović, Snežana; Vrvić, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples of urban parks and playgrounds is very important for the evaluation of potential risks for residents, especially children. Until recently, there has been very little data about urban parks pollution in Montenegro. To evaluate the sources of potential contamination and concentration of heavy metals, soil samples from coastal urban parks and kindergartens of Montenegro were collected. Based on the heavy metal concentrations, multivariate analysis combined with geochemical approaches showed that soil samples in coastal areas of Montenegro had mean Pb and Cd concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), soil pollution with Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn is contributed by anthropogenic sources. Results for Cr in the surface soils were primarily derived from natural sources. Calculation of different ecological contamination factors showed that Cd is the primary contribution to ecological risk index (RI) origins from anthropogenic, industry, and urbanization sources. This data provides evidence about soil pollution in coastal municipalities of Montenegro. Special attention should be paid to this problem in order to continue further research and to consider possible ways of remediation of the sites where contamination has been observed. PMID:27043601

  13. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to agrichemical contamination in the Midwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; James, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Agrichemicals (herbicides and nitrate) are significant sources of diffuse pollution to groundwater. Indirect methods are needed to assess the potential for groundwater contamination by diffuse sources because groundwater monitoring is too costly to adequately define the geographic extent of contamination at a regional or national scale. This paper presents examples of the application of statistical, overlay and index, and process-based modeling methods for groundwater vulnerability assessments to a variety of data from the Midwest U.S. The principles for vulnerability assessment include both intrinsic (pedologic, climatologic, and hydrogeologic factors) and specific (contaminant and other anthropogenic factors) vulnerability of a location. Statistical methods use the frequency of contaminant occurrence, contaminant concentration, or contamination probability as a response variable. Statistical assessments are useful for defining the relations among explanatory and response variables whether they define intrinsic or specific vulnerability. Multivariate statistical analyses are useful for ranking variables critical to estimating water quality responses of interest. Overlay and index methods involve intersecting maps of intrinsic and specific vulnerability properties and indexing the variables by applying appropriate weights. Deterministic models use process-based equations to simulate contaminant transport and are distinguished from the other methods in their potential to predict contaminant transport in both space and time. An example of a one-dimensional leaching model linked to a geographic information system (GIS) to define a regional metamodel for contamination in the Midwest is included.

  14. Impact of urbanization on the concentrations and distribution of organic contaminants in boreal lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Olga; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

    2013-02-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impacts of a middle-sized Finnish urban area on the quality of sediments in an adjacent boreal lake. We investigated the sources and distribution of organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in the sediments from urban stormwater traps and from Lake Vesijärvi. Grab surface sediment samples were taken from Lake Vesijärvi at various distances (25-2,000 m) from four major stormwater drainage outlets and at 15 urban stormwater traps in areas with different degrees of urbanization. These samples were analysed for 16 PAHs and 28 PCBs with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of pollutants in the lake sediments were elevated in the vicinity of the urban shore (∑PAH 3-16, ∑PCB up to 0.02-0.3 mg/kg dw) and decreased as a function of distance (∑PAH 0.1-2.5, ∑PCB 0.01-0.3 mg/kg dw at a distance of more than 500 m from the shore), whereas contamination levels in suburban areas were notably lower (∑PAH 0.1-3, ∑PCB trap sediments contained predominantly asphalt-derived PAHs due to pulverized pavement. PAHs in lake sediments were of pyrogenic origin, including the combustion of gasoline, diesel and coal. Suggested pathways of lake contamination are urban runoff discharge, boat traffic and atmospheric deposition. PMID:22527470

  15. Urban Earthquake Shaking and Loss Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, U.; Tuzun, C.; Yenidogan, C.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Level 2 analysis of the ELER Software (similar to HAZUS and SELENA) is essentially intended for earthquake risk assessment (building damage, consequential human casualties and macro economic loss quantifiers) in urban areas. The basic Shake Mapping is similar to the Level 0 and Level 1 analysis however, options are available for more sophisticated treatment of site response through externally entered data and improvement of the shake map through incorporation

  16. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  17. Assessment of contamination in the Shuttle bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, J. A.; Maag, C. R.; Seastrom, J. W.; Weber, M. F.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analytical study to determine the contamination potential of the Galileo probe instruments while in the STS bay are presented. The study covered conditions wherein the instruments weren't covered, covers were used with vent paths of varying sizes, and if the instruments were sealed and a nitrogen purge was employed. The contamination limits for each of the Galileo instruments are considered. Analytic approximations are devised for the diffusion of particles from surfaces and materials in the Shuttle bay during the ascent phase, using Fick's second law of diffusion. It is recommended that an instrument purge be implemented during the first 15 min of Shuttle flight in order to carry the contaminants from both the bay fixtures and from the instruments into space. Covers are suggested as necessary for the most sensitive instruments.

  18. Preliminary Assessment Of SIRE's Potential For Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, D. L.; Muscari, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a contamination analysis and computer modeling study performed for the Space Infrared Experiment (SIRE) using the Space Transport System (STS) Shuttle Orbiter as the launch vehicle for the proposed seven-day sortie mission. These results will provide an accurate description of the deposition levels on the telescope primary mirror and of the molecular number column density (NCD) along the telescope line-of-sight. The planned Helium Purge System was assumed not to be operating. The contri-bution to the contamination environment of any cargo element, other than SIRE and its pallet, was not considered in this study. The study considers five potential contamination sources, including the flash evaporator vent effluents and the vernier reaction control system (VCS) engines plume constituents.

  19. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.;

    2006-01-01

    concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants...... the exposed contaminants than the traditional organic solvent extraction method and the SDS extracted fraction is applicable to toxicity tests reflecting the digestive process.......An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl...

  20. RESEARCH FOR MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION (PROJECT 1: MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION: 2. EFFECT OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATION ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF; 3. MICROORGANISM DIE-OFF RATES UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) developed a document entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination (EPA 600/R-03/111). This document provides information to support specific steps of the total maximum daily load (TMDL) process for meeting water q...

  1. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    treatment plant is estimated. For Cs-137 radiation levels in the plant are low since wash-off of cesium from surfaces is an ineffective process. -- Highlights: ► A rainfall-runoff model is coupled with transport of radionuclides in urban waters. ► Urban water contamination after a radiological incident is estimated. ► The external exposure to staff of the treatment plant is quantified for Cs-137. ► Radiation levels are low as wash-off of Cs-137 is an ineffective process. ► An assessment tool for radiation doses from urban waste water is now available

  2. Contrasting Contaminant Occurrence in Urban and Agricultural Streams in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Streams in urban and agricultural settings are known to have many anthropogenic chemical stressors; however, there are important differences in the occurrence of pesticides, metals, legacy contaminants, combustion byproducts, and contaminants of emerging concern between the two settings. In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized water-quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 streams in the Midwestern U.S. and 115 streams in the southeastern U.S., respectively. Water samples were collected weekly for 10-12 weeks during spring and early summer. Habitat, sediment chemistry, and ecological communities were sampled once at the end of the water-sampling period. Water and(or) sediment samples were analyzed for pesticides, nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pharmaceuticals. The spatial and temporal distribution of detected compounds and health-based-benchmark-normalized summations of compound mixtures indicate important differences between agricultural and urban settings. In general, urban streams are affected by more complex chemical mixtures than agricultural streams. Although higher herbicide and nutrient concentrations generally are found in agricultural settings, the more frequent occurrence of insecticides, hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and metals in urban settings indicates higher potential toxicity in urban streams than in agricultural streams. The effects of these complex mixtures and other stressors are being evaluated in relation to stream ecological communities at the regional scale.

  3. Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: Methods and shortcomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, P.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Olsson, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure, and changes in the precipitation patterns caused by anthropogenic climate change. The present paper provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art methods...... for assessing the impacts of climate change on precipitation at the urban catchment scale. Downscaling of results from global circulation models or regional climate models to urban catchment scales are needed because these models are not able to describe accurately the rainfall process at suitable high temporal...... of average precipitation.In this paper, following an overview of some recent advances in the development of innovative methods for assessing the impacts of climate change on urban rainfall extremes as well as on urban hydrology and hydraulics, several existing difficulties and remaining challenges in dealing...

  4. Assessing ecological sustainability in urban planning - EcoBalance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, I., Email: irmeli.wahlgren@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Urban planning solutions and decisions have large-scale significance for ecological sustainability (eco-efficiency) the consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of greenhouse gas and other emissions and the costs caused by urban form. Climate change brings new and growing challenges for urban planning. The EcoBalance model was developed to assess the sustainability of urban form and has been applied at various planning levels: regional plans, local master plans and detailed plans. The EcoBalance model estimates the total consumption of energy and other natural resources, the production of emissions and wastes and the costs caused directly and indirectly by urban form on a life cycle basis. The results of the case studies provide information about the ecological impacts of various solutions in urban development. (orig.)

  5. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; Destefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  6. Proposal of bimodal solution for urban vehicular contamination problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Osorio Gómez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In research field of alternative solutions to internal combustion engine vehicles, the Politecnico di Milano has developed a design and manufacturing project for an adaptable electro-mechanical kit intended to transform a city car with en-dothermic propulsion into a bimodal one, using existent technologies and innovative solutions. This project involves mechanical and electrical competences in order to develop a new transmission parallel to the current endothermic propulsion and its control system. This paper describes, in general, the developed procedure to obtain the final proto-type. At first, the requirements and constraints to fulfil a standard transport urban cycle has been established and the vehicle to modify was selected, in this case the Fiat Grande Punto. Next, new components and the required space to their installation have been identified and specified, whilst mechanical components were designed and manufactured. Instruments of reverse engineering and virtual prototyping have been employed to carry out the geometrical models, simulations and layouts and to identify useful spaces in the vehicle. Finally, general modifications, installation of new components, implementation of control and data acquisition system, fine-tuning and check of specifications fulfilment have been carried out. A 30 km range working in electrical mode, with a top speed of 70 km/h, is assured with the developed kit. These results demonstrate the feasibility to implement a forward bimodal propulsion system into a com-mercial city car with a little invasive commercial kit, and now, the Politecnico is working at its industrialization and im-plementation to different models of city cars. Regione Lombardia (Regional government in Italy has funded this project as an investigation oriented to find new solutions to sustainable transport and reduction of environmental pollution.

  7. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  8. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    The thesis covers a general introduction and a combilation of seven papers on the subject of uncertainty assessment in urban drainage modelling. Urban drainage models applied for design and analysis of urban drainage systems are uncertain due to uncertainty in parameter assessment and especially...... the probability of system failures (defined as either flooding or surcharge of manholes or combined sewer overflow); (2) an application of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology in which an event based stochastic calibration is performed; and (3) long term Monte Carlo simulations...

  9. Arsenic and chromium speciation in an urban contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrot, Gautier; Tappero, Ryan; Webb, Samuel M; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-08-01

    The distribution and speciation of As and Cr in a contaminated soil were studied by synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence (μ-XRF), microfocused X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), and bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The soil was taken from a park in Wilmington, DE, which had been an important center for the leather tanning industry along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States, until the early 20th century. Soil concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb measured at certain locations in the park greatly exceeded the background levels of these heavy metals in the State of Delaware. Results show that Cr(III) and As(V) species are mainly present in the soil, with insignificant amounts of Cr(VI) and As(III). Micro-XRF maps show that Cr and Fe are distributed together in regions where their concentrations are diffuse, and at local spots where their concentrations are high. Iron oxides, which can reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), are present at some of these hot spots where Cr and Fe are highly concentrated. Arsenic is mainly associated with Al in the soil, and to a minor extent with Fe. Arsenate may be sorbed to aluminum oxides, which might have transformed after a long period of time into an As-Al precipitate phase, having a structure and chemical composition similar to mansfieldite (AlAsO(4)⋅2H(2)O). The latter hypothesis is supported by the fact that only a small amount of As present in the soil was desorbed using the characteristic toxicity leaching procedure tests. This suggests that As is immobilized in the soil. PMID:22520924

  10. Floors and Toilets: Association of Floors and Sanitation Practices with Fecal Contamination in Peruvian Amazon Peri-Urban Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Natalie G; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Davis, Meghan F; Heaney, Christopher D; Kosek, Margaret; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-07-19

    Over two billion people worldwide lack access to an improved sanitation facility that adequately retains or treats feces. This results in the potential for fecal material containing enteric pathogens to contaminate the environment, including household floors. This study aimed to assess how floor type and sanitation practices impacted the concentration of fecal contamination on household floors. We sampled 189 floor surfaces within 63 households in a peri-urban community in Iquitos, Peru. All samples were analyzed for colony forming units (CFUs) of E. coli, and households were evaluated for their water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics. Results of multivariate linear regression indicated that households with improved sanitation and cement floors in the kitchen area had reduced fecal contamination to those with unimproved sanitation and dirt floors (Beta: -1.18 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.77, -0.60). Households that did not versus did share their sanitation facility also had less contaminated kitchen floors (Beta: -0.65 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% CI: -1.15, -0.16). These findings suggest that the sanitation facilities of a home may impact the microbial load found on floors, contributing to the potential for household floors to serve as an indirect route of fecal pathogen transmission to children. PMID:27338564

  11. Mechanism Analysis and Propagation Model of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Topsoil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-wei Wang; Yuan-biao Zhang; Zi-yue Chen; Ke-jia Li; Jia-lin Hu; Yu-jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to further research on the polluting condition and spreading features of heavy metals in urban surface soil, this study makes statistical analysis on indexes of 8 heavy metal concentrations. Then Are GIS geo-statistical analyst was used for Kriging interpolation of each kind of heavy metal concentration before figuring out the spatial distribution. Firstly, heavy metal contamination was analyzed by single-element pollution evaluation and multi-element pollution evaluation, before rat...

  12. Assessing Urban Droughts in a Smart City Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, R.; Zhang, X.; Mallick, K.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Niyogi, D.

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET) is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation). This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs) that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA) from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  13. Assessing Microscale Environmental Changes: CORINE Vs. The Urban Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Alexandru-Ionuţ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying geostatistical approaches to spatial data is a common method for assessing the transitional dynamics of land cover and use changes induced by human activities. However, the relevance of results depends largely on the quality of data. CORINE data have showed their utility in assessing long term changes at the macro-scale, but their use at the micro-scale is impeded by the spatial resolution and changes in the methodology of obtaining them. Recently, new data from the Urban Atlas were provided at a greater resolution for urban areas. In an attempt to assess their potential for analyzing transitional dynamics at the micro-scale, this paper compared the two data sets using the case study of Bucharest. The results indicate that the Urban Atlas does a better job in surprising the fragmentation of land in urban areas, and providing the real extent of specific features diminished by CORINE.

  14. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF URBAN STREAMS WITH URBAN RIVER SURVEY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marek Hamerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some aspects of potential use of the Urban River Survey (URS method for hydro-morphological assessment of urban river channels/corridors in Poland are discussed, includingthe URS aspects and criteria. The URS aspects/criteria take into account the specificity of urban watercourse omitted both in the RHS (River Habitat Survey which is more prevalent in Europe, and in Polish MHR method. The URS can be used to classify urban watercourses according to their ecological status, as well as in building scenarios of possible reclamation/restoration activities. The watercourse monitoring with the use of URS can be an important element of the local urban catchment management.

  16. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included.

  17. International workshop on scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop aims to discuss the most important aspects of scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination in urban environment and to identify some scientific, social and economic open questions. Papers explaining in more details the principles of intervention, computational capabilities and measurements after a contamination of urban areas are presented. A review on practical experiences from Chernobyl and Goiania accidents is also included

  18. A System Dynamics Approach for the Integrative Assessment of Contaminated Land Management Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Finkel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of contamination extent, boundary conditions/limitations, stakeholders, etc.) has led to the proposal of tiered frameworks for site investigation, risk assessment and management, e.g. in the United Kingdom and in the USA. Recent policies request an increased emphasis on modelling (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive...... of Remediation Options) designed to facilitate the establishment of appropriate, cost-effective management schemes for achieving site-specific remediation objectives within reasonable timeframes. Preliminary assessment shall quickly provide reasonable estimates of current and future risks, as well......Contamination of land and groundwater by organic chemicals, particularly non-aqueous phase liquids, is a widespread problem that severely impacts human health, the environment and the economy at many urban sites all over the world. Complexity of the situation at these sites (in terms...

  19. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas. PMID:27373378

  20. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. PMID:24972248

  1. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    2004-01-01

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the po

  2. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Esperance, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty P. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a lead contamination event that occurred over a period of time in and around Esperance, Western Australia. It also describes the scientific developments necessary to effect the large scale cleanup of lead contamination in the town. This work was possibly the largest environmental cleanup of its kind ever undertaken in Australia. The work undertaken involved characterisation and assessment of the extent of contamination, development of remediation techniques and validation procedures to ensure that that this cleaning had been successful.

  3. Using diatom taxonomic diversity to assess herbicide contamination in rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Rémy; Bouchez, Agnes; Rimet, Frédéric,

    2011-01-01

    The increasing contamination by micropollutants in freshwater systems has become a major problem in modern societies, giving rise to toxicological, sanitary and economical concerns. In 2010 the French government adopted a plan for a 50% reduction over 10 years in the use of pesticides which promotes research on contamination monitoring. Diatom bio-indication tools in rivers have been standardized and normalized (AFNOR NFT 90 354 ; CEN – EN 13946 & EN 14407) and are adapted to assess nutrient ...

  4. Tier 1 Ecological Risk Assessment of a Contaminated Rail Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A screening level ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted for a contaminated rail corridor in British Columbia. The purpose of the ERA was to demonstrate the utility of British Columbia Tier 1 ERA methodology for identifying contaminated sites with unacceptable ecological risks requiring remediation andor risk management. The methodology applies a weight of evidence approach to characterize ecological risks with risk quotients and site observations serving as the two lines of evidence....

  5. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River intertidal zone due to urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three short sediment cores (210Pb and 7Be. The 210Pbxs profile shows a non-steady-state sedimentation pattern in the study area and 7Be is only found in the upper 1 cm layer of sediment in high and middle tidal flats. In this study, we found that Cu, Pb and Zn contaminants are present in the upper 20 cm of the tidal flat sediment and, after normalizing with Al, the contamination is more striking in the upper ∼5 cm sediment. Relationships between the metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) enrichment factor and 210Pbxs activity suggest that contamination increases with time. Factor analyses shows that differences in sediment grain size have insignificant effects on Cu and Pb concentrations, but have some influence on Zn concentration in the study area. This preliminary study shows that urbanization and recent coastal wetland reclamation have had an environmental impact on this area

  6. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature

  7. Establishing the importance of human health risk assessment for metals and metalloids in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development, industrialisation, and urbanisation have resulted in serious contamination of soil by metals and metalloids from anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. Exponential urban and economic development has resulted in human populations settling in urban areas and as a result being exposed to these pollutants. Depending on the nature of the contaminant, contaminated urban soils can have a deleterious effect on the health of exposed populations and may require decontamination, recovery, remediation and restoration. Therefore, human health risk assessments in urban environments are very important. In the case of Spain, there are few studies regarding risk assessment of trace elements in urban soils, and those that exist have been derived mainly from areas potentially exposed to industrial contamination or in the vicinity of point pollution. The present study analysed Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn soil concentrations in and around the city of Alcalá de Henares (35 km NE of Madrid). Soil samples were collected in public parks and recreation areas within the city and in an industrial area on the periphery of the city. From these results, an assessment of the health risk for the population was performed following the methodology described by the US EPA (1989). In general, it was observed that there could be a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic (As) through ingestion of the soils studied (oral intake), as well as an increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of chromium (Cr) present in re-suspended soils from the industrial area. Our group has previously reported (Granero and Domingo, 2002; Peña-Fernández et al., 2003) that there was an increased risk of developing cancer following exposure to As in the same soils in a previous study. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the levels of contaminants in these soils, especially As and Cr

  8. Quantitative risk assessment modeling for nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Qu, Xiaobo; Wang, Xinchang; Yuanita, Vivi; Wong, Siew Chee

    2011-03-01

    Urban road tunnels provide an increasingly cost-effective engineering solution, especially in compact cities like Singapore. For some urban road tunnels, tunnel characteristics such as tunnel configurations, geometries, provisions of tunnel electrical and mechanical systems, traffic volumes, etc. may vary from one section to another. These urban road tunnels that have characterized nonuniform parameters are referred to as nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels. In this study, a novel quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model is proposed for nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels because the existing QRA models for road tunnels are inapplicable to assess the risks in these road tunnels. This model uses a tunnel segmentation principle whereby a nonhomogeneous urban road tunnel is divided into various homogenous sections. Individual risk for road tunnel sections as well as the integrated risk indices for the entire road tunnel is defined. The article then proceeds to develop a new QRA model for each of the homogeneous sections. Compared to the existing QRA models for road tunnels, this section-based model incorporates one additional top event-toxic gases due to traffic congestion-and employs the Poisson regression method to estimate the vehicle accident frequencies of tunnel sections. This article further illustrates an aggregated QRA model for nonhomogeneous urban tunnels by integrating the section-based QRA models. Finally, a case study in Singapore is carried out.

  9. Assessment of lead pollution in topsoils of a southern Italy area: Analysis of urban and peri-urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Cicchella, Domenico; De Rosa, Rosanna; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) may affect adversely human health. Mapping soil Pb contents is essential to obtain a quantitative estimate of potential risk of Pb contamination. The main aim of this paper was to determine the soil Pb concentrations in the urban and peri-urban area of Cosenza-Rende to map their spatial distribution and assess the probability that soil Pb concentration exceeds a critical threshold that might cause concern for human health. Samples were collected at 149 locations from residual and non-residual topsoil in gardens, parks, flower-beds, and agricultural fields. Fine earth fraction of soil samples was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Stochastic images generated by the sequential Gaussian simulation were jointly combined to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical threshold that could be used to delineate the potentially risky areas. Results showed areas in which Pb concentration values were higher to the Italian regulatory values. These polluted areas were quite large and likely, they could create a significant health risk for human beings and vegetation in the near future. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used to study soil contamination to produce geochemical maps, and identify hot-spot areas for soil Pb concentration.

  10. Urban camouflage assessment through visual search and computational saliency

    OpenAIRE

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M A

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to derive a multiscale urban camouflage pattern from a given set of background image samples. We applied this method to design a camouflage pattern for a given (semi-arid) urban environment. We performed a human visual search experiment and a computational evaluation study to assess the effectiveness of this multiscale camouflage pattern relative to the performance of 10 other (multiscale, disruptive and monotonous) patterns that were also designed for deployment in th...

  11. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  12. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  13. Assessment of sediment contamination in Casco Bay, Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Terry L. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sweet, Stephen T. [Geochemical and Environmental Research Group, Texas A and M University, 833 Graham Road, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)], E-mail: sweet@gerg.tamu.edu; Klein, Andrew G. [Geography Department, Texas A and M University, 814B Eller O and M Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The current status of contaminant concentrations in Casco Bay, decadal trends of these contaminants and changes in their geographical distribution are assessed using sediment samples collected approximately 10 years apart. In general, regulated contaminants appeared to be decreasing in concentration. Total PAH and dioxins/furans concentrations did not significantly change over this period. Total organochlorine pesticides, 4,4-DDE, 4,4-DDD, total DDT, PCB, tributyltin and total butyltin decreased in concentration. Trace element concentrations in sediments decreased at the majority of the sampling sites for chromium, nickel, and selenium while arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc remained relatively constant. None of the contaminants measured has increased by more than a factor of 2. Selected sites located in the Inner Bay, where concentrations are higher and new inputs were more likely, showed increased concentrations of contaminants. Most contaminants were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota based on ERL/ERM guidelines. - Sediment studies indicate decadal decreases for many chemical contaminants in Casco Bay.

  14. An assessment of Pakistan's urban policies 1947-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, M A

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing and assessing the evolution and outcomes of Pakistan's urban policies during 1947-97. One-third of Pakistan's population live in urban areas, and the level of urbanization increased from 18% in 1951 to 32% in 1991. The rapid rate of urbanization has produced two megacities, Karachi with a population of 8-10 million and Lahore with a population of about 5 million, and 6 other cities with populations of 1 million or more. Pakistan is one of the pioneering countries in implementing physical planning and planned housing; this is reflected in its urban policies as constituted by the Five-Year Plan and national development budgets. The programs through which the policies were implemented are divided into three phases. Phase 1 (1947-70) involved the resettlement of refugees and laying of the institutional framework; core housing schemes (consisting of 1- to 2-room quarters) were the key element of the urban strategy in this period. Phase 2 (1971-78) policies were guided by the promise of mass housing, particularly for the working and lower classes. At this time, too, a set of squatter settlements known as Katchi Abadis emerged, and international organizations started funding Pakistan's urban development programs. Phase 3 (1980-95) saw the steady "privatization" of the housing and land markets and improved housing conditions, while urban policy continued to concentrate on public works, plots and construction. Despite the improvements, urban crises persist, and policies are shifting towards more complex issues of quality and the provision of new collective goods. In general, the achievements of Pakistan's urban policies have outweighed its failures, as both the rich and the poor have benefitted from them.

  15. "Triple-bottom-line" assessment of urban stormwater projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C; Fletcher, T D

    2006-01-01

    New guidelines have been developed and trialled in Australia to assist urban stormwater managers to assess options for projects that aim to improve urban waterway health. These guidelines help users to examine the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects (i.e., the so-called "triple-bottom-line"). Features of the assessment process described in the guidelines include use of multi criteria analysis, input from technical experts as well as non-technical stakeholders, and provision of three alternative levels of assessment to suit stormwater managers with differing needs and resources. This paper firstly provides a background to the new guidelines and triple-bottom-line assessment. The assessment methodology promoted in the new guidelines is then briefly summarised. This methodology is compared and contrasted with European guidelines from the "SWARD" project that have been primarily developed for assessing the relative sustainability of options involving urban water supply and sewerage assets. Finally, the paper discusses how assessment methodologies that evaluate the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects can, under some circumstances, be used to evaluate the relative progress of options for urban water management on a journey towards the widely pursued, but vaguely defined goal of "sustainable development".

  16. Safety of gardening on lead- and arsenic-contaminated urban brownfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoe, Phillip P; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Benedict, Christopher; Martin, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Elevated levels of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are not uncommon for urban soils. Test plots were established at urban gardens in Tacoma and Seattle, WA. The Tacoma site was contaminated with Pb (51-312 mg kg) and As (39-146 mg kg), and the Seattle site had high Pb soil concentrations ranging from 506 to 2022 mg kg and As concentrations of plot arrangement. Tacoma site treatments included a Class A biosolids mix (TAGRO) with dolomite, and soil at the Seattle site was amended with Cedar-Grove compost (CGC) plus dolomite. TAGRO amendment diluted soil Pb by 10 to 23% and As by 12 to 25% at the Tacoma site, and CGC + dolomite resulted in 20 to 50% dilution in soil Pb at the Seattle site. Both amendments reduced Pb concentrations in vegetables by 50 to 71%, and As reductions ranged from 46 to 80%. At the Tacoma site, Pb concentrations (dry weight basis) in carrots, lettuce, and tomatoes ranged from 8.89 to 25.0, from 0.37 to 3.83, and from 0.54 to 1.24 mg kg, respectively. Plant As concentrations were below 703 μg kg (dry weight) for the vegetables and followed the order lettuce > carrot > tomato. Food-chain transfer of Pb and As in vegetables grown in contaminated urban soils were reduced by laboratory cleaning. PMID:25602223

  17. The occurrence and sources of heavy metal contamination in peri-urban and smelting contaminated sites in Baoji, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenbo; Li, Xuxiang; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition, soil, plant, ore, and coal cinder samples were collected and analyzed to determine heavy metal concentrations in a typical peri-urban industrial area of Baoji. The lead isotope ratio method was employed to trace the source and dispersion of atmospheric heavy metal contamination. Results showed that concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in atmospheric deposition significantly exceed soil background levels and Chinese soil environmental quality standards. The most polluted sites were located in the downwind direction of the smelter, which confirmed this site to be the major pollution source for this area. The other source of heavy metals in this area is a power plant. The investigation into lead isotopes revealed compositions in atmospheric deposition samples were similar to those in ores and coal cinders identifying smelting as the predominant pollution source of lead with the power plant having a minimal effect. Similar isotopic compositions were also found in plants, indicating that the major source of lead in plants was derived from atmospheric deposition, although some evidence was found to suggest uptake from the soil to the roots as an additional contaminant pathway. PMID:27021694

  18. The occurrence and sources of heavy metal contamination in peri-urban and smelting contaminated sites in Baoji, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenbo; Li, Xuxiang; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition, soil, plant, ore, and coal cinder samples were collected and analyzed to determine heavy metal concentrations in a typical peri-urban industrial area of Baoji. The lead isotope ratio method was employed to trace the source and dispersion of atmospheric heavy metal contamination. Results showed that concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in atmospheric deposition significantly exceed soil background levels and Chinese soil environmental quality standards. The most polluted sites were located in the downwind direction of the smelter, which confirmed this site to be the major pollution source for this area. The other source of heavy metals in this area is a power plant. The investigation into lead isotopes revealed compositions in atmospheric deposition samples were similar to those in ores and coal cinders identifying smelting as the predominant pollution source of lead with the power plant having a minimal effect. Similar isotopic compositions were also found in plants, indicating that the major source of lead in plants was derived from atmospheric deposition, although some evidence was found to suggest uptake from the soil to the roots as an additional contaminant pathway.

  19. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  20. Solar Access Assessment in Dense Urban Environments: The Effect of Intersections in an Urban Canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garcia-Nevado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban canyon model has been recurrently used as a basis for many solar access studies. However, its conception as endless structures disregards the effect of street intersections, despite being characteristic elements of urban fabrics. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of street discontinuities on solar access over building façades. The potential of crossings to increase the available radiation has been assessed through computer simulations in dense urban environments in a Mediterranean location. For the cases studied, results show that local effects of an intersection almost disappear beyond a specific distance for each aspect ratio, which can be helpful to determine the suitable level of detail for solar analyses at an urban fabric scale.

  1. Lead contamination and transfer in urban environmental compartments analyzed by lead levels and isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Sun, Yuanyuan; Ding, Zhuhong; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Jichun; Lian, Hongzhen; Wang, Tijian

    2014-04-01

    Lead levels and isotopic compositions in atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), street dust and surface soil collected from Nanjing, a mega city in China, were analyzed to investigate the contamination and the transfer of lead in urban environmental compartments. The lead contents in TSP and PM2.5 are significantly higher than them in the surface soil and street dust (p atmospheric particles. The plots of (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs.(208)Pb/(206)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb vs. 1/Pb imply that the street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5) have very similar lead sources. Coal emissions and smelting activities may be the important lead sources for street dust and atmospheric particles (TSP and PM2.5), while the deposition of airborne lead is an important lead source for urban surface soil.

  2. Outlier identification in urban soils and its implications for identification of potential contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaosheng

    2010-05-01

    Outliers in urban soil geochemical databases may imply potential contaminated land. Different methodologies which can be easily implemented for the identification of global and spatial outliers were applied for Pb concentrations in urban soils of Galway City in Ireland. Due to its strongly skewed probability feature, a Box-Cox transformation was performed prior to further analyses. The graphic methods of histogram and box-and-whisker plot were effective in identification of global outliers at the original scale of the dataset. Spatial outliers could be identified by a local indicator of spatial association of local Moran's I, cross-validation of kriging, and a geographically weighted regression. The spatial locations of outliers were visualised using a geographical information system. Different methods showed generally consistent results, but differences existed. It is suggested that outliers identified by statistical methods should be confirmed and justified using scientific knowledge before they are properly dealt with.

  3. Hydrochemical profiles in urban groundwater systems: New insights into contaminant sources and pathways in the subsurface from legacy and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E; Williams, P J

    2016-08-15

    It has long been known that groundwaters beneath urban areas carry a fingerprint from urban activities but finding a consistent tracer for anthropogenic influence has proved elusive. The varied sources of urban contaminants means that a single consistent and inexpensive means of tracing the fate of urban contaminants is not generally possible and multiple tracers are often required to understand the contaminant sources and pathways in these complex systems. This study has utilized a combination of micro-organic (MO) contaminants and inorganic hydrochemistry to trace recharge pathways and quantify the variability of groundwater quality in multi-level piezometers in the city of Doncaster, UK. A total of 23 MOs were detected during this study, with more compounds consistently detected during higher groundwater table conditions highlighting the importance of sampling under different hydrological conditions. Four of the compounds detected are EU Water Framework Directive priority substances: atrazine, simazine, naphthalene and DEHP, with a maximum concentration of 0.18, 0.03, 0.2, 16μg/l respectively. Our study shows that the burden of the banned pesticide atrazine persists in the Sherwood Sandstone and is detected at two of the three study sites. Emerging contaminants are seen throughout the borehole profiles and provide insights into transient pathways for contaminant migration in the sub-surface. Long term changes in inorganic hydrochemistry show possible changes in contaminant input or the dissolution of minerals. Nitrate was detected above 50mg/l but on the whole nitrate concentrations have declined in the intervening years either due to a reduction of nitrate application at the surface or a migration of peak nitrate concentrations laterally or to greater depth. This study shows that multiple tracers together with multi-level piezometers can give a better resolution of contaminant pathways and variable flow regimes within the relatively uncomplicated aquifer of

  4. Extent, characterization, and sources of soil lead contamination in small-urban residential neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey J; Knudsen, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    We present high spatial-resolution mapping of soil lead (Pb) concentrations in a small-urban residential setting. X-ray fluorescence was used to measure soil Pb at170 properties in the City Park neighborhood of Appleton, Wisconsin. Greater than two-thirds of soil samples collected from drip lines contained more than 400 μg g of Pb, and one third exceeded 1200 μg g. Soils adjacent to homes built before 1960 contained significantly higher Pb levels than those near younger homes. Three front yard locations (drip line, mid-yard, and terrace) were sampled at 71 properties. A general decline in soil Pb with increasing distance from the house was observed. Detailed sampling of individual homes within a single residential block revealed Pb-contaminated soil radiating outward from homes in all directions, creating a "bulls-eye" pattern. Approximately 40% of yard space exceeded concentrations of 400 μg g. These patterns of contamination are consistent with Pb paint as the main contributor of Pb to soil. This has important implications because spatial distribution of Pb contamination is fundamentally different if paint, rather than automobile exhaust, is the primary source. Selective sequential extraction analyses suggest that roughly half of the soil Pb resides in chemically reactive and bioavailable phases. The extent and persistence of soil Pb, the resurgence of home gardening, and the serious health consequences of Pb ingestion argue for attention to this problem, not just in dense urban centers but also in smaller urban settings across the country. PMID:24216427

  5. Determination of Airborne Lead Contamination in Cichorium intybus L. in an Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    YAKUPOĞLU, Dilmaç; GÜRAY, Tülin; SARICA, Deniz Yurtsever; Zeki KAYA

    2008-01-01

    The major source of environmental lead (Pb) is the combustion of leaded gasoline. After emission as exhaust, lead in the air falls to earth and contaminates soil and plants. Seventeen wild chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plant samples were collected from each of 2 urban sites in Ankara, one is located at the road side of major intercity road (heavy traffic) and the other one is located in relatively less traffic area that is about 1 km away from the first location. Lead content of chicory plan...

  6. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  7. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km(2) residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  8. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  9. Remote sensing assessment of carbon storage by urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Muhamad, N.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Urban forests play a crucial role in mitigating global warming by absorbing excessive CO2 emissions due to transportation, industry and house hold activities in the urban environment. In this study we have assessed the role of trees in an urban forest, (Mutiara Rini) located within the Iskandar Development region in south Johor, Malaysia. We first estimated the above ground biomass/carbon stock of the trees using allometric equations and biometric data (diameter at breast height of trees) collected in the field. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) to develop an empirical relationship between VI and carbon stock. We used five different VIs derived from a very high resolution World View-2 satellite data. Results show that model by [1] and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are correlated well (R2 = 0.72) via a power model. We applied the model to the entire study area to obtain carbon stock of urban forest. The average carbon stock in the urban forest (mostly consisting of Dipterocarp species) is ~70 t C ha-1. Results of this study can be used by the Iskandar Regional Development Authority to better manage vegetation in the urban environment to establish a low carbon city in this region.

  10. Road-deposited sediment, soil and precipitation (RDS) in Bratislava, Slovakia. Compositional and spatial assessment of contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krcmova, Katrina; Cveckova, Veronika; Rapant, Stanislav [Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia); Robertson, Davina [Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: The urban environment in Bratislava is, in association with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, significantly influenced by several potential sources of pollution, including automobile exhaust and industry emissions. Urban road-deposited sediments contain many potentially toxic elements such as Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and also Fe at concentrations much higher than in soil. In this study, the chemical composition and spatial variability of road-deposited sediments in urban area of Bratislava were assessed for the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Fe and Mn. Additional evaluation of archive data for soil, snow and atmospheric dust was undertaken to provide an integrated view on urban environment contamination. Materials and methods: Urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected during summer 2003 and 2004 mainly from major city crossroads. RDS samples were analysed for total metal content, pseudo-total metal content (HNO{sub 3} digestion) and by a sequential extraction method, grain fraction composition and mineralogical composition (X-ray analysis). Metal concentrations in soil and snow samples from urban and non urban city area were compared. Results and discussion: The highest concentrations for all metals were found in the finest RDS fraction (<0.125 mm). Whilst in the fraction <1 mm mean concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb reached 55.2, 143.8 and 34.4 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, for the fraction <0.125 mm, markedly higher contents of these elements were documented at the level of 86.8, 218.4 and 63.1 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The soil contents of potentially toxic risk elements in the urban area including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than in the non-urban area (except for Cd with similar contents). This distribution pattern of evaluated chemicals in urban and non-urban area is more evident in the case of winter precipitation (snow). The snow concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the urban area

  11. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-03-10

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  12. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained

  13. Transport of radionuclides in urban environs: working draft assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Akins, R.E.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Finley, B.H.; Kaestner, P.C.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.; Tierney, M.S.; Finley, N.N.

    1978-05-01

    Purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impacts from transportation of radioactive materials in urban environs. The impacts from accident-free transport, vehicular accidents during transport, and from other abnormal situations are analyzed. The approach is outlined including description of the models developed and the data bases employed to account for the special features of the urban environment. The operations and contributions of the task group formed to assist in this study are also discussed. The results obtained for the New York City study area are presented and explained.

  14. The Effect of Urban Fuel Stations on Soil Contamination with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Parvizi Mosaed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:A critical environmental impact of the petroleum industry is the contamination of soil by oil and other related products which are highly toxic and exhibit molecular recalcitrance. Therefore, this study focused on investigating the total amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs in soil of urban fuel stations in Hamedan City, Iran. Methods:Thirteen high traffic urban fuel stations were selected and random soil samples were collected from surface soils at selected fuel stations. The physical and chemical proper-ties of the soil samples were determined in the laboratory. The concentration of TPHs in soils was determined by GC/MC. Results: Results showed that concentration of TPHs in all stations was more than the stand-ard level in soil (2000 mg kg-1. The minimum and maximum TPHs concentration observed in No. 5 and No.13 fuel station, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that spillage in urban fuel stations has clear effect on the content of TPH in soil, as concentration TPH in all of fuel stations was in the upper limit of the standard levels in soil. .Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons has clear effects on soil biological, chemical and physical characteristics and results in decreasedg food elements, productivity and soil plant productions.

  15. The contribution of urban runoff to organic contaminant levels in harbour sediments near two Norwegian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gerard; Pettersen, Arne; Nesse, Elisabeth; Eek, Espen; Helland, Aud; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare the quality of particle emissions (urban runoff and settling particles in rivers and harbours) to the quality of top-layer bed sediments, for two Norwegian harbours (Oslo and Drammen). A sub-aim was to investigate whether non-industrial urban runoff contributed to the organotin load of sediments, apart from leaching from ship hulls. Time-integrated samples of stormwater runoff were obtained in an innovative manner, by sampling man-holes in the stormwater system. Settling particles were sampled with sediment traps. The study focused on PAHs, PCBs and organotin compounds. Contaminant levels were generally a factor of 2-10 (PAHs) and 3-30 (TBT) lower in emitted riverine and runoff particles than in top-layer bed sediments, except for PCBs in Oslo harbour (only 20-30% lower). Significant levels of tributyltin (TBT; median 140mug/kg) were shown in runoff particles, showing that TBT can also be emitted via urban sources, since the sampled man-holes were not in areas where dry-docking activities take place. Possible land-based TBT sources include long-lasting house paint and use of TBT as PVC stabilizer and timber preservative. Since there are ongoing emissions into the two studied harbour areas, it is concluded that the addition of an actively sorbing capping material such as activated carbon might be the best remediation alternative. PMID:18230401

  16. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  17. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  18. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  19. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial > Roadside > Riverbank > Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R2 values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress.

  20. Bioavailability Assessment of a Contaminated Field Sediemtn from Patrick Bayou, Texas: TIE and Equilibrium Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sediments are commonly found in urbanized harbors. Remediation is often necessary and diagnosing the cause of sediment toxicity becomes imperative. In the present study, sediments from Patrick Bayou, Texas were subjected to initial toxicity testing. All sediments ...

  1. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  2. Assessment of atmospheric microbial contamination in a mobile dental unit

    OpenAIRE

    Shivakumar K; Prashant G; Madhu Shankari G; Subba Reddy V; Chandu G

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioaerosols are important considerations in infection control as well as in occupational health. Bioaerosols may carry potentially hazardous microbes, viruses, fungi, allergens, and other toxic substances that may harm the dental operator, patient, and the dental assistant by causing nosocomial infections. Objective: To assess the level of atmospheric microbial contamination before, during, and after dental treatment procedures in the dental operatory of a mobile dental unit...

  3. Contamination and source differentiation of Pb in park soils along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban soil Pb contamination is a great human health risk. Lead distribution and source in topsoils from 14 parks in Shanghai, China were investigated along an urban-rural gradient. Topsoils were contaminated averagely with 65 mg Pb kg-1, 2.5 times higher than local soil background concentrations. HCl-extracts contained more anthropogenic Pb signatures than total sample digests as revealed by the higher 207/206Pb and 208/206Pb ratios in extracts (0.8613 ± 0.0094 and 2.1085 ± 0.0121 versus total digests 0.8575 ± 0.0098 and 2.0959 ± 0.0116). This suggests a higher sensitivity of HCl-extraction than total digestion in identifying anthropogenic Pb sources. Coal combustion emission was identified as the major anthropogenic Pb source (averagely 47%) while leaded gasoline emission contributed 12% overall. Urbanization effects were observed by total Pb content and anthropogenic Pb contribution. This study suggests that to reduce Pb contamination, Shanghai might have to change its energy composition to clean energy. - Highlights: → Coal combustion emission is identified as a main Pb source in Shanghai park soils. → HCl-extraction is sensitive in identifying anthropogenic isotope Pb sources. → Soil Pb contamination and its anthropogenic sources showed urbanization effects. - Coal combustion emission was identified as the main anthropogenic source of soil Pb contamination affecting Shanghai parks.

  4. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: An assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor′s milk were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. Results: The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Conclusion: Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  5. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...

  6. Use of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for environmental quality assessment of peri-urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindorf, David C; Zhu, Yuanda; Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Bakr, Noura; Huang, Biao

    2012-01-01

    Urban expansion into traditional agricultural lands has augmented the potential for heavy metal contamination of soils. This study examined the utility of field portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry for evaluating the environmental quality of sugarcane fields near two industrial complexes in Louisiana, USA. Results indicated that PXRF provided quality results of heavy metal levels comparable to traditional laboratory analysis. When coupled with global positioning system technology, the use of PXRF allows for on-site interpolation of heavy metal levels in a matter of minutes. Field portable XRF was shown to be an effective tool for rapid assessment of heavy metals in soils of peri-urban agricultural areas.

  7. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  8. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  9. Assessment of sites concerning radioactive contamination during preparation of a Contamination Site Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained since 1990 in the new, but also old German Federal States has shown that there are radioactive contaminated sites beside the legacies of uranium mining in Germany which caused exposures exceeding the radiation protection limits for members of the public. The reason for this situation is that radioactivity has been excluded in the compilation of the register for potentially hazardous sites that are prepared routinely in the context of soil protection assessments. Moreover, the information contained in these registers is not yet evaluated regarding aspects of radioactivity. In many cases, the information existing at the soil protection authorities needs only to be additionally filtered in order to identify potentially hazardous sites for radioactive contamination. For that reason, the working group ''Natural radioactivity'' (AKNAT) of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association developed a specific catalogue of business branches that provides indications for radioactive legacies.

  10. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems. PMID:27441860

  11. Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Henseler, M; Abaidoo, R C

    2007-09-01

    Ghana is a typical low-income sub-Saharan African country facing significant sanitation challenges. In Ghana, fresh salads are not part of the normal diet, but have become a common supplement to urban fast food served in streets, canteens and restaurants. In Accra, about 200 000 people consume from such supplements every day. The figure also describes the size of the risk group from contamination, which comprises all income classes including the poor and children. The purpose of this study was to investigate widespread water pollution in urban and peri-urban areas, where 95% of the lettuce consumed in the city is produced. Over 12 months (April 2004-June 2005), lettuce samples from the same production sites in two cities were followed and analyzed along the "farm to fork" pathway for total and faecal coliform (FC) and helminth egg numbers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among producers, sellers and consumers to quantify lettuce flows to the final risk group. The study identified the farm as the main point of lettuce contamination. Besides the irrigation water, contamination was also attributed to manure application and already contaminated soil. Despite poor sanitary conditions in markets, post-harvest handling and marketing did not further increase the farm-gate contamination levels. To reduce the health risk associated with the consumption of contaminated lettuce; safer farming and irrigation practices are required while the remaining risk could best be addressed where lettuce is prepared for consumption. PMID:17878560

  12. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables irrigated by urban stormwater: a matter of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Tom

    Full Text Available Urban stormwater is a crucial resource at a time when climate change and population growth threaten freshwater supplies; but there are health risks from contaminants, such as toxic metals. It is vitally important to understand how to use this resource safely and responsibly. Our study investigated the extent of metal contamination in vegetable crops irrigated with stormwater under short- and long-term conditions. We created artificially aged gardens by adding metal-contaminated sediment to soil, simulating accumulation of metals in the soil from irrigation with raw stormwater over zero, five and ten years. Our crops--French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, and beetroot (Beta vulgaris--were irrigated twice a week for 11 weeks, with either synthetic stormwater or potable water. They were then tested for concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn. An accumulation of Pb was the most marked sign of contamination, with six of nine French bean and seven of nine beetroot leaf samples breaching Australia's existing guidelines. Metal concentration in a crop tended to increase with the effective age of the garden; but importantly, its rate of increase did not match the rate of increase in the soil. Our study also highlighted differences in sensitivity between different crop types. French bean demonstrated the highest levels of uptake, while kale displayed restrictive behaviour. Our study makes it clear: irrigation with stormwater is indeed feasible, as long as appropriate crops are selected and media are frequently turned over. We have also shown that an understanding of such risks yields meaningful information on appropriate safeguards. A holistic approach is needed--to account for all routes to toxic metal exposure, including especially Pb. A major outcome of our study is critical information for minimising health risks from stormwater irrigation of crops.

  13. Probabilistic assessment of seismic risk in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Armando; Pujades Beneit, Lluís; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Ordaz Schroder, Mario Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to estimate the expected seismic physical damage of existing buildings in urban areas is presented. The main steps of the procedure are seismic hazard, vulnerability and structural response. These three steps are undertaken with a fully probabilistic point of view. Seismic hazard is assessed by means of the annual rate of exceedance of a parameter quantifying the expected seismic action. Buildings may be characterized by a class in a building typology matrix and/or by...

  14. Assessment of awareness regarding climate change in an urban community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal T Pandve

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Climate change has emerged as one of the most devastating environmental threats. It is essential to assess the awareness regarding climate change in the general population for framing the mitigation activities. Aim: To assess the awareness regarding climate change in an urban community. Settings and Design: Urban field practice area of a medical college in the Pune city. Observational study. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban adult population who had given the written consent. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for a face to face interview. Responses were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions, percentage. Results: Total 733 respondents above 18 years of age were included in the present survey. 672 (91.68% respondents commented that global climate is changing. 547 (81.40% respondents opined that human activities are contributing to climate change. 576 (85.71% respondents commented that climate changing based on their personal experiences. Commonest source of information about climate change was television (59.78%. Poor awareness about UNFCC, Kyoto Protocol and IPCC was found. 549 (74.90% respondents commented that deforestation contribute most significantly towards climate change. As per 530 (72.31% respondents water related issues are due to changing climate change. According to 529 (72.17% respondents, direct physical hazards of extreme climatic events are most important health related impact of climate change. According to 478 (65.21% respondents, life style changes (63.3% would be most effective in tackling climate change and for preventing further climate change. Conclusion: The urban general population is aware about changing global climate. Personal efforts are more important in mitigating climate change as per the urban general population. The awareness campaigns regarding mitigation activities are recommended.

  15. 南通市区河流底泥营养物质污染特征及环境风险分析%The Research of Nutrients Contamination Characteristics in Sediments in Nantong Urban Rivers and Assessment of Environmental Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵力; 蒋慧; 董艳; 钱鹏; 方淑荣

    2014-01-01

    以南通市区的学田河、南川河、法伦寺河、城山河及西山河为研究对象,测定了河流表层底泥中的有机质、总氮、氨氮、硝氮、总磷、无机磷及活性有机磷等营养物质指标,分析了污染最重的监测点的污染原因。此外,采用有机指数法、营养物质比值法进行了环境风险评价。得出各条河流底泥均为肥污染级,尤其污染最重的是西山河;各研究河流底泥的碳氮比都很高,说明其营养物质主要来源于周围环境;学田河和西山河底泥的氮磷比较高,说明它们的富营养化程度相对较高。通过回归分析,得出学田河、南川河、法伦寺河及城山河底泥中有机质与总氮及南川河有机质与总磷之间具有良好的线性相关性。%The content of organic matter, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus and organic phosphorus in sediments in Nantong urban rivers have been studied. The pollutant sources of the most contaminated sites have been analyzed. In addition, the environmental risks assessment by organic index and ratios of nutrients were conducted. According to the evaluation results, the organic pollution in sediments of each river was serious, especially in Xishan River;the radio of organic carbon and total nitrogen of each river was very high, which indicated that the main source of nutrients was the surroundings;the radio of total nitrogen and total phosphorus of Xuetian River and Xishan River was relatively high, which illustrated that their eutrophication was relatively severe. The correlation analysis showed that the organic matter and total nitrogen of Xuetian River, Nanchuan River, Falunsi River as well as Chengshan River, the organic matter and total phosphors of Nanchuan River have good linear correlations.

  16. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  17. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Hirata, R.; Pauwels, H.; Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Martins, V.; Montenegro, S.; Batista, J.; Aurouet, A.; Santos, J.; Bertolo, R.; Picot, G.; Franzen, M.; Hochreutener, R.; Braibant, G.

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30 m and up to 70 m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000 μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ11B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70 mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65 mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91 mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  18. Groundwater contamination in coastal urban areas: Anthropogenic pressure and natural attenuation processes. Example of Recife (PE State, NE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G; Hirata, R; Pauwels, H; Cary, L; Petelet-Giraud, E; Chatton, E; Aquilina, L; Labasque, T; Martins, V; Montenegro, S; Batista, J; Aurouet, A; Santos, J; Bertolo, R; Picot, G; Franzen, M; Hochreutener, R; Braibant, G

    2016-09-01

    In a context of increasing land use pressure (over-exploitation, surface-water contamination) and repeated droughts, identifying the processes affecting groundwater quality in coastal megacities of the tropical and arid countries will condition their long-term social and environmental sustainability. The present study focuses on the Brazilian Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), which is a highly urbanized area (3,743,854 inhabitants in 2010) on the Atlantic coast located next to an estuarial zone and overlying a multi-layered sedimentary system featured by a variable sediment texture and organic content. It investigates the contamination and redox status patterns conditioning potential attenuation within the shallow aquifers that constitute the interface between the city and the strategic deeper semi-confined aquifers. These latter are increasingly exploited, leading to high drawdown in potenciometric levels of 20-30m and up to 70m in some high well density places, and potentially connected to the surface through leakage. From a multi-tracer approach (major ions, major gases, δ(11)B, δ(18)O-SO4, δ(34)S-SO4) carried out during two field campaigns in September 2012 and March 2013 (sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters), it has been possible to assess the contamination sources and the redox processes. The increasing trend for mineralization from inland to coastal and estuarial wells (from 119 to around 10,000μS/cm) is at first attributed to water-rock interactions combined with natural and human-induced potentiometric gradients. Secondly, along with this trend, one finds an environmental pressure gradient related to sewage and/or surface-channel network impacts (typically depleted δ(11)B within the range of 10-15‰) that are purveyors of chloride, nitrate, ammonium and sulfate. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate (ranging from 0 to 1.70mmol/L, from 0 to 0,65mmol/L, from 0.03 to 3.91mmol/L respectively are also potentially produced or consumed through various redox

  19. Assessment and forecast of Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfa; Li, Dong

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we first analyze the 5 most cited papers with the title containing "Urban ecosystem health" in Chinese academic journals, and 5 newer papers retrieved from the CSSCI (Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index). The results show that the number of indicators to be used together in more than three papers is 28, and then we select 27 of them to assess Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health from 2000 to 2011. Secondly, when we standardize the original data, the worst value adjustment coefficient is introduced innovatively. Thirdly, using the entropy method, the weights of concrete indicators of Beijing and Shanghai in the different adjustment coefficients are calculated respectively. Fourthly, based on the fuzzy matter-element method, using the Hamming approach degree, the two cities' ecosystem health index and the contribution value to overall health index from each component are calculated. Lastly, using gray prediction model, the evolutionary time response sequence function of Beijing and Shanghai's urban ecosystem health index is identified, and thus both cities' urban ecosystem health is predicted. PMID:24784740

  20. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  1. A national-scale assessment of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; Stuart, Marianne; Talbot, John; Lapworth, Dan; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-10-15

    A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible. PMID:27073165

  2. A national-scale assessment of micro-organic contaminants in groundwater of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; Stuart, Marianne; Talbot, John; Lapworth, Dan; Hart, Alwyn

    2016-10-15

    A large variety of micro-organic (MO) compounds is used in huge quantities for a range of purposes (e.g. manufacturing, food production, healthcare) and is now being frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Interest in the occurrence of MO contaminants in the terrestrial and aquatic environments continues to grow, as well as in their environmental fate and potential toxicity. However, the contamination of groundwater resources by MOs has a limited evidence base compared to other freshwater resources. Of particular concern are newly 'emerging contaminants' such as pharmaceuticals and lifestyle compounds, particularly those with potential endocrine disrupting properties. While groundwater often has a high degree of protection from pollution due to physical, chemical and biological attenuation processes in the subsurface compared to surface aquatic environments, trace concentrations of a large range of compounds are still detected in groundwater and in some cases may persist for decades due to the long residence times of groundwater systems. This study provides the first national-scale assessment of micro-organic compounds in groundwater in England and Wales. A large set of monitoring data was analysed to determine the relative occurrence and detected concentrations of different groups of compounds and to determine relationships with land-use, aquifer type and groundwater vulnerability. MOs detected including emerging compounds such as caffeine, DEET, bisphenol A, anti-microbial agents and pharmaceuticals as well as a range of legacy contaminants including chlorinated solvents and THMs, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides and other industrial compounds. There are clear differences in MOs between land-use types, particularly for urban-industrial and natural land-use. Temporal trends of MO occurrence are assessed but establishing long-term trends is not yet possible.

  3. A chronic plant test for the assessment of contaminated soils. Part 2. Testing of contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, T.; Roembke, J. [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim (Germany); Kalsch, W.

    2006-06-15

    Background and scope. A new chronic plant test system which is based on experiences with various acute plant tests (e.g. published by OECD or ISO) and existing north American plant-life-cycle bioassays was standardised in a project sponsored by the German government. Characteristic properties of the test system, which can be performed either with Brassica rapa (turnip rape) or Avena sativa (oat), are described in part 1 of this mini-series. Methods. This new test was used to assess the effects of natural soil samples contaminated with TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) or PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). The soils were tested after taken from the field as well as after being remediated. Different control and reference soils were used to evaluate the test results. In addition, they were compared with the results of tests in which either TNT or Pyrene were spiked to field and standard soils (see part 1 of this mini-series). Results. All contaminated soils showed clear effects in the chronic plant test (usually B. rapa was more sensitive than A. sativa). LUFA 2.2 standard soil and OECD artificial soil are well-suited as control and mixture substrates, while reference soils collected at uncontaminated sites were several times as phytotoxic. In most of the latter cases, soil properties could be identified as the main cause of these effects (e.g. the pH value). While the sensitivity of the reproduction and biomass endpoints did not differ much in general, it is recommended to measure different endpoints (i.e. biomass and reproduction) due to the different mode-of-action of contaminants. In the case of TNT, a good agreement between the results of single chemical tests and tests with TNT-contaminated soils was found (due to the minimal effects of Pyrene, the same statement is not possible for PAHs). (orig.)

  4. TXRF analysis of soils and sediments to assess environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Cazzago, Davide; Zacco, Annalisa; Bontempi, Elza; Guarneri, Rita; Bernardello, Marco; Attuati, Silvia; Lazo, Pranvera; Depero, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) is proposed for the elemental chemical analysis of crustal environmental samples, such as sediments and soils. A comparative study of TXRF with respect to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was performed. Microwave acid digestion and suspension preparation methods are evaluated. A good agreement was found among the results obtained with different spectroscopic techniques and sample preparation methods for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn. We demonstrated that TXRF is suitable for the assessment of environmental contamination phenomena, even if the errors for Pb, As, V, and Ba are ingent.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. PMID:22445389

  6. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent.

  7. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  8. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  9. Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Cundill, A.; J. Bacon; Dale, P; Fordyce, F.M.; Fowler, D; Hedmark, A.; Hern, A.; Skiba, U.

    2011-01-01

    Soil contamination occurs when substances are added to soil, resulting in increases in concentrations above background or reference levels. Pollution may follow from contamination when contaminants are present in amounts that are detrimental to soil quality and become harmful to the environment or human health. Contamination can occur via a range of pathways including direct application to land and indirect application from atmospheric deposition. Contamination was identified b...

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  12. Evaluation of groundwater contamination beneath an urban environment: the Besòs river basin (Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Andrés; Carbonell, Montserrat

    2007-10-01

    The urban groundwater of the central Besòs river basin (the La Llagosta aquifer) has become contaminated due to the infiltration of wastewater from septic tanks and sewage networks, and by industrial activities located in urban areas. The groundwater hydrogeochemistry of the La Llagosta aquifer was characterized using isoconcentration maps, hydrogeochemical diagrams (Piper, Schoeller-Berkaloff) and by analyzing hydrogeochemical changes along a flow-path that crosses an urban and peripheral industrial area in the main alluvial aquifer (the La Llagosta unit). The evolution of cations, anions and heavy metals along the flow path and the use of the PHREEQC numerical code indicate a complex set of geochemical processes, which result from the interaction between the sources of pollution, the groundwater flow and the mineral composition of the aquifer materials. The contaminated groundwater below the urban areas shows high contents of NO(3)(-) (90-100 mg/L) and an increase in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) which coincides with a decrease in pH. The Eh shows greater variation than the pH along the flow line studied, with values ranging between 56 mV in the industrial area and 370 mV in the urban area. The area with the lowest Eh value coincides with the highest concentrations of dissolved Fe (4.7 mg/L) and Mn (0.22 mg/L). PMID:17223248

  13. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  14. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  15. Current debates in urban theory: a critical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Storper, Michael; Scott, Allen J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban studies today is marked by many active debates. In an earlier paper, we addressed some of these debates by proposing a foundational concept of urbanization and urban form as a way of identifying a common language for urban research. In the present paper we provide a brief recapitulation of that framework. We then use this preliminary material as background to a critique of three currently influential versions of urban analysis, namely, postcolonial urban theory, assemblage theoretic a...

  16. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment. PMID:26856647

  17. A review of soil cadmium contamination in China including a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Xiangfen; Cheng, Hongguang; Chen, Fei; Wang, Jiantong; Zhao, Xinyi; Lin, Chunye; Pu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious soil contaminants in China, and it poses an increasing risk to human health as large amounts of Cd are emitted into the environment. However, knowledge about soil Cd concentrations and the human health risks of these concentrations at a national scale is limited. In this study, we conducted a review of 190 articles about soil Cd concentrations during 2001 to 2010. The study involved 146 cities in China, and we quantified the risks to human health according to different regions. The results showed that elevated Cd levels were present compared to the background value of soil in 1990, and the soil Cd concentrations in the Guangxi province exceeded even the class III Soil Environmental Quality standard, which is the limit for the normal growth of plants. The Chinese soil Cd concentrations ranged from 0.003 mg kg(-1) to 9.57 mg kg(-1). The soil Cd concentrations had the following trend: northwest > southwest > south central > east > northeast > north. The sources of soil Cd are mainly from smelting, mining, waste disposal, fertilizer and pesticide application, and vehicle exhaust, etc. but differentiated in various regions. The soil Cd contamination in urban areas was more serious than contamination in the agricultural areas. Currently, there is no significant non-carcinogenic risk in any of the provinces. Regarding the different exposure pathways, the dermal pathway is the primary source of soil Cd exposure, and the risk associated with this pathway is generally hundreds of times higher than the risk for an ingestion pathway. For most of the provinces, the health risk to the urban population was higher than the risk to the rural population. For each population, the carcinogenic risk was less than 10(-6) in most of the provinces, except for the urban population in the Hunan province. If the other exposure pathways are fully considered, then the people in these areas may have a higher carcinogenic risk. This

  18. A review of soil cadmium contamination in China including a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Xiangfen; Cheng, Hongguang; Chen, Fei; Wang, Jiantong; Zhao, Xinyi; Lin, Chunye; Pu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious soil contaminants in China, and it poses an increasing risk to human health as large amounts of Cd are emitted into the environment. However, knowledge about soil Cd concentrations and the human health risks of these concentrations at a national scale is limited. In this study, we conducted a review of 190 articles about soil Cd concentrations during 2001 to 2010. The study involved 146 cities in China, and we quantified the risks to human health according to different regions. The results showed that elevated Cd levels were present compared to the background value of soil in 1990, and the soil Cd concentrations in the Guangxi province exceeded even the class III Soil Environmental Quality standard, which is the limit for the normal growth of plants. The Chinese soil Cd concentrations ranged from 0.003 mg kg(-1) to 9.57 mg kg(-1). The soil Cd concentrations had the following trend: northwest > southwest > south central > east > northeast > north. The sources of soil Cd are mainly from smelting, mining, waste disposal, fertilizer and pesticide application, and vehicle exhaust, etc. but differentiated in various regions. The soil Cd contamination in urban areas was more serious than contamination in the agricultural areas. Currently, there is no significant non-carcinogenic risk in any of the provinces. Regarding the different exposure pathways, the dermal pathway is the primary source of soil Cd exposure, and the risk associated with this pathway is generally hundreds of times higher than the risk for an ingestion pathway. For most of the provinces, the health risk to the urban population was higher than the risk to the rural population. For each population, the carcinogenic risk was less than 10(-6) in most of the provinces, except for the urban population in the Hunan province. If the other exposure pathways are fully considered, then the people in these areas may have a higher carcinogenic risk. This

  19. Soil nutrient assessment for urban ecosystems in Hubei, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Guo Li

    Full Text Available Recent urban landscape vegetation surveys conducted in many cities in China identified numerous plant nutrient deficiencies, especially in newly developed cities. Soil nutrients and soil nutrient management in the cities of Hubei province have not received adequate attention to date. The aims of this study were to characterize the available nutrients of urban soils from nine cities in Hubei province, China, and to assess how soil nutrient status is related to land use type and topography. Soil nutrients were measured in 405 sites from 1,215 soil samples collected from four land use types (park, institutional [including government building grounds, municipal party grounds, university grounds, and garden city institutes], residential, and roadside verges and three topographies (mountainous [142-425 m a.s.l], hilly [66-112 m a.s.l], and plain [26-30 m a.s.l]. Chemical analyses showed that urban soils in Hubei had high pH and lower soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available boron (B concentrations than natural soils. Nutrient concentrations were significantly different among land use types, with the roadside and residential areas having greater concentrations of calcium (Ca, sulfur (S, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn that were not deficient against the recommended ranges. Topographic comparisons showed statistically significant effects for 8 of the 11 chemical variables (p < 0.05. Concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn in plain cities were greater than those in mountainous cities and show a negative correlation with city elevation. These results provide data on urban soils characteristics in land use types and topography, and deliver significant information for city planners and policy makers.

  20. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  1. Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodić, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2013-09-15

    This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

  2. Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omalu ICJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Water consumers are frequently unaware of the potential health risks associated with exposure to water borne contaminants which have often led to diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, legionnaire’s disease and parasitic diseases. The inadequacy of pipe borne water-supply in Nigeria is a growing problem; as a result people resort to buying water from vendors, and sachet or bottled water became a major source of drinking water. Although, portable and affordable, the problems of its purity and other health concerns have begun to manifest. Sachet water have been reported to contain bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp. Apart from environmental contaminants, improper storage and handling by vendors also poses a serious threat to the health of the ignorant consumers. This paper tends to review the quality of these ‘pure water’; its physical examination, microbial assessments, its impacts on health, and the various strategies adopted by the concerned authorities to regulate this thriving industry.

  3. Assessment of atmospheric microbial contamination in a mobile dental unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioaerosols are important considerations in infection control as well as in occupational health. Bioaerosols may carry potentially hazardous microbes, viruses, fungi, allergens, and other toxic substances that may harm the dental operator, patient, and the dental assistant by causing nosocomial infections. Objective: To assess the level of atmospheric microbial contamination before, during, and after dental treatment procedures in the dental operatory of a mobile dental unit (MDU. Materials and Methods: The study included three treatment sessions on different working days, with an interval of one month. The MDU was fumigated before the start of the study. Brain Heart Infusion Agar with 5% sheep blood was used to collect the gravitometric settling of aerosols produced before, during, and after dental treatment procedures. The agar plates were sent for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Results: The results showed that atmospheric microbial contamination (CFUs/plate was 4 times higher during working sessions as compared to the levels before the working sessions. At the end of the working day, aerosols decreased by almost 3 times that seen during work. Conclusion: The aerosols increased during and after work sessions. This shows the increased risk of transmission of infectious agents to the dentists who work in the MDU. Hence, all necessary preventive measures should be advised and need to be followed strictly.

  4. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment and Its Application in Management: A Multi-Scale Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecosystem health assessments can be applied extensively in urban management to evaluate the status quo of the urban ecosystem, identify the limiting factors, identify key problems, optimize the scheme and guide ecological regulation. Regarding the multi-layer roles of urban ecosystems, urban ecosystem health should be assessed at different scales with each assessment providing a specific reference to urban management from its own viewpoint. Therefore, a novel framework of multi-scale urban ecosystem health assessment is established on global, national, regional and local scales. A demonstration of the framework is shown by using a case study in Guangzhou City, China, where urban ecosystem health assessment is conducted in the order of global, national, regional, and local scales, from macro to micro, and rough to detailed analysis. The new multi-scale framework can be utilized to generate a more comprehensive understanding of urban ecosystem health, more accurate orientation of urban development, and more feasible regulation and management programs when compared with the traditional urban ecosystem health assessment focusing at the local scale.

  5. Urban Air Pollution in Russia: Observations and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Elansky, Nikolai; Lavrova, Olga; Pankratova, Natalia; Belikov, Igor; Falaleeva, Victoria; Mel'nikova, Irina; Remizov, Andrey; Sitnikova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Urban air pollution is actual topic because of its influence on air quality and climate processes on both regional and global scale. There is a lack of up-to-date information about real state of air quality in Russian cities because of very few contemporary observations. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics possesses significant database of automated measurements of air composition including data of train-based TROICA experiments in 1995-2010 as well as permanent observations in Moscow since 2002. In general numerous crosses of about 100 urban settlements of different size and location have been performed that allowed us to compose detailed pattern of urban air pollution in Russia nowadays. All cities were separated at three groups: megacities (more then 500 000 citizens), middle cities (50 000-500 000 citizens) and little cities (less then 50 000 citizens). Each urban settlement has been divided into railway station area, urban zone and city (or town) surroundings. Concentrations of main polluting gases (NO, NO2, CO, SO2, NMHC, O3) and aerosols have been averaged for each settlement as well as for each group of urban settlements for day and night, and for winter and summer. Main features of air urban pollution in Russia are presented. Variations of main pollutants including anthropogenic VOCs because of daytime and seasons, as well as temperature vertical structure are studied. Concentrations of O3, CO, SO2 and NMHC are usually below MPC level. NO2 is often enhanced especially near auto-roads. In general, polluting gases have greater concentrations in winter time due to heating and stronger temperature inversions. Particulate matter is likely to be the most persistent pollutant that determines more than 90% of pollution cases. Strong pollution cases are often caused by extraordinary situations like fires, industrial pollution under unfavorable meteorological conditions. High ozone photochemical generation is quite rare. Spatial pollution structure is usually

  6. Assessing Ground-Water Contamination Across Broad Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Ground-water quality is measured at discrete locations, and often interpreted at local scales. However, regional patterns in ground-water quality can be used to: 1) Assess relations between water quality and broad patterns of human activities or geochemical variation; 2) Reduce monitoring costs by sampling more frequently in areas of highest concentration or vulnerability; 3) Prioritize locations for prevention efforts such as for nitrate reduction, to obtain maximum benefits for lower costs; and 4) Project water-quality conditions to unsampled locations based on a regional understanding or "model". Examples of methods for modeling and interpreting ground-water quality at regional scales are presented along with their utility for cost reduction and contamination prevention purposes.

  7. Clostridium difficile in a children's hospital: assessment of environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrack, Simone; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Schmitz, Michelle; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent infectious cause of health care-associated diarrhea. Three cases of CDI, in children age 2, 3, and 14 years, occurred in the hematology/oncology ward of our children's hospital over 48 hours. We aimed to assess environmental contamination with C difficile in the shared areas of this unit, and to determine whether person-to-person transmission occurred. C difficile was recovered from 5 of 18 samples (28%). We compared C difficile isolated from each patient and the environment using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and found that none of the patient strains matched any of the others, and that none matched any strains recovered from the environment, suggesting that person-to-person transmission had not occurred. We found that C difficile was prevalent in the environment throughout shared areas of the children's hospital unit. Molecular typing to identify mechanisms of transmission is useful for devising appropriate interventions.

  8. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  9. Assessing Urban Non-Point Source pollutants at the Virginia Tech Extended Dry Detention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Kimberly Jean

    1997-01-01

    With a growing concern for the environment and increasing urbanization of rural areas, understanding the characteristics of urban non-point source pollution has become a focus for water quality investigators. Once thought to be a small contributor to the pollution problem, urban non-point sources are now responsible for transporting over 50% of all pollutants into natural waterways. Assessing ...

  10. Problems of the assessment of contaminated mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichterey, K.; Gehrcke, K.; Kuemmel, M. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    In Germany there are numerous relics of former mining activities with enhanced levels of radionuclides of the uranium/radium series. Of special importance are the relics of uranium and other non-ferrous ore mining in the three Federal States of Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. The majority of these relics is situated in densely populated areas. This gives rise to the question whether measures have to be taken to protect the population from detrimental health impacts. Public concern often concentrates on radioactivity. Health impacts may, however, originate from chemically hazardous substances, too. Such substances like, for instance, arsenic, often accompany radioactive contamination in mining relics. Also, mining safety, landscape conservation and other aspects may play a significant role in the decision-making process, especially for large and complex mining sites. This is, however, outside the scope of the present paper, which is confined to the discussion of problems associated with the assessment of mining sites contaminated with both enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides and chemically toxic/carcinogenic substances. Sites with mixed contaminants like mining relics may cause special problems in the assessment of hazards to human health. Different scientific approaches and historic developments led to considerable differences in existing regulations. Both, on the national and international scale efforts are made towards a harmonization. Having reviewed studies carried out in Germany we arrived at the conclusion that generation of a common risk scale for all kinds of hazards seems to be a too challenging problem to be solved within a foreseeable time scale. It is reasonable, at least in principle, to define a unified metric for carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation and harmful chemicals. Even this needs a lot of research work as a basis for adaptations in the legal systems. What seems to be reasonable and in our opinion is much more

  11. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  12. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  13. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  14. ELER software - a new tool for urban earthquake loss assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, U.; Tuzun, C.; Yenidogan, C.; Erdik, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid loss estimation after potentially damaging earthquakes is critical for effective emergency response and public information. A methodology and software package, ELER-Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, for rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses throughout the Euro-Mediterranean region was developed under the Joint Research Activity-3 (JRA3) of the EC FP6 Project entitled "Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology-NERIES". Recently, a new version (v2.0) of ELER software has been released. The multi-level methodology developed is capable of incorporating regional variability and uncertainty originating from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. Although primarily intended for quasi real-time estimation of earthquake shaking and losses, the routine is also equally capable of incorporating scenario-based earthquake loss assessments. This paper introduces the urban earthquake loss assessment module (Level 2) of the ELER software which makes use of the most detailed inventory databases of physical and social elements at risk in combination with the analytical vulnerability relationships and building damage-related casualty vulnerability models for the estimation of building damage and casualty distributions, respectively. Spectral capacity-based loss assessment methodology and its vital components are presented. The analysis methods of the Level 2 module, i.e. Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40, 1996), Modified Acceleration-Displacement Response Spectrum Method (FEMA 440, 2005), Reduction Factor Method (Fajfar, 2000) and Coefficient Method (ASCE 41-06, 2006), are applied to the selected building types for validation and verification purposes. The damage estimates are compared to the results obtained from the other studies available in the literature, i.e. SELENA v4.0 (Molina et al., 2008) and

  15. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities.

  16. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities - A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-11-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. PMID:26334706

  17. PBT assessment and prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern: Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangion, Alessandro; Gramatica, Paola

    2016-05-01

    The strong and widespread use of pharmaceuticals, together with incorrect disposal procedures, has recently made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Unfortunately, little is known about pharmaceuticals' environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity, so that EMEA (European Medicines Agency) released guidelines for the pharmaceuticals' environmental risk assessment. In particular, there is a severe lack of information about persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of the majority of the thousands of substances on the market. Computational tools, like QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models, are the only way to screen large sets of chemicals in short time, with the aim of ranking, highlighting and prioritizing the most environmentally hazardous for focusing further experimental studies. In this work we propose a screening method to assess the potential persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of more than 1200 pharmaceutical ingredients, based on the application of two different QSAR models. We applied the Insubria-PBT Index, a MLR (Multiple Linear Regression) QSAR model based on four simple molecular descriptors, implemented in QSARINS software, and able to synthesize the PBT potential in a unique cumulative value and the US-EPA PBT Profiler that assesses the PBT behaviour evaluating separately P, B and T. Particular attention was given to the study of Applicability Domain in order to provide reliable predictions. An agreement of 86% was found between the two models and a priority list of 35 pharmaceuticals, highlighted as potential PBTs by consensus, was proposed for further experimental validation. Moreover, the results of this computational screening are in agreement with preliminary experimental data in the literature. This study shows how in silico models can be applied in the hazard assessment to perform preliminary screening and prioritization of chemicals, and how the identification of the structural features, mainly

  18. Characterisation of atmospheric deposition as a source of contaminants in urban rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Gardner, T; Shaw, G; Chapman, H

    2009-04-01

    To characterise atmospheric input of chemical contaminants to urban rainwater tanks, bulk deposition (wet+dry deposition) was collected at sixteen sites in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia on a monthly basis during April 2007-March 2008 (N=175). Water from rainwater tanks (22 sites, 26 tanks) was also sampled concurrently. The deposition/tank water was analysed for metals, soluble anions and selected samples were additionally analysed for PAHs, pesticides, phenols, organic & inorganic carbon. Flux (mg/m(2)/d) of total solids mass was found to correlate with average daily rainfall (R(2)=0.49) indicating the dominance of the wet deposition contribution to total solids mass. On average 97% of the total mass of analysed components was accounted for by Cl(-) (25.0%), Na (22.6%), organic carbon (20.5%), NO(3)(-) (10.5%), SO(4)(2-) (9.8%), inorganic carbon (5.7%), PO(4)(3-) (1.6%) and NO(2)(-) (1.5%). For other minor elements the average flux from highest to lowest was in the order of Fe>Al>Zn>Mn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cu>Se. There was a significant effect of location on flux of K, Sb, Sn, Li, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb and SO(4)(2-) but not other metals or anions. Overall the water quality resulting from the deposition (wet+dry) was good but 10.3%, 1.7% and 17.7% of samples had concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe respectively greater than the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). This generally occurred in the drier months. In comparison 14.2% and 6.1% of tank samples had total Pb and Zn concentrations exceeding the guidelines. The cumulative mean concentration of lead in deposition was on average only 1/4 of that in tank water over the year at a site with high concentrations of Pb in tank water. This is an indication that deposition from the atmosphere is not the major contributor to high lead concentrations in urban rainwater tanks in a city with reasonable air quality, though it is still a significant portion. PMID:19171360

  19. Characterisation of atmospheric deposition as a source of contaminants in urban rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Gardner, T; Shaw, G; Chapman, H

    2009-04-01

    To characterise atmospheric input of chemical contaminants to urban rainwater tanks, bulk deposition (wet+dry deposition) was collected at sixteen sites in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia on a monthly basis during April 2007-March 2008 (N=175). Water from rainwater tanks (22 sites, 26 tanks) was also sampled concurrently. The deposition/tank water was analysed for metals, soluble anions and selected samples were additionally analysed for PAHs, pesticides, phenols, organic & inorganic carbon. Flux (mg/m(2)/d) of total solids mass was found to correlate with average daily rainfall (R(2)=0.49) indicating the dominance of the wet deposition contribution to total solids mass. On average 97% of the total mass of analysed components was accounted for by Cl(-) (25.0%), Na (22.6%), organic carbon (20.5%), NO(3)(-) (10.5%), SO(4)(2-) (9.8%), inorganic carbon (5.7%), PO(4)(3-) (1.6%) and NO(2)(-) (1.5%). For other minor elements the average flux from highest to lowest was in the order of Fe>Al>Zn>Mn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cu>Se. There was a significant effect of location on flux of K, Sb, Sn, Li, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb and SO(4)(2-) but not other metals or anions. Overall the water quality resulting from the deposition (wet+dry) was good but 10.3%, 1.7% and 17.7% of samples had concentrations of Pb, Cd and Fe respectively greater than the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). This generally occurred in the drier months. In comparison 14.2% and 6.1% of tank samples had total Pb and Zn concentrations exceeding the guidelines. The cumulative mean concentration of lead in deposition was on average only 1/4 of that in tank water over the year at a site with high concentrations of Pb in tank water. This is an indication that deposition from the atmosphere is not the major contributor to high lead concentrations in urban rainwater tanks in a city with reasonable air quality, though it is still a significant portion.

  20. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ingun Tryland; Henrik Braathen; Aina C. Wennberg; Fasil Eregno; Anna-Lena Beschorner

    2016-01-01

    Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL) can rapidly (<2 h) be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the in...

  1. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  2. Nature and extent of metal-contaminated soils in urban environments (keynote talk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W

    2016-08-01

    Research on the nature and extent of metal-contaminated soil began with an urban garden study in Baltimore, MD (USA). Largest quantities of soil metals were clustered in the inner city with lesser amounts scattered throughout metropolitan Baltimore. The probability values of metal clustering varied from P value 10(-15)-10(-23) depending on element. The inner-city clustering of lead (Pb) could not be explained by Pb-based paint alone. A major Pb source was tetraethyl lead (TEL), developed as an anti-knock agent for use in vehicle fuel, thereby making highway traffic flow a toxic substance delivery system in cities. Further study in Minneapolis and St. Paul confirmed the clustering of inner-city soil metals, especially Pb. Based on the evidence, the Minnesota State Legislature petitioned Congress to curtail Pb additives resulting in the rapid phasedown of TEL on January 1, 1986, 10 years ahead of the EPA scheduled ban. Further research in New Orleans, Louisiana (NOLA), verified the link between soil Pb, blood Pb, morbidity, and societal health. Although Pb is a known cause of clinical impairment, there is no known effective medical intervention for reducing children's blood Pb exposure. Ingestion and inhalation are routes of exposure requiring prevention, and soil is a reservoir of Pb. Children's blood Pb exposure observed in pre-Hurricane Katrina (August 29, 2005) NOLA underwent substantial decreases 10 years post-Katrina due to many factors including input of low Pb sediment residues by the storm surge and the introduction of low Pb landscaping materials from outside of the city. Investigation on the topic is ongoing. PMID:26753555

  3. Multimedia screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECS) in coastal urban watersheds in southern California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Sengupta, Ashmita; Smith, Deborah J; Lyons, J Michael; Heil, Ann T; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the occurrence and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and inform future monitoring of CECs in coastal urban waterways, water, sediment, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial and/or household chemicals, current use pesticides, and hormones in an effluent-dominated river and multiple embayments in southern California (USA). In the Santa Clara River, which receives treated wastewater from several facilities, aqueous phase CECs were detectable at stations nearest discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants but were attenuated downstream. Sucralose and the chlorinated phosphate flame retardants tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were most abundant in water, with maximum concentrations of 35 μg/L, 3.3 μg/L, 1.4 μg/L, and 0.81 μg/L, respectively. Triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent in use for decades, was more prevalent in water than triclosan or nonylphenol. Maximum concentrations of bifenthrin, permethrin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and degradates of fipronil exceeded CEC-specific monitoring trigger levels recently established for freshwater and estuarine sediments by factors of 10 to 1000, respectively. Maximum fish tissue concentrations of PBDEs varied widely (370 ng/g and 7.0 ng/g for the Santa Clara River and coastal embayments, respectively), with most species exhibiting concentrations at the lower end of this range. These results suggest that continued monitoring of pyrethroids, PBDEs, and degradates of fipronil in sediment is warranted in these systems. In contrast, aqueous pharmaceutical concentrations in the Santa Clara River were not close to exceeding current monitoring trigger levels, suggesting a lower priority for targeted monitoring in this medium. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1986-1994. © 2016 SETAC

  4. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range. (letter)

  5. [Spatial distribution and risk assessment of insecticides in surface soil from a rapidly urbanizing region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Zhou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-10-01

    To examine the distribution patterns of organic contaminants in rapidly urbanizing regions, the levels and spatial distributions of 19 overlooked insecticides, i. e., phenyl-pyrazole class (fipronil), chlordane, endosulfan, nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, methoxychlor and their metabolites, were examined in 229 soil samples collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and surrounding areas. The results indicated that higher insecticide levels distributed in the central PRD, while lower levels congested in the surrounding areas. The similar spatial patterns between the levels of insecticides and economic prosperity or population density demonstrated that social-economic factors may have dictated the spatial patterns of insecticides. In addition, the changing of land-use types during urbanization processes, e.g., historical plowlands have been converted into residential landscapes, resulted in high concentrations of banned insecticides in metropolis of the central PRD. Source diagnostics indicated that new inputs of technical chlordane products existed in the PRD and surrounding areas. Fipronil was degraded into fipronil sulfone and fipronil sulfide in most soil samples because of its low half-life in soil. Finally, a risk assessment of 19 insecticides in soil for human health suggested that six samples collected from the major administrative districts with dense population had potential cancer or non-cancer risk to human health. Therefore, these overlooked insecticides should be concerned in future environmental research.

  6. Incremental ecological exposure risks from contaminated sediments in an urban estuarine river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David F; Iannuzzi, Timothy J

    2005-11-01

    Estuaries in urban regions present unique environmental management challenges. Ecosystems in urban estuaries are typically impacted by habitat loss and degradation, watershed modification, and nonpoint and point sources of many chemicals. Restoring such systems requires an understanding of the relative contribution of various stressors to overall ecological conditions and an understanding of shifting patterns of stress over time. In this article, we present the results of a multiparameter environmental assessment of a quintessential urbanized waterway: the lower Passaic River in the vicinity of Newark, New Jersey, USA. To provide the foundation for effective management decision making, we quantified baseline conditions (habitat losses and degradation), chemical concentrations in sediment and biota relative to published toxic effect levels, direct toxicity of sediments to benthic organisms, and food-web mediated risks to fish-eating birds. Habitat losses have been severe (greater than 85% of wetlands, nearly 100% of the total length of tidal and nontidal tributaries, and 100% of natural shoreline habitat have been lost), resulting in substantial habitat constraints on biota. Despite this, biological communities are present in the lower Passaic. In general, concentrations of toxic chemicals in surface sediments have fallen with time, and natural recovery processes are proceeding. Chemical concentrations remain high enough to impair survival of amphipods, but not amphipod growth or polychaete growth or survival as measured in laboratory bioassays using field-collected sediment. Fish and blue crab body burdens of some metals, PCBs, and the pesticide, DDT, are at concentrations sufficiently high to exceed toxicity thresholds. The resident fish-eating bird--the belted kingfisher--is at exposure risk from some metals, PCBs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo furans (PCDD/Fs). Migratory waders--the herons and egrets--are not at risk from chemical exposure

  7. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, J. Rebecca [Environmental Processes and Systems Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jrebeccagay@yahoo.co.uk; Korre, Anna [Environmental Processes and Systems Research Group, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.korre@imperial.ac.uk

    2006-07-15

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations. - A methodology for calculating and mapping risks to a population from intake of soil contaminants.

  8. Fractional bio-accessibility: A new tool for Pb risk assessment from urban garden soils and superfund sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pb contamination of urban soils and its strong association with elevated blood Pb concentrations, especially in children, has raised concerns about whether gardens should be recommended for urban areas. Reliable evaluation of the potential hazard to the public from exposure to urban garden soils gr...

  9. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results. PMID:22335107

  10. Molecular contamination assessments on Hinode X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hinode (Solar-B) was launched by M-V rocket on 22 September 2006 UT. The telemetry data of the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) showed that the X-ray count rate detected with the XRT had decreased rapidly since the operational heaters on the XRT telescope tube were turned on. This is attributed to the fact that molecular contaminants accumulated onto the CCD with the temperature of -60degC resulting in the degradation of the XRT sensitivity. We baked the CCD at the temperature of 35degC in order to remove the contaminants from the CCD surface. However many contaminant spots appeared on the surface. We found that major contaminant source existed in the telescope tube, and identified the contaminants as diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) or DEHP-like organics. The mechanisms to yield the contaminant spots were discussed. (author)

  11. Methods for assessing the environmental risks from the resistant pesticide contamination

    OpenAIRE

    T. Moklyachuk

    2014-01-01

    Methods of assessing environmental risk has been considered in order to identify and then apply an optimal recovery method of remediation of soils contaminated with persistent pesticides. Value of risk from contamination in two different models — the situational risk and CalTOX has been counted and compared. A mathematical model that describes a distribution of the site contamination by persistent pesticides depending on the distance from the depot, and gives an opportunity to assess the si...

  12. Thermal air contamination in urban environment. Contaminacion termica del aire en el medio ambiente urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Machado, A.

    1994-01-01

    This article summarizes the necessity of thermal contamination control. The principal contaminant is the loss of heat from buildings. There is not a regulation and the environmental regulation has not a special article to regulate this topic.

  13. Atmospheric deposition in an urban area: Implications for assessing the effects of hazardous air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzonville, Adrien; Elsass, Philippe; Elsass, Francoise; Atkins, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in urban areas have indirect effects through deposition onto the ground, which, over time, could negatively affect the quality of soil, plants, water and groundwater. In this baseline study, evaluation of topsoil contamination in an urban area of France has been carried out to correlate concentrations observed in the soil with the local air emission sources. The analytical program is an extensive study carried out over a 200 km2 area and the results confir...

  14. Towards a Methodology for a Risk Assessment System for Contaminated Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson-van der Poel MA; LBG

    1994-01-01

    This report describes a procedure to develop a risk assessment methodology for contaminated sites with respect to the risk of dispersal in groundwater. The methodology was originally intended for landfills, but is for example also usable for risk assessment of contaminated industrial sites and sludg

  15. Surface Water Contamination Risk Assessment Modeled by Fuzzy-WRASTIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavipoor, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghorbaninia, Zahra; Karimi, Saeed; Jafari, Hamidreza

    2016-07-01

    This research provides a Fuzzy-WRASTIC new model for water resource contamination risk assessment in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment. First, this method setting in a multi-criteria evaluation framework (MCE) reviewed and mapped the sub criteria of every above-mentioned criterion. Then, related sub-layers were phased by the observance of GIS environment standards. In the next step, first the sub-layers were combined together, next the modeling of pollution risk status was done by utilizing a fuzzy overlay method and applying the OR, AND, SUM, PRODUCT and GAMMA operators by using WLC (Weighted Linear Combination) method and providing weights in the WRASTIC model. The results provide the best combination of modeling and the percentages of its risk categories of low, medium, high and very high, which are respectively 1.8, 14.07, 51.43 and 32.7. More areas have severe risk due to the unbalanced arrangement and compact of land uses around the compact surface water resources. PMID:27329055

  16. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. PMID:27432725

  17. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, contaminations from industry and farming represent a significant threat to groundwater resources. On a national level, there is a focus on identifying and locating these contaminated sites. Once located, contaminations are mapped and monitored and remediation efforts are undertaken...... of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling, can minimize...

  18. Metal contamination in urban, suburban, and country park soils of Hong Kong: A study based on GIS and multivariate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban environment quality is of vital importance as the majority of people now live in cities. Due to the continuous urbanisation and industrialisation in many parts of the world, metals are continuously emitted into the terrestrial environment and pose a great threat on human health. An extensive survey was conducted in the highly urbanised and commercialised Hong Kong Island area (80.3 km2) of Hong Kong using a systematic sampling strategy of five soil samples per km2 in urban areas and two samples per km2 in the suburban and country park sites (0-15 cm). The analytical results indicated that the surface soils in urban and suburban areas are enriched with metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Pb concentration in the urban soils was found to exceed the Dutch target value. The statistical analyses using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) showed distinctly different associations among trace metals and the major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the urban, suburban, and country park soils. Soil pollution maps of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils were produced based on geographical information system (GIS) technology. The hot-spot areas of metal contamination were mainly concentrated in the northern and western parts of Hong Kong Island, and closely related to high traffic conditions. The Pb isotopic composition of the urban, suburban, and country park soils showed that vehicular emissions were the major anthropogenic sources for Pb. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in soils decreased as Pb concentrations increased in a polynomial line (degree = 2)

  19. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  20. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  1. The use of NOAA AVHRR data for assessment of the urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, K. P.; Mcnab, A. L.; Karl, T. R.; Brown, J. F.; Hood, J. J.; Tarpley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of a satellite-derived vegetation index and surface temperature estimates for the assessment of the difference in urban and rural air temperature due to the urban heat island effect. The difference in the ND (normalized difference) index between urban and rural regions appears to be an indicator of the difference in surface properties (evaporation and heat storage capacity) between the two environments that are responsible for the urban heat island effect. The use of the approach proposed here may provide a globally consistent method for assessing this phenomenon.

  2. Contribution by urban and agricultural pesticide uses to water contamination at the scale of the Marne watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, H; Moreau-Guigon, E; Farrugia, F; Chevreuil, M; Mouchel, J M

    2007-04-01

    This study establishes an annual watershed (12,762 km(2)) budget of pesticide contamination in the Marne River based on detailed enquiries from farmers' organizations, public services and residents and pesticide usage. Results showed that urban uses were considerably lower (47 tons/yr) than agricultural ones (4300 tons/yr). However, the proportion of the amounts used transferred to surface water, differs considerably between urban and agricultural environments. Transfer from urban uses was estimated from runoff experiments with different surfaces, including concrete, tarmac, sand and gravel, and grass. Transfer coefficients from agricultural uses were derived from the calibrated value previously obtained from a detailed budget established for atrazine, taking into account the specific adsorption capacity (Koc) and half-life time of each substance used. The calculated annual budget shows a similar contribution by urban pesticides in the Marne River due to runoff over impervious surfaces as compared to agricultural pesticides used on cultivated soils (about 11 tons/yr in both cases). These estimates are consistent with data available from analytical surveys concerning pesticide occurrence in the rivers of the Paris region.

  3. Modeling of the fate of radionuclides in urban sewer systems after contamination due to nuclear or radiological incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Kaiser, J.C.; Andersson, Kasper Grann;

    2013-01-01

    and building development as well as dependence on bomb construction e.g. design and geometry. At short-term, the first rainfall is an important way of natural decontamination: deposited radionuclides are washed off from surfaces and in urban areas the resulting contaminated runoff enters the sewer system...... and is collected in a sewage plant. Up to now the potential exposure caused by this process has received little attention and is estimated here with simulation models. The commercial rainfall-runoff model for urban sewer systems KANALþþ has been extended to include transport of radionuclides from surfaces through...... Device (RDD) with Cs-137 is detonated in a small inhabited area whose drainage system is realistically modeled. The transition of deposited radionuclides due to rainfall into the surface runoff is accounted for by different nuclide-specific entrainment coefficients for paved and unpaved surfaces...

  4. The elephant in the playground: confronting lead-contaminated soils as an important source of lead burdens to urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, Gabriel M; Laidlaw, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Although significant headway has been made over the past 50 years in understanding and reducing the sources and health risks of lead, the incidence of lead poisoning remains shockingly high in urban regions of the United States. At particular risk are poor people who inhabit the polluted centers of our older cities without the benefits of adequate nutrition, education, and access to health care. To provide a future with fewer environmental and health burdens related to lead, we need to consider the multiple pathways of lead exposure in children, including their continued contact with dust derived from inner-city soils. Recent research into the causes of seasonal variations in blood-lead levels among children has confirmed the importance of soil in lead exposure. "Capping" lead-contaminated soil with lead-free soil or soil amendment appears to be a simple and cost-effective way to reduce the lead load for urban youth.

  5. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  6. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells to determine the potential for immediate human health and environmental impacts. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated groundwater that flows beneath the processing site towards the Gunnison River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentration of most contaminants are used in this risk assessment. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  8. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, J Rebecca; Korre, Anna

    2006-07-01

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations.

  9. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, M.C.F., E-mail: marcos@ird.gov.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schirru, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-09-21

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  10. Field-based Metabolomics for Assessing Contaminated Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics is becoming well-established for studying chemical contaminant-induced alterations to normal biological function. For example, the literature contains a wealth of laboratory-based studies involving analysis of samples from organisms exposed to individual chemical tox...

  11. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Contaminant Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information presented in this report is final documentation of the 1990 environmental contaminants evaluation of water, sediments, and fish in the Parker River...

  12. Assessment of potential contaminant threats to Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary purpose of the NBS Manual is to provide a standardized and systematic approach for identifying existing or potential contaminant problems on National...

  13. Assessment of SRS radiological liquid and airborne contaminants and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    This report compiles and documents the radiological critical-contaminant/critical-pathway analysis performed for SRS. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface water, which are the principal media that carry contaminants off site. During routine operations at SRS, limited amounts of radionuclides are released to the environment through atmospheric and/or liquid pathways. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. Though the groundwater beneath an estimated 5 to 10 percent of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, there is no evidence that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated offsite (Arnett, 1996). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people.

  14. Reconnaissance assessment of contaminants in Pahranagat Valley, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1995, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel initiated a study to identify and quantify potential human-induced environmental contaminant impacts to endangered...

  15. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Contaminant Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — IInformation presented in this report is final documentation of the 1992 environmental contaminants evaluation of water and sediments in the Parker River National...

  16. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Gunnison, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This is the second risk assessment of groundwater contamination at this site. The first risk assessment was performed primarily to evaluate existing domestic wells. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated monitor wells at the processing site. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site after the tailings are relocated. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the groundwater are cadmium, cobalt, iron, manganese, sulfate, uranium, and some of the products of radioactive decay of uranium

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site's contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination

  1. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators. Highlights: •The soil PAH and HM contents were closely related to urbanization progression. •The PAH and HM contents were primarily affected by soil exposure time. •Local input loads of pollutants correlated with road density and population density. •The combined risks of PAHs and HMs increased with the urban development level. •The carcinogenic risks of PAHs and As were above 10−5 and increased over time. -- The health risks of PAHs and HMs in residential soils were connected to building age, population density and road density of the community as well as its distance from urban center

  2. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Júlia Carina Niemeyer; Matilde Moreira-Santos; Rui Ribeiro; Michiel Rutgers; Marco Antonio Nogueira; Eduardo Mendes da Silva; José Paulo Sousa

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA) in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE), chemical (ChemLoE), ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE) and ecological (EcoLoE), in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habi...

  3. Urban camouflage assessment through visual search and computational saliency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to derive a multiscale urban camouflage pattern from a given set of background image samples. We applied this method to design a camouflage pattern for a given (semi-arid) urban environment. We performed a human visual search experiment and a computational evaluation study to

  4. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Szpak Dawid; Tchórzewska – Cieślak Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS) protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the sou...

  5. Assessing depleted uranium (DU) contamination of soil, plants and earthworms at UK weapons testing sites

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, I.W.; Graham, M C; Mackenzie, A. B.; Ellam, R.M.; Farmer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) weapons testing programmes have been conducted at two locations within the UK. An investigation was therefore carried out to assess the extent of any environmental contamination arising from these test programmes using both alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry techniques. Uranium isotopic signatures indicative of DU contamination were observed in soil, plant and earthworm samples collected in the immediate vicinity of test firing points and targets, but contamination...

  6. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  7. Towards assessing the potential of peri-urban agriculture worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Kriewald, Steffen; Dunkhorst, Giordana; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Juegen

    2013-04-01

    On the global scale, urban areas are admonished to increase their food security while reducing CO2 emissions related to the food supply chain, resulting for instance from transportation or land-use change. In this context, urban and peri-urban agriculture may contribute to an increase in the resilience of the food supply system of cities and to reduce their ecological foot-print. Our work focuses on the carrying capacity of peri-urban areas and on the relative suitability conditions for further development of peri-urban agriculture worldwide. Our analysis builds on a combination of high resolution data on land use, demographics and water availability and agriculture model outputs.

  8. Urban contaminants project: Data for sediment, fish and eggs collected from Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Urbanization has degraded the water quality and adversely impacted biological communities in the lakes and streams of Anchorage. Pollution from point and nonpoint...

  9. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Binning, Philip John; McKnight, Ursula S.;

    2016-01-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify...... opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated...... with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based...

  10. Assessing Contaminant Migration and Risk through Passive Interstitial Water Samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and sediments account for a large proportion of the contaminated materials being managed under cleanup programs across the country, including at sites addressed by the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Costs for managing a single sediment site can approach $1 billion, and overall program costs could exceed the trillion-dollar mark. Thus, using realistic information for contaminant levels in the risk calculations used to guide cleanup decisions for these sites is crucial. The risk-based decisions for contaminated soils and sediments are typically based on bulk solid concentrations. The reason for using that metric in the equations applied to estimate exposure and risk to biota and humans is that it is relatively easy to measure. However, the bulk concentration does not address the actual bio-accessibility or bioavailability of the contaminants. This can result in a substantial overestimate of risk, leading to cleanup decisions that are much more conservative than warranted. Such decisions can translate to unnecessary excavation or dredging that causes significant environmental damage to those natural systems, thus having the opposite effect intended by health and environmental protection programs. More realistic values that represent the bioavailable fraction of contaminants in soil and sediment are clearly needed to guide more effective cleanup decisions. Passive interstitial water samplers have emerged as a practical way to address this need. (authors)

  11. Surfactant-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Potential and Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-Zheng; LING Wan-Ting; ZHU Li-Zhong; ZHAO Bao-Wei; ZHENG Qing-Song

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is becoming a cost-effective technology for the in-situ clean up of sites polluted with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). The major factors limiting phytoremediation are the mass transfer, rate of plant uptake, and microbial biodegradation of HOCs. This article discusses the potential of surfactants to enhance desorption, plant uptake, and biodegradation of HOCs in the contaminated sites. Positive effects of surfactants on phytoremediation have been recently observed in greenhouse studies. The presence of some nonionic surfactants including polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) and polyoxyethylene(23)dodecanol (Brij35) at relatively low concentrations resulted in significant positive effects on phytoremediation for pyrene-contaminated soil. However, the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTMAB) were not useful because of their phytotoxicity or low efficiency for surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR). The mechanisms of SEPR for HOC-contaminated sites were evaluated by considering experimental observations. In view of concerns about the cost effectiveness and toxicity of surfactants to plants, more research is needed to enhance the use of SEPR technology.

  12. Urban water metabolism efficiency assessment: integrated analysis of available and virtual water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Vause, Jonathan; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Resolving the complex environmental problems of water pollution and shortage which occur during urbanization requires the systematic assessment of urban water metabolism efficiency (WME). While previous research has tended to focus on either available or virtual water metabolism, here we argue that the systematic problems arising during urbanization require an integrated assessment of available and virtual WME, using an indicator system based on material flow analysis (MFA) results. Future research should focus on the following areas: 1) analysis of available and virtual water flow patterns and processes through urban districts in different urbanization phases in years with varying amounts of rainfall, and their environmental effects; 2) based on the optimization of social, economic and environmental benefits, establishment of an indicator system for urban WME assessment using MFA results; 3) integrated assessment of available and virtual WME in districts with different urbanization levels, to facilitate study of the interactions between the natural and social water cycles; 4) analysis of mechanisms driving differences in WME between districts with different urbanization levels, and the selection of dominant social and economic driving indicators, especially those impacting water resource consumption. Combinations of these driving indicators could then be used to design efficient water resource metabolism solutions, and integrated management policies for reduced water consumption.

  13. Enhanced Performance of the Eurostat Method for Comprehensive Assessment of Urban Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Ilse M.; Stremke, Sven; Spiller, Marc; Perrotti, Daniela; Hoek, van der Jan Peter; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable urban resource management depends essentially on a sound understanding of a city's resource flows. One established method for analyzing the urban metabolism (UM) is the Eurostat material flow analysis (MFA). However, for a comprehensive assessment of the UM, this method has its limita

  14. Urbanity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    I define a composite amenity that provides aesthetic and consumption value to local residents: Urbanity. A novel data set of geo-tagged photos shared in internet communities serves as a proxy for urbanity. From the spatial pattern of house prices and photos I identify the value of urbanity in two of the largest European cities, Berlin and London. I find an elasticity of indirect utility with respect to urbanity of about 1%. The aggregated willingness to pay equates to about $1 bn per year in ...

  15. Emerging contaminants: Presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A session entitled 'Emerging Contaminants' was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be 'emerging' because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene).

  16. Environmental and economic assessment of the agricultural land management state on the contaminated areas

    OpenAIRE

    O. Grynyk

    2013-01-01

    Ecological and economic assessment of the agricultural land management state in the contaminated areas has been given in the article. Directions for an agricultural production rehabilitation and agricultural land sustainable management in areas contaminated owing to Chernobyl accident have been offered

  17. Modelling assessment of regional groundwater contamination due to historic smelter emissions of heavy metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, B. van der; Griffioen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Historic emissions from ore smelters typically cause regional soil contamination. We developed a modelling approach to assess the impact of such contamination on groundwater and surface water load, coupling unsaturated zone leaching modelling with 3D groundwater transport modelling. Both historic an

  18. A Sustainability Assessment Methodology for Prioritizing the Technologies of Groundwater Contamination Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Yue;

    2016-01-01

    at developing a sustainability assessment framework for prioritizing the technologies for groundwater contamination remediation by combining the concept of sustainability and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method. A criterion system which consists of six criteria in three aspects has been proposed...... contamination remediation for the stakeholders/decision-makers....

  19. Preliminary Assessment Of Space Infrared Experiment's (SIRE) Potential For Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, D. L.; Muscari, J. A.

    1982-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a contamination analysis and computer modeling study performed for the Space Infrared Experiment (SIRE) using the Space Transport System (STS) Shuttle Orbiter as the launch vehicle for the proposed seven-day sortie mission. These results will provide an accurate description of the deposition levels on the telescope primary mirror and of the molecular number column density (NCD) along the telescope line-of-sight. The planned Helium Purge System was assumed not to be operating. The contribution to the contamination environment of any cargo element, other than SIRE and its pallet, was not considered in this study. The study considers five potential contamination sources, including the flash evaporator vent effluents and the vernier reaction control system (VCS) engines plume constituents.

  20. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addi......Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal...

  1. Assessment of contaminants in Dubai coastal region, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darwish, H. A.; Abd El-Gawad, E. A.; Mohammed, F. H.; Lotfy, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal uses and other human activities have inevitably impinged on the Gulf environment; therefore, these regions require continuous monitoring. The investigated area covered the maximum fragments of Dubai coastal region in the Arabian Gulf. The determination of major oxides and trace metal concentrations in Dubai sediments revealed three heavily and moderately contaminated regions. One is in the far northeastern part at Al-Hamriya Sts 1 3 and contaminated by Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn; the second is in the mid-northeastern part at Dry Docks and contaminated by Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn; and finally, the third is in the near southwestern part at Dubal and contaminated by Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Al-Hamriya St 3 represented the highest values of Cu, Pb, and Zn, whereas Dubal exhibited the maximum values of Fe, Mg, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V. The anthropogenic discharge and natural deposits are the main sources of contamination. In general, all trace and major elements showed the minimal levels at Jebel Ali Sanctuary (Sts 11, 12, 13) except for Sr and Ca, which showed their maximum values. The highest concentrations of Ca and Sr are mainly attributed to carbonate gravel sands and sands, which cover most stations. Each of V and Ni showed negative correlation with TPH, which may be indicated that the source of oil contamination in the region is not related to crude oil but mostly attributable to anthropogenic sources. The significant positive correlation, which was found between trace metals and TOC indicates that organic matter plays an important role in the accumulation of trace metals in case of Cu, Zn, and Pb.

  2. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is arguably one of the most dramatic forms of landscape change, and an important anthropogenic influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Cities have obvious impacts on local ecologies and environments, such as shifts in species diversity and alteration of local microclimates. While scientists are now familiar with many of these localized impacts of urbanization, cities and suburban areas contribute to 10-15 % of surface land cover in the conterminous U.S., pointing to the potential, yet poorly understood, contribution of cities to regional, national, and global carbon (C) and energy budgets. As cities continue to expand urban ecologists place more emphasis on understanding the functions of urban ecosystems and the ecosystem services (e.g. habitat, air, and water quality) that cities provide. While studies demonstrate that the urban environment alters the structure and function of remnant patches of native ecosystems relative to their non-urban counterparts, the ability of restoration, planning, and design to improve the provision of ecosystem services is a new approach within ecology. One strategy involves green urban design, or using ecological principles for planning or reinvigorating certain ecological processes, in cities. Increasing the amount of vegetative cover can reduce this effect by reinforcing ecosystem services in cities, including shading of surfaces, promotion of cooling through evapotranspiration, and the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in plant tissues and soils. However, the on-the-ground reality of such strategies is relatively unknown. A pilot study is being conducted in Tucson, AZ to investigate the impact of increasing the cover of trees in the urban landscape on local microclimates and the urban heat island. Trees (Velvet Mesquite, Chilean Mesquite, and Desert Willow) were planted in two neighborhoods in Tucson in 1990. We are collecting data during the summer 2011 monsoon (DBH, crown volume, and hemispherical

  3. Using the SBRC Assay to Predict Lead Relative Bioavailability in Urban Soils: Contaminant Source and Correlation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Di; Li, Jie; Li, Shi-Wei; Wang, Ning; Juhasz, Albert L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-17

    Using in vitro bioaccessibility assays to predict Pb relative bioavailability (RBA) in contaminated soils has been demonstrated, however, limited research was performed on urban soils having lower Pb levels. In this study, 162 soils from urban parks in 27 capital cities in China were measured for Pb bioaccessibility using the SBRC assay, with Pb-RBA in 38 subsamples being measured using a mouse-kidney assay. Total Pb concentrations in soils were 9.3-1198 mg kg(-1), with 92% of the soils having Pb concentrations 100 mg kg(-1). On the basis of a stable isotope fingerprinting technique, coal combustion ash was identified as the major Pb source, contributing to the increased Pb bioaccessibility with increasing soil Pb concentration. Lead-RBA in soils was 17-87%, showing a strong linear correlation with Pb bioaccessibility (r(2) = 0.61), with cross validation of the correlation based on random subsampling and leave-one-out approaches yielding low prediction errors. On the basis of the large sample size of 38 soils, this study demonstrated that the Pb-RBA predictive capability of the SBRC assay can be extended from mining/smelting impacted soils to urban soils with lower Pb levels. PMID:27093348

  4. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil, Irrigation Water and Vegetables in Peri-Urban Agricultural Areas and Markets of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arti; Singh, ShivDhar; Kumar, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), has been identified as a risk to human health through consumption of vegetable crops. The present study investigates heavy metal contamination in irrigation water, soil, and vegetables at four peri-urban and one wholesale site in Delhi, India, and estimates the health risk index. Most of the samples collected from peri-urban areas exceeded the safe limits of lead and cadmium, whereas only lead concentration was found to be higher in vegetable samples collected from the wholesale market. Average uptake of metals by vegetables from soil decreased in the order Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb. The order of metal uptake based on transfer factor was highest in okra, cauliflower, and spinach, from greatest to least. Among the vegetables from peri-urban sites, only okra crossed the safe limit for cadmium; whereas vegetables from the wholesale site exceeded the limit for lead (potato, coriander, chilies, pea, and carrot, in order from greatest to least) with respect to health risk index.

  5. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Marko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  6. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  8. Sustainable Urban Planning and Risk Assessment of Earthquake Hazards in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhan, C.; Deniz, D.

    2013-05-01

    Cities in the developing world are facing increased risk of disasters and the potential of economic and human losses from natural hazards is being exacerbated by the rate of unplanned urban expansion and influenced by the quality of urban management. Risk assessment has come to be regarded by many analysts as a critical part of the development of sustainable communities. The risk assessment function has been linked to issues such as environmental stewardship and community planning. The crucial point is the linkage between hazard mitigation efforts and urban planning in the context of building sustainable communities. But this conceptual linkage has been difficult to implement in practice. The resolution of this difficulty and a clarification of the essential linkage of hazard mitigation to urban planning will require a broader definition and a reformulation of the risk assessment function. Turkey is one of the countries that support the international sustainability. However, it is hardly related urban planning with sustainability in Turkey. At this point, this paper aims to introduce the integration of sustainability and risk assessment in Turkey. The components of the sustainable communities have been discussed and earthquake risk in Turkey has been explained with the recent past examples. At the end of the study, the relationship between risk assessment and the sustainable urban planning in Turkey has been examined in terms of Turkish urban planning system.

  9. Assessment of the radiological impact of contaminated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeck, L.; Zeevaert, T.

    1996-09-18

    A biosphere model has been used to calculate the release of radionuclides from contaminated soils and their dose impact on critical individuals in the environment. Normal evolution and accidental scenarios are considered. The objective of the model is to provide an indication of the radiological risk rather than to predict its future impact.

  10. Control and assessment of the hydrocarbon contamination of Ukrainian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, N. N.

    2008-05-01

    Regularities governing the self-purification of soils from oil hydrocarbons, as well as migration of hydrocarbons, and the effect on the water-physical properties and fertility of soils were revealed in a series of experiments. A system of ecological, economic, and reclamation standards was proposed for regulating economic activities in the case of soil contamination with hydrocarbons.

  11. Contaminants assessment of the Corpus Christi Bay Complex, Texas, 1988-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service-Ecological Services, Corpus Christi Field Office conducted baseline contaminants assessments of sediments and biota from the...

  12. Urban Growth Projection for Southeast Regional Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the extent of urbanization (for the year indicated) predicted by the model SLEUTH, developed by Dr. Keith C. Clarke, at the University of...

  13. Assessing the Benefits of Urban Forestry in Mojave Desert Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the climate and environment change due to human activity, an understanding of the existing natural resources becomes paramount. Urban forests of Mojave Desert communities have the potential to reduce air pollution, heat island effects, and energy consumption. Regions throughou...

  14. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jalyer, Fatameh; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub- Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular focus on urban flooding. The multi-dimensional assessment covered the physical, institutional...... the potential of the approach to assessing several dimensions of vulnerability and illustrate the complexity of urban vulnerability at different scales: households (e.g., lacking assets); communities (e.g., situated in low-lying areas, lacking urban services and green areas); and entire cities (e.g., facing...

  15. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies: Method and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2016-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN AN ARSENIC CONTAMINATED VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumud C. Saikia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of ground water has occurred in various parts of the world, becoming a menace in the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra basin (West Bengal and Assam in India and Bangladesh. Recently arsenic has been detected in Cachar and Karimganj districts of barak valley, Assam, bordering Bangladesh. In this area coli form contamination comprises the major constraint towards utilization of its otherwise ample surface water resources. The local water management exploited ground water sources using a centralized piped water delivery scheme without taking into account the geologically arsenic-prone nature of the sediments and aquifers in this area. Thus surface water was the suggestive alternative for drinking water in this area. The present study investigated surface water quality and availability in a village of Karimganj district, Assam, India contaminated with arsenic for identifying the potential problems of surface water quality maintenance so that with effective management safe drinking water could be provided. The study revealed that the area was rich in freshwater ecosystems which had all physico-chemical variables such as water temperature, pH, DO, total alkalinity, free CO2, heavy metals like lead, chromium and cadmium within WHO standards. In contrast, coli form bacteria count was found far beyond permissible limit in all the sources. Around 60% people of the village preferred ground water for drinking and only 6% were aware of arsenic related problems. The problem of bacterial contamination could be controlled by implementing some ameliorative measures so that people can safely use surface water. Inhabitants of the two districts should be given proper education regarding arsenic contamination and associated health risk. Effluents should be treated to acceptable levels and standards before discharging them into natural streams.

  17. Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Taylor, Mark P.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.

    2012-03-01

    Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.31, p contaminated roadside soils and dusts. In order to decrease urban lead aerosol concentrations, lead deposition and subsequent children's seasonal exposure, lead contaminated urban soils need remediation or isolation because the legacy of lead continues to pose unnecessary and preventable health risks to urban dwellers.

  18. Assessment of water use for estimating exposure to tap water contaminants.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimokura, G H; Savitz, D. A.; Symanski, E

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological studies examining the association between exposure to tap water contaminants (such as chlorination by-products) and disease outcomes (such as cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes) have been limited by inaccurate exposure assessment. Failure to take into account the variation in beverage and tap water consumption and exposure to volatile contaminants through inhalation and dermal absorption can introduce misclassification in assessing the association between exposure to tap...

  19. Performance assessment method of urban waste management systems from Neamț County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a performance assessment method (PAM) at urban scale, based on five specific waste indicators such as: population access to waste collection services (%), separate collection (%), reuse & recycle (%), landfilling (%) and amounts of waste uncollected (Qwu-%). Values of each indicator are correlated to an assessment table for three different years (2004, 2007, 2010) highlighting the disparities between urban localities from Neamt County. The paper a...

  20. Zn and Cu Isotopes as Tracers of Anthropogenic Contamination in a Sediment Core from an Urban Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapalia, Anita; Borrok, David M.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Landa, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. δ66Zn and δ65Cu varied by 0.50%o and 0.29%o, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (~1450 to 1900 with δ66Zn = +0.39%o ± 0.09%o and δ65Cu = +0.77%o ± 0.06%o), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with δ66Zn = +0.14 ± 0.06%o and δ65Cu = +0.94 ± 0.10%o), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with δ66Zn = 0.00 ± 0.10%o and δ65Cu = +0.82%o ± 0.12%o). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the δ66Zn and δ65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the δ66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn.

  1. Tool for assessing eco-efficiency in urban planning and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, P., Email: pekka.lahti@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    The goal of this project was to develop a fast, comprehensive and user-friendly eco-efficiency estimation method for urban development. A preliminary study concluded that urban planners, designers and architects lack a practical and comprehensive tool for the overall assessment of community-level ecological performance. The report on the tool itself concluded findings concerning the needs of urban planners and designers in the City of Helsinki, which were transferred to the structure and contents of the assessment tool. The project continues the development efforts during the next couple of years, integrating 14 partners. (orig.)

  2. Establishment and Application of Urbanization Strategic Environ mental Assessment Integration Technology System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan; SHANG Jincheng; XU Ling; SONG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is an effective instrument to enhance the harmonious development of urban complex system,integrating of environment and development in decision-making.Urbanization strategic environmental assessment integration technology system (SEA-ITS) is composed of "3S" (RS,GIS and GPS),environmental expert system and environmental model system,coupling with appropriate SEA working process closely.In this paper,the structure and components of SEA-ITS are analyzed based on Chinese characteristics,meanwhile methods to fulfill the following system functions are discussed:urbanization SEA inquiring,analysis,discrimination,assessment,prediction,decision-making and output.Moreover,methods and technologies employed in different urbanization SEA hierarchies are summarized.As a case study,urbanization SEA-ITS is applied in Changchun City to solving complex real problems.Methods such as system dynamics and grey cluster are adopted to achieve the environmental impact assessment on the coo-industrial system planning.It is revealed that the system designed is capable of reflecting the dynamic behavior of eco-industrial system under different scenarios,meanwhile accomplishing strategy optimization and supplying scientific reference.The 4th strategy,namely concerning on economy increase and its interaction with science,technology and environment progress,would have the best efficiency.Further,more attention should be paid to the secondary development of integration techniques and function modification system of urbanization SEA-ITS.

  3. Assessment Framework and Decision—Support System for Consolidating Urban-Rural Construction Land in Coastal China

    OpenAIRE

    Fangfang Cai; Lijie Pu; Ming Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization transforms urban-rural landscape and profoundly affects ecological processes. To maintain a sustainable urbanization, two important issues of land-use need to be quantified: the comprehensive variation of urban-rural construction land and the specific models for consolidating these lands. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to assess the change of urban-rural construction land and build a decision-support system for consolidating these lands. Four sub-layers were ...

  4. Digital tools for urban development project: GIS application to PTAL assess and land valuation and traffic simulation for piazza renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen; Camolese, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing density and expansion of urban areas make cities as complexes with massive activities. The new input of the upgrating urban functions brings uncertainty to the transformation of downtown. Previous to the urban design, to visualize and assess the land value, and evaluate the possible density of the urban development supported by the public transport, a GIS platform is required. During the project of urban renewal design for the 13 km2 area of downtown Ba...

  5. Emerging contaminants in groundwater: occurrence and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Emerging groundwater contaminants (EGCs) are compounds previously not considered or known to be significant (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) but now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected micropollutants are observed. There is a paucity of information regarding EGC occurrence in groundwaters compared to surface waters. The types of organic micropollutants which can be found include, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, caffeine and nicotin...

  6. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Gawedzki; K. Wayne Forsythe

    2012-01-01

    Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging...

  7. Effects of byproducts amended lead contaminated urban soils on carrot yield and lead uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead (Pb) has been used to produce a large number of materials and manufactured products. In areas with a history of lead paint use, high vehicular traffic and/or areas close to urban and industrial centers, atmospheric lead deposition may be very high. Consequently, a high deposition of lead in u...

  8. Assessment of Metal Contaminants in River Kubanni Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Butu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the levels of concentration of metal pollutants in river Kubanni and the health implications of these metal contaminants. The main sources of data for the study were sediments from long profile of the river and WHO guidelines for drinking water that were obtained from relevant literatures and internet. The samples were prepared and Instrumental Nitrogen Activation Analysis (INAA was adopted in the analysis of the data using Nigerian Research Reactor - 1 (NIRR-1. Twenty nine metal contaminants (Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, Br, La, Sm, Yb, U, Sc, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hg, Ta, Sb and Th were identified in the river. The safety levels of the metal contaminants were examined by comparing the obtained values with WHO guidelines for domestic water and it was observed that the river is getting polluted by Al, Mn, As, U, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Ba, Na and Sb with severe health implications on the consumers of the river Kubanni water. The levels of concentration of Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Dy, K, Br, La, Sm, Yb, Sc, Hg, Ta, Rb, Cs, Eu, Lu and Th are also high, although there is no WHO standard for comparison, some of these metals are suspected to be harmful to humans when consumed in excess quantity.

  9. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.;

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes t...

  10. Assessment of environmental quality of Bucharest urban area by multisensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    Urban environmental quality is an important part of efficient urban environment planning and management. A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic, dynamics processes, and climatic change effects. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection and environmental impact classification and assessment in urban area. As is difficult to quantify the environmental impacts of human and industrial activities in urban areas , often many different indicators can conflict with each other. The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. Based on Landsat TM, ETM, SPOT and SAR data for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania, it was performed a land cover classification based on spectral signatures of different terrain features used to separate surface units of urban and sub-urban area . A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used .

  11. INKAS – a guidance tool to assess the impact of adaptation measures against urban heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Buchholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather events such as heat waves, which are expected to increase in frequency, duration and intensity by the end of this century. Hence, climate adaptation in cities is necessary to improve their resilience against climate change impacts and to secure their sustainability, quality of life and economic strength. Urban planners, practitioners and decision-makers require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures to prioritise their options for action and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies in cities. The Deutscher Wetterdienst's new Information Portal for Climate Adaptation in Cities, INKAS, enables its users to assess and compare the quantitative effect of different adaptation measures for varying degrees of implementation. The impact of different climate adaptation measures designed to reduce summertime air temperatures in cities is systematically investigated by means of the urban climate modelling of idealised cities. INKAS is based on about 2000 urban climate simulations of various combinations of nine urban settlement types typical for Germany and of four urban surrounding countrysides. The simplified assumptions of idealised cities with typical urban settlement types simulated with the 3‑dimensional urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 increases the transferability of complex urban interrelations to local decision-makers and urban planners. Simulated adaptation measures include the use of materials with high reflectivity, the installation of green roofs and the transformation of impervious surfaces between buildings into pervious surfaces.

  12. Urban public health assessment and pattern analysis: comparison of four cities in different countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Chen; Lu, Weiwei; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue, and receives extensive attention. It is necessary to compare urban public health status among different cities, so that each city can define its own health patterns and limiting factors. The following assessment indicators were established to evaluate urban public health status: living conditions, physical health, education and culture, environmental quality, and social security. A weighted-sum model was used in combination with these indicators to compare the urban public health status in four cities—Beijing, New York, London, and Tokyo—using data for 2000-2009. Although the urban public health level of Beijing was lower than that of the other cities, it showed the greatest increase in this level over the study period. Different patterns of urban public health were identified: London had the most balanced, steady pattern (almost all factors performed well and developed stably); New York and Tokyo showed balanced, but unsteady patterns (most factors remained high, though social security and environmental quality fluctuated); Beijing had the most unbalanced, unsteady pattern (the different factors were at different levels, and education and culture and social security fluctuated). For enhanced urban public health status, environmental quality and education and culture clearly need to be improved in Beijing. This study demonstrates that a comparison of different cities is helpful in identifying limiting factors for urban public health and providing an orientation for future urban development.

  13. Problems in assessing the risks of mixtures of contaminants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conducting risk assessments on drinking water contaminants, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) attempts to evaluate all available toxicity data to develop Health Advisory (HA) and Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) values. The EPA often has grappled with the issues surrounding the toxicity of chemical mixtures, including radioactive contaminants, nitrate/nitrite, and trihalomethanes (THMs). In evaluating the toxicity of chemical mixtures, the EPA's immediate concern is whether the individual HA values and MCLGs are protecting public health when multiple contaminants are present in drinking water. Potential toxic interactions between drinking water contaminants are difficult to predict because experimental studies are generally performed only at high doses relative to environmental levels. Although the contamination of drinking water involves mixtures of contaminants, drinking water regulations are generally based on an assessment of the risks of individual contaminants. This paper discusses three issues of major concern to the EPA: the synergistic effects of solvent mixtures, vehicle effects in laboratory studies, and setting standards for essential trace nutrients where the absorption and/or toxicity are affected by an individual's nutritional status or other dietary components. 12 references

  14. Contamination, Fractionation and Availability of Metals in Urban Soils in the Vicinity of Former Lead and Zinc Smelters, France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.WATERLOT; G.BIDAR; A.PELFRI(E)NE; H.ROUSSEL; H.FOURRIER; F.DOUAY

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by metals from anthropogenic activities (e.g.,mining and smelting) is a major concern for the environment and human health.Environmental availability of cadmium (Cd),lead (Pb),zinc (Zn),copper (Cu),and indium (In) in 27 urban soils located around two former Pb and Zn smelters in Northern France were studied by analysing the chemical forms of these metals and evaluating their phytoavailability.These metals were determined using flame or electrothermal absorption atomic spectrometry (FAAS or ETAAS),depending on their concentration levels.After optimisation of the ETAAS method,characteristic mass of In in water and aqua regia were 9.9 and 18 pg,respectively,showing the high sensitivity of the analytical procedure.Metal partitioning was conducted using a four-step sequential extraction procedure.The results showed that Cd and Zn were mainly in the acid-extractable and reducible forms in the urban soils studied.In contrast,Pb and In were largely in the reducible fraction.However,in some samples,the amount of In extracted in the residual or exchangeable fraction was higher than that in the reducible fraction.Copper was mainly found in the reducible and residual fractions.A pot experiment was conducted in a glasshouse with seven soils (six contaminated and one uncontaminated) and two plant species,ryegrass and lettuce.The results showed transfer of metals from the contaminated soils to the shoots of ryegrass and the edible part of lettuce.The metal bioconcentration factor was in the order of Cd (≥) Cu > In > Zn (≥) Pb for lettuce leaves,whereas for ryegrass shoots,three orders were found,Cd > Zn > Cu (≥) In > Pb,Cd ≥ In > Zn >Cu (≥) Pb,and Zn > Cd > Cu > In > Pb,depending on the physico-chemical properties of the soils,such as pH,cation exchange capacity,carbonates,and organic matter.It was established that the metal toxicity was related to the contamination levels and the physico-chemical properties,including p

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment and Partition for Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and mining activities have been recognized as the major sources of soil heavy metal contamination. This study introduced an improved Nemerow index method based on the Nemerow and geo-accumulation index. Taking a typical industrial and mining gathering area in Tianjin (China as example, this study then analyzed the contamination sources as well as the ecological and integrated risks. The spatial distribution of the contamination level and ecological risk were determined using Geographic Information Systems. The results are as follows: (1 Zinc showed the highest contaminant level in the study area; the contamination levels of the other seven heavy metals assessed were relatively lower. (2 The combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial and mining activities were the main sources of contamination in the study area. (3 The overall contamination level of heavy metals in the study area ranged from heavily contaminated to extremely contaminated and showed an uneven distribution. (4 The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate. This study also emphasized the importance of partition in industrial and mining areas, the extensive application of spatial analysis methods, and the consideration of human health risks in future studies.

  16. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:26861370

  17. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad A.A.A.N. Almuktar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i the suitability of different treated (recycled wastewaters for irrigation; (ii response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations.

  18. Assessing the restorative potential of contemporary urban environment(s): Beyond the nature versus urban dichotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karmanov, D.Y.; Hamel, R.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature on restorative environments generally leads to the conclusion that urban environments are inherently deficient in stress-reducing and mood-enhancing capacities. We challenge this view in our study. The participants we asked to take part were naturally stressed after taking an

  19. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban India: A case study in Varanasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of heavy metals in selected vegetables through atmospheric deposition were quantified in an urban area of India. Deposition rate of Zn was recorded maximum followed by Cu, Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were highest in Brassica oleracea, Cd in Abelmoschus esculentus and B. oleracea, while Pb was highest in Beta vulgaris. Heavy metal pollution index showed that B. oleracea was maximally contaminated with heavy metals followed by A. esculentus and then B. vulgaris. The results of washing showed that atmospheric deposition has contributed to the increased levels of heavy metals in vegetables. Both Cu and Cd posed health risk to local population via test vegetables consumption, whereas Pb posed the same only through B. oleracea. The study concludes that atmospheric depositions can elevate the levels of heavy metals in vegetables during marketing having potential health hazards to consumers. - Atmospheric depositions can significantly increase the heavy metal concentrations in vegetables during marketing

  20. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  1. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB7 up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment

  2. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. PMID:27475081

  3. Assessment of bed sediment metal contamination in the Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan; Irvine, K N; Sadeghi, Sayyed Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2016-02-01

    The Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands are important natural resources in southwestern Iran, yet relatively little work has been done to assess ecosystem health of the wetlands. Bed sediment from both wetlands was sampled in individual months between October, 2011 and December, 2012 and analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The metals data were evaluated using a combination of sediment quality guidelines from the Ontario Ministry of Energy and Environment (MOEE, Canada), enrichment factors (EFs), and a geo-accumulation index (Igeo) approach. The sediments exceeded MOEE Lowest Effect Levels (LELs) consistently for Cr and Cu and a small proportion of samples (5%) for Hg. Levels of As, Cd, Fe, Pb, and Zn did not exceed LELs and none of the samples exceeded the Severe Effect Levels (SELs). In addition to the sediment guidelines, both the EF and Igeo calculations suggested levels of Mn and Fe were severely enriched, while the EF indicated Cd was slightly enriched. Metal levels in the Shadegan wetland exhibited both spatial and seasonal trends. Metal levels were greater near input areas from agricultural, urban, and industrial discharges and runoff as compared to the more remote and quiescent central part of the wetland. Except for Fe, the metal levels were greater in the wet season as compared to the dry season, perhaps due to greater stormwater runoff and sediment loads. This study provides baseline data which can be used to support development of appropriate contaminant source management strategies to help ensure conservation of these valuable wetland resources.

  4. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  5. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  6. Assessment of combined electro-nanoremediation of molinate contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Fan, Guangping; Mateus, Eduardo P; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-09-15

    Molinate is a pesticide widely used, both in space and time, for weed control in rice paddies. Due to its water solubility and affinity to organic matter, it is a contaminant of concern in ground and surface waters, soils and sediments. Previous works have showed that molinate can be removed from soils through electrokinetic (EK) remediation. In this work, molinate degradation by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) was tested in soils for the first time. Soil is a highly complex matrix, and pollutant partitioning between soil and water and its degradation rates in different matrices is quite challenging. A system combining nZVI and EK was also set up in order to study the nanoparticles and molinate transport, as well as molinate degradation. Results showed that molinate could be degraded by nZVI in soils, even though the process is more time demanding and degradation percentages are lower than in an aqueous solution. This shows the importance of testing contaminant degradation, not only in aqueous solutions, but also in the soil-sorbed fraction. It was also found that soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. The main advantage of the simultaneous use of both methods is the molinate degradation instead of its accumulation in the catholyte. PMID:24946031

  7. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN DRINKING WATER: AN ASSESSMENT FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem BİLİCİ ÇALIŞKAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and classified as a non-metal or a metalloid. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogen and in the environment occurs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in forms of arsenite (As(III and arsenate (As(V. pH, redox potential, and the presence of complexing ions such as ions of sulfur, iron, and calcium determine the arsenic valence and speciation. Because of the naturally occurring arsenic contamination in groundwater in many parts of the world many people have faced with risk of arsenic poisoning. In Turkey especially in the west regions, natural water sources contained much higher levels of arsenic than maximum contaminated level (MCL set (10 ?g/L were determined. In this study, arsenic problem and its reasons in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, arsenic analyses were carried out and higher levels of arsenic than MCL was detected in some regions of Izmir. High levels of arsenic in these natural waters were considered to be associated with the dissolution of some minerals and rock formation.

  8. Assessing the potential of using telecommunication microwave links in urban drainage modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, M; Rieckermann, J; Schleiss, M; Stránský, D; Bareš, V

    2013-01-01

    The ability to predict the runoff response of an urban catchment to rainfall is crucial for managing drainage systems effectively and controlling discharges from urban areas. In this paper we assess the potential of commercial microwave links (MWL) to capture the spatio-temporal rainfall dynamics and thus improve urban rainfall-runoff modelling. Specifically, we perform numerical experiments with virtual rainfall fields and compare the results of MWL rainfall reconstructions to those of rain gauge (RG) observations. In a case study, we are able to show that MWL networks in urban areas are sufficiently dense to provide good information on spatio-temporal rainfall variability and can thus considerably improve pipe flow prediction, even in small subcatchments. In addition, the better spatial coverage also improves the control of discharges from urban areas. This is especially beneficial for heavy rainfall, which usually has a high spatial variability that cannot be accurately captured by RG point measurements.

  9. Assessment of the microbiological activity in agricultural and urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEC DOROTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic soil and the number of selected microorganisms in urban soil, which are located in the lane of the reconstructed road and compare it with a soil cultivated for agricultural purposes. The conducted analysis showed significant differences between the results of the soil taken from the roadway and the soil cultivated from agricultural purposes. The C:N ratio in soils of the roadway (from 24 to 31 indicated that they were degraded and heavily degraded soils. Urban soils had a neutral pH. The activity of dehydrogenase (1.93–6.95 μg TPF g−1·h−1, acid phosphatase (2.42–4.92 mM pNP·g−1·h−1 and alkaline phosphatase (2.34–4.80 mM pNP·g−1·h−1 in urban soils were low. In agricultural soils the acid phosphatase enzyme levels ranged 6.32–8.04 mM pNP·g−1·h−1, and alkaline phosphatase were 7.26–9.16 mM pNP·g−1·h−1. In urban soil samples collected along the roadway, a significant correlation between potassium and dehydrogenase activity, and between the C:N ratio and the activity of acid phosphatase was found.

  10. Assessing the potential of change in urban infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the dynamics and the potential of change, urban infrastructure must be seen as socio-technical artefacts. The paper offers a methodology for analysing current infrastructure and a case study demonstrating that social relations plays a significant role as barriers...

  11. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  12. Sustainable UrbanTransport Assessment in Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Haghshenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective access and mobility in cities arethe bases for achieving urban sustainable development. Today, in Asia, uncontrolled growth of cars and motorcycles has undermined human health, urban environmental quality, economic productivity and social equity. Indicators and practices indicate that efficient public and non motorizedtransport, and prudent restrictions on private motorized vehicles have been proven effective in not only reducing the negative impacts of unsustainable transport but also in providing a means to improve the basic quality of human life.Someattempts have been made to develop sustainable transport indicators, STI. A few studies actually apply STI to compare sustainability among various cities. In this paper 21 Asian cities ranked in terms of urban sustainable transport composite index and the best and worst Asian cities identified. Then, the key factors that have influencedsustainability in these cities have been extracted.The study database is created from UITP databank: “Millennium cities database for sustainable mobility” or MCDST. Firstly sustainable transportation indicators were selectedby reviewing past researches. Some indicators are edited or redefined. Consequently, 3 indicators in each 3 groups of environmental, economical and socialwere developed. Then composite index was also suggested by combination of 9 standardized indicators. According to composite index various cities were compared. Finallysome important factors affecting urban transportation sustainability were determined by using correlation analyses between composite index and cities’ characteristics.

  13. Reliability in urban public transport network assessment and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmasseby, S.

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on the influence of reliability of urban public transport services on network evaluation and network design. Public transport services suffer from all kind of disturbances, varying demand patterns, weather conditions, incidents, road works, et cetera. Current practice uses all

  14. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures, e

  15. Health Impact Assessment of New Urban Water Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales Ortells, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water features in urban areas are increasingly perceived by citizens as a positive element because they provide aesthetic quality to the neighbourhood and offer recreation opportunities. They may also lead, however, to increased health risks due to the potential presence of waterborne pathogens. Exp

  16. Assessing Urban Forest Structure, Ecosystem Services, and Economic Benefits on Vacant Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An urban forest assessment is essential for developing a baseline from which to measure changes and trends. The most precise way to assess urban forests is to measure and record every tree on a site, but although this may work well for relatively small populations (e.g., street trees, small parks, it is prohibitively expensive for large tree populations. Thus, random sampling offers a cost-effective way to assess urban forest structure and the associated ecosystem services for large-scale assessments. The methodology applied to assess ecosystem services in this study can also be used to assess the ecosystem services provided by vacant land in other urban contexts and improve urban forest policies, planning, and the management of vacant land. The study’s findings support the inclusion of trees on vacant land and contribute to a new vision of vacant land as a valuable ecological resource by demonstrating how green infrastructure can be used to enhance ecosystem health and promote a better quality of life for city residents.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1986 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating groundwater contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. This risk assessment follows the approach outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first step is to evaluate groundwater data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the main contaminants in the floodplain groundwater are arsenic, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and uranium. The complete list of contaminants associated with the terrace groundwater could not be determined due to the lack of the background groundwater quality data. However, uranium, nitrate, and sulfate are evaluated since these chemicals are clearly associated with uranium processing and are highly elevated compared to regional waters. It also could not be determined if the groundwater occurring in the terrace is a usable water resource, since it appears to have originated largely from past milling operations. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if a drinking well were installed in the contaminated groundwater or if there were exposure to surface expressions of contaminated water. Potential exposures to surface water include incidental contact with contaminated water or sediments by children playing on the floodplain and consumption of meat and milk from domestic animals grazed and watered on the floodplain

  18. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  1. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory' , 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  2. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  3. Supplementary guidance for the investigation and risk-assessment of potentially contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Spadaro, P.; Starr, J.; Thomas, J. [Arcadis, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hildenbrand, B. [Energy Institute, London (United Kingdom); Smith, J.W.N.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; De Ibarra, M.; Medve, A.; Den Haan, K.

    2013-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sediments, focusing on the inland, estuarine and coastal environments. It is designed as a complementary, technical companion document to Energy Institute and CONCAWE (2013) report 'Guidance on characterising, assessing and managing risks associated with potentially contaminated sediments' (Report E1001). It highlights a number of significant challenges associated with assessing the aquatic and water bottom environment, which means that a sediment assessment should not be undertaken lightly. Where a decision is taken to undertake a site assessment, this report promotes the use of an iterative process of Conceptual Site Model (CSM) development, data collection, data evaluation and a continuous CSM refinement, taking into account the results obtained. Risk-based assessment is described throughout the report, entailing four tiers of assessment, which progress from a qualitative assessment (Tier 0) through to a detailed cause-attribution assessment (Tier 3), in which the decrease in uncertainty in the assessment process is balanced against the increased costs and timescales with progress to a higher tier assessment. The application of this evidence-driven risk-based approach to sediment site management, including remedial control measures, should help to overcome at least some of the challenges associated with contaminants in sediment sites in Europe, and promote a sustainable approach to sediment management on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Assessing the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA Using Landsat and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined across urban gradients and used to stratify sampling of LST and NDVI. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban - rural temperature difference) with the largest 8 C (average) for cities built in mixed forest biomes. For all cities ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance. Annually, urban areas are warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is asymmetric with a 4.3 C difference in summer and 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, UHI's point to a possible heat sink effect. Results show that the urban heat island amplitude increases with city size and is seasonally asymmetric for a large number of cities across most biomes. The implications are that for urban areas developed within forested ecosystems the summertime UHI can be quite high relative to the wintertime UHI suggesting that the residential energy consumption required for summer cooling is likely to increase with urban growth within those biomes.

  5. Assessment of combined electro–nanoremediation of molinate contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinate is a pesticide widely used, both in space and time, for weed control in rice paddies. Due to its water solubility and affinity to organic matter, it is a contaminant of concern in ground and surface waters, soils and sediments. Previous works have showed that molinate can be removed from soils through electrokinetic (EK) remediation. In this work, molinate degradation by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) was tested in soils for the first time. Soil is a highly complex matrix, and pollutant partitioning between soil and water and its degradation rates in different matrices is quite challenging. A system combining nZVI and EK was also set up in order to study the nanoparticles and molinate transport, as well as molinate degradation. Results showed that molinate could be degraded by nZVI in soils, even though the process is more time demanding and degradation percentages are lower than in an aqueous solution. This shows the importance of testing contaminant degradation, not only in aqueous solutions, but also in the soil-sorbed fraction. It was also found that soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. The main advantage of the simultaneous use of both methods is the molinate degradation instead of its accumulation in the catholyte. - Highlights: • Molinate is degraded in soil by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). • Higher contact time of nZVI with soil facilitates molinate degradation. • Soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. • When using nZVI and EK molinate is not only transported to catholyte, but also degraded

  6. Assessment of combined electro–nanoremediation of molinate contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Helena I., E-mail: hrg@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); CERNAS — Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society, Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra, Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3045-601 Coimbra (Portugal); Fan, Guangping [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISSCAS), East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mateus, Eduardo P. [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Dias-Ferreira, Celia [CERNAS — Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society, Escola Superior Agraria de Coimbra, Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Bencanta, 3045-601 Coimbra (Portugal); Ribeiro, Alexandra B. [CENSE, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Molinate is a pesticide widely used, both in space and time, for weed control in rice paddies. Due to its water solubility and affinity to organic matter, it is a contaminant of concern in ground and surface waters, soils and sediments. Previous works have showed that molinate can be removed from soils through electrokinetic (EK) remediation. In this work, molinate degradation by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) was tested in soils for the first time. Soil is a highly complex matrix, and pollutant partitioning between soil and water and its degradation rates in different matrices is quite challenging. A system combining nZVI and EK was also set up in order to study the nanoparticles and molinate transport, as well as molinate degradation. Results showed that molinate could be degraded by nZVI in soils, even though the process is more time demanding and degradation percentages are lower than in an aqueous solution. This shows the importance of testing contaminant degradation, not only in aqueous solutions, but also in the soil-sorbed fraction. It was also found that soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. The main advantage of the simultaneous use of both methods is the molinate degradation instead of its accumulation in the catholyte. - Highlights: • Molinate is degraded in soil by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). • Higher contact time of nZVI with soil facilitates molinate degradation. • Soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. • When using nZVI and EK molinate is not only transported to catholyte, but also degraded.

  7. Contaminants in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment. National assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report reviews the available information on heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and radioactivity in the Greenland freshwater and terrestrial environments. Levels in lake sediments, soil, humus and organisms are presented, spatial and temporal trends are discussed and where possible also biological effects. Many of the contaminants that occur in the Greenland environment originate from distant sources outside of the region, and are transported to the Arctic via three major pathways - atmospheric, terrestrial/freshwater and marine. The main sources of pollution in Greenland is considered to be the industrialization of Eurasia. Pollutants are mainly. The organochlorine levels in Greenland char are typically in the low range compared to values reported from Canada. The Greenland sediment samples showed all organochlorine values below the detection limits of 0.1 μg/kg dry weight, thus being among the lowest contaminated sediments within the Arctic. The total content of PAH in the Greenland sediment samples ranged between 78-635 μ3 g/kg dry wight, with a geometric mean of 178 μg/kg, comparable to or lower than reported values from other arctic countries. The lowest concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment are found in the northern parts of Greenland and the highest in the south western parts. The main source of anthropogenic radioactivity is nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere and the fallout from this activity is closely related to the amounts of precipitation. The predominant foodchain in the Arctic with regard to transport of radiocaesium to man is: Lichen-reindeer-man. Although the doses from the terrestrial foodchain are 20 times higher than those received from the marine foodchain, they are not considered to be of any relevance for the human health in Greenland. 4 appendices contain experimental results. (EG)

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  10. Bayesian uncertainty assessment of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins for conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Scheidegger, A.; Banasik, K.; Rieckermann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization and the resulting land-use change strongly affect the water cycle and runoff-processes in watersheds. Unfortunately, small urban watersheds, which are most affected by urban sprawl, are mostly ungauged. This makes it intrinsically difficult to assess the consequences of urbanization. Most of all, it is unclear how to reliably assess the predictive uncertainty given the structural deficits of the applied models. In this study, we therefore investigate the uncertainty of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins from structurally uncertain rainfall-runoff models. To this end, we suggest a procedure to explicitly account for input uncertainty and model structure deficits using Bayesian statistics with a continuous-time autoregressive error model. In addition, we propose a concise procedure to derive prior parameter distributions from base data and successfully apply the methodology to an urban catchment in Warsaw, Poland. Based on our results, we are able to demonstrate that the autoregressive error model greatly helps to meet the statistical assumptions and to compute reliable prediction intervals. In our study, we found that predicted peak flows were up to 7 times higher than observations. This was reduced to 5 times with Bayesian updating, using only few discharge measurements. In addition, our analysis suggests that imprecise rainfall information and model structure deficits contribute mostly to the total prediction uncertainty. In the future, flood predictions in ungauged basins will become more important due to ongoing urbanization as well as anthropogenic and climatic changes. Thus, providing reliable measures of uncertainty is crucial to support decision making.

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui; Rutgers, Michiel; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; da Silva, Eduardo Mendes; Sousa, José Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2) of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA) in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil). Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE), chemical (ChemLoE), ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE) and ecological (EcoLoE), in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habitat and for the retention functions in each sampling point. Habitat function included the ChemLoE calculated from total metal concentrations. The EcotoxLoE was based on reproduction tests with terrestrial invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia andrei), shoot length and plant biomass (Avena sativa, Brassica rapa). For the EcoLoE, ecological parameters (microbial parameters, soil invertebrate community, litter breakdown) were used to derive risk values. Retention function included the ChemLoE, calculated from extractable metal concentrations, and the EcotoxLoE based on eluate tests with aquatic organisms (Daphnia magna reproduction and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth). Results related to the habitat function indicated that the metal residues are sufficient to cause risk to biota, while the low metal levels in extracts and the general lack of toxicity in aquatic tests indicated a high soil retention capacity in most sampling points. Integrated risk of tier 2 showed the same trend of tier 1, suggesting the need to proceed with remediation actions. The high risk levels were related to direct toxicity to organisms and indirect effects, such as failure in the establishment of vegetation and the consequent loss of habitat quality for microorganisms and soil fauna. This study shed some light on the selection of tools for the tier 2 of an ssERA in tropical metal-contaminated sites, focusing on ecological receptors at risk and using available chemical

  12. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carina Niemeyer

    Full Text Available This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2 of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil. Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE, chemical (ChemLoE, ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE and ecological (EcoLoE, in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habitat and for the retention functions in each sampling point. Habitat function included the ChemLoE calculated from total metal concentrations. The EcotoxLoE was based on reproduction tests with terrestrial invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia andrei, shoot length and plant biomass (Avena sativa, Brassica rapa. For the EcoLoE, ecological parameters (microbial parameters, soil invertebrate community, litter breakdown were used to derive risk values. Retention function included the ChemLoE, calculated from extractable metal concentrations, and the EcotoxLoE based on eluate tests with aquatic organisms (Daphnia magna reproduction and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth. Results related to the habitat function indicated that the metal residues are sufficient to cause risk to biota, while the low metal levels in extracts and the general lack of toxicity in aquatic tests indicated a high soil retention capacity in most sampling points. Integrated risk of tier 2 showed the same trend of tier 1, suggesting the need to proceed with remediation actions. The high risk levels were related to direct toxicity to organisms and indirect effects, such as failure in the establishment of vegetation and the consequent loss of habitat quality for microorganisms and soil fauna. This study shed some light on the selection of tools for the tier 2 of an ssERA in tropical metal-contaminated sites, focusing on ecological receptors at risk and using available

  13. Solid phase distribution of chromium in industrially contaminated urban soil, Glasgow

    OpenAIRE

    Broadway, A.; Farmer, J G; Ngwenya, B. T.; Cave, M.R.; Fordyce, F.M.; Bewley, R.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Like many cities throughout the UK, Glasgow has a long history of both urbanisation and industrialisation, resulting in elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Between 1830 and 1968 Glasgow was home to one of the world’s largest producers of chromium-based chemicals. Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) arising from the factory was used as infill material across large areas of SE Glasgow, resulting in widespread land contamination with Cr(VI), a known carcino...

  14. Unsaturated zone leaching models for assessing risk to groundwater of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Binning, Philip John; Nielsen, Signe;

    2009-01-01

    , lateral gas diffusion, sorption and degradation; a simple one-dimensional screening model, and two one-dimensional radial gas diffusion models for use in simulating volatile organic contaminant diffusion in unsaturated soils with an impermeable cover. The models show that both degradation and diffusion......Risk assessments of sites contaminated with organic contaminants are typically conducted using models that ignore gas phase transport in the unsaturated zone. Here a general approach to developing analytical solutions to multiphase transport is presented. The approach is based on a combined gas and...

  15. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  16. Modeling and preliminary assessment of crude oil contaminated soil in Ogoni (Nigeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiergaertner, Hannes [Free Univ. Berlin (Germany). Faculty of Geosciences; Holtzmann, Kay

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a severe contamination of soil and groundwater caused by the production and transportation of crude oil were detected in the Ogoni area, Federal Republic of Nigeria. A linear correlation between aliphatics and aromatics and the missing link between the degree of contamination and the depth of the soil samples indicate incomplete earlier remediation activities. 665 analyzed samples were mathematically reduced to 28 contamination patterns that can be distinguished by type and degree of pollution, environmentally assessed and visualized by a quasi 3-D model. Case studies taken from the Local Government Areas Eleme, Gokana, Khana, and Tai show the methodology and results.

  17. Contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments from Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    González A; Palma M. G.; Ziegler K.; González E.; Álvarez M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The contamination and risk assessment of heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the Lake Valencia, Venezuela, was performed by determining the Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Factor (Igeo), the availability of metals and the Risk Index Code (RAC). The sediments were anthropogenic ally enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr and classified as uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, with a medium risk of Zn, Co, Ni and Cr, and low risk of Cu, Pb and Cd. Analysis of correlations and PCA ...

  18. Contamination assessment in microbiological sampling of the Eyreville core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstal, A.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Von der, Heyde; Lowit, M.D.; Cockell, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the deep subsurface biosphere is limited due to difficulties in recovering materials. Deep drilling projects provide access to the subsurface; however, contamination introduced during drilling poses a major obstacle in obtaining clean samples. To monitor contamination during the 2005 International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deep drilling of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, four methods were utilized. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mimic the ability of contaminant cells to enter samples through fractures in the core material during retrieval. Drilling mud was infused with a chemical tracer (Halon 1211) in order to monitor penetration of mud into cores. Pore water from samples was examined using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fl uorescence spectroscopy to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present at various depths. DOC signatures at depth were compared to signatures from drilling mud in order to identify potential contamination. Finally, microbial contaminants present in drilling mud were identified through 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) clone libraries and compared to species cultured from core samples. Together, these methods allowed us to categorize the recovered core samples according to the likelihood of contamination. Twenty-two of the 47 subcores that were retrieved were free of contamination by all the methods used and were subsequently used for microbiological culture and culture-independent analysis. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of both particulate and dissolved contaminants that could be applied to any environment with low biomass. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. A PROBABILISTIC BI-SCALE FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    De Risi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of flooding risk in urban areas is necessary as a decision-making support to stakeholders and policy-makers. It can also be effective in reducing the gap between perceived and quantified risk, in short- and long-term. The present work focuses on long-term flood risk assessment in urban areas in meso- and micro-scale. The meso-scale assessment may address an entire city; meanwhile, the micro-scale assessment covers smaller areas such as a neighborhood. This Ph.D. thesis is devel...

  20. Assessment of urban solid waste logistics systems: the case of Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kinobe, Joel Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many cities, especially in developing countries, are facing challenges in the management of solid waste. The aim of the study was to develop effective logistics systems for solid waste management in urban areas of developing countries, with a specific focus on Kampala, Uganda. This thesis contains an assessment of the reverse logistics systems that enable effective recapturing of valuable products from urban solid waste. The study mapped the waste collection systems in Kampala using a geograp...

  1. Assessing the impact of urbanization on urban climate by remote satellite perspective: a case study in Danang city, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Khanh Linh, N.; Van Chuong, H.

    2015-04-01

    Urban climate, one of the challenges of human being in 21 century, is known as the results of land use/cover transformation. Its characteristics are distinguished by different varieties of climatic conditions in comparison with those of less built-up areas. The alterations lead to "Urban Heat Island", in which temperature in urban places is higher than surrounding environment. This happens not only in mega cities but also in less urbanized sites. The results determine the change of land use/cover and land surface temperature in Danang city by using multi-temporal Landsat and ASTER data for the period of 1990-2009. Based on the supervised classification method of maximum likelihood algorithm, satellite images in 1990, 2003, 2009 were classified into five classes: water, forest, shrub, agriculture, barren land and built-up area. For accuracy assessment, the error metric tabulations of mapped classes and reference classes were made. The Kappa statistics, derived from error matrices, were over 80% for all of land use maps. An comparison change detection algorithm was made in three intervals, 1990-2003, 2003-2009 and 1990-2009. The results showed that built-up area increased from 8.95% to 17.87% between 1990 and 2009, while agriculture, shrub and barren decreased from 12.98% to 7.53%, 15.72% to 9.89% and 3.88% to 1.77% due to urbanization that resulted from increasing of urban population and economic development, respectively. Land surface temperature (LST) maps were retrieved from thermal infrared bands of Landsat and ASTER data. The result indicated that the temperature in study area increased from 39oC to 41oC for the period of 1990-2009. Our analysis showed that built-up area had the highest LST values, whereas water bodies had the least LST. This study is expected to be useful for decision makers to make an appropriate land use planning which can mitigate the effect to urban climate.

  2. Chemical and biological risk assessment of chronic exposure to PAH contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.; McMillin, D.; Kondapi, N. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chronically contaminated sediments represent a long-term source of mixtures of contaminants, exposing aquatic ecosystems to PAH through desorption and bioaccumulation. Chronic toxicity assessments must address potential of these bond contaminants. Environmental impacts and ecological health hazards of sediment-bound normal, alkylated and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are functions of their entry into aquatic food webs and are controlled by both abiotic and biotic factors. Laboratory and field microcosm exposures of fish and invertebrates were conducted followed by assessments of effects using chemical analysis and biomarkers of potential genotoxic effects. Chemical analysis of accumulated residues of 62 individual PAH were conducted in oysters, Crassostrea virginica exposed to PAH contaminated sediments in the field. The rates and equilibrium bioaccumulation constants for each were determined. Fish were exposed to the same contaminated sediments in laboratory and field exposures. Measurements of ethoxy-resorufin-o-deethylase activity induction as well as alterations in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were performed on exposed fish liver samples. EROD activities were increased significantly relative to unexposed and laboratory/field control sediment-exposed fish, however, the responses of individuals were highly variable. Fundulus grandis or Gambusia affinis, exposed to contaminated sediments in the laboratory, revealed changes in the expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The degree to which mutations within the gene occurred was assessed using PCR followed by measurement of single stranded DNA polymorphisms using gel electrophoresis chromatography.

  3. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site

  4. Guidance for treatment of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Uncertainty is a seemingly simple concept that has caused great confusion and conflict in the field of risk assessment. This report offers guidance for the analysis and presentation of variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessments, an important issue in the remedial investigation and feasibility study processes. This report discusses concepts of probability in terms of variance and uncertainty, describes how these concepts differ in ecological risk assessment from human health risk assessment, and describes probabilistic aspects of specific ecological risk assessment techniques. The report ends with 17 points to consider in performing an uncertainty analysis for an ecological risk assessment of a contaminated site.

  5. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  6. [Application of entropy weight and fuzzy synthetic evaluation in urban ecological security assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changbo; Chen, Xingeng; Wei, Chaohai; Peng, Xiaochun

    2006-10-01

    Ecological security is one of the foundations of regional security, and the basis of sustainable development. Urban ecological security refers to the ecological support and main ecological issues of a city, which do not threaten its survival and development. To develop the research method on the ecological security of urban social-economic-natural complex ecosystem, an assessment indicator system of urban ecological security was set up based on Pressure - State - Response Model, which included 3 key factors and 33 concrete items. The five most developed cities of China were taken as the cases to assess their ecological security situation by using entropy weight and fuzzy synthetic evaluation method. The results showed that the urban ecological security of Suzhou and Beijing was at relatively safe level, while that of Shenzhen, Shanghai and Guangzhou was critical safe in the year of 2003. The urban ecosystem of Shenzhen was under heavy press, while that of Suzhou behaved best both in system status and system response. Comparing with other assessment methods, this evaluation method was easier and more reasonable. The results were basically consistent to the fact of these cities, suggesting that the urban ecological security indicator system and the entropy weight and fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach were feasible to some extent. PMID:17209394

  7. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I.; Binning, Philip J.; McKnight, Ursula S.; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L.; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  8. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Binning, Philip J; McKnight, Ursula S; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  9. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing uncertainty in conceptual site models at contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Binning, Philip J; McKnight, Ursula S; Tuxen, Nina; Bjerg, Poul L; Troldborg, Mads

    2016-05-01

    A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is in the formulation of a conceptual site model (CSM). A CSM is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modeling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. The CSM should therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behavior at the site. However, the development of a CSM will always be associated with uncertainties due to limited data and lack of understanding of the site conditions. CSM uncertainty is often found to be a major source of model error and it should therefore be accounted for when evaluating uncertainties in risk assessments. We present a Bayesian belief network (BBN) approach for constructing CSMs and assessing their uncertainty at contaminated sites. BBNs are graphical probabilistic models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The proposed BBN approach facilitates a systematic construction of multiple CSMs, and then determines the belief in each CSM using a variety of data types and/or expert opinion at different knowledge levels. The developed BBNs combine data from desktop studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the CSMs are more likely to reflect the actual site conditions. The method is demonstrated on a Danish field site, contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Four different CSMs are developed by combining two contaminant source zone interpretations (presence or absence of a separate phase contamination) and two geological interpretations (fractured or unfractured clay till). The beliefs in each of the CSMs are assessed sequentially based on data from three investigation stages (a screening investigation, a more detailed investigation, and an expert consultation) to demonstrate that the belief can be updated as more information

  10. Determination of REE in urban park soils from Sao Paulo city for fingerprint of traffic emission contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P., E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sigolo, Joel B., E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2009-07-01

    The study of rare earth elements (REE) distribution in urban environments has become very interesting in the last years, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REE La, Ce and Nd are used in automobile converter catalysts to stabilize the catalyst support and to enhance the oxidation of pollutants. The honeycomb structure has a typical association of a high Ce (and often also La) concentration combined with high concentrations of Platinum Group Elements. Due to thermal and mechanical wear of catalysts, fine particles enriched in REE are released to the environment. These catalyst particles can accumulate in urban soils, mainly in soils located near high density traffic roads. The aim of this paper was to study the REE distribution and ratios in surface soil samples collected in fourteen urban public parks of Sao Paulo city, to assess the influence of vehicular emissions. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE analysis. The diagrams normalized to chondrite values showed an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), with a negative anomaly of Eu. The results obtained indicated that the enrichment in REE is not clearly attributed to vehicular traffic, because of high background values associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  11. Assessment Of Depleted Uranium Contamination In Selective IRAQI Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to measure the radiation exposure rates in three selected Locations in southren part of Iraq (two in Nassireya, and one in Amara) resulted from the existence of depleted uranium in soil and metal pieces have been taken from destroyed tank and study mathmatically the concentration of Depleted Uranium by its dispersion from soil surface by winds and rains from 2003 to 2007. The exposure rates were measured using inspector device, while depleted uranium concentration in soil samples and tank's matal pieces were detected with Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors(SSNTDs). The wind and rain effects were considered in the calculation of dispersion effect on depleted uranium concentration in soil, where the wind effect were calculated with respect to the sites nature and soil conditions, and rain effect with respect to dispersive-convective equation for radionuclide in soil. The results obtained for the exposure rates were high near the penetrated surfac, moderate and low in soil and metal pices. The Depleted Uranium concentration in soil and metal pieces have the highest value in Nassireya. The results from dispersion calculation (wind & rain) showed that the depleted uranium concentration in 2008 will be less than the danger level and in allowable contamination range

  12. Economic assessment of losses caused by contamination of soil resources within effective their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Kucher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of soil contamination in Ukraine and valid method of determining loss from contamination. Losses from soil contamination can be direct and indirect ones. Direct losses, on the total, characterize reduction of consumer’s cost of land as a tool and object of labour. Indirect losses are predefined by decline in yield of agricultural crops on contaminated soils, worsened quality of products, increase in unit-cost of contaminated produce through increased per cent of semi-fixed expenditures due to reduced crop productivity. A scientific and methodical approach to the assessment of internal ecological and economic losses of agricultural enterprises from soil contamination isgrounded. Basic criteria to determinate internal ecological and economical losses from soils’ contamination are losses of profit whose obtaining is the main goal of the enterprise performance in marketing conditions. Major constituents of internal ecological and economical loss incurred by an agrarian enterprise are: losses of profit due to obtaining less products than expected, because of shortage of crop yield through contamination of soils; losses of profit due to deteriorated qualityof agricultural produce through contamination of soils; losses of enterprise profits due to increase of product unit-cost through declined labour productivity, predefined by reduction of crop-yield productivity at the same rates of semi-fixed expenditures. Such complex science & methodical approach to determination of loss on microeconomical level can help one completely identify losses of agricultural production, caused bycontamination of soils and strengthening one’s attention hereto, possibly, increasing responsibility of contaminants for quality of soils and products obtained hereof.

  13. Shallow Groundwater Discharge into Urban Drains: Identifying the Missing Link to Define Urban Typologies for Impact Assessment of Urbanization on Water and Nutrient Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, C. J.; Oldham, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) interaction in drains of many sandy coastal plain areas displays an ephemeral hydrological regime, as often shifts occur in their hydraulic functioning from a losing to a gaining water conditions upon the position of the surrounding shallow water table (SWT). Urbanization in such areas and stormwater management strategies enhancing infiltration have the potential to alter the infiltration rates and the subsurface water storage dynamics with consequences for the residence time of the water and nutrient transformations prior their discharge into receiving SW drains. Identifying first order control on the above processes will assist the improvement of assessment tools for better urban development. This work presents findings on the hydrodynamics of the GW-SW water exchange in two drains of the Perth Coastal Plain area (Western Australia, Australia) impacted by a SWT developing on a layered variable texture soil: a peri-urban drain and a restored living stream drain in urban residential area. A multi-technique approach was used to investigate water mass balance and fluxes over a reach scale and involved continuous records of hydrometric data for GW-SW interactions, passive tracers for water pathway identification, pore water temperature for vertical water exchange, and differential SW discharge using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results highlighted differences in the GW-SW interactions between both drains under stormflow and baseflow conditions. A substantial increase of GW discharge into the drain coincided with the full development of a SWT over a seasonal scale at the peri-urban drain, which suggests a more natural water infiltration and redistribution in the subsurface. In contrast, a large volume of infiltrated rain water was discharged into the living stream over a period of few weeks regardless of the development of the surrounding SWT, which suggests the influence of underground pipe system in water redistribution

  14. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  15. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion.

  16. Assessment of the Green Infrastructure of Bucharest using CORINE and Urban Atlas data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ Petrişor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecology provides the theoretical foundation for assessing the interaction between man and nature in cities. Nature seems to be reduced and malfunctioning, resulting into a decrease in the ecosystem services provided to humans. The new method, based on assessing the green infrastructure, is designed to replace monetary and carbon footprint assessments and be particularly relevant for the urban areas, which grow and change fast and are the main drivers of environmental changes. This study uses 2005-2007 CORINE and Urban Atlas data to look at Bucharest. The results show that, despite of the method, the area occupied by the green infrastructure represents about 1/3 of the total area, corresponding to 50 m2/person, although the green spaces only account for 6.5 m2/person, which is far below the European average (26 m2/person.

  17. Lead Contamination of Urban Soil in the El Paso (Texas)--Juarez (Mexico) Border Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-12-01

    We present an unusually detailed map of the distribution of lead in El Paso--Juarez soils, one that is based on x-ray fluorescence analysis of 1000 composite soil samples collected in the region. Mixing equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block created a single composite sample to characterize each of the 500 blocks studied in each city. Maps based on such composites highlight the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasize any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. In both cities, levels of lead are highest in their contiguous downtown commercial districts, which date to the 19th Century and are linked by the traditional border river crossing area at the Rio Grande. Rail yards, transport hubs, light industry complexes, and the oldest residential areas lie adjacent to, and inter-tongue with, this commercial district on both sides of the border. A century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago, abuts the western limit of the old urban core in El Paso. The continuity of this elevated-lead zone, the proximity of the smelter, the many potential lead sources associated with traditional commercial activities, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. The binational distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from nine air monitoring stations (covering both cities) during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  18. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  19. Assessment of the contamination of marine fauna by chlordecone in Guadeloupe and Martinique (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromard, Charlotte R; Bodiguel, Xavier; Lemoine, Soazig; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Reynal, Lionel; Thouard, Emmanuel; Bouchon, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide, used in the Lesser Antilles from 1972 to 1993 to fight against a banana weevil. That molecule is very persistent in the natural environment and ends up in the sea with runoff waters. From 2003 to 2013, seven campaigns of samplings have been conducted to evaluate the level of contamination of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. The present study is the first assessment and the first comparison of the concentrations of chlordecone between marine areas, taxonomic groups, and ecological factors like trophic groups or preferential habitat of fish species. The four most contaminated marine areas are located downstream the contaminated rivers and banana plantations. Crustaceans seemed to be more sensitive to the contamination than fish or mollusks. Finally, when comparing contamination of fish according to their ecology, we found that fish usually living at the border of mangrove and presenting detritivores-omnivores diets were the most contaminated by chlordecone. These results are particularly useful to protect the health of the local population by controlling the fishing and the commercialization of seafood products, potentially contaminated by chlordecone. PMID:25994274

  20. Identification and assessment of trace contaminants associated with oil and gas pipelines abandoned in place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, W.E.R.; Basso, A.C.; Dhol, S.K. [Biophilia Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    As more Alberta oil and gas fields become depleted, attention is being given to development of economically and environmentally sound abandonment procedures. The objective of this study was to identify and assess residual internal and external contaminants associated with abandoned pipelines, particularly those to be abandoned in place. Circumstances which might increase the risk of contaminant release, and other issues relating to residual pipeline contaminants, were also identified. It was found that there are thousands of different substances which could potentially be associated with abandoned pipelines. A wide range in the potential quantities of residual contaminants was also found. Of the issues identified, the effectiveness of pipeline pigging and cleaning procedures prior to abandonment was the most critical determinant of the potential quantities of residual contaminants. However, a number of trace contaminants, such as PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) and NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) may remain after thorough cleaning. A brief review of the legislation and regulations from a number of jurisdictions shows that pipeline abandonment has only recently become an issue of concern. Regulations specific to abandonment are lacking, and more general regulations and guidelines are being applied on a contaminant-specific basis, or in terms of waste disposal requirements.

  1. A Quantitative Assessment of Surface Urban Heat Islands Using Satellite Multitemporal Data over Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ishola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast urban expansion has led to the transformation of the natural landscape into anthropogenic surfaces. The city of Abeokuta, for instance, is located in a region experiencing rapid urbanization, which has produced a remarkable effect on the surface thermal response. This effect significantly influences urban internal microclimatology on a regional scale. In this study, the surface temperatures and land cover types retrieved from Landsat TM and ETM+ images of Abeokuta city for 1984, 2003, and 2014 were analyzed. A quantitative approach was used to assess surface urban heat islands through the relationships among surface temperature and land cover types. Results showed that impervious surface areas were found to be correlated positively with high temperatures. Conversely, vegetated areas and bare surfaces correlated positively with mid temperature zones. This study found that areas with increasing impervious surfaces will accelerate LST rise and consequently lead to increasing effect of surface urban heat islands. These findings pose a major challenge to urban planners. However, the study would help to quantify the impacts of different scenarios (e.g., vegetation loss to accommodate urban growth on LST and consequently to devise appropriate policy measures.

  2. Watershed-scale effects of urbanization on sediment export: Assessment and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhir, Timothy

    2003-06-01

    Built components of watersheds are associated with impervious surfaces that alter hydrology, disrupt ecosystems, and affect water quality. This study focuses on the impervious factor as a tool for assessment and policy design to address water quality impacts. The empirical model uses a combination of watershed simulation and statistical regression modeling to study sediment loading at various stages of urbanization. The policy design is based on private behavior in a watershed setting to develop appropriate economic approaches. The incentives through taxes, subsidies, and cost sharing are based on water quality impacts. It was observed that nonlinearity in response functions resulted in transition effects that are continuous. This is due to gradual shifts in landscape characteristics as a result of urbanization. On a regional basis, impervious factor had a varying effect on water quality and depend on the state of urbanization and spatial characteristics. Economic policies based on a metric like impervious cover can be used to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization in watersheds through use of appropriate BMPs, urban forestry methods, and spatial targeting. While linear rules in policy are easier to implement, nonlinear rules were more effective in representing the changes in marginal social cost of impervious factor, especially initial and late stages of urbanization. There exists excellent scope in using this targeted policy to address specific problems associated with complex urban systems.

  3. Research and application on the technology system of multiscale assessment of the impact on the atmospheric environment by urban planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangtao; WANG Xiaoyun; MIAO Shiguang; JIANG Weimei; GUO Wenli; JI Chongping; CHEN Xianyan

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of the atmospheric environment in urban planning is an important issue to implement the sustainable development of cities. In this paper, in order to meet the demand of planning office to compare and assess quantitatively of the designs in multi-scale, based on geographical information system (GIS) data with high resolution, a multi-scale numerical modeling system for the atmospheric environment impact of urban planning is set up, and the multi-scale assessment index system is established, which compose the technology system of multi-scale assessment of the impact on the atmospheric environment by urban planning. In urban planning (urban development of Beijing) and optimizing layouts of Olympic Green, it has been applied to quantitatively evaluating the impact on atmospheric environment by urban planning before construction, which offers scientific foundation to optimize the whole and local urban layout.

  4. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  5. A web-based 3D visualisation and assessment system for urban precinct scenario modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubka, Roman; Glackin, Stephen; Lade, Oliver; Pettit, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing number of spatial tools and technologies for enabling better decision-making in the urban environment. They have largely arisen because of the need for cities to be more efficiently planned to accommodate growing populations while mitigating urban sprawl, and also because of innovations in rendering data in 3D being well suited for visualising the urban built environment. In this paper we review a number of systems that are better known and more commonly used in the field of urban planning. We then introduce Envision Scenario Planner (ESP), a web-based 3D precinct geodesign, visualisation and assessment tool, developed using Agile and Co-design methods. We provide a comprehensive account of the tool, beginning with a discussion of its design and development process and concluding with an example use case and a discussion of the lessons learned in its development.

  6. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation...... framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best...... to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities....

  7. Baseline ecological risk assessment and remediation alternatives for a hydrocarbon-contaminated estuarine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to a property transaction, the groundwater at an industrial refinery site in New Jersey was found to be contaminated with a variety of petroleum-based organic compounds. The highly built-up site included an on-site estuarine wetland and was located in a developed, industrialized area near ecologically important estuarine marshes. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was developed on the basis of available data on site contamination and ecological resources. The onsite wetland and its user fauna were identified as the sensitive receptors of concern and the primary contaminant pathways wee identified. The ecological significance of the contamination was assessed with regard to the onsite wetland and in the context of its position within the landscape and surrounding land uses. The wetland exhibited a combination of impact and vitality, i.e., there were clearly visible signs of contaminant impact as well as a relatively complex and abundant food web. Because of its position within the developed landscape, the onsite wetland appeared to function as a refugium for wildlife despite the level of disturbance. The feasibility of achieving regulatory compliance through natural remediation was also examined with respect to the findings of the risk assessment and the resultant conclusions are discussed

  8. Toxicity assessment for petroleum-contaminated soil using terrestrial invertebrates and plant bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Olfa; Lachhab, Radhia; Ayadi, Mariem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of soil quality after a chemical or oil spill and/or remediation effort may be measured by evaluating the toxicity of soil organisms. To enhance our understanding of the soil quality resulting from laboratory and oil field spill remediation, we assessed toxicity levels by using earthworms and springtails testing and plant growth experiments. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated soil samples were collected from an oilfield in Sfax, Tunisia. Two types of bioassays were performed. The first assessed the toxicity of spiked crude oil (API gravity 32) in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development artificial soil. The second evaluated the habitat function through the avoidance responses of earthworms and springtails and the ability of Avena sativa to grow in TPH-contaminated soils diluted with farmland soil. The EC50 of petroleum-contaminated soil for earthworms was 644 mg of TPH/kg of soil at 14 days, with 67 % of the earthworms dying after 14 days when the TPH content reached 1,000 mg/kg. The average germination rate, calculated 8 days after sowing, varied between 64 and 74 % in low contaminated soils and less than 50 % in highly contaminated soils. PMID:22773148

  9. Assessment of contaminant fate in catchments using a novel integrated hydrobiogeochemical-multimedia fate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzetto, Luca; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn; Lin, Yan; Allan, Ian; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2016-02-15

    Models for pollution exposure assessment typically adopt an overly simplistic representation of geography, climate and biogeochemical processes. This strategy is unsatisfactory when high temporal resolution simulations for sub-regional spatial domains are performed, in which parameters defining scenarios can vary interdependently in space and time. This is, for example, the case when assessing the influence of biogeochemical processing on contaminant fate. Here we present INCA-Contaminants, the Integrated Catchments model for Contaminants; a new model that simultaneously and realistically solves mass balances of water, carbon, sediments and contaminants in the soil-stream-sediment system of catchments and their river networks as a function of climate, land use/management and contaminant properties. When forced with realistic climate and contaminant input data, the model was able to predict polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in multiple segments of a river network in a complex landscape. We analyzed model output sensitivity to a number of hydro-biogeochemical parameters. The rate of soil organic matter mineralization was the most sensitive parameter controlling PCBs levels in river water, supporting the hypothesis that organic matter turnover rates will influence re-mobilization of previously deposited PCBs which had accumulated in soil organic matrix. The model was also used to project the long term fate of PCB 101 under two climate scenarios. Catchment diffuse run-off and riverine transport were the major pathways of contaminant re-mobilization. Simulations show that during the next decade the investigated boreal catchment will shift from being a net atmospheric PCB sink to a net source for air and water, with future climate perturbation having little influence on this trend. Our results highlight the importance of using credible hydro-biogeochemical simulations when modeling the fate of hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:26674684

  10. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the 239Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant 239Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total 239Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the 239Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the 239Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the 239Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the 239Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables

  11. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  12. Opportunities and challenges of integrating ecological restoration into assessment and management of contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ruth N; Luoma, Samuel N; Bayne, Bruce A; Iliff, John; Larkin, Daniel J; Paschke, Mark W; Victor, Sasha L; Ward, Sara E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents, and limited availability of guidance. Challenges occur in integrating expertise from various disciplines and multiple, sometimes divergent interests and goals. The more complex process can result in timing, capacity, communication, and collaboration challenges. On the other hand, integrating the 2 approaches presents new and creative opportunities. For example, integration allows early planning for expanding ecosystem services on or near contaminated lands or waters that might otherwise have been unaddressed by remediation alone. Integrated plans can explicitly pursue ecosystem services that have market value, which can add to funds for long-term monitoring and management. Early integration presents opportunities for improved and productive collaboration and coordination between ecosystem restoration and contaminant assessment and management. Examples exist where early integration facilitates liability resolution and generates positive public relations. Restoration planning and implementation before the completion of the contaminated site assessment, remediation, or management process ("early restoration") can facilitate coordination with offsite restoration options and a regional approach to restoration of contaminated environments. Integration of performance monitoring, for both remedial and restoration actions, can save resources and expand the interpretive power of results. Early integration may aid experimentation, which may be more feasible on contaminated lands than in many other situations. The potential application of concepts and tools from adaptive management is discussed as a way of avoiding pitfalls and achieving benefits in

  13. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants. PMID:25190554

  14. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  15. Opportunities and challenges of integrating ecological restoration into assessment and management of contaminated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ruth N; Luoma, Samuel N; Bayne, Bruce A; Iliff, John; Larkin, Daniel J; Paschke, Mark W; Victor, Sasha L; Ward, Sara E

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning near the beginning of the site assessment and management process ("early integration") involves consideration of restoration goals from the outset in developing solutions for contaminated ecosystems. There are limitations to integration that stem from institutional barriers, few successful precedents, and limited availability of guidance. Challenges occur in integrating expertise from various disciplines and multiple, sometimes divergent interests and goals. The more complex process can result in timing, capacity, communication, and collaboration challenges. On the other hand, integrating the 2 approaches presents new and creative opportunities. For example, integration allows early planning for expanding ecosystem services on or near contaminated lands or waters that might otherwise have been unaddressed by remediation alone. Integrated plans can explicitly pursue ecosystem services that have market value, which can add to funds for long-term monitoring and management. Early integration presents opportunities for improved and productive collaboration and coordination between ecosystem restoration and contaminant assessment and management. Examples exist where early integration facilitates liability resolution and generates positive public relations. Restoration planning and implementation before the completion of the contaminated site assessment, remediation, or management process ("early restoration") can facilitate coordination with offsite restoration options and a regional approach to restoration of contaminated environments. Integration of performance monitoring, for both remedial and restoration actions, can save resources and expand the interpretive power of results. Early integration may aid experimentation, which may be more feasible on contaminated lands than in many other situations. The potential application of concepts and tools from adaptive management is discussed as a way of avoiding pitfalls and achieving benefits in

  16. Urban public health assessment and pattern analysis:comparison of four cities in different countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meirong SU; Chen CHEN; Weiwei LU; Gengyuan LIU; Zhifeng YANG; Bin CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue,and receives extensive attention.It is necessary to compare urban public health status among different cities,so that each city can define its own health patterns and limiting factors.The following assessment indicators were established to evaluate urban public health status:living conditions,physical health,education and culture,environmental quality,and social security.A weighted-sum model was used in combination with these indicators to compare the urban public health status in four cities—Beijing,New York,London,and Tokyo—using data for 2000-2009.Although the urban public health level of Beijing was lower than that of the other cities,it showed the greatest increase in this level over the study period.Different patterns of urban public health were identified:London had the most balanced,steady pattern (almost all factors performed well and developed stably); New York and Tokyo showed balanced,but unsteady patterns (most factors remained high,though social security and environmental quality fluctuated); Beijing had the most unbalanced,unsteady pattern (the different factors were at different levels,and education and culture and social security fluctuated).For enhanced urban public health status,environmental quality and education and culture clearly need to be improved in Beijing.This study demonstrates that a comparison of different cities is helpful in identifying limiting factors for urban public health and providing an orientation for future urban development.

  17. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  18. Phyt'Eaux Cités: application and validation of a programme to reduce surface water contamination with urban pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Fauchon, Nils; Blanchoud, Hélène; Chevreuil, Marc; Guery, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents first results of Phyt'Eaux Cités, a program put in place by the local water supply agency, the SEDIF (Syndicat des Eaux d'Ile-de-France), in collaboration with 73 local authorities, private societies and institutional offices (365 km(2)). The challenges included: measurement of the previous surface water contamination, control of urban pesticide applications, prevention of pesticide hazard on users and finally a overall reduction of surface water contamination. An inquiry on urban total pesticide amount was coupled with a surface water bi-weekly monitoring to establish the impact of more than 200 molecules upon the Orge River. For 2007, at least 4400 kg and 92 type of pesticides (essentially herbicides) were quantified for all urban users in the Phyt'Eaux Cités perimeter. At the outlet of the Orge River (bi-weekly sampling in 2007), 11 molecules were always detected above 0.1 μg L(-1). They displayed the mainly urban origin of pesticide surface water contamination. Amitrole, AMPA (Aminomethyl Phosphonic Acid), demethyldiuron, diuron, glyphosate and atrazine were quantified with a 100% of frequency in 2007 and 2008 at the Orge River outlet. During the year, peaks of contamination were also registered for MCCP, 2,4 MCPA, 2,4 D, triclopyr, dichlorprop, diflufènican, active substances used in large amount in the urban area. However, some other urban molecules, such as isoxaben or flazasulfuron, were detected with low frequency. During late spring and summer, contamination patterns and load were dominated by glyphosate, amitrole and diuron, essentially applied by cities and urban users. Both isoproturon and chlortoluron were quantified during autumn and winter months according to upstream agricultural practices. In conclusion, 3 years after the beginning of this programme, the cities reduced the use of 68% of the total pesticide amount. An improvement on surface water quality was found from 2008 and during 2009 for all pesticides. In particular

  19. Assessment of urban stream morphology: an integrated index and modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Zhu, Wei; Xin, Pei; Li, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Physical morphology is an important attribute of a stream system. The morphological state of a natural pristine stream often reflects its biological condition because of their close links. In contrast, the morphology of an urban stream may exhibit different behaviours due to serious human disturbances. For an urban stream system, the morphological condition not only determines the in-stream habitat quality but also provides the physical basis for the stream's municipal functionalities. By comparing the morphological characters of urban and natural streams, this paper develops an integrated index system and model for the assessment of urban stream morphology. The model is applied to the Ancient Canal (Zhenjiang, China) with the aim of comparing the morphological conditions of reaches with and without ongoing restoration programs and further of assessing the effectiveness of the restoration methods and techniques. The results indicate that the water security and the landscape functionality of the canal have been upgraded. However, the quality of the in-stream habitat has been degraded as a result of the restoration. Based on the modelled results, recommendations are given for improving the effects of the next-phase restoration. The assessment system and findings from the application presented here are expected to have important implications for the restoration of disturbed urban streams in many other cities in China and elsewhere in the world. PMID:19609699

  20. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  1. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  2. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  3. Can Bayesian Belief Networks help tackling conceptual model uncertainties in contaminated site risk assessment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Mads; Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; McKnight, Ursula S.;

    models that are effective for integrating quantitative and qualitative information, and thus can strengthen decisions when empirical data are lacking. The developed BBN combines data from desk studies and initial site investigations with expert opinion to assess which of the conceptual models are more......A key component in risk assessment of contaminated sites is the formulation of a conceptual site model. The conceptual model is a simplified representation of reality and forms the basis for the mathematical modelling of contaminant fate and transport at the site. A conceptual model should...... therefore identify the most important site-specific features and processes that may affect the contaminant transport behaviour at the site. The development of a conceptual model will always be associated with uncertainties due to lack of data and understanding of the site conditions, and often many...

  4. Artifact weathering, anthropogenic microparticles and lead contamination in urban soils at former demolition sites, Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological sequence of urban soils 3–92 years old was studied to determine the effects of time on morphogenesis, artifact weathering, and the geochemical partitioning of Pb. Key chronofunctions determined are an increase in -hat A horizon Development Index (defined herein based on soil color) and water-soluble Pb, and a decrease in pH and C/N, with increasing soil age. Key artifact weathering reactions are: 1) portlandite in mortar altered to calcite, 2) ferrite in wrought-iron altered to ferrihydrite and goethite, and 3) carbonaceous materials altered to water-soluble organic substances. Mortar and wrought-iron were found to be Pb-bearing, but weather to produce immobilizing agents. Hence, they are both a source and a sink for Pb. The origin and mobilization of water-soluble Pb is complex and probably includes microbial extracellular polymeric substances, biodegraded soil organic matter, and solubilized organic substances derived from carbonaceous anthropogenic microparticles (soot, char and coal-related wastes). Highlights: •The geochemical partitioning of Pb evolves over time as artifacts weather. •An -hat A horizon Development Index (defined herein based on soil color) is useful as a relative dating tool. •Mortar, wrought-iron nails and carbonaceous materials weather to form immobilizing and mobilizing agents for lead. -- The geochemical partitioning of Pb evolves over time as artifacts weather

  5. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Emma C; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Christopher K

    2015-09-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens ( O157:H7, spp., and spp. [, and ]), water quality (turbidity, temperature, and ), and human and ruminant-cow and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based fecal source tracking (FST) markers in two source watersheds. Water samples ( = 329) were collected at 10 sites (five in each watershed) over 18 mo. The human marker (HF183) occurred in 9 to 10% of the water samples at nine sampling sites; while a forested site in the urban watershed tested negative. Ruminant-cow markers (BacR and CowM2) only appeared in the rural watershed (6%). The mtDNA markers (HcytB and AcytB) showed the same pattern but were less sensitive due to lower fecal concentrations. Higher prevalences ( pollution in both watersheds. PMID:26436273

  6. Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Pasi; Ivask, Angela; Aström, Mats; Virta, Marko

    2005-11-01

    Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14-5323 mg/kg) and Cu (8-12987 mg/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first sequential leach step (1M NaOAc). In contrast, in some samples the bioavailable concentrations of Cu clearly exceeded even the second sequential leach step (0.1 M Na4P2O7). With the yeast sensor 12/20 samples were below detection, however, the yeast sensor was capable of detecting all high Cu concentrations. The biosensors used in this study are not capable of detecting the natural soil concentrations of Pb and Cu in the studied area.

  7. Equilibrium sampling for a thermodynamic assessment of contaminated sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of polluted sediments. Glass jars with µm-thin silicone coatings on the inner walls can be used for ex situ equilibration while a device housing several silicone-coated fibers can be used for in situ equilibration. In both cases, parallel sampling with varying silicone thicknesses can be applied to confirm...... of the biota relative to the sediment. Furthermore, concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with sediment (Clip?Sed) can be calculated via lipid/silicone partition ratios CSil × KLip:Sil, which has been done in studies with limnic, river and marine sediments. The data can then be compared to lipid...... will focus at the latest developments in equilibrium sampling concepts and methods. Further, we will explain how these approaches can provide a new basis for a thermodynamic assessment of polluted sediments....

  8. The rationale for simple approaches for sustainability assessment and management in contaminated land practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, R Paul; Bone, Brian D; Boyle, Richard; Evans, Frank; Harries, Nicola D; Howard, Trevor; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2016-09-01

    The scale of land-contamination problems, and of the responses to them, makes achieving sustainability in contaminated land remediation an important objective. The Sustainable Remediation Forum in the UK (SuRF-UK) was established in 2007 to support more sustainable remediation practice in the UK. The current international interest in 'sustainable remediation' has achieved a fairly rapid consensus on concepts, descriptions and definitions for sustainable remediation, which are now being incorporated into an ISO standard. However the sustainability assessment methods being used remain diverse with a range of (mainly) semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches and tools developed, or in development. Sustainability assessment is site specific and subjective. It depends on the inclusion of a wide range of considerations across different stakeholder perspectives. Taking a tiered approach to sustainability assessment offers important advantages, starting from a qualitative assessment and moving through to semi-quantitative and quantitative assessments on an 'as required' basis only. It is also clear that there are a number of 'easy wins' that could improve performance against sustainability criteria right across the site management process. SuRF-UK has provided a checklist of 'sustainable management practices' that describes some of these. This paper provides the rationale for, and an outline of, and recently published SuRF-UK guidance on preparing for and framing sustainability assessments; carrying out qualitative sustainability assessment; and simple good management practices to improve sustainability across contaminated land management activities. PMID:26765509

  9. The rationale for simple approaches for sustainability assessment and management in contaminated land practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, R Paul; Bone, Brian D; Boyle, Richard; Evans, Frank; Harries, Nicola D; Howard, Trevor; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2016-09-01

    The scale of land-contamination problems, and of the responses to them, makes achieving sustainability in contaminated land remediation an important objective. The Sustainable Remediation Forum in the UK (SuRF-UK) was established in 2007 to support more sustainable remediation practice in the UK. The current international interest in 'sustainable remediation' has achieved a fairly rapid consensus on concepts, descriptions and definitions for sustainable remediation, which are now being incorporated into an ISO standard. However the sustainability assessment methods being used remain diverse with a range of (mainly) semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches and tools developed, or in development. Sustainability assessment is site specific and subjective. It depends on the inclusion of a wide range of considerations across different stakeholder perspectives. Taking a tiered approach to sustainability assessment offers important advantages, starting from a qualitative assessment and moving through to semi-quantitative and quantitative assessments on an 'as required' basis only. It is also clear that there are a number of 'easy wins' that could improve performance against sustainability criteria right across the site management process. SuRF-UK has provided a checklist of 'sustainable management practices' that describes some of these. This paper provides the rationale for, and an outline of, and recently published SuRF-UK guidance on preparing for and framing sustainability assessments; carrying out qualitative sustainability assessment; and simple good management practices to improve sustainability across contaminated land management activities.

  10. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  11. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  12. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  13. Assessing Photoinduced Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Urbanized Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Walker

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in contaminants associated with urban sprawl are a particular concern in the rapidly developing coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are contaminants associated with vehicle emissions and runoff from impervious surfaces. Increased vehicular traffic and more impervious surfaces lead to an increased loading of PAHs into coastal estuarine systems. The phototoxic effect of PAH-contaminated sediments on a sediment-dwelling meiobenthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis, was estimated in Murrells Inlet, a small, high-salinity estuary with moderate urbanization located in Georgetown and Horry Counties, South Carolina, USA. Field-determined solar ultraviolet radiation (UV and UV extinction coefficients were incorporated into laboratory toxicity experiments, and a model was developed to predict areas of specific hazard to A. tenuiremis in the estuary. The model incorporated laboratory toxicity data, UV extinction coefficients, and historical sediment chemistry and bathymetric data within a spatial model of sedimentary areas of the estuary. The model predicted that approximately 8–16% of the total creek habitat suitable for meiobenthic copepods is at risk to photoinduced PAH toxicity. This area is in the northern, more developed part of Murrells Inlet.

  14. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  15. Lagrangian sampling for emerging contaminants through an urban stream corridor in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.B.; Battaglin, W.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent national concerns regarding the environmental occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) have catalyzed a series of recent studies. Many ECs are released into the environment through discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and other sources. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont initiated an investigation of selected ECs in a 13.8-km reach of St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Seven sites were sampled for ECs following a Lagrangian design; sites were located upstream, downstream, and in the outfall of the Longmont WWTP, and at the mouths of two tributaries, Left Hand Creek and Boulder Creek (which is influenced by multiple WWTP outfalls). Samples for 61 ECs in 16 chemical use categories were analyzed and 36 were detected in one or more samples. Of these, 16 have known or suspected endocrine-disrupting potential. At and downstream from the WWTP outfall, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, and steroids were detected at the highest concentrations, which commonly exceeded 1 ??g/l in 2005 and 2 ??g/l in 2006. Most individual ECs were measured at concentrations less than 2 ??g/l. The results indicate that outfalls from WWTPs are the largest but may not be the sole source of ECs in St. Vrain Creek. In 2005, high discharge was associated with fewer EC detections, lower total EC concentrations, and smaller EC loads in St. Vrain Creek and its tributaries as compared with 2006. EC behavior differed by individual compound, and some differences between sites could be attributed to analytical variability or to other factors such as physical or chemical characteristics or distance from contributing sources. Loads of some ECs, such as diethoxynonylphenol, accumulated or attenuated depending on location, discharge, and distance downstream from the WWTP, whereas others, such as bisphenol A, were largely conservative. The extent to which ECs in St. Vrain Creek affect native fish species and macroinvertebrate communities is unknown, but recent

  16. A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John; Jørgensen, Peter R.;

    2011-01-01

    A risk assessment tool for contaminated sites in low-permeability fractured media is developed, based on simple transient and steady-state analytical solutions. The discrete fracture (DF) tool, which explicitly accounts for the transport along fractures, covers different source geometries...

  17. Contamination Rates of Three Urine-Sampling Methods to Assess Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneeberger, Caroline; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare contamination rates of three different urine-sampling methods in pregnant women to assess bacteriuria. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 113 pregnant women collected three different midstream urine samples consecutively: morning (first void); midstream (void

  18. Dual-Level Material and Psychological Assessment of Urban Water Security in a Water-Stressed Coastal City

    OpenAIRE

    Yajing Huang; Linyu Xu; Hao Yin; YanpengCai; ZhifengYang

    2015-01-01

    The acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has been gradually aggravating water security issues, such as water shortages, water pollution, and flooding or drought disasters and so on. Water security issues have become a great challenge to urban sustainable development. In this context, we proposed a dual-level material and psychological assessment method to assess urban water security. Psychological security coefficients were introduced in this method to combine material security ...

  19. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries

  20. LCA of contaminated site remediation - integration of site-specific impact assessment of local toxic impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    2011-01-01

    impacts have typically been assessed using site-generic characterization models representing a continental scale and excluding the groundwater compartment. Soil contaminants have therefore generally been assigned as emissions to surface soil or surface water compartments. However, such site...... of bioremediation scenarios (86-98 % of the human toxicity impacts at Site 1). The inclusion of primary impacts in the environmental assessment of remediation alternatives gives a more complete basis for comparison of technologies with substantially different timeframes and efficiencies....

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Zhou; Wen-Tao Yang; Xin Zhou; Li Liu; Jiao-Feng Gu; Wen-Lei Wang; Jia-Ling Zou; Tao Tian; Pei-Qin Peng; Bo-Han Liao

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the...

  2. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  3. Controlling factors and environmental implications of mercury contamination in urban and agricultural soils under a long-term influence of a chlor-alkali plant in the North-West Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A.; Rodrigues, S. M.; Mieiro, C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Pereira, E.; Duarte, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    This study aims at assessing the extent of total mercury (Hg) contamination in urban and agricultural soils under long-term influence of a chlor-alkali plant, located at about 1 km away from a town centre. Moreover, it aims at identifying the main factors controlling Hg contents’ distribution and associated potential hazards to environment and human health. The median value of total Hg for soil surface layer (0-10 cm) was 0.20 mg/kg (data ranging from 0.050 to 4.5 mg/kg) and for subsurface layer (10-20 cm) 0.18 mg/kg (data ranging from 0.046 to 3.0 mg/kg). The agricultural area showed higher Hg concentrations (ranging from 0.86 to 4.5 mg/kg) than urban area (ranging from 0.05 to 0.61 mg/kg), with some results exceeding target values set by the Dutch guidelines. Mercury concentrations observed in the studied area are more likely to be associated with the influence of the chlor-alkali plant and with the use of historically contaminated sludges and water from a nearby lagoon in agriculture, than to the impacts of urban development. The statistical correlations between Hg concentrations and soil properties suggest that anthropogenic metal sources should influence the spatial distribution more than the geological properties. Although the Hg emissions were drastically reduced 10 years ago, the area under influence of the chlor-alkali plant is still facing potential health and environmental threats arising from soil contamination.

  4. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health

  5. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  6. Assessment of Soil Contamination in Patancheru Industrial Area, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dasaram

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic trace metals concentrations in soil exert a decisive impact on soil quality and its use in food production particularly in an industrial area. An attempt is made here to study toxic metals such as Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, including Ba, Co and V in representative soil samples from Patancheru industrial area near Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. It is a known polluted area and is one of the most contaminated regions where about 260 small and large-scale manufacturers of pharmaceuticals, paints, pesticides, chemicals, steel and metallic products have been functioning for over several decades. Toxic trace metal geochemical studies were carried out in fifteen representative soil samples collected from residential and agricultural area, to understand the spatial distribution and to assess the level of contamination on the basis of index of geoaccummulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor and degree of contamination. The various indices show that residential soils are contaminated with Cr, Ni and Pb (Cu to some extent. The agricultural area, although were invariably enriched in these toxic metals, showed comparatively less contamination possibly due to uptake by plants.

  7. A Novel Approach for Assessing the Performance of Sustainable Urbanization Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A China Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudan Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization process has brought problems to China, such as traffic congestion, air pollution, water pollution and resources scarcity. Sustainable urbanization is commonly appreciated as an effective way to promote the sustainable development. The proper understanding of the sustainable urbanization performance is critical to provide governments with support in making urban development strategies and policies for guiding the sustainable development. This paper utilizes the method of Structural equation modeling (SEM to establish an assessment model for measuring sustainable urbanization performance. Four unobserved endogenous variables, economic variable, social variable, environment variable and resource variable, and 21 observed endogenous variables comprise the SEM model. A case study of the 31 provinces in China demonstrates the validity of the SEM model and the analysis results indicated that the assessment model could help make more effective policies and strategies for improving urban sustainability by recognizing the statue of sustainable urbanization.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

  9. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  12. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  13. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  14. Logistic regression modeling to assess groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Alan; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-10-01

    Capture zone analysis combined with a subjective susceptibility index is currently used in Hawaii to assess vulnerability to contamination of drinking water sources derived from groundwater. In this study, we developed an alternative objective approach that combines well capture zones with multiple-variable logistic regression (LR) modeling and applied it to the highly-utilized Pearl Harbor and Honolulu aquifers on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Input for the LR models utilized explanatory variables based on hydrogeology, land use, and well geometry/location. A suite of 11 target contaminants detected in the region, including elevated nitrate (> 1 mg/L), four chlorinated solvents, four agricultural fumigants, and two pesticides, was used to develop the models. We then tested the ability of the new approach to accurately separate groups of wells with low and high vulnerability, and the suitability of nitrate as an indicator of other types of contamination. Our results produced contaminant-specific LR models that accurately identified groups of wells with the lowest/highest reported detections and the lowest/highest nitrate concentrations. Current and former agricultural land uses were identified as significant explanatory variables for eight of the 11 target contaminants, while elevated nitrate was a significant variable for five contaminants. The utility of the combined approach is contingent on the availability of hydrologic and chemical monitoring data for calibrating groundwater and LR models. Application of the approach using a reference site with sufficient data could help identify key variables in areas with similar hydrogeology and land use but limited data. In addition, elevated nitrate may also be a suitable indicator of groundwater contamination in areas with limited data. The objective LR modeling approach developed in this study is flexible enough to address a wide range of contaminants and represents a suitable addition to the current subjective approach.

  15. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). PMID:25282088

  16. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  17. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  18. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  19. Bayesian uncertainty assessment of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins for conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and the resulting land-use change strongly affect the water cycle and runoff-processes in watersheds. Unfortunately, small urban watersheds, which are most affected by urban sprawl, are mostly ungauged. This makes it intrinsically difficult to assess the consequences of urbanization. Most of all, it is unclear how to reliably assess the predictive uncertainty given the structural deficits of the applied models. In this study, we therefore investigate the uncertainty of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins from structurally uncertain rainfall-runoff models. To this end, we suggest a procedure to explicitly account for input uncertainty and model structure deficits using Bayesian statistics with a continuous-time autoregressive error model. In addition, we propose a concise procedure to derive prior parameter distributions from base data and successfully apply the methodology to an urban catchment in Warsaw, Poland. Based on our results, we are able to demonstrate that the autoregressive error model greatly helps to meet the statistical assumptions and to compute reliable prediction intervals. In our study, we found that predicted peak flows were up to 7 times higher than observations. This was reduced to 5 times with Bayesian updating, using only few discharge measurements. In addition, our analysis suggests that imprecise rainfall information and model structure deficits contribute mostly to the total prediction uncertainty. In the future, flood predictions in ungauged basins will become more important due to ongoing urbanization as well as anthropogenic and climatic changes. Thus, providing reliable measures of uncertainty is crucial to support decision making.

  20. Bayesian uncertainty assessment of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins for conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and the resulting land-use change strongly affect the water cycle and runoff-processes in watersheds. Unfortunately, small urban watersheds, which are most affected by urban sprawl, are mostly ungauged. This makes it intrinsically difficult to assess the consequences of urbanization. Most of all, it is unclear how to reliably assess the predictive uncertainty given the structural deficits of the applied models. In this study, we therefore investigate the uncertainty of flood predictions in ungauged urban basins from structurally uncertain rainfall-runoff models. To this end, we suggest a procedure to explicitly account for input uncertainty and model structure deficits using Bayesian statistics with a continuous-time autoregressive error model. In addition, we propose a concise procedure to derive prior parameter distributions from base data and successfully apply the methodology to an urban catchment in Warsaw, Poland. Based on our results, we are able to demonstrate that the autoregressive error model greatly helps to meet the statistical assumptions and to compute reliable prediction intervals. In our study, we found that predicted peak flows were up to 7 times higher than observations. This was reduced by 150% with Bayesian updating, using only a few discharge measurements. In addition, our analysis suggests that imprecise rainfall information and model structure deficits contribute mostly to the total prediction uncertainty. In the future, flood predictions in ungauged basins will become more important due to ongoing urbanization as well as anthropogenic and climatic changes. Thus, providing reliable measures of uncertainty is crucial to support decision making.

  1. Assessing Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Observed and Predicted Ozone in Multiple Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Baker, Kirk R.; Hubbell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient monitoring data show spatial gradients in ozone (O3) across urban areas. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reductions will likely alter these gradients. Epidemiological studies often use exposure surrogates that may not fully account for the impacts of spatially and temporally changing concentrations on population exposure. Objectives: We examined the impact of large NOx decreases on spatial and temporal O3 patterns and the implications on exposure. Methods: We used a photochemical model to estimate O3 response to large NOx reductions. We derived time series of 2006–2008 O3 concentrations consistent with 50% and 75% NOx emissions reduction scenarios in three urban areas (Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago) at each monitor location and spatially interpolated O3 to census-tract centroids. Results: We predicted that low O3 concentrations would increase and high O3 concentrations would decrease in response to NOx reductions within an urban area. O3 increases occurred across larger areas for the seasonal mean metric than for the regulatory metric (annual 4th highest daily 8-hr maximum) and were located only in urban core areas. O3 always decreased outside the urban core (e.g., at locations of maximum local ozone concentration) for both metrics and decreased within the urban core in some instances. NOx reductions led to more uniform spatial gradients and diurnal and seasonal patterns and caused seasonal peaks in midrange O3 concentrations to shift from midsummer to earlier in the year. Conclusions: These changes have implications for how O3 exposure may change in response to NOx reductions and are informative for the design of future epidemiology studies and risk assessments. Citation: Simon H, Wells B, Baker KR, Hubbell B. 2016. Assessing temporal and spatial patterns of observed and predicted ozone in multiple urban areas. Environ Health Perspect 124:1443–1452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP190 PMID:27153213

  2. Integrated urban flood risk assessment – adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  3. The development of assessment and remediation guidelines for contaminated soils, a review of the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is no longer restricted to isolated incidents and locations; it is a general and contentious problem. However, the problem is complex, starting with the very definition of what level and type of contamination is unacceptable. A myriad of regulatory and de facto guidelines have emerged, and they are extremely fragmented, inconsistent and incomplete. This review attempts to summarize the historical development of assessment and remediation guidelines, to highlight the unique difficulties of the problem, and then to discuss the scientific information that exists and that is needed to improve guidelines. This is an unlimited scope for research on this subject. (author)

  4. Rapid Analysis of Eukaryotic Bioluminescence to Assess Potential Groundwater Contamination Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacariah L. Hildenbrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present data using a bioluminescent dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula, in a toxicological bioassay to rapidly assess potential instances of groundwater contamination associated with natural gas extraction. P. lunula bioluminescence can be quantified using spectrophotometry as a measurement of organismal viability, with normal bioluminescent output declining with increasing concentration(s of aqueous toxicants. Glutaraldehyde and hydrochloric acid (HCl, components used in hydraulic fracturing and shale acidization, triggered significant toxicological responses in as little as 4 h. Conversely, P. lunula was not affected by the presence of arsenic, selenium, barium, and strontium, naturally occurring heavy metal ions potentially associated with unconventional drilling activities. If exogenous compounds, such as glutaraldehyde and HCl, are thought to have been introduced into groundwater, quantification of P. lunula bioluminescence after exposure to water samples can serve as a cost-effective detection and risk assessment tool to rapidly assess the impact of putative contamination events attributed to unconventional drilling activity.

  5. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  6. The Thule accident: Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbak, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Risoe DTU has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of Risoe DTU's studies are described in the report Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land, which covers all measurements that were carried out on land in Thule in the years 2003, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The present report uses Risoe DTU's report as a basis for assessing radiation doses and consequently the risk for individuals as a result of terrestrial radioactive contamination in the Thule area. The assessment of radiation doses involves a number of conservative assumptions, estimates, and measurements, all of which are subject to considerable uncertainty. In some cases, models have been used based on experiences from other contaminated areas elsewhere in the world, which are subject to climatic and other conditions that diverge from those in the Thule area. The calculated doses are thus associated with considerable uncertainty, which must be taken into account when the results are used for comparison and when the risks of staying in the Thule area are assessed. It has therefore been chosen to provide the assessed radiation doses in the form of indicative orders of magnitude, which are applicable to everyone who might stay in the area, across various age groups. If the estimated doses in this report are combined with the National Institute of Radiation Protection's recommended reference level for contamination as a result of the Thule Accident of 1 mSv/year, the assessed magnitudes of radiation doses for inhalation and ingestion as exposure pathways are many orders of magnitude below the reference level (10,000-10 million times smaller). The wound contamination exposure pathway has a magnitude of radiation dose that is smaller than the reference level by a factor of 10-1000, and it should be recalled that the

  7. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  8. Immunization Coverage In Urban, Rural And Tribal Populations-A Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization coverage assessment of 327 children in Himachal pradesh revealed that 66.7%, 42.2% and 50.6% children were fully immunized in urban, rural and tribal areas respectively. The coverage by all vaccines was well above the national average. Drop out rates were more in the rural areas followed by tribal and urban areas. The main reason for drop outs in immunization was parents’ preoccupation with their work. However in the opinion of the health workers, fear of side reactions and illness of the child were the main reasons for the poor response.

  9. Contaminant fluxes through site containment barriers: Performance assessment and illustrative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant mass flux by advective and diffusive transport is predicted for five containment barriers that use one or more clay liners, flexible membrane liners (FMLs), or liquid collection and removal systems (LCRS)s. Barriers are engineered systems intended to contain and isolate site contaminants from the environment. Barriers include liners, caps, and cutoff walls. Barriers may be used in contaminated-site cleanups (including CERCLA and RCRA), RCRA landfills, or other RCRA TSDFs. Concepts are provided for barrier performance assessment, including analysis and optimization, for meeting performance requirements and controlling risk at minimum cost. Concepts and results can help in planning, designing, or evaluating and communicating, the use or effectiveness of proposed or existing barriers for site cleanups or waste containment. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  10. A hierarchical approach to ecological assessment of contaminated soils at Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

  11. Development and application of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rila, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Soil risk assessment based on generic approaches is accompanied by a large number of uncertainties. In site-specific risk assessment aimed at identifying the actual effects on the ecosystem by using e.g. bioassays in soil elutriates and taking into account land-use these uncertainties can be largely reduced. In this thesis the application and development of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil has been discussed. The first part of this thesis deals with the influ...

  12. Planting design for urban parks: Space syntax as a landscape design assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Hassaan Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees are a major factor in defining the spatial qualities of outdoor spaces. This study investigates the influence of spatial configuration produced by the proposed tree planting design on the visual fields of an urban park using space syntax theory. Space syntax theory assumes that an urban area can be represented as a matrix of connected spaces. The quantitative properties of this matrix in the form of syntactic measures can be measured using computer simulations. This research investigates how space syntax techniques can help assess the effect of tree configurations on the social structure of a small-scale garden in an urban park. Such techniques are assumed useful in predicting the social structure of the proposed space and in assessing design alternatives. An experimental study using three different planting design proposals for an urban park is conducted. Data are analyzed using space syntax techniques. Results reveal a significant effect of planting configurations on syntactic measures across the three proposals. This study suggests that space syntax techniques may have a significant value in the assessment of schematic planting design, especially at the pedestrian movement level.

  13. Heavy metals contamination in surface and groundwater supply of an urban city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R C; Verma, S R; Nitnaware, V; Thacker, N P

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuous increase in the demand of water supply in cities due to the industrialization and growing population. This extra supply is generally met by groundwaters or nearby available surface waters. It may lead into incomplete treatment and substandard supply of drinking water. To ensure that the intake water derived from surface and groundwater is clear, palatable, neither corrosive nor scale forming, free from undesirable taste, odor and acceptable from aesthetic and health point of view, the final water quality at Delhi have been evaluated. The final water supply of four treatment plants and 80 tubewells at Delhi were surveyed in 2000-2001 for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, selenium and zinc. The levels of manganese, copper, selenium and cadmium were found marginally above the Indian Standards (IS) specification regulated for drinking water. The data was used to assess the final water quality supplied at Delhi. PMID:15270342

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation's Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  16. Assessing the fate of biodegradable volatile organic contaminants in unsaturated soil filter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Martin; de Biase, Cecilia; Hanzel, Joanna; Reger, Daniel; Wick, Lukas; Oswald, Sascha; van Afferden, Manfred; Schmidt, Axel; Reiche, Nils; Jechalke, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of contaminant biodegradation in the subsurface is challenged by various abiotic processes leading to a reduction of contaminant concentration without a destructive mass removal of the contaminant. In unsaturated porous media, this interplay of processes is further complicated by volatilization. Many organic contaminants are sufficiently volatile to allow for significant fluxes from the water phase into the soil air, which can eventually lead to an emission of contaminants into the atmosphere. Knowledge of the magnitude of these emissions is thus required to evaluate the efficiency of bioremediation in such porous media and to estimate potential risks due to these emissions. In the present study, vertical flow constructed wetlands were investigated at the pilot scale as part of the SAFIRA II project. The investigated wetland system is intermittently irrigated by contaminated groundwater containing the volatile compounds benzene and MTBE. Measured concentration at the in- and outflow of the system demonstrate a high mass removal rate, but the highly transient flow and transport processes in the system challenge the quantification of biodegradation and volatilization and their contribution to the observed mass removal. By a combination of conservative solute tracer tests, stable isotope fractionation and measurements of natural radon concentration is the treated groundwater is was possible to determine the contribution of biodegradation and volatilization to total mass removal. The results suggest that for the investigated volatile compounds biodegradation is the dominating mass removal process with volatilization contributing only to minor or negligible amounts. These results can be confirmed by reactive transport simulations and were further supported by laboratory studies showing that also gas phase gradients of volatile compounds can be affected by biodegradation suggesting the unsaturated zone to act as a biofilter for contaminants in the soil air.

  17. Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Parametric Systems and Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Sacco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater nitrate contamination is a source of rising concern that has been faced through the introduction of several regulations in different countries. However the methodologies used in the definition of Nitrate Vulnerable Zones are not included in the regulations. The aim of this work was to compare different methodologies, used to asses groundwater nitrate contamination risks, based on parametric systems or simulation modelling. The work was carried out in Piedmont, Italy, in an area characterised by intensive animal husbandry, high N load, a shallow water table and a coarse type of sub-soil sediments. Only N loads from agricultural non-point sources were considered. Different methodologies with different level of information have been compared to determine the groundwater nitrate contamination risk assessment: N load, IPNOA index, the intrinsic contamination risk from nitrates, leached N and N concentration of the soil solution estimated by the simulation model. The good correlation between the IPNOA index and the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk revealed that the parameters that describe the soil in this area did not lead to a different classification of the parcels. The intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was greatly influenced by N fertilisation, however the effect of the soils increased the variability in comparison to the IPNOA index. The leached N and N concentration in the leaching were closely correlated. The dilution effect of percolated water was almost negligible. Both methodologies were slightly correlated to the N fertilisation and the two indexes. The correlations related to the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk was higher than those related to IPNOA, and this means that the effect of taking into account soil parameters increases the correlation to the prediction of the simulation model.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  20. California GAMA Program: A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Bakersfield Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-11-01

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MTBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2003, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin that underlies Bakersfield, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements help determine the recharge water

  1. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Santa Clara and San Mateo County Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R

    2004-01-06

    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement this groundwater assessment program. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basins of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, located to the south of the city of San Francisco. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3 method). In addition, stable oxygen isotope measurements

  2. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  3. Strategic Environmental Assessment: A New Tool for Ecological Urbanization of Coastal Cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Qinhua; Zhang Luoping; Hong Huasheng; Chen Weiqi; Jiang Yuwu; Chen Bin

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing concerns about environmental issues related to urbanization in China. The intense natural resources utilization and increasing population has brought great pressure,especially in coastal areas, consequently affecting the sustainable development of coastal cities. In 2002,Environmental Impact Assessment Act (EIA Act) was enacted in China. Environmental impact assessment targeted at planning, one level of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), thus became a legislative requirement.This paper considers SEA to be one of the important approaches not only to control coastal pollution, but also to conserve coastal ecosystems and finally to achieve sustainable development during urbanization, thus it will be a set an example for other areas of China. The experience of SEA in Xiamen, a coastal city in southeast China, illustrates the potentials of SEA. This paper first briefly introduces the concept and potentials of SEA,then compares two SEA cases and a project EIA case in Xiamen, and finally identifies the key characteristics of SEA.

  4. Urban flooding and health risk analysis by use of quantitative microbial risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Tanja

    D thesis is to identify the limitations and possibilities for optimising microbial risk assessments of urban flooding through more evidence-based solutions, including quantitative microbial data and hydrodynamic water quality models. The focus falls especially on the problem of data needs and the causes......, and by comparing the model results with an epidemiological study of the same event, the concept of using hydrological models to estimate water quality – and thereby estimate risk – was improved. Another urban flooding risk assessment used average measured concentrations of pathogens in wastewater as inputs......, but also when wading through a flooded area. The results in this thesis have brought microbial risk assessments one step closer to more uniform and repeatable risk analysis by using actual and relevant measured data and hydrodynamic water quality models to estimate the risk from flooding caused...

  5. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  6. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  7. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  8. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  9. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Youkee

    Full Text Available Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  10. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B; Walker, Naomi F; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas